Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Introduction
June 22, 2022
Conclusion
June 22, 2022

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Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha

 

Name, Title, Agnomen, Birth

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha is the youngest and most beloved daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Her title is al Zahra’ and her agnomen is Umm Abiha. She was born while the Ka’bah was being rebuilt, when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was 35 years of age, or when he was 40 years old shortly before his Nubuwwah.[1] Due to the indecision of her exact year of birth, there exists various views on her age at hijrah, marriage, and demise.

 

Upbringing and Accepting Islam

Nurtured in the blessed home of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, she reached maturity in the care of her beloved mother, Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha, the most superior women of this Ummah.[2] This home was the first home in which the teachings of Islam were taught.

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha embraced Islam with her esteemed mother and sisters—Sayyidah Zainab, Sayyidah Ruqayyah, and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhumin the very early stages of Islam and is thus among the forerunners of the faith. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has guaranteed her His Pleasure and an eternal abode in the highest stages of Jannat and encouraged the Ummah to emulate her in her ways.

 

وَالسَّابِقُوْنَ الْأَوَّلُوْنَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِيْنَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ وَالَّذِيْنَ اتَّبَعُوْهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ رَّضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوْا عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِيْ تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِيْنَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ذٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيْمُ

And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajirin and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct, Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment.[3]

 

The daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were the first young girls to embrace the faith and have the great fortune of pledging allegiance to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[4]

 

Character and Personality

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha emulated Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his personality and behaviour. Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha highlights this:

 

ما رأيت أحدا أشبه سمتا ودلا وهديا برسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم في قيامها وقعودها من فاطمة بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قالت وكانت أذا دخلت على النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قام إليها فقبلها وأجلسها في مجلسه وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم إذا دخل عليها قامت من مجلسها فقبلته وأجلسته في مجلسها

    • I have not seen anyone who resembled Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam closer in his ways, mannerisms, and etiquette―the way he stood and sat―than Fatimah, the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. When she would visit Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he would stand up, kiss her, welcome her, take her hand, and make her sit in his seat. In addition, when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would visit her, she would stand up to welcome him and kiss him before making him sit in her seat.[5]

 

ما رأيت أحدا كان أشبه كلاما وحديثا برسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم من فاطمة

    • I have not seen anyone who resembled Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam more in speech and dialogue than Fatimah.[6]

 

فأقبلت فاطمة تمشى ما تخطئ مشيتها من مشية رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم شيئا

    • Fatimah approached; her walk precisely matched the walk of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[7]

 

Losing her Beloved Mother

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha lost the love and care of her beloved mother, Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha, in the 10th year of the mission. She was 10 or 15 years old at the time. This was a devastation to her and to the entire family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam remained most of the time at home and came out very seldom after her demise.[8]

 

Supporting her Esteemed Father

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha supported her esteemed father in the early stages of his mission. Very famous is the cruel incident of his enemies plotting to throw the intestines of a camel upon his back while he was in Sajdah. The most wretched of the lot, ‘Uqbah ibn Abi Mu’ayt (may he be cursed), came forward to perpetrate this heinous crime. As Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went to prostrate to his Rabb in front of His blessed House, the wretched criminal dumped the intestines of the camel upon his back. The wretched villains laughed with malicious joy to the extent that they fell upon one another. Their amusement was soon to turn to panic and horror.

Sayyidina Ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu, an eyewitness to the incident, expresses remorse over the fact that neither he, nor anyone else, had the ability and strength to stop them. The Nabi of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam could not lift his head from prostration and remained prostrated. In rushed Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha to rescue her father. She shoved the intestines off his back and then turned her attention to the villains and cursed them. This demonstrates the courage and strength of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Despite cursing the leaders of the Quraysh, they did not respond to her, a sign of the respect and honour the Quraysh awarded her in Makkah.[9]

A daughter in the Arabian civilisation lived in the shadow of her father, boasting of his strength and authority and feeling safe and secure under his protection. It is painful for a father to see himself in a position where his daughter defends him.[10]

It was not the general habit of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to curse; however, this occasion demanded that he curse, especially after seeing the anguish and pain of his beloved daughter and witnessing her cursing them. Ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu admits that he never saw him curse except on that day.[11]

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam invoked Allah’s curse upon the villains thrice, “O Allah, deal with the Quraysh.” They were totally devastated and distraught by his curse and their laughter turned into anxiety and panic. They realised the severity of the curse of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—whose truthfulness was widely accepted—in front of the House of the Sovereign, in the blessed land of Makkah Mukarramah.

Wait, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was not finished. He continued by taking their names and cursing, “O Allah! Deal with Abu Jahl ibn Hisham, ‘Utbah ibn Rabi’ah, Shaybah ibn Rabi’ah, Walid ibn ‘Utbah, Umayyah ibn Khalaf, and ‘Uqbah ibn Abi Mu’ayt.”

The curse of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha followed by the curse of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam brought down the wrath of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala upon these villains. All were killed in the Battle of Badr and thrown in the deserted well at Badr besides Umayyah ibn Khalaf—whose body bloated and broke into pieces—and ‘Uqbah—who was taken captive.[12]

When the Muslim army returned and reached ‘Irq al Zabyah, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered Sayyidina ‘Asim ibn Thabit radiya Llahu ‘anhu to execute ‘Uqbah ibn Abi Mu’ayt. ‘Uqbah forgot his pride and cried out, “Who will look after my children, O Muhammad?” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam answered, “The fire (of Hell)!”[13] (This either means destruction or that ‘Uqbah should worry about preparing for Hell; Allah will care for his children.)[14]

Did ‘Uqbah not remember the miserable day he threw the entrails of a camel onto the back of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam while he was prostrating himself in prayer, and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha shoved it off him? Did he forget the day he strangled Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with his cloak and Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu intervened and saved Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[15]

 

Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Love for her

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha is the most beloved daughter to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Whenever she would visit him, he would stand up to kiss her, welcome her, and take her hand before seating her in his seat.[16] Whenever he returned from a journey, he made it a point to visit her and kiss her before going home.[17]

A woman of the Makhzum tribe stole and her hand needed to be cut according to the Qur’anic law. The Quraysh were apprehensive of this happening owing to the tribe’s prestige and sent someone close to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to speak to him in this regard to waive the punishment. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was upset at this intercession as it was in respect of one of the prescribed punishments of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. He explained in his sermon that the reason for the destruction of the people of the past was that when someone of high social standing stole, they overlooked the crime and only implemented it upon the weak. He then stated, “By the oath of Allah, if Fatimah the daughter of Muhammad stole [Allah forbid], I would have cut her hand off!”[18]

There is indication here to her lofty rank in his sight. Hafiz Ibn Hajar rahimahu Llah observes: “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mentioned his daughter Fatimah specifically since she was the most honoured of his family in his sight and since none of his other daughters were alive when he made this statement.”[19]

 

Hijrah to Madinah

After settling in Madinah, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent Zaid ibn Harithah and Abu Rafi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhuma with two camels and five hundred silver coins that he took from Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu to bring his wife and daughters to Madinah Munawwarah. Meanwhile, Abu Bakr sent ‘Abdullah ibn Urayqit al Laythi with two or three camels and wrote to his son, ‘Abdullah, commanding him to bring his wife Umm Ruman and his daughters Aisha and Asma’ radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

Zaid ibn Harithah and Abu Rafi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhuma purchased three camels with the silver coins. They escorted Fatimah, Umm Kulthum, Sawdah, Umm Ayman, and Usamah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. En route, the family of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu joined by Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu met up with them and they travelled to Madinah Munawwarah together.[20]

When they set off on their hijrah journey, Huwayrith ibn Nuqayd spooked the camel of Sayyidah Fatimah and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhuma resulting in them falling to the ground. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was so upset on behalf of his daughters that during his Conquest of Makkah, he did not give amnesty to Huwayrith and ordered his killing. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu apprehended the thug and beheaded him for this and his other crimes.[21] Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared during his stay in Makkah:

 

إنما فاطمة بضعة منى يؤذينى ما آذاها

Undoubtedly, Fatimah is part of me. What hurts her hurts me.[22]

 

فاطمة بضعة منى فمن أغضبها أغضبني

Fatimah is part of me. Whoever angers her angers me.[23]

 

Losing her Beloved Sister Ruqayyah

Her beloved sister, Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha, passed away in her early twenties (22–23[24]) in Ramadan 2 AH. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was at Badr when she passed away. She was buried shortly before the heralds of good news, Sayyidina Zaid ibn Harithah and Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn Rawahah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, brought the glad tidings of the victory at Badr to the residents of Madinah Munawwarah.[25]

 

Marriage of Fatimah to ‘Ali

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was a man of little wealth and was shy to ask Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for the hand of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. After being encouraged by a close associate, he mustered up the courage and went to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to propose. The proposal was accepted and the nikah of the Queen of the Women of Jannat to the father of the leaders of the youth of Jannat was contracted in 2 AH, sometime after the Battle of Badr, probably in Shawwal. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was 25 years old while Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was around 15 or 20 years old.[26]

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told him to give her his armour worth 400 dirhams as mahr (dowry) since he possessed no other wealth.[27] Some scholars suggest that the armour was worth 480 dirhams.[28] Other scholars prefer the view that she was given 500 dirhams as dowry as documented by Ibn Sa’d, “The dowry of the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his wives was 500 dirhams, twelve and a half uqiyah (of silver).”[29]

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu sold his coat of mail and some of his possessions and received 480 silver coins. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told him to invest one-third in perfume and two-thirds in clothes.[30]

Ibn Kathir rahimahu Llah writes, “Scores of fabricated narrations are related about Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu marriage to Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha which we have not mentioned, refraining from them.”[31]

 

Abundant Blessings of the Marriage

After solemnising the marriage and before the couple met, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam called for water and performed wudu’ with it. He then sprinkled it on the couple before supplicating:

 

اللهم بارك فيهما وبارك عليهما وبارك في نسلهما

O Allah, bless them, bestow blessing upon them, and bless their offspring.[32]

 

As a result of this supplication, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala blessed them with four righteous beautiful children viz. Hassan, Hussain, Zainab, and Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhum. The lineage of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam continues from Sayyidah Fatimah, through Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[33]

There are a few narrations which do not meet the standards of authenticity that mention a third son, Muhassan, who was born during the lifetime of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and named by him.[34] This child passed away in infancy.[35]

 

The Walimah and the Sahabah’s Assistance

Various Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum assisted in the marriage. For instance, Sayyidah Aisha and Sayyidah Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma assisted in preparing and decorating the matrimonial home after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed them to make preparations to send Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. They relate, “We plastered her matrimonial home with pliable soil sought from the valley of Batha’ and then cleaned it. Thereafter, we prepared two pillows by filling them with the bark of date palms. Subsequent to that, we prepared a snack of dates and raisins and provided sweet water. Lastly, we plunged a long stick into the ground to facilitate the hanging of clothing and a leather bag. We did not witness a wedding more exquisite than that of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.[36]

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu began with preparations for his walimah. His intention was to sell idhkhir to some of the goldsmiths of the area. He acquired the services of a goldsmith from the Banu Qaynuqa’ to guide him to the finest idhkhir. Meanwhile, he parked his two camels, one awarded to him from the booty of Badr and the other from the khums of Badr outside one of the Ansar’s house with the intention of loading the idhkhir on them. After completing his errand, he returned only to find his camels dead and mutilated, leaving him sorrowful and devastated.[37] His dear friends, the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, came to his assistance immediately. Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu provided a ram for the walimah and several of the Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhu collected a few ‘sa’s of sorghum for the feast.[38]

After the marriage, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu found a house at a distance from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhu requested her father to speak to Sayyidina Harithah ibn al No’man radiya Llahu ‘anhu to give one of his dwellings to her, which was close to the home of her father but Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam excused himself out of shyness as the Sahabi had acceded to such a request many times already.

As soon as Sayyidina Harithah radiya Llahu ‘anhu heard of this, he approached Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam pleading with him to take one of his dwellings for his daughter. “I and my wealth belong to Allah and His Messenger,” He submitted. “By Allah, O Messenger of Allah, what you take is more beloved to me than what you leave.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prayed for blessings for him. Sayyidina Harithah radiya Llahu ‘anhu moved from his home and Sayyidina ‘Ali and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma began living there.[39] This home was adjacent to Sayyidah Aisha’s radiya Llahu ‘anha room.

 

Simplicity in their Lifestyle

The highlight of this sacred union, through which the progeny of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam survived, was simplicity—they survived on very little, a life of patience and striving. To get a glimpse of this, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu relates, “I married Fatimah, the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and she and I had no furnishings apart from the skin of a ram on which we slept at night and placed fodder on for the camel during the day.”[40]

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha a trousseau of a velvet garment, a pillow stuffed with grass, a grinder, a leather skin, and two jars.[41]

 

Renunciation of the World

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam desired his beloved daughter to renounce the world. Sayyidina Thawban radiya Llahu ‘anhu recalls that once while he was present, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam entered the house of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. She showed him a gold chain gifted to her by her beloved husband. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told her lovingly:

 

يا فاطمة أيسرك أن يقول الناس فاطمة بنت محمد وفي يدك سلسلة من نار

O Fatimah! Does it please you for people to call you Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, whereas you have a chain of fire in your hand?

 

After saying this, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam departed. Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha immediately bought a slave in exchange for the chain and emancipated the slave. The news of this reached Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who exclaimed:

 

الحمد لله الذي نجى فاطمة من النار

All praise belongs to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala who has saved Fatimah from Hell.[42]

 

Once, a guest visited Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha suggested inviting her father for the meal she prepared for the guest. He was invited. When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came to the house, he noticed a decorated cloth hanging in one corner of the house so he did not enter and left. Immediately, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha went after him to ask the reason for his displeasure. He replied, “It is not appropriate for me or for a Nabi to enter a decorated house.”[43] She immediately got rid of the item causing his displeasure.

 

The Incident behind Tasbih Fatimi

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha took care of household chores including drawing water from the well which caused her severe chest pains and grinding the mill leaving her with calluses on her sensitive hands.

When few prisoners came into Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam possession, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu pleaded with her to approach her father and request a slave to assist in household chores. She went to his home but did not find him there. She left a message with Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha who informed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam of her visit.

Later, Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma approached Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and presented their request to him. He excused himself explaining that he intends selling the slaves and spending the money received on the Ahl al Suffah who were more deserving and in greater want.

That night, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam visited them after they got into bed. They wished to stand up, but he told them to remain at their places and sat between them. He submitted:

 

ألا أعلمكما خيرا مما سئلتما إذا أخذتما مضاجعكما أن تكبرا أربعا وثلاثين وتسبحا ثلاثا وثلاثين وتحمداه ثلاثا وثلاثين فهو خير لكما من خادم

Should I not teach you something better than what you asked me for? When you retire to bed, recite Allahu Akbar 34 times, Subhan Allah 33 times, and Alhamd lillah 33 times. This is better for you than a servant.

 

Another report has the addition of reading Subhan Allah, Alhamd Lillah, and Allahu Akbar ten times each after every fard salah.[44]

 

They were pleased with the advice and adhered strictly to it. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu comments, “I never stopped doing this since I heard it from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.” “Not even on the night of Siffin,” he was asked. “Not even on the night of Siffin,” he confirmed.[45]

Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha came to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to ask him for a servant. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked her if she desires what she came to ask him for or something better. He then advised her to recite:

 

اللهم رب السماوات و رب العرش و العظيم ربنا ورب كل شيء منزل التوراة و الإنجيل و القرآن فالق الحب و النوى أعوذ بك من شر كل شيء أنت آخذ بناصيته أنت الأول فليس قبلك شيء و أنت الآخر فليس بعدك شيء و أنت الظاهر فليس فوقك شيء و أنت الباطن فليس دونك شيء اقض عنا الدين و أغننا من الفقر

O Allah the Sustainer of the heavens and the Sustainer of the Grand Thrown, our Sustainer and the Sustainer of everything; the One who revealed the Tawrah, Injil and the Qur’an; the One who splits the seed and the pit! I seek Your protection from the evil of everything which You have control of. You are the First, there is nothing before You; You are the Last, there is nothing after You; You are Apparent, there is nothing above you; You are the Hidden, there is nothing hidden from You. Fulfil our debt on our behalf and grant us independence from poverty.”[46]

 

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declined the request for a slave as in the above narrations. When conditions improved, however, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave her a slave.[47]

 

Arguments between Spouses

Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma once had a disagreement and got upset with each other. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, instead of resting in his home, went to the Masjid to take a nap. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came looking for him and was informed of what had happened. He proceeded to the Masjid only to find Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu lying on the sand of the Masjid—his shawl had fallen off his back and sand had covered his back. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam began wiping the sand off his back and said twice, “Sit up, O Abu Turab.”[48]

In the beginning, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu showed a little sternness towards Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. She complained to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam about this who told her:

 

أي بنية اسمعي واستعمي واعقلي إنه لا إمرة لامرأة لا تأتي هوى زوجها وهو ساكت

O my beloved daughter, listen attentively and understand well. There is no influence for a woman who does not comply with her husband’s desires and he remains silent.

 

Hearing this, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu desisted from being stern towards her and said on oath that he will never ever do anything that displeases her.[49]

Once, after they had a fight. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made peace between them and left elated.[50]

 

Sublime Qualities

I feel it appropriate to highlight a few outstanding qualities of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha that come to light from the above incidents.

In the incident of requesting for a slave, she did not think of this on her own. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu suggested this to her when he saw the hardship she was undergoing. This indicates her sabr (patience and perseverance). Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated:

 

ومن يتصبر يصبره الله وما أعطي أحد عطاء خيرا وأوسع من الصبر

Whoever adopts patience with struggle, Allah grants him patience. No one has been favoured with a gift superior and more encompassing than sabr.[51]

 

Moreover, when she went to the house of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to request for a slave, the report documented by Ibn Hajar rahimahu Llah and Ibn Sa’d rahimahu Llah states that when she entered Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam presence, she was too shy to present her request. She simply made salam and returned.[52] This indicates her modesty and shyness, a quality of iman.

Furthermore, Sayyidina Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu explains that when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam brought her a slave at a later stage, she was wearing a short sheet. She tried covering her complete body with it, but when she covered her head, her feet were exposed and when she covered her feet, her head was exposed. This was a superior level of modesty. Seeing her plight and discomfort, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam comforted her by explaining that it was her father and slave that were present, hence she need not worry.[53]

Once, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam enquired from Sayyidina Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu, “What is best for women?” He did not know how to respond so he spoke to Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha who told him, “Why did you not say: It is best that they do not see men and are not seen by men.” When Sayyidina Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu told Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam this, he asked him in surprise, “Who taught you this?” “Fatimah,” he replied. “Indeed, she is a part of me,” he commented happily.[54]

Before her demise, she expressed her discomfort at women being covered merely by a cloth after their demise. She desired more concealment, so that the shape of her body is not perceived by the observer. A bier was thus prepared for her.[55]

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam states:

 

الحياء خير كله

Modesty is goodness, through and through.[56]

 

وما كان الحياء في شيء إلا زانه

When modesty is added to anything, it enhances it.[57]

 

Then we have her absolute obedience to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the strong desire to attain his pleasure that explains why she was so beloved to him. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam could not give her a slave and teaches her some magnificent words to recite instead. She was pleased with this without complaining.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was averse to worldly adornments and wished the same for his beloved daughter. She was gifted a golden chain by her husband which was very dear to her. As soon as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam expressed his dislike, she separated from it thereby winning the pleasure of her father.

In a report by Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu, a few Sahabah accompanied Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to bury a deceased. When they returned and before entering his home, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam noticed a woman approaching. It was his daughter Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. He enquired from her where she went. “O Messenger of Allah, I went to visit the bereaved family, spoke words of mercy to them and consoled them regarding their deceased.” “Probably, you went with them to the graveyard,” he asked. “Allah forbid,” she exclaimed. “After hearing your warning; (I would never).”[58] Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had sounded a severe warning concerning women attending burials. Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was never going to disobey him in this regard.

Al Dhahabi rahimahu Llah states: “Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha observed patience, was devout, obedient, and grateful to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam loved her dearly, honoured her, and confided in her.”[59]

 

Nursing Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam after the Battle of Uhud

The Muslims were defeated at Uhud in Shawwal 3 AH. After the polytheists left the battlefield, the women of Madinah came to tend to the injured. Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was one of the women who came. As soon as she saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, she embraced him and tended to his wounds.[60]

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sustained a few injuries during the Battle of Uhud. His lateral incisor was broken, his helmet was broken on his head, and his face was injured causing blood to ooze out his cheek. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu along with Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma treated the wounds Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sustained, stopping the flow of blood running down his face and beard. Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha cleaned the wound while Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu poured water from a shield. When Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha realised that the water was only increasing the flow of blood, she took a piece of straw mat, burnt it, and applied the ash to the wound that ceased the flow of blood.[61]

 

Mothering the Grandchildren of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

After marriage, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha engaged herself in serving her husband and mothering the grandchildren of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

She gave birth to Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu in the middle of Ramadan 3 AH.[62] Hardly a year later, in Sha’ban 4 AH, Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu was born.[63] She focused on nurturing them correctly and did such a splendid job, that they will be the leaders of the youth of Jannat.[64]

Sayyidina Hassan and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were the sweet smelling flowers of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Sayyidina Usamah ibn Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhuma reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prayed, “O Allah, I love them, so You love them.”[65] Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared, “Whoever loves them, loves me; and whoever hates them, hates me.”[66] Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam entreated Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to love those who love them.[67]

In addition, Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu grew up to fulfil the prophecy of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, “This son of mine is a Sayed (Leader). Probably Allah will use him to reconcile two [major] groups of the Muslims.”[68] He assumed caliphate after the demise of his father and completed the thirty-year epoch of caliphate on the pattern of Nubuwwah before abdicating the caliphate in favour of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, a bold step that guaranteed the unity of the Muslim Ummah.

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha mothered Sayyidah Zainab and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Both were born in the lifetime of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Sayyidah Zainab married Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma while Sayyidah Umm Kulthum married Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma when the latter was the khalifah of the Muslims. He gave her a dowry of 40 000 silver coins owing to her being the dear granddaughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[69]

 

Losing her Beloved Sister Zainab

In the beginning of the eighth year of hijrah, her eldest sister Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha passed away at the age of approximately thirty.[70] She named one of her daughters after Zainab. Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha sustained an injury during her hijrah journey that later proved fatal. Hence, she is regarded a martyr by the Muslims.[71] Moreover, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam praised her with the words:

 

زينت خير بناتي أصيبت في

Zainab is the best of my daughters who suffered the most on account of her relation to me.[72]

 

Presence at the Conquest of Makkah

Later on that year in Ramadan, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha joined Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on his expedition to conquer Makkah. Sayyidah Umm Hani radiya Llahu ‘anha relates that went she visited Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Makkah, she found him taking a ghusl while Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha veiled him with a cloth.[73]

 

The Daughter of the Messenger of Allah and the Daughter of the Enemy of Allah cannot be co-wives

It was during their stay in Makkah Mukarramah that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu intended to marry Sayyidah Juwayriyah bint Abi Jahl.[74] When Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha heard of this, she resorted to the presence of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and complained, displaying her daughterly pride before her father, “Your people are saying that you do not get angry for your daughters and ‘Ali is getting married to the daughter of Abu Jahl.” Just about that time, the Banu Hashim ibn al Mughirah approached Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to receive his blessings for the marriage.

Sayyidina Miswar ibn Makhramah radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates that he heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announcing on the pulpit:

 

إن بنى هشام بن المغيرة استأذنوني أن ينكحوا ابنتها على ابن أبي طالب فلا آذن لهم ثم لا آذن لهم ثم لا آذن لهم إلا أن يحب ابن أبي طالب أن يطلق ابنتي و ينكح ابنتهم فإنما ابنتي بضعة مني يريبني ما رابها و يؤذيني ما آذاها

Indeed, Banu Hashim ibn al Mughirah have sought my permission to marry their daughter to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, but I do not give them permission; I do not give them permission; I do not give them permission. Except if ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib desires to divorce my daughter and marry theirs. Certainly, my daughter is a part of me. What displeases her displeases me and what hurts her hurts me.[75]

 

In another report by Sayyidina Miswar ibn Makhramah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he explains that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stood up to deliver an address and after affirming the Oneness of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, he announced:

 

فإنى أنكحت أبا العاص بن الربيع فحدثني فصدقني و أن فاطمة بنت محمد مضعة مني و إنما أكره أن يفتنوها و إنها و الله لا تجتمع بنت رسول الله و بنت عدو الله عند رجل واحد أبدا

I married [my daughter Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha] to Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’. He gave me his word [to send Zainab to Madinah after he was released from captivity after the Battle of Badr] and was true to it. Certainly, Fatimah bint Muhammad is a part of me and I fear that she might be cast into trial. By Allah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah and the daughter of the enemy of Allah can never be in the nikah of one man.

 

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, thus, desisted from the proposal.[76]

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam clarified that he will not permit a forbidden act or forbid a permissible act. This act of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu will hurt Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha that will hurt Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This is forbidden and will lead to his destruction. Hence, he did not allow it out of compassion for both Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.[77]

At the same time, he feared that she would be trialed in her Din. He was concerned about her peace of mind. He wanted to protect her from agitation and tension. She had suffered the loss of her mother, two sisters, and a brother. Igniting her self-honour would increase her devastation.[78]

Ibn Hajar rahimahu Llah proposes and al Suyuti rahimahu Llah seconds that the reason behind Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not allowing this marriage was that from among his specialities is that no one can marry upon his daughters.[79] Imam al Nawawi says that the daughter of the Nabi of Allah and the daughter of the enemy of Allah joining in one man’s wedlock is from the forbidden marriages.[80]

Whatever the case, this report shows the extreme love Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam possessed for his daughter.

 

Mubahalah with the Ahlul Bayt

The delegation of sixty of the Christians of Najran came to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the ninth year of hijrah. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam invited them to Islam, explaining that Sayyidina ‘Isa ‘alayh al Salam was the special servant and Messenger of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, the soul and word of Allah. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed verses clarifying that Sayyidina ‘Isa’s ‘alayh al Salam example was like that of Sayyidina Adam ‘alayh al Salam—both whom Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala created with His command, without normal means.[81]

The Christians were adamant on their falsehood despite clear verses of the glorious Qur’an being recited to them and called for mubahalah[82]. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed:

 

فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيْهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَنِسَاءَنَا وَنِسَاءَكُمْ وَأَنْفُسَنَا وَأَنْفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَلْ لَّعْنَتَ اللهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِيْنَ

Now, whoever disputes with you [O Messenger of Allah] concerning ‘Isa after full knowledge has come to you, say, Come! Let us gather our children and your children, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselvesthen let us sincerely invoke Allahs curse upon the liars.”[83]

 

Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that upon this, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam summoned Sayyidina ‘Ali, Sayyidah Fatimah, Sayyidina Hassan, and Sayyidina Hussain and commented, “O Allah, these are my family.”[84]

The leaders of the delegation were afraid to continue with the mubahalah and said to each other, “By Allah, if he is a Nabi and invokes curse upon us, neither our progeny nor we will prosper.”[85] Had they continued with the mubahalah, they would have returned home to find their wealth and families non-existent, says Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.[86]

The delegation of Najran finally decided to pay the Jizyah and maintain peace with the Messenger of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.[87]

 

The Supplication for Purification

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha reports: “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam left in the morning wearing a striped cloak made from black (camel’s) hair. Hassan ibn ‘Ali came and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wrapped him under it, followed by Hussain who entered with him. Then Fatimah came and he took her under it, and then came ‘Ali and he took him under it. He thereafter recited:

 

إِنَّمَا یُرِيْدُ اللهُ  لِیُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَ یُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيْرًا

Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet’s] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification.[88][89]

 

The Hadith of the Cloak and the Verse of Purification

The scholars of the Ahlus Sunnah emphatically declare that the verse of tathir (purification) addresses the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam primarily as is apparent from its context. This Qur’anic passage begins addressing them and ends addressing them. After this verse was revealed and the wives gained this honour, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wished to include the four personalities, viz. Sayyidah Fatimah, Sayyidina Hassan, Sayyidina Hussain, and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum in this honour by covering them with a cloak and supplicating for them.

Al Qurtubi rahimahu Llah explains: “This is a supplication of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for them (the four personalities) after the revelation of the verse. He desired to include them in the verse that addresses the wives.”[90] Al Dhahabi rahimahu Llah forwarded a similar explanation.[91]

Just as Sayyidina ‘Ali, Sayyidah Fatimah, Sayyidina Hassan, and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum are part of the Ahlul Bayt, the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are also part of the Ahlul Bayt. Apart from the wives and children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the term Ahlul Bayt includes all the Muslims from the Banu Hashim and Banu al Muttalib.[92]

 

Losing her Beloved Sister Umm Kulthum and Beloved Brother Ibrahim

Her sister Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha passed away in Sha’ban 9 AH.[93] She lived with this sister in the home of Nubuwwah the longest, a period of approximately 17 years. She named one of her daughters after her sister. This beloved daughter of hers, Umm Kulthum bint Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, married Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Sayyidah Fatimah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha consanguine brother, Sayyidina Ibrahim radiya Llahu ‘anhu—who was born in Dhu al Qa’dah 8 AH—passed away in 10 AH at 16 months.[94]

 

Emphasising Good Deeds

The provision for entry into Jannat is the mercy of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala which is attracted through good deeds. No one is exempt from this, not even distinguished members of the Ahlul Bayt like his beloved daughter and aunt. The following hadith makes this very clear:

Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu reported that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated, “Your actions will not secure salvation for any of you.”

“Not even you, O Messenger of Allah,” they asked.

“Not even me,” he emphasised, “except that Allah envelopes me with mercy.”

He then instructed:

سددوا وقاربوا واغدوا وروحوا وشيء من الدلجة والقصد القصد تبلغوا

Continue doing good actions in moderation without extremism. Do voluntary actions in the mornings, the evenings, and some part of the night. Maintain moderation, maintain moderation, you will reach you destination.[95]

 

He desired success for his beloved daughter in the Hereafter. Owing to this, in his terminal illness, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam emphasised the carrying out of good actions upon his daughter and aunt, declaring:

 

يا فاطمة بنت رسول الله يا صفية عمة رسول الله اعملا لما عند الله انى لا اغنى عنكما من الله شيئا

O Fatimah bint Rasulillah! O Safiyyah bint ‘Abdul Muttalib! Carry out good actions to obtain what is by Allah, i.e. Jannat. I cannot help you in any way against Allah (to save you from His punishment).[96]

 

This hadith substantiates the stance of the Ahlus Sunnah, that no one besides the Ambiya’ are infallible. The members of the Ahlul Bayt are fallible just like the rest of the Companions. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala grant them and us the highest stages of Jannat.

 

The Secret

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was nursed in the home of his wife Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. All his wives were with him at the time. Then, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha approached, and her gait matched the gait of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She entered his presence which brought great joy to him. He welcomed her and seated her before whispering something to her. She began to weep uncontrollably. When he saw her restlessness, he whispered to her a second time which made her smile. Both times, she lowered herself towards him and kissed him.

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha enquired from her about the secret but she refused to disclose the secret of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. It might be suprising to some, but Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha was actually a few years younger than Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

It was only after the demise of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha disclosed the secret to Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha after the latter took a determination upon her upon the right she had over her.

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha explained that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam informed her that Sayyidina Jibril ‘alayh al Salam would revise the Qur’an with him once every year (in Ramadan), but the past Ramadan, he recited it twice. “I divined from this my imminent demise,” he said, “so fear Allah and bear patiently, for I am the best forerunner for you.” This devastating news reduced her to tears.

Seeing her restlessness, he comforted her by informing her that she will be the first of his family members to follow him. This brought a smile to her face. He also blessed her with the glad tidings:

 

يا فاطمة أما ترضين أن تكوني سيدة نساء المؤمنين أو سيدة نساء هذه الأمة

O Fatimah! Are you not pleased to be the Queen of the Muslim women—or the Queen of the women of this Ummah?” She smiled hearing this.[97]

 

The wording of another sahih report is:

 

أما ترضين أن تكوني سيدة نساء أهل الجنة أو نساء المؤمنين

Are you not pleased that you will be the Queen of the women of Jannat or the women of the believers?[98]

 

We are indebted to Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha for learning of this superb secret from her and conveying these remarkable virtues to the Ummah.

The Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah consider it necessary to have conviction that those individuals who have been specifically promised Jannat by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam will definitely enter Jannat. There are 38 fortunate individuals of this Ummah explicitly promised Jannat on the tongue of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in authentic narrations. Seven among them are females; Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha is one of them, in fact the Queen of them along with her mother.

Other fortunate individuals exclusively promised Jannat are Sayyidina Abu Bakr, Sayyidina ‘Umar, Sayyidina ‘Uthman, Sayyidina ‘Ali, Sayyidina Zubair, Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

 

Expressing Grief at Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Demise

As the illness of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam continued to intensify day by day, it left Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha totally shattered. She had lost her mother and all her siblings during her lifetime. She was soon to lose her greatest moral support, the one she had the greatest love for, her beloved father.

During his last moments, he would lapse into a state of unconsciousness due to the severity of the illness. Sayyidah Fatimah lamented, “Oh! The distress of my father.” He consoled her, “There will be no distress upon your father after today.”

Slowly, life began to escape his body while he lay in the lap of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. After breathing his last, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha mourned:

 

يا أبتاه أجاب ربا دعاه يا أبتاه جنة الفردوس مأواه يا أبتاه إلى جبريل ننعاه

O my beloved father! You answered the call of your Rabb! O my beloved father! Jannat al Firdaws is your abode! O my beloved father! We will convey your obituary to Jibril![99]

 

Undoubtedly, the demise of the Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was the most catastrophic calamity upon this Ummah. There can be no loss greater than this. Imagine the state of devastation of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, his wives, and his daughter Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. For her, it was a mighty blow.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was buried in the blessed home of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. After the burial, when the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were returning, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha—grief stricken and sorrowful—addressed Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu: “O Anas! Were you pleased to throw sand on Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam?”[100]

 

Allah tests those He loves

“The Ambiya’ ‘alayhim al Salam face the greatest trials; and then those who are closest to them.”[101]  Definitely, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha is one of those who are closest to the Ambiya’ ‘alayhim al Salam. She faced the adversity of losing both her parents and all her siblings.

“The greater the test, the greater the reward. When Allah loves a nation, He tests them,”[102] says Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This is manifest proof of Allah’s love for her and the great reward prepared for her in the Hereafter. She will be the Queen of the women of Jannat according to authentic ahadith.

Moreover, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam says, “A person is tested in accordance to his Din. If he is weak in Din, he is tested accordingly. If he is strong in Din, he is tested accordingly.”[103] Imagine the strength of the Din of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

 

Scholarly Achievements

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha reports a few ahadith from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Her sons Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain, her husband Sayyidina ‘Ali, Sayyidah Aisha, Sayyidah Umm Salamah, Sayyidah Salma Umm Rafi’, and Sayyidina Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhum narrate directly from her while Fatimah bint al Hussain narrates indirectly from her.[104] Imam Ahmed rahimahu Llah includes 10 of her ahadith in his Musnad, Hadith: 26413 – 26422, while Baqi includes 18 narrations of hers.[105] I will quote few of her ahadith hereunder:

Her most famous report is related to the Ummah via Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha of Sayyidina Jibril ‘alayh al Salam revising the Glorious Qur’an once yearly and twice in the last Ramadan, Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam imminent demise, her being the first to join him after death, and her being the Queen of the women of this Ummah.[106] In a weak report, she discloses the secret that she will be the first to join Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam after his demise to Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu as well.[107]

Umm Sulaiman mentions that she went to Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha to enquire from her regarding the meat of animals slaughtered at the occasion of ‘Id and she said: “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had initially prohibited us from consuming it [after three days], thereafter he allowed us to have it.” The proof is that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu once returned from a journey and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha presented the meat of a slaughtered animal to him. He asked her, ‘Did not Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prohibit us from its consumption [after three days]?’ She replied, ‘He has now granted us permission to have it.’ Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu proceeded to the Masjid to confirm with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who said: ‘Eat from one Dhu al Hijjah to the next.’”[108]

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha reports that when entering the Masjid, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would supplicate:

 

باسم الله والسلام على رسول الله اللهم اغفرلي ذنوبي و افتح لي أبواب رحمتك

In the name of Allah and peace upon the Messenger of Allah. O Allah! Forgive my sins and open for me the doors of Your mercy.

 

When exiting the Masjid, he would pray:

 

باسم الله والسلام على رسول الله اللهم اغفرلي ذنوبي و افتح لي أبواب فضلك

In the name of Allah and peace upon the Messenger of Allah. O Allah! Forgive my sins and open for me the doors of Your grace.[109]

 

Fatimah Accepts the Caliphate of Abu Bakr

After the demise of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the Ummah pledged their allegiance to Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu as khalifah. He was the greatest individual of this Ummah who embraced Islam at the very beginning and accompanied Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the hijrah journey. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu also pledged his allegiance to Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[110] Furthermore, he participated in the Dhu al Qissah expedition alongside the Khalifah in 11 AH and pledged allegiance a second time to him to confirm his bay’ah after the demise of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.[111] This is according to authentic ahadith and sound historical reports, which forms the basis of the beliefs of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah.

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha accepted the Caliphate of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu as is evident from her requesting her share of the estate of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from him as will shortly appear.

The concept of caliphate is established from the ahadith of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and supported by the consensus of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. The first Khalifah was Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, followed by Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, followed by Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, followed by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, followed by Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, followed by Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu after Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu abdicated the caliphate in his favour.

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha has the great fortune of her husband and son being Khulafa’ and their caliphate being on the pattern of Nubuwwah as affirmed in the hadith reported by Sayyidina Safinah radiya Llahu ‘anhu that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam affirmed:

 

خلافة النبوة ثلاثون سنة ثم يؤتي الله الملك من يشاء

The caliphate in the footsteps of Nubuwwah will be thirty years. Then Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will give power and authority to whomever He wills.[112]

 

The thirty-year period concluded with the caliphate of Sayyidina Hassan ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma states Ibn Kathir rahimahu Llah. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away in Rabi’ al Awwal 11 AH and Sayyidina Hassan’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu caliphate lasted until Rabi’ al Awwal 41 AH.[113]

 

The Imamah Myth

Imamah—a divinely appointed position similar to Nubuwwah—is a concept contrived by the Shia. They believe that the Imam after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was Sayyidina ‘Ali, followed by Sayyidina Hassan, then Hussain, and then Hussain’s descendants radiya Llahu ‘anhum. This false ideology of the Shia is neither mentioned in the Qur’an, nor by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, nor supported by the practice of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, nor the practice or belief of the individuals of the Ahlul Bayt whom they claimed to be Imams.

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu pledged allegiance to the three Khulafa’ before him—a fact in which there is no doubt. Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were Khulafa’ and accepted this position, as affirmed by the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah. They did not demand the position of Imamah, an ideology devised by the deviated.

The first to fabricate this Imamah fallacy was Ibn Saba’ whom Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu exiled because of his belief in the divinity of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Notwithstanding this, Ibn Saba’s two corrupt ideologies of executorship and Imamah are wholly accepted by the Shia. They claim to love Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu yet adhere to the ideologies of the one whom he punished!

 

The Estate of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

After Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha came to Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu to request for her share of inheritance from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, mentioning his land in Fadak and his share of Khaybar. This supports the fact that she accepted Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu as the rightful khalifah.

Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu acquainted her of the declaration and assurance of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

لا نورث ما تركنا صدقة إنما يأكل آل محمد من هذا المال

We (Ambiya’) are not inherited from. What we leave behind is charity. The family of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam will survive of this wealth.

 

Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu confirmed that he would do exactly what Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did and not move an inch away from that, lest he go astray:

 

والله لا أدع أمرا رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يصنعه فيه إلا صنعته

By Allah, I will do exactly as I saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam doing.[114]

 

And he did just that. He followed the example of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam par excellence. He collected the produce of Fadak and Khaybar and distributed it among the needy relatives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—the Ahlul Bayt.[115]

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was previously unaware of the prophetic statement. When Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu quoted the hadith of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and explained the matter to her, she refrained from asking any further.[116] This is evidence that she accepted the truth of what he said.

Despite this, the Shia went to extremes with the inheritance issue and levelled nasty allegations against Sayyidina Abu Bakr and Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma in particular and the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in general, turning a blind eye to the sound reports of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had declared:

 

لا نورث ما تركنا صدقة إنما يأكل آل محمد من هذا المال

We (Ambiya’) are not inherited from. What we leave behind is charity. The family of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam will survive of this wealth.[117]

 

Ironically, the Shia quote from Sayyidina Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah—whom they declare an Imam and claim to be a partisan of, “The wealth of the Ambiya’ of Allah ‘alayhim al Salam is not inherited. They do not leave gold and silver coins behind as inheritance. Their knowledge is inherited.”[118]

The verdict of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was correct and his stance was accurate and is accepted by the consensus of the Ummah and the Ahlul Bayt, including Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidina ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[119] Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not alter the verdict of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu in his caliphate. This is a practical corroboration for his verdict. Similarly, Sayyidina Hassan ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma took no steps to change the verdict regarding Fadak in his caliphate. All the Mufassirin, Muhaddithin, Fuqaha’ of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah, and reliable historians unanimously agree that the verdict of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was correct. Fakhr al Din al Razi rahimahu Llah writes:

 

أن فاطمة رضيت بقول أبي بكر بعد هذه المناظرة و انعقد الاجماع على صحة ما ذهب اليه أبو بكر فسقط هذا السؤال الله اعلم

Fatimah was pleased with Abu Bakr’s explanation after this dialogue. There is consensus upon the verdict of Abu Bakr. Hence, this objection [against him] is baseless. And Allah knows best.[120]

 

When the Shia fail in this plot, they present the false claim that Fadak was gifted to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, it was endowed to her, it was bequeathed to her, Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu did write a receipt for her which Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu tore—all of which are fabrications that cannot be substantiated.[121]

 

Was Fatimah angry at Abu Bakr?

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha lived a life of simplicity and survived on the bare minimum in emulation of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Would the Queen of the women of Jannat and the daughter of the leader of the Ambiya’ salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam be angry over worldly wealth, which has not the worth of a mosquito’s wing in Allah’s sight?

The scholars have listed all the narrations from Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha and compared the various versions of the hadith. They have concluded that the expressions Ghadab (anger), Wajd (disillusionment), Hijran (avoidance) and ‘Adam al Takallum (not wanting to talk), are not part of the actual narration. Instead, it is the assumption of the narrator who, in his narration had added his understanding of the situation. If one goes back to the narration, the entire episode of anger and not speaking to Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu appears after the words, ‘He said’. Upon investigation, it became evident which narrator was most likely responsible for providing his understanding of events while narrating this hadith. It appears to be Imam Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Shihab al Zuhri.[122]

 

Harmonious Relationship between Fatimah and Abu Bakr

Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma relates that Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu entreated the Ummah:

 

ارقبوا محمدا صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم في اهل بيته

Honour Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam by [honouring] his household.[123]

 

He acted in accordance, as appears in the report of ‘Uqbah ibn al Harith who narrates that a few days after the demise of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he exited the Masjid with Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and with Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu walking beside him. Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu happened to pass by Sayyidina Hassan ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma playing with a group of children. He lifted Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu upon his shoulders and remarked, “He is a replica of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but does not resemble his father ‘Ali in the least.” ‘Ali laughed at the good-humoured remark of his.[124]

He showed this love to Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu only because he was the son of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha and the grandson of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Another aspect that proves their harmonious relationship is that Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu allowed his wife Sayyidah Asma’ bint ‘Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha to nurse Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha in her fatal illness until she breathed her last.[125]

 

Winning the Pleasure of Fatimah

Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu acted upon the hadith of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam by not handing over Fadak and the lands of Khaybar to Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha and maintained the practice of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ensuring that the Ahlul Bayt receive their stipends from this wealth. Hence, he is free from blame. Yet, he felt the need to ensure that she was pleased with him as the pleasure of the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was his priceless treasure. He says:

 

والذي نفسي بيده لقرابة رسول الله ‏‏صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ‏أحب إلي أن أصل من قرابتي

By the One Who has control of my life, maintaining good ties with the relatives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is more beloved to me than maintaining good ties with my own relatives.[126]

 

Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu visited her in her final illness and said, “By Allah, I never forsook my property, my wealth, my family, and my tribe except to seek the pleasure of Allah and His Messenger and the pleasure of the Ahlul Bayt.” He kept saying kind words to her until she was extremely pleased with him.[127]

This incident reminds me of the incident where she requests a slave from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but he declines, yet Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam later went to her home at night to win her pleasure and teach her words of splendour.

The Ahlul Bayt narrate from Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

إن الله يغضب لغضبك ويرضى لرضاك

Certainly, Allah becomes angry when you are angry and pleased when you are pleased.[128]

 

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was pleased with Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, which means that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala is pleased with him. The one who sincerely loves her cannot afford but to be pleased with whoever she is pleased with and Allah is pleased with.

 

Bequest in Favour of Umamah bint Zainab

In her last days, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha bequeathed to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to marry her niece Sayyidah Umamah radiya Llahu ‘anha, the daughter of Sayyidah Zainab bint Muhammad radiya Llahu ‘anha. Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu honoured this bequest and married Sayyidah Umamah radiya Llahu ‘anha after the demise of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.[129]

 

Demise

Six months after her father, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha passed away. She left this temporary world on Monday night, the 3rd of Ramadan 11 AH between Maghrib and ‘Isha at the age of 24 or 29.[130] This was a manifestation of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam guarantee that she will be the first of his household to meet him after death.

Sayyidah Asma’ bint ‘Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha arranged her ghusl with Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum while Sayyidah Salma, the wife of Abu Rafi’, radiya Llahu ‘anhuma assisted according to one report.[131] The narration that suggests that she bathed prior to her death and bequeathed that she should not be bathed thereafter is extremely weak and cannot be relied upon.[132]

A bier was prepared by Sayyidah Asma’ bint ‘Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha for the Queen of the women of Jannat due to Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha expressing her discomfort at women being covered merely by a cloth after their demise and her desire for more concealment. The bier was prepared with some fresh palm leaves covered in a cloth—something that Sayyidah Asma’ radiya Llahu ‘anha saw in Abyssinia. This pleased Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha greatly. She was the first woman to be covered in this manner.[133]

The story of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu harming Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha and burning her house is a fabrication of the Shia.[134]

 

Salat al Janazah

There exists no definitive sahih report regarding who exactly led her Salat al janazah. The stronger reports determine that it was either Sayyidina ‘Ali or Sayyidina ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma who led her Salat al Janazah. Another report suggests that it was Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu who led the Salat al Janazah,[135] which some scholars have suggested to be credible due to other corroborating factors.[136] Whatever the case, the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum including Sayyidina Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum were present at her Janazah.

Sayyidina ‘Ali, Sayyidina ‘Abbas, and Sayyidina Fadl ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhum descended into her grave to bury her.[137] She was buried at night in Jannat al Baqi’. May Allah be pleased with her and make her happy.

 

Outstanding Virtues

Plenty of excellences of this outstanding woman coupled with her sublime qualities have already been covered in her biography. Moreover, she is the owner of sublime virtue as highlighted in the upcoming sahih ahadith, memorised and transmitted to the Ummah by the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and documented by the ‘Ulama’ of the Ummah.

  1. She is one of the four most outstanding women in righteousness and superiority:
    • Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

حسبك من نساء العالمين مريم بنت عمران وخديجة بنت خويلد وفاطمة بنت محمد وآسية امرأة فرعون

Sufficient for you of the women of the universe [in superiority and virtue] are Maryam bint ‘Imran, Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, Fatimah bint Muhammad, and Asiyah—the wife of Firoun.”[138]

 

    • Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam drew four lines on the ground before declaring:

 

أفضل نساء الجنة أربع مريم بنت عمران وخديجة بنت خويلد وفاطمة بنت محمد وآسية بنت مزاحم

The most superior women of Jannat are four: Maryam bint ‘Imran, Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, Fatimah bint Muhammad, and Asiyah bint Muzahim.[139]

 

خير نساء العالمين أربع مريم بنت عمران وخديجة بنت خويلد وفاطمة بنت محمد وآسية امرأة فرعون

The best women of the worlds are four: Maryam bint ‘Imran, Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, Fatimah bint Muhammad, and Asiyah bint Muzahim.[140]

 

The other three women of excellence cared for and supported the Ulu al ‘Azm Ambiya’ ‘alayhim al Salam. Sayyidah Maryam radiya Llahu ‘anha mothered Sayyidina ‘Isa ‘alayh al Salam; Sayyidah Asiyah radiya Llahu ‘anha nurtured Sayyidina Musa ‘alayh al Salam; and Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha proved to be a great pillar of strength for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha—coupled with supporting her father—developed the qualities of her father and became a mirror image of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as affirmed by Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, “I have not seen anyone who resembled Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam closer in his ways, mannerisms, and etiquette―the way he stood and sat―than Fatimah, the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[141]

 

  1. She is the Queen of the Ummah:
    • Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam related:

 

إن ملكا من السماء لم يكن رآني فاستأذن الله في زيارتي فأخبرني أو بشرني أن فاطمة ابنتي سيدة نساء أمتي وأن حسنا وحسينا سيدا شباب أهل الجنة

Certainly, an angel from the sky had not seen me so he sought permission from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to see me. He informed me or gave me glad tidings that Fatimah, my daughter, is the Queen of the women of my Ummah and that Hassan and Hussain are the leaders of the youth of Jannat.[142]

 

    • Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha narrates that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

أما ترضين أن تكوني سيدة نساء المؤمنين أو سيدة نساء هذه الأمة

Are you not pleased to be the Queen of the Muslim women—or the Queen of the women of this Ummah?[143]

 

  1. She is the Queen of the Women of Jannat
    • Sayyidina Abu Sa’id al Khudri radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared:

 

الحسن والحسين سيدا شباب أهل الجنة وفاطمة سيدة نسائهم إلا ما كان لمريم بنت عمران

Hassan and Hussain are the leaders of the youth of Jannat and Fatimah is the Queen of their women except for the status Maryam bint ‘Imran enjoys.[144]

 

    • Sayyidina Hudhayfah radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports a similar narration to Sayyidina Abu Hurairah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu quoted above. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam submitted:

 

إن هذا ملك لم ينزل الأرض قط قبل هذه الليلة استأذن ربه أن يسلم علي و يبشرني بأن فاطمة سيدة نساء أهل الجنة و أن الحسن و الحسين سيدا شباب أهل الجنة

Indeed, this is an angel who has not descended to the world prior to this night. He sought permission from his Rabb to greet me and give me glad tidings that Fatimah will be the Queen of the women of Jannat and that Hassan and Hussain will be the leaders of the youth of Jannat.[145]

 

  1. Loved by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Sayyidina Zaid ibn Arqam radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said regarding ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum:

أنا حرب لمن حاربهم وسلم لمن سالمهم

I am at war with one who is at war with them and I am at peace with one who is at peace with them.[146]

 

Who is Superior?

The ‘Ulama’ have agreed unanimously that Sayyidah Khadijah, Sayyidah Fatimah, and Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhunna are the greatest women of the Ummah.[147] They have differed on which of the three are undisputedly the most superior, giving preference to some over others due to certain factors.

Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha is declared superior from the angle of supporting the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, having concrete conviction in him, comforting him, and mothering his children. She is also the Queen of the women of Jannat. The following hadith of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supports this view:[148]

 

خير نسائها مريم ابنة عمران وخير نسائها خديجة

The most superior woman of her era was Maryam bint ‘Imran and the most superior woman of this Ummah is Khadijah.[149]

 

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha enjoys superiority in being more knowledgeable, benefitting the Ummah more, and conveying to the Ummah an abundance of knowledge which others besides her have not, to the extent that the elite of the Ummah and the general masses are in need of her knowledge.[150] Moreover, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared:

 

كمل من الرجال كثير ولم يكمل من النساء إلا آسية امرأة فرعون ومريم بنت عمران وإن فضل عائشة على النساء كفضل الثريد على سائر الطعام

Many men reached perfection. Among women, it was only Asiyah—Firoun’s wife—and Maryam bint ‘Imran who reached perfection. Certainly, the superiority of Aisha over other women is like the superiority of tharid over other foods.”[151]

 

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha enjoys superiority from the angle of nobility of origin and loftiness of ancestry, as she is a part of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[152] Moreover, she is the Queen of the women of the Ummah and the Queen of the women of Jannat, and her sons are the leaders of the youth of Jannat.

 

Member of the Ahlul Bayt

Undoubtedly, the family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam holds the noblest lineage and ancestry. They are referred to as the Ahlul Bayt. Coupled with her abundant virtues, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhu is one of the most distinguished personalities of the Ahlul Bayt. All the virtues applicable to the Ahlul Bayt apply to her.

The Ahlul Bayt are the blessed wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and members of his family who accepted Islam and upon whom the acceptance of Zakat is prohibited, i.e. the Banu Hashim and Banu al Muttalib.[153] Hashim is the great grandfather and Muttalib is the great granduncle of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Loving the Ahlul Bayt, without any form of extremism, is an obligation. It is upheld by discussing their authentic virtues and sound biographies, protecting their rights as stipulated in the Shari’ah, and sending salutations upon them as in al Salat al Ibrahimiyyah.

 

The Magnificence and Majesty of being a Member of the Ahlul Bayt

  1. Sending salah (salutations) upon Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his family:

Sayyidina Abu Humaid al Sa’idi radiya Llahu ‘anhu informed him that they [the Sahabah] asked, “O Rasulullah! How do we send salah upon you?” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated, “Say:

 

اللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلٰى مُحَمَّدٍ وَأَزْوَاجِهِ وَذُرِّيَّتِهِ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلٰى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَبَارِكْ عَلٰى مُحَمَّدٍ وَأَزْوَاجِهِ وَذُرِّيَّتِهِ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلٰى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيْمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيْدٌ مَجِيْدٌ

O Allah! Send salah upon Muhammad, his wives, and offspring as You sent salah upon the family of Ibrahim. Bless Muhammad, his wives, and offspring as You blessed the family of Ibrahim. Indeed, You are Praiseworthy, Honourable.[154]

Sayyidina Ka’b ibn ‘Ujrah presented a gift to ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Layla radiya Llahu ‘anhuma by explaining to him the manner to send salah upon the Ahlul Bayt. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam taught the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum to say:

 

اللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلٰى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلٰى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلٰى إِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَعَلٰى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيْمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيْدٌ مَجِيْدٌ اللّٰهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلٰى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلٰى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلٰى إِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَعَلٰى آلِ اِبْرَاهِيْمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيْدٌ مَجِيْدٌ

O Allah, send salutations upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You sent salutations upon Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim. Indeed, You are Praiseworthy, Honourable. O Allah, shower blessings upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You showered blessings upon Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim.Indeed, You are Praiseworthy, Honourable.”[155]

 

  1. The severing of every connection and relationship except the connection and relationship of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

Sayyidina Jabir radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that he heard Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu telling the people after he married the daughter of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

ألا تهنئوني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول ينقطع يوم القيامة كل سبب ونسب إلا سببي ونسبي

Will you not congratulate me? I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam affirming, “On the Day of Qiyamah, every connection and relationship will cease except my connection and relationship.”[156]

 

  1. Abu Bakr encourages kindness towards the Ahlul Bayt

Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma relates that Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu entreated:

 

ارقبوا محمدا صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم في أهل بيته

Honour Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam by [honouring] his household.”[157]

 

  1. The Punishment for he who harbours hatred for the Ahlul Bayt and reviles them

Sayyidina Abu Sa’id al Khudri radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam warned:

 

والذي نفسي بيده لا يبغضنا أهل البيت رجل إلا أدخله الله النار

By the Being in Whose Hands lies my life! None should harbour hatred for us the Ahlul Bayt, otherwise Allah will hurl him into the Fire.”[158]

 

Mutual Love between the Sahabah and the Ahlul Bayt

The abundance of narrations of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, especially Sayyidah Aisha bint Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, on the virtues of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha and other members of the Ahlul Bayt including Sayyidina ‘Ali, Sayyidina Hassan, and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum is manifest evidence to the mutual love that existed between them. Moreover, these profuse narrations prove false the fallacious Shia allegation that the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum concealed the virtues of the Ahlul Bayt and harboured enmity for them.

Sayyidina Abu Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu concern to win the pleasure of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha is critical evidence that he loved her dearly. His statement, “Maintaining good ties with the relatives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is more beloved to me than maintaining good ties with my own relatives,”[159] is proof of this.

This was the attitude of every single Sahabi radiya Llahu ‘anhu towards Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, for they were fully cognisant of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam intense love for her. Sayyidah Usamah ibn Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, the beloved and son of the beloved of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam emphatically stated:

 

أحب أهلي إلي فاطمة

The most beloved family member to me is Fatimah.[160]

 

The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum emulated the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to the minutest detail, even in this aspect, without the slightest of doubt. In the upcoming narration, Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu declares a fact, a reality on oath, and he speaks on behalf of every sincere lover of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum being the forerunners of them.

Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu entered the presence of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha and submitted:

 

يا فاطمة والله ما رأيت أحدا أحب إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم منك والله ما كان أحد من الناس بعد أبيك صلى الله عليه وسلم أحب إلى منك

O Fatimah! By Allah, I have not seen anyone more beloved to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam than you. By Allah, there is no one after your father salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam more beloved to me than you.[161]

 

Due to the strict laws of hijab, we find only one or two instances of communication and interaction between Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha and the male Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. To realise the extent of love that existed between Sayyidah Fatimah and the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha will serve as representative of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum for she is the perfect example as they interacted more often. She is the Mother of the Believers, the daughter of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and the most prolific narrator of hadith among the women of the Ummah.

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was 5 or 10 years elder than Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha.[162] The bond between Sayyidah Aisha and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma was one of love, affection, harmony, and reverence. Muhaddithin and historians are unanimous that the two enjoyed the strongest of ties, bound with love and affection. This love was entrenched in their hearts and became manifest from their actions and statements.

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha considered her one of the most intelligent women.[163] Furthermore, she emphatically declared her the most superior after her father:

 

ما رأيت قط أحدا أفضل من فاطمة غير أبيها

I have not seen anyone superior to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha besides her father.[164]

 

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha once told Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

ألا أبشرك إني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول سيدات نساء أهل الجنة أربع مريم بنت عمران وفاطمة بنت رسول الله وخديجة بنت خويلد وآسية امرأة فرعون

Should I not give you glad tidings? Certainly, I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declaring, “The queens of the women of Jannat are four viz. Maryam bint ‘Imran, Fatimah bint Rasulillah, Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, and Asiyah—the wife of Firoun.”[165]

 

If she harboured enmity for the Ahlul Bayt, as claimed by the Shia, she would have concealed these virtues. To the contrary, she is al Siddiqah bint al Siddiq (the truthful, daughter of the truthful). This evidences her love and fairness with the family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

She found out the secret that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam whispered to Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha shortly before breathing his last. Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha disclosing the secret to her displays that the latter was her confidant, one close to the heart and soul.

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha related to the Ummah the hadith of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha being the first to join Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam after his death and her being the Queen of the women of the Ummah and the Queen of the women of Jannat. It should be noted that this incident happened after Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam demise, i.e. the period regarding which the Shia allege the flame of hostility, disunity, and division was ignited.

They enjoyed mutual confidence and trust. When Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha came to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to request for a slave and did not find him, she informed Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha about it, as appears in the hadith narrated by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This indicates Sayyidah Fatimah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha confidence and trust in Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha and depicts the latter’s concern to convey the message of the former.

At the same time, ‘Amr ibn Dinar reports from Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

ما رأيت أصدق من فاطمة غير أبيها قالت وكان بينهما شيء أي بين رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وعائشة فقالت عائشة يا رسول الله سلها فإنها لا تكذب

“I have not seen anyone more honest that Fatimah besides her father.”

She says, “Once there was a dispute between them—i.e. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Aisha—so Aisha said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, ask Fatimah for she never lies.’”[166]

 

The Ummahat al Mu’minin sent Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to request him: “Your wives are entreating you for Allah’s sake to show fairness with regards to the daughter of Abu Bakr.” The reason they chose her was due to Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam intense love for her. She spoke to him to which he noted, “O beloved daughter! Do you not love whom I love?” “Definitely,” she replied. “So, love her,” he instructed.[167] This is Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam command to her. And she would never violate his command. This is emphatic evidence to Sayyidah Fatimah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha love for Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha.

 

NEXT⇒ Conclusion


[1] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 262, 263; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 20; Tafsir al Qurtubi, vol. 14 pg. 242, 243.

[2] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3815; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2430.

[3] Surah al Tawbah: 100.

[4] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 36; Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 138; Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 1 pg. 198.

[5] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3872; Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 7715; Khasaʾis Amir al Muʾminin ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Hadith: 128.

[6] Al Bayhaqi: al Sunan al Kubra, Hadith: 13356; al Nasa’i: al Sunan al Kubra, Hadith: 9236; Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3872; Al Adab al Mufrad, Hadith: 971.

[7] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2450.

[8] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 1 pg. 418; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 1 pg. 101.

[9] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 1 pg. 436; Fath al Bari, Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 240.

[10] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 1 pg. 435; Sheikh Muhammad al Ghazali: Fiqh al Sirah, pg. 124.

[11] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 1 pg. 436; Musnad al Tayalisi, Hadith: 323. Sahih.

[12] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 240, 3854; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1794; Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 1 pg. 434, 435; vol. 2 pg. 439.

[13] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 2 pg. 458, 459; Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 2686; Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 2616. Sahih.

[14] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 2 pg. 459.

[15] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3678, 3856, 4815.

[16] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3872; Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 7715; Khasaʾis Amir al Muʾminin ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Hadith: 128.

[17] Usd al Ghabah, pg. 1565.

[18] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3475, Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1688.

[19] Fath al Bari, vol. 12 pg. 95.

[20] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 152; Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 2 pg. 125, 126; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 1 pg. 204.

[21] Shaikh ‘Ali Muhammad al Sallabi: ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib his life and times, vol. 1 pg. 189; Fath al Bari, vol. 8 pg. 11; Ibn Ishaq: al Sirah al Nabawiyyah, vol. 4 pg. 59; al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 4 pg. 73.

[22] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2449; Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 5230

[23] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3767, 3714; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2449.

[24] Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was born when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was around 33 years old and passed away when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was 55.

[25] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 2 pg. 496.

[26]Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 2 pg. 503.

[27] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 2 pg. 504, 505; Al Bayhaqi: Dala’il al Nubuwwah, vol. 3 pg. 160; Al Tarikh al Kabir, vol. 2 pg. 61. Its isnad is reliable.

[28] Mufti Yusuf Shabbir: Mahr Fatimi or Mahr Azwaj, pg. 2, www.islamicportal.co.uk.

[29] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 22.

[30] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 2 pg. 505; Musnad Abi Ya’la, Hadith: 353; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 178.

[31] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 121.

[32] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 265; Usd al Ghabah, pg. 1564; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 22; Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 121; Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 2 pg. 506; Sharh Mushkil al Athar, Hadith: 5947. Hassan.

[33] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 263.

[34] Al Bukhari: al Adab al Mufrad, pg. 823; Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. pg. 98, 118; Al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pg. 165, 180.

[35] Usd al Ghabah, pg. 1088.

[36] Sunan Ibn Majah, pg. 139.

[37] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 2375; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1979.

[38] Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 23035; Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah, Hadith: 1178; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 21, 22; Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 2 pg. 506. Hassan.

[39] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 23; Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 264.

[40] Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 7 pg. 133; Al Nadwi: al Murtada, pg. 41; Kitab al Sunan, vol. 3 pg. 154; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 22.

[41] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 121; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 25; Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 643; Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 2 pg. 505.

[42] Al Nasa’i; al Sunan al Sughra, vol. 8 pg. 158; Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 22398; Al Mujam al Kabir, Hadith: 1448; Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 4725. Sahih.

[43] Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 3755; Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 3360; Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 21922, 21926, 21933. Hassan.

[44] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3705; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2727; Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 267, 268; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 26; Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 121, 122.

[45] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 268; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 26; Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 121, 122.

[46] Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 4741; Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3481. Sahih.

[47] Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 4106. Grade: Sahih.

[48] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 441, 6280; Sahih Muslim, vol. 4 pg. 1874, Hadith: 2409.

[49] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 268; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 26.

[50] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 268; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 27.

[51] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1469.

[52] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 267, 268; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 26; Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 121, 122.

[53] Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 4106. Grade: Sahih.

[54] Hilyah al Auliya’, vol. 2 pg. 40, 41.

[55] Al Isti’ab, pg. 1897, 1898; Usd al Ghabah, pg. 1566; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 29.

[56] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 37.

[57] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 1974; Musnad Ahmed, Hadith 12689. Sahih.

[58] Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 3123.

[59] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 119.

[60] Fath al Bari, Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4075.

[61] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4075.

[62] Al Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 60.

[63] Al Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 68.

[64] Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 184; Al Albani: al Ahadith al Sahihah, vol. 2 pg. 448. Hassan.

[65] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3782; Sahih Jami’ al Tirmidhi, vol. 3 pg. 226. Sahih.

[66] Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 7876; Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 143; Sahih Sunan Abi Dawood, vol. 2 pg. 29; Fada’il al Sahabah, Hadith: 1359. Sahih.

[67] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3769. Hassan.

[68] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3746.

[69] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 6 pg. 33.

[70] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 3 pg. 547, 548. Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was born when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was around 30 years old and passed away when he was around 60 years old.

[71] Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 216; Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 5 pg. 308.

[72] Al Mujam al Awsat, vol. 5 pg. 80; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 215; Al Silsilah al Sahihah, Hadith: 3071. Sahih.

[73] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 336a.

[74] Fath al Bari, Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3729.

[75] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2449; Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 5230.

[76] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2449; Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3729.

[77] Sharh al Nawawi ‘ala Muslim, Hadith: 2449.

[78] Sharh Mawahib al Laduniyyah, vol. 3 pg. 205.

[79] Fath al Bari Sharh Bukhari, vol. 9 pg. 270; Al Khasaʾis al Kubra, vol. 2 pg. 255.

[80] Sharh al Nawawi ‘ala Muslim, Hadith: 2449.

[81] Surah Al ‘Imran: 58 – 60.

[82] For disputing parties to invoke the curse of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala upon the oppressor.

[83] Surah Al ‘Imran: 61.

[84] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2404.

[85] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 4 pg. 414; Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4380; Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 3930.

[86] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 4 pg. 414, 415; Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 2225. Sahih.

[87] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 4 pg. 412 – 415.

[88] Surah al Ahzab: 33.

[89] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2424.

[90] Tafsir al Qurtubi (Al Jami’ al Ahkam al Qurʾan), vol. 14 pg. 183, 184.

[91] Al Muntaqa, pg. 428.

[92] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2408.

[93] Tafsir al Qurtubi, vol. 14 pg. 242, 243; Kitab al Thiqat, vol. 2 pg. 105; Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 5 pg. 39; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 38.

[94] Al Lu’lu’ al Maknun, vol. 4 pg. 195, 445 – 447; Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 18550; 18624.

[95] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 6463; Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 10677.

[96] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 2 pg. 224.

[97] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2450; Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 6285, 6286, 3715, 3716, 3624; Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3872; Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 7715. Sahih.

[98] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3624; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2450.

[99] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4462.

[100] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4462.

[101] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 2398; Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 1494. Hassan.

[102] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 2396; Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 4031. Hassan.

[103] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 2398; Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 1494. Hassan.

[104] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 262; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 12 pg. 441.

[105] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 134.

[106] Musnad Ahmed, Musnad Fatimah, Hadith: 26413, 26414.

[107] Musnad Ahmed, Musnad Fatimah, Hadith: 26420.

[108] Musnad Ahmed, Musnad Fatimah, Hadith: 26415.

[109] Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 26417, 26416, 26419. Sahih li ghayrihi. The middle portion of the supplication is hassan.

[110] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 90; Al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pg. 80; Al Bayhaqi: al Sunan al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 143. Sahih.

[111] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 90.

[112] Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 4646.

[113] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 8 pg. 177.

[114] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 6726; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1759.

[115] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4033.

[116] Ta’wil Mukhtalaf al Hadith, vol. 1 pg. 19.

[117] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 6726; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1759.

[118] Usul al Kafi, pg. 17, 18; Al Amali, pg. 37 majlis 14; Qurb al Asnad, pg. 44; Basa’ir al Darajat, pg. 3.

[119] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4033.

[120] Al Tafsir al Kabir, Surah al Nisa’: 11.

[121] Mawlana Muhammad Nafi’: The Four daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, pg. 217 – 225; ‘Umdat al Qari Sharh al Bukhari, vol. 15 pg. 20; Tuhfah Ithna ‘Ashariyyah Farsi pg. 277.

[122] Mahajjah Research Institute: Rather Misguided, pg. 233- 234.

[123] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3713, 3751.

[124] Al Arna’ut: Takhrij Musnad Abi Bakr, Hadith: 106; Musnad al Bazzar, Hadith: 53; Musnad Abi Bakr, Hadith: 106. Sahih. The shorter version appears in Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3750, 3542.

[125] Al Shia wa Ahlul Bayt, pg. 77; Usd al Ghabah, pg. 1566; Al Isti’ab, pg. 1897.

[126] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3711; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1759.

[127] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 122; Fath al Bari, Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3092; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 28; Siyar A’lam al Nubala, vol. 2 pg. 121; Al Bayhaqi: al Sunan al Kubra, vol. 6 pg. 301. Isnad is sound and strong.

[128] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 266; Al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 1 pg. 66; Al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pg. 154; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 203, Hadith: 15198; Al Suyuti: al Thughur al Basimah fi Manaqib Sayyiditina Fatimah, pg. 76. Hassan.

[129] Usd al Ghabah, pg. 1478.

[130] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 29; Usd al Ghabah, pg. 1566; Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 122, 123.

[131] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 122; Usd al Ghabah, pg. 1566; Hilyah al Auliya’, vol. 2 pg. 43.

[132] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 122.

[133] Al Isti’ab, pg. 1897, 1898; Usd al Ghabah, pg. 1566; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 29.

[134] Tuhfah Ithna ‘Ashariyyah Farsi pg. 292; Al Nabras pg. 529.

[135] Al Isti’ab, pg. 1898; Usd al Ghabah, pg. 1566; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 29; Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 268; https://hadithanswers.com/who-performed-the-janazah-of-sayyidatuna-Fatimah-radiyallahu-anha/

[136] The Four Daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, pg. 192 – 194, 229 – 234.

[137] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 267; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 10 pg. 29.

[138] Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 12414; Fada’il al Sahabah, Hadith: 1332; Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3878; Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 4746. Sahih.

[139] Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 2957.

[140] Sahih al Jami’, Hadith: 3328. Sahih.

[141] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3872; Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 7715; Khasaʾis Amir al Muʾminin ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Hadith: 128.

[142] Al Nasa’i: al Khasa’is, Hadith: 130; Al Nasa’i: al Sunan al Kubra, Hadith: 8515; Al Tarikh al Kabir, vol. 1 pg. 232; Al Mujam al Kabir, Hadith: 1006. Hassan.

[143] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2450; Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 6285, 6286.

[144] Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 11636; Fada’il al Sahabah, Hadith: 1331, 1360; Al Nasa’i: al Khasa’is, Hadith: 129; Musnad Abi Ya’la, Hadith: 1169; Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 4733.

[145] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3781; Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 23329. Sahih.

[146] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3870; Sahih Ibn Hibban, Hadith: 6977; Al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 3 pg. 39; Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 266; vol. 11 pg. 444; Usd al Ghabah, pg. 1565. Sahih.

[147] Majmu’ al Fatawa, vol. 4 pg. 394.

[148] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 117, Hadith: 24908; Al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 23 pg. 13, Hadith: 18977. Hassan.

[149] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3432; Fath al Bari.

[150] Bada’i’ al Fawa’id, vol. 3 pg. 162.

[151] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3411; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2431.

[152] Hafiz Ibn al Qayyim: Bada’i’ al Fawa’id, vol. 3 pg. 162.

[153] Mahajjah: The Ahlul Bayt, pg. 2; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2408,

[154] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3369; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 407.

[155] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3370.

[156] Al Mujam al Awsat, vol. 5 pg. 376, Hadith: 5605; Al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 3 pg. 45, Hadith: 2636; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 173; Al Albani: al Silsilah al Sahihah, Hadith: 2036. Sahih.

[157] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3713, 3751.

[158] Sahih Ibn Hibban, Hadith: 6978 – Hassan; Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 4717; Al Silsilah al Sahihah, Hadith: 2488. Sahih.

[159] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3711; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1759.

[160] Al Suyuti: Al Jami’ al Saghir, Hadith: 202. Sahih.

[161] Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 4797. Sahih.

[162] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 263.

[163] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3872; Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 7715. Sahih.

[164] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 264; Majma’ al Zawa’id, chapter 9.

[165] Fada’il al Sahabah, Hadith: 1336, 1576; Al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pg. 205, Hadith: 4853; Sahih al Jami’, Hadith: 3676. Sahih.

[166] Al Mujam al Awsat, vol. 3 pg. 137, Hadith: 2721; Musnad Abi Ya’la, vol. 8 pg. 153, Hadith: 4700; Hilyah al Auliya’, vol. 2 pg. 41, 42; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 204. The narrators are the narrators of Sahih al Bukhari.

[167] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2441, 2442; Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 2581.

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