The biography of Sayyidah Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah

Removing Doubts Regarding Sayyidah Zaynab
August 27, 2015
The Biography of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum
August 27, 2015

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The biography of Sayyidah Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah

 

Sayyidah Ruqayyah’s Birth

Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha is younger than Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha. Her mother is Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Khadijah bint Khuwaylid ibn Asad radiya Llahu ‘anha. The scholars write that Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was born three years after her eldest sister Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha when the age of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was close to 33.[1]

 

Sayyidah Ruqayyah’s Nurturing

She was nurtured and reached maturity together with her sisters in the care of her father Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The nurturing of her parents was the main source for the upcoming achievements in her life.

 

Accepting Islam and Pledging Allegiance

The first woman to accept Islam was Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Her daughters followed suite. When their mother was favoured with Islam, they were also favoured with the same and had the honour of pledging allegiance at the hands of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

و اسلمت حين اسلمت امها خديجة بنت خويلد و بايعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم هى و اخواتها حين بايعه النساء

When Sayyidah Khadijah bint Khuwaylid radiya Llahu ‘anha accepted Islam, Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha accepted and she pledged allegiance to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam coupled with her sisters when the women pledged allegiance.[2]

 

Sayyidah Ruqayyah’s Nikah

According to the custom prevalent in those days, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam got two of his daughter’s viz. Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha married to the sons of his uncle, Abu Lahab, viz. ‘Utbah and ‘Utaybah respectively. The marriages were only contracted and were not consummated.

The era of Islam began, and revelation came to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the verses of Towhid were revealed. The despicability of kufr and shirk was announced, right until Surah al Lahab was revealed. Due to this, the animosity of the kuffar towards the Muslims reached its peak and the anger and rage of Abu Lahab tore the borders of character.

فلما بعث رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و انزل اللّٰه تَبَّتْ یَدَآ اَبِیْ لَهَبٍ وَّ تَبَّ قال له ابوه ابو لهب راسى من راسك حرام ان لم تطلق ابنته ففارقها و لم يكن دخل بها

When Allah sent Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (with nubuwwah) and revealed, “May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined and ruined is he,” his father (Abu Lahab) warned his son: “If you do not divorce the daughter of Muhammad, I will not show you my face nor will I look at you.” He thus divorced her prior to consummation of the marriage.[3]

 

The divorce was at that time an unseen honour for these daughters. It was the decree of the Almighty that these chaste girls should not go to ‘Utbah and ‘Utaybah. Because of the warning of their father, ‘Utbah and ‘Utaybah divorced the pure daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam viz. Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha. This relation was severed only due to animosity and hatred for Islam.

There was no error or mistake on the part of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha. Only due to them being the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were they treated in this harsh way. For a woman to be divorced without any valid reason is a source of great pain and they are usually emotionally scarred. However, these chaste pure women bore all of these for the sake of din. Nonetheless, in this divorce was hidden their honour and physical protection from being handed over to the kuffar. May Allah Ta’ala be pleased with them.

 

This Incident According to the Shia

The ‘ulama’ of the Ahlus Sunnah have documented this incident as well as the Shia scholars, who have mentioned further details regarding this incident.

و اما رقية فتزوجها عتبة بن ابى لهب فطلقها قبل ان يدخل بها و لحقها منه اذى فقال النبى صلى الله عليه و سلم اللهم سلط على عتبة كلبا من كلابك فتناوله الاسد من بين اصحابه

‘Utbah ibn Abi Lahab married Ruqayyah but then divorced her prior to consummation of the marriage. Due to this unbecoming behaviour of ‘Utbah, Ruqayyah was very hurt. Thus, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam cursed ‘Utbah, “O Allah! Let one of Your beasts loose on ‘Utbah[4] (who would tear him to pieces).” The curse of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was accepted. Once, ‘Utbah was with his comrades. A lion came and tore ‘Utbah ibn Abi Lahab to pieces.

 

In reality, these were the emotional scars of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha which were articulated in the form of a curse on the tongue of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which was accepted by the All-Powerful.

 

The Marriage of Sayyidah Ruqayyah to Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan

After the sons of Abu Lahab divorced Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha to Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Makkah Mukarramah. Concerning this, ‘ulama’ have recorded some narrations under the virtues of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu which are reproduced hereunder:

1. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas relates that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Allah Ta’ala revealed to me that I should marry my beloved daughter Ruqayyah to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.” Therefore, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha to Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Makkah and sent her to his place.[5]

It is a well-known fact that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married two of his daughter’s viz. Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha one after the other to Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. First, the marriage of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was contracted which took place in Makkah Mukarramah prior to the hijrah to Madinah. After Sayyidah Ruqayyah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha demise, the marriage of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhu was contracted which will be discussed further on.

2. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu mentioned regarding Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

و زوجه رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم واحدة بعد واحدة

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married one daughter after another to him.[6]

 

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam marrying his daughters to Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is wonderful fate and remarkable fortune for him. Sayyidina ‘Uthman had the grand honour of being the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Moreover, admirable enough is that Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu connection with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam remained blissful his whole life with no altercations whatsoever. And in this state, he met a beautiful end.

 

Praises for Sayyidah Ruqayyah on the Tongues of the Women of Quraysh

The historians write that Allah Ta’ala favoured Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha with exceptional beauty. The author of Tarikh al Khamis in his history book and Muhib al Tabari in Dhakha’ir al ‘Uqba articulated it in the following words:

و كانت ذات جمال رائع

Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was a woman of exceptional beauty.[7]

 

و تزوجها عثمان بن عفان و كانت نساء قريش يقلن حين تزوجها عثمان احسن شخصين راى انسان رقية و بعلها عثمان

When Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu got married to her, the women of Quraysh of those days would envy this couple and express their beauty in the following words:

The most beautiful couple ever seen by man, is Ruqayyah with her husband ‘Uthman.[8]

 

An incident similar to this will be mentioned under the chapter ‘sending a gift’, Allah willing.

 

Emigration to Abyssinia

This was the initial stages of Islam and the Muslims were being oppressed in different forms and they had to face various types of difficulties.

قال لهم لو خرجتم الى الارض الحبشة فان بها ملكا لا يظلم عنده احد و هى ارض صدق حتى يجعل الله لكم فرجا مما انتم فيه فخرج عند ذلك المسلمون من اصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم الى ارض الحبشة مخافة الفتنة و فرارا الى الله بدينهم فكانت اول هجرة كانت فى الاسلام

During this period, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advised those who had become Muslims that it was better for them to emigrate to Abyssinia, for the king of Abyssinia is a noble man who does not oppress and people will live with peace and comfort there. It is a place where no oppression is meted out to people and it is full of peace. Allah Ta’ala will then open a way for you.[9] Some Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam left Makkah with the intention to emigrate to Abyssinia. These people wanted to protect themselves from the persecutions of the Makkans and left their homes in the hope to save Allah’s din. This was the first emigration for the Muslims.

 

In the Glorious Qur’an, many verses express the great virtue of the emigrants. One such verse reads:

وَالَّذِیْنَ هَاجَرُوْا فِی اللّٰهِ مِنْۢ بَعْدِ مَا ظُلِمُوْا لَـنُبَوِّئَنَّهُمْ فِی الدُّنْیَا حَسَنَةًؕ وَ لَاَجْرُ الْاٰخِرَةِ اَكْبَرُۘ

And those who emigrated for [the cause of] Allah after they had been wronged – We will surely settle them in this world in a good place; but the reward of the hereafter is greater, if only they could know.

 

These verses of the Qur’an are general and encompass all those emigrations which take place for the sake of din, thus making the emigrants to Abyssinia rightful addressees thereof. They are the bearers of these virtues which Allah Ta’ala grants upon adversities and difficulties; and Allah has blessed them with great favours.

فكان اول من خرج من المسلمين عثمان بن عفان و زوجته رقية بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم

Among those who emigrated from Makkah were ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu coupled with his wife Sayyidah Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

 

This was the first group to emigrate in the path of Allah, which took place in the fifth year after nubuwwah. Among the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was the first to have the honour of emigrating. She enjoys this fortune together with her husband. For the sake of the protection of din, to bear the hardships of journey is no ordinary honour and sacrifice. Allah Ta’ala has prepared an enormous reward for it.

 

Enquiring About the Condition of Sayyidah Ruqayyah

خرج عثمان بن عفان و معه امراته رقية بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم الى ارض الحبشة فابطا على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم خبرهما فقدمت امراة من قريش فقالت يا محمد قد رايت ختنك و معه امراته قال على اى حال رايتها قالت رايته قد حمل امراته على حمار من هذه الدبابة و هو يسوقها فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ان عثمان اول من هاجر باهله بعد لوط عليه السلام

After emigrating to Abyssinia, the condition of the emigrants was not known for some time. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was concerned about them. Meanwhile, a woman from Quraysh returned to Makkah from Abyssinia. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked her regarding the condition of the emigrants. She responded: “O Muhammad! I saw your son-in-law and your daughter.” “In what condition did you see them,” questioned Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She explained: “‘Uthman was taking his wife on a conveyance and goading the conveyance from behind.” Upon this Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicated: “May Allah Ta’ala be their companion! ‘Uthman is the first man to emigrate with his wife after Lut ‘alayh al Salam .”[10]

 

Corroboration from the Shii scholars

The Shia scholars have documented the incident of the emigration to Abyssinia in the following way:

پس یازدہ مرد و چہار زن خفیہ از اہل کفر گریختند و بجناب حبشہ رواں شدند از جملہ آنہا عثمان بود و رقیہ دختر حضرت رسول کہ زن او بود

Eleven men and four women in secret emigrated to Abyssinia from the kuffar of Makkah. Among them was ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan accompanied by his wife, Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah radiya Llahu ‘anha.[11]

 

In the beginning of Islam, the Muslims faced very arduous challenges. The emigration of Abyssinia being one such challenge. Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu with his wife (Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha) being included among the emigrants is an accepted fact. Both Sunni and Shia scholars have documented this clearly in their respective ways. We have presented references from both sides so that both parties can be satisfied.

 

Warning

Some ignoramuses have for no reason raised an objection that in the emigration of Abyssinia, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not accompanied by Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha but rather by Sayyidah Ramlah bint Shaibah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

To answer this objection, it is sufficient to mention that the place where this objection was taken from possesses the answer i.e. the ‘ulama’ have strongly rejected that narration with proofs. This obscure view is matruk (discarded) which opposes authentic narrations and matruk views are unacceptable. Therefore, the truth is that in the emigration to Abyssinia, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was accompanied by his wife, Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha, as cited above in the references of both Sunni and Shia scholars.

 

Returning from Abyssinia

After spending a long period in Abyssinia, the emigrants returned to Makkah; Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu accompanied by his wife, Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha, as well. Meanwhile, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had already made hijrah from Makkah to Madinah Munawwarah. Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu prepared for the emigration and accompanied by his wife (Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha) emigrated to Madinah.

و الذى عليه اهل السير ان عثمان رجع الى مكة من حبشة مع من رجع ثم هاجر باهله الى المدينة

The historians are of the opinion that ‘Uthman returned to Makkah from Abyssinia with those who returned. He then emigrated with his family to Madinah.[12]

 

The Honour of Emigrating Twice

Worthy to mention is that Allah Ta’ala favoured Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his wife with emigrating twice in the path of Allah for the sake of din, once to Abyssinia and then to Madinah. To emigrate twice is a magnificent virtue conferred upon them by Allah. The virtue of emigrating twice is established from the hadith wherein mention is made of the incident of Sayyidah Asma’ bint Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha. Once Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu told Sayyidah Asma’ bint Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha that they preceded her in the emigration from Makkah to Madinah, thus making them more rightful of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Hearing this, Sayyidah Asma’ bint Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha was enraged and went to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to complain about what Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu said. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam consoled her by proclaiming:

و له و لاصحابه هجرة واحدة و لكم انتم اهل السفينة هجرتان

He and his companion have one emigration, whereas you — O people of the ship[13] — have two emigrations (double rewards).[14]

 

The Children of Sayyidah Ruqayyah

و كانت قد اسقطت من عثمان سقطا ثم ولدت بعد ذلك عبد الله و كان عثمان يكنى به فى الاسلام و بلغ سنين فنقره ديك فى وجهه فمات و لم تلد له شيئا بعد ذلك

The ‘ulama’ write that she miscarried an undeveloped fetus of ‘Uthman in Abyssinia. She then gave birth to a son who was named ‘Abdullah. Through him, the agnomen of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu became Abu ‘Abdullah. (And with his parents, the grandson of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came to Madinah.) When ‘Abdullah was approximately six years of age, a cock pecked him in the eye thus injuring him which caused his face to swell up. It did not heal and he passed away in this condition. (He passed away in Madinah after his mother in Jumad al Ula 4 A.H.) She did not have any other children after this.[15]

 

The Shia scholars have written regarding the son of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, ‘Abdullah, born from Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha in similar words:

Ni’mat Allah al Jaza’iri — a Shia mujtahid — writes:

فولدت له عبد الله و مات صغيرا نقره ديك على عينيه فمرض و مات

She bore for him ‘Abdullah who passed away in infancy. A cock injured him with its beak in his eye through which he fell ill and passed away.[16]

 

The famous Shia historian al Mas’udi has clarified:

و كان له من الولد عبد الله الاكبر و عبد الله الاصغر امها رقية بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله

‘Uthman had two sons from Sayyidah Ruqayyah. The first son was called ‘Abdullah al Akbar and the second ‘Abdullah al Asghar.[17]

 

The Janazah and burial of Abdullah

Al Baladhuri and other scholars have written that when ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma passed away, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was extremely grieved.

و اما عبد الله بن عثمان فان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم وضعه فى حجره و دمعت عليه عينه و قال انما يرحم الله من عباده الرحماء

Regarding ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Uthman, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam picked him up and placed him in his lap. With tears flowing from his eyes he commented: “Indeed, Allah Ta’ala shows mercy upon His compassionate servants.”[18]

 

و صلى عليه رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و نزل عثمان فى حضرته

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam performed the Salat al Janazah upon him and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu descended into the grave.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam participated in these sorrowful moments. He issued guidelines regarding his grandchild and accordingly all arrangements were made.

Man has a natural bond with his offspring. Whenever a calamity befalls them, he is worried. This phase can only be crossed with perseverance and calmness which was displayed here.

 

Sayyidah Umm ‘Ayyash

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had a servant by the name Sayyidah Umm ‘Ayyash radiya Llahu ‘anha who would be at his service and take care of household chores. Sayyidah Umm ‘Ayyash says:

قالت كنت اوضى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و انا قائمة و هو قاعد (اخرجها الثلاثة)

I would pour water for the wudu’ of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam while standing and he was sitting.[19]

 

Regarding Sayyidah Umm ‘Ayyash, narrations mention that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave her as a gift to Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Sayyidah Umm ‘Ayyash would live at Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu place to serve Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha. It was a very kind action of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to specially gift a servant to Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha to make her household chores easy.

بعثها مع ابنته الى عثمان

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent her with his daughter to ‘Uthman.[20]

 

A Gift from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had a servant by the name Sayyidina Usamah ibn Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhuma who was the son of Sayyidina Zaid ibn Harithah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and reckoned among the distinct attendants of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

عن اسامة بن زيد قال بعثنى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بصحفة فيها لحم الى عثمان فدخلت عليه فاذا هو جالس مع رقية ما رايت زوجا احسن منها (اخرجه البغوى فى معجمه)

Sayyidina Usamah radiya Llahu ‘anhu says: “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam once sent me with a plate of meat to ‘Uthman. When I entered his place, he was sitting with Ruqayyah. I have never seen a couple more beautiful than them.[21]

 

A Gift from Sayyidina ‘Uthman

و قال ليث بن ابى سليم اول من خبص الخبيص عثمان خلط بين العسل و النقى ثم بعث به الى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم الى منزل ام سلمة فلم يصادفه فلما جاء وضعوه بين يديه فقال من بعث هذا قالوا عثمان قالت فرفع يديه الى السماء فقال اللهم ان عثمان يترضاك فارض عنه

Layth ibn Abi Sulaim says: “The first person to prepare Khabis[22] was Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu who mixed honey and naqi. He then sent it to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at the residence of Sayyidah Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was not home at that time. When he came home, Sayyidah Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha placed it in front of him. He enquired as to who had sent it. The reply was ‘Uthman. Sayyidah Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anhu says: ‘He lifted his hands to the sky and prayed, O Allah! ‘Uthman wishes to please You so be pleased with him.’”[23]

 

Gifting a servant and sharing gifts clearly show the amount of love, kindness and affection Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam displayed to his daughter Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and his son-in-law. This relationship remained strong right till the end.

 

Sayyidah Ruqayyah’s Service to Her Husband

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would visit his daughter at her home and would enquire about her condition.

ان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم دخل على ابنته و هى تغسل راس عثمان

Once Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went to her house while she was washing the head of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[24]

 

يا بنية احسنى الى ابى عبد الله فانه اشبه اصحابى بى خلقا (طب عن عبد الرحمن بن عثمان القرشى)

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advised her: “O my daughter! Treat Abu ‘Abdullah well, for he resembles me in character the most.”

 

We learn from here the deep affection and love Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had for his daughter, that he would visit her often. Moreover, we see the harmony between the spouses and the service she offered to her husband which is a teaching of Islam that the wife should serve the husband well. We also realise the strong bond Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had with Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu declaring in his favour that he resembles him the most in character. This is a great compliment in Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu favour on the tongue of nubuwwah.

 

The Sickness of Sayyidah Ruqayyah

While living in Madinah Tayyibah, the Battle of Badr took place in the second year of hijrah where Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam participated in person. Meanwhile, Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam daughter Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha suddenly fell ill. The ‘ulama’ explain that she had measles. On the other hand, preparations were being made for the Battle of Badr. The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were prepared to join Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the Battle of Badr. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to remain in Madinah to take care of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also commanded his servant Sayyidina Usamah ibn Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhuma to remain behind in Madinah to assist.

Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu had the burning desire to have attained the honour of participating in the Battle of Badr. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam consoled him by declaring:

ان لك اجر رجل ممن شهد بدرا و سهمه

Certainly, you will receive the reward of a participant of Badr and a share of booty.[25]

 

Sayyidina ‘Uthman Receiving an Equal Share as the Participants of Badr

The scholars write that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prevented Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu from participating in Badr, hence Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu stayed behind to take care of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha under the instruction of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was then awarded with a share from the spoils of Badr just as the other mujahidin. Regarding the reward of participating in Badr, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam emphatically stated that Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is an equal partner in the reward as if the reward for taking care of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was equated with jihad. This is a high merit for Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha on the tongue of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that serving her is equal to participating in the Battle of Badr. This is solely the honour of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha from the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Hafiz Nur al Din al Haythami rahimahu Llah has written in Majma’ al Zawa’id:

و تخلف عن بدر عليها باذن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و ضرب له رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم سهمان اهل بدر و قال و اجرى يا رسول الله قال و اجرك

‘Uthman remained behind from Badr in compliance with the instruction of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (for he was ordered to serve Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha). Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then apportioned for him a share equal to the share of the participants of Badr. When ‘Uthman enquired as to his reward, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam proclaimed: “Your reward is also equal to them!”[26]

 

This subject has been discussed by many authors. Whoever desires to research this topic further may refer to the following references.

  1. Usd al Ghabah vol. 5 pg. 456 – Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha
  2. Al Bidayah vol. 5 pg. 308, 309 – The section concerning the children of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam
  3. Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 3 pg. 347 – The section mentioning some events
  4. Kanz al ‘Ummal vol. 6 pg. 382 narration 5903 – The virtues of Dhu al Nurayn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu
 

Corroboration from the Shiah

The Shia scholars have written about this subject in a similar way. They have given further detail as well. For the benefit of the scholars, the text of the Shia historian al Mas’udi is presented verbatim:

و ضرب لثمانية نفر باسهمهم لم يشهدوا القتال و هم عثمان بن عفان تخلف عن بدر لمرض رقية بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله فضرب له بسهمه فقال يا رسول الله و اجرى قال و اجرك

Eight individuals were unable to participate in the battle but were nevertheless rewarded with an equal share of booty by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. One of them was ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, who could not participate due to the illness of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam apportioned for him an equal share. He asked: “O Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ! And my reward?” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied: “You will get your reward.”[27]

 

Warning

Some people shut their eyes and object against Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he did not participate in the Battle of Badr, hence he is deprived of the virtues of Badr. The above narration has clarified that Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu could not join due to serving the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha. This was in accordance to the instruction of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Notwithstanding him not participating, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam reckoned him equal in reward and in the shares of booty. Hence, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is not deprived from the virtues and rewards of Badr.

If you wish to understand this discussion better, then observe the following event. In the Battle of Tabuk — the virtues of which have been announced by the Qur’an and Sunnah — Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu could not participate and remained behind in Madinah. Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu remaining behind in Madinah and not joining the Battle of Tabuk was in compliance to the instruction of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. In the exact same way, the non-participation of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in the Battle of Badr is the same. In short, just as how Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is free from blame in Tabuk, Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu is exempt from objection here.

 

The Demise of Sayyidah Ruqayyah

The Battle of Badr took place in Ramadan 2 A.H where Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam together with his Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were on the battlefield while on the other hand, the sickness of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha intensified and in the absence of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam she passed away. Preparations for her shrouding and burial were made under the supervision and orders of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The books of hadith and sirah have related that when Sayyidina Zaid ibn Harithah and Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn Rawahah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma reached Madinah with the glad tidings of victory at Badr, those who buried Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha were dusting their hands after her burial.

 

The Date of Demise

The scholars explain that 17 months after the hijrah to Madinah, Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha passed away.[28] Other scholars are of the opinion that she passed away one year and ten months after the hijrah[29]. To Allah do we belong and unto Him shall we return.

 

The Prohibition of Complaining and Wailing

After a few days, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam reached Madinah Tayyibah and went to the grave of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha at Jannat al Baqi’. Due to the coming of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, many women gathered.

و بكت النساء على رقية فجعل عمر ينهاهن يضربن فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم مه يا عمرقال ثم قال اياكن و نعيق الشيطين فانه مهما يكون من العين و القلب فمن الرحمة و ما يكون من اللسان و اليد فمن الشيطان

They began crying over Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha. When the cries of the women intensified, Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu forbade them. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Enough ‘Umar!” He then stated: “Beware of satanic cries. When it is from the eyes and heart then it is mercy. But when it is (wailing) from the tongue and (rage) from the hands then it is from shaitan.”[30]

 

Sayyidah Fatimah Weeping Upon the Death of Sayyidah Ruqayyah

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha accompanied her father to the grave of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

قال و جعلت فاطمة رضى الله عنها تبكى على شفير قبر رقية فجعل رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يمسح الدموع وجهها باليد او قال بالثوب

Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha began crying at the side of Sayyidah Ruqayyah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha grave. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam began wiping the tears from the face of Sayyidah Fatimah al Zahra radiya Llahu ‘anha with his hands or clothes. He consoled her and advised her to be patient.[31]

 

A Special Address

At the demise of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was stricken with grief and sorrow and extremely perturbed. One main reason for this was that she passed away in his absence and he was not present in those last moments and did not participate in her shrouding and burial. When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam returned to Madinah, he visited the grave of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and expressed words of regret to his beloved daughter.

الحقى بسلفنا عثمان بن مظعون

[O Ruqayyah!] Join our pious forerunner ‘Uthman ibn Maz’un.[32]

 

A Brief Introduction of Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn Maz’un

Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn Maz’un radiya Llahu ‘anhu is one of the early Muslims and a Sahabi of great authority. He accepted Islam after thirteen individuals, and had the virtue and honour of participating in the emigration to Abyssinia. He is the first among the Muhajirin to pass away in Madinah Tayyibah and to be buried in Jannat al Baqi’. When he left this world, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was extremely grieved and cried profusely. In this state, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam kissed Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn Maz’un radiya Llahu ‘anhu. For this reason, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam referred to Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn Maz’un as his pious forerunner.[33]

 

Corroboration from the Shiah

The events around the demise of Sayyidah Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah radiya Llahu ‘anha just as they have been briefly recorded in the books of the ‘ulama’ of the Ahlus Sunnah, the Shia scholars have narrated these events with a direct link from their leaders. Thus, from their canonical works, Furu’ al KafiKitab al Jana’iz, the chapter regarding questioning in the grave – we will reproduce some texts which will elucidate the lofty status that Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha enjoyed in the sight of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and enlighten the readers of the deep connection and love Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha had with her sister.

The Shia scholars write:

قال لما مات رقية ابنة رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله و سلم قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله الحقى بسلفنا الصالح عثمان بن مظعون و اصحابه قال و فاطمة عليها السلام على شفير القبر تبحذر دموعها فى القبر و رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله يتلقاه بثوبه قائم يدعو قال انى لاعرف ضعفها و سالت الله عز و جل ان يجيرها من ضمة القبر

When Sayyidah Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah radiya Llahu ‘anha passed away, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam addressed Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha: “O Ruqayyah! Join our pious forerunner ‘Uthman ibn Maz’un and his comrades.” Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha stood at the side of the grave while her tears fell into her grave. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wiped her tears with his clothes and stated: “I know fully well her weakness. I thus asked Allah Ta’ala to protect her from the torment of the grave.”[34]

 

At another place in this book, Furu’ al Kafi, a narration has been reported from Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah:

وقف رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله على قبرها رفع راسه الى السماء فدمعت عيناه و قال للناس انى ذكرت هذه و ما لقيت فرققت لها و استوهبتها من ضمة القبر قال فقال اللهم هب لى رقية من ضمة القبر فوهبها الله له

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stopped at her grave. He lifted his gaze towards the skies while tears rolled down his cheeks. He then addressed the people: “I thought of her and the sufferings she bore. I felt pity for her and beseeched for her to be saved from the torment of the grave.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicated: “O Allah! Spare Ruqayyah from the torment of the grave.” Thus, Allah spared her.[35]

 

These are few narrations documented by the early Shia scholars. A few narrations from the later Shia scholars will be written so that everyone is rest assured that these virtues of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha have been narrated by all the scholars, former and latter. Although, some ‘mourners’ fail to see this.

Sheikh ‘Abbas al Qummi is a famous and renowned mujtahid of the fourteenth century. He writes, translating the text of the A’immah:

چوں رقیہ دختر رسول خدا صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ وفات یافت حضرت رسول اورا خطاب نمود کہ ملحق شوبگزشتگان شائستہ عثمان بن مظعون و اصحاب شائستہ او و جناب فاطمہ علیہا السلام بر کنار قبر رقیہ نشستہ بود و آب ازدیدۂ خود اش در قبر می ریخت حضرت رسول صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ آب ازدیدہ نور دیدۂ خود پاک میکردو در کنار قبر ایستادہ بود و دعا میکرد پس فرمود کہ من داستم ضعف و توانانی اورا و از حق تعالی خواستم کہ اورا امان دہدازفشار قبر

When the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Ruqayyah, passed away; Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam addressed her: “O Ruqayyah! Join our pious forerunner ‘Uthman ibn Maz’un and his comrades.” Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha sat at the side of the grave of her sister crying while her tears were falling into the grave.[36] Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stood at the side of the grave and wiped the tears of his beloved Fatimah. He supplicated: “I know about the weakness and frailty of Ruqayyah. I thus asked Allah Ta’ala to protect her from the torment of the grave.”[37]

 

Conclusion

In short, the above mentioned Shia narrations explaining the events around the death of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha, the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, these points are apparent:

  • Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was the biological daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
  • He addressed her by saying that she should join his pious forerunners.
  • Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was present at the burial of her sister.
  • Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicated for Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and those supplications were certainly answered.
 

The Command to Send Salutations on Sayyidah Ruqayyah

We will now mention another discussion from the Shia elders. The Shia elders have narrated from their leaders that salutations be sent on both the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam viz. Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha. We will reproduce the exact words of these forms of salutations. May Allah Ta’ala guide all the Muslims and grant them correct reliance on and love for the close family and relatives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Amin.

In the renowned book of the four early canonical Shia works Tahdhib al Ahkam, under the section of Tasbihat in Ramadan of Kitab al Salah it is written:

 

اللهم صل على القاسم و الطاهر ابنى نبيك اللهم صل على رقية بنت نبيك و العن من اذى نبيك فيها اللهم صل على ام كلثوم بنت نبيك و العن من اذى نبيك فيها

O Allah! Send salutations upon the two sons of Your Nabi, Qasim and Tahir. O Allah! Send salutations upon Ruqayyah, the daughter of Your Nabi, and curse the one who hurts Your Nabi in respect to her. O Allah! Send salutations on the daughter of Your Nabi, Umm Kulthum, and curse the one who hurts Your Nabi in respect to her.[38] (May Allah Ta’ala protect us!)

 

This salutation is found in scores of their authentic and reliable books. For corroboration, we will reproduce it from another book Tuhfat al ‘Awam so that it becomes clear to the people that these people have been recording these curses religiously from their first four canonical works until Tuhfat al ‘Awam:

 

اللهم صل على القاسم و الطاهر ابنى نبيك اللهم صل على رقية بنت نبيك و العن من اذى نبيك فيها اللهم صل على ام كلثوم بنت نبيك و العن من اذى نبيك فيها

O Allah! Send salutations upon the two sons of Your Nabi Qasim and Tahir. O Allah! Send salutations upon Ruqayyah, the daughter of Your Nabi, and curse the one who hurts Your Nabi in respect of her. O Allah! Send salutations on the daughter of Your Nabi, Umm Kulthum, and curse the one who hurts Your Nabi in respect of her.[39] (May Allah Ta’ala protect us!)

 

Ponder over these words of the above text ‘curse the one who hurts Your Nabi in respect of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha’. Can more pain and harm be caused than by saying that they were not the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ? Every person who hurts these daughters by such painful claims is most definitely the target of this curse.

 

A Synopsis of the Biography of Sayyidah Ruqayyah

  1. Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was born 3 years after Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha.
  2. She was nurtured and reached maturity in the care of her father Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and her mother Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha.
  3. She accepted Islam with her mother Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha and pledged allegiance to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
  4. In her childhood, she was married to ‘Utbah, the son of Abu Lahab. Thereafter, due to his animosity for Islam, she was divorced prior to consummation of the marriage.
  5. Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was then married to Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and the nikah was performed by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in compliance with the command of Allah.
  6. The women of Quraysh praised the beauty of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha.
  7. Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu were favoured with the virtue of hijrah to Abyssinia. They bore hardships in the path of Allah and are counted among the first emigrants who are deserving of being rewarded in the Hereafter.
  8. Meanwhile, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would enquire about them and supplicate for them: “May Allah Ta’ala be their companion.”
  9. After some time, they returned from Abyssinia and emigrated to Madinah, thus attaining the honour of emigrating twice.
  10. Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha had children. ‘Abdullah was born who after a few years passed away in 4 A.H in Madinah Tayyibah. His shrouding, burial, etc. was completed under the supervision of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
  11. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gifted Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha with a slave girl Umm ‘Ayyash radiya Llahu ‘anha.
  12. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would send cooked food to the house of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu would also send food to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as a gift.
  13. Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha would serve her husband. Her father specially advised her in this regard.
  14. Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha fell ill in 2 A.H. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam left to Badr for battle and ordered ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to remain behind to take care of her. Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu received the same reward as the participants of Badr and was awarded with an equal share of booty.
  15. Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu remained behind from Badr just as Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu remained behind from Tabuk.
  16. Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha passed away during this time 17 months after the emigration to Madinah in 2 A.H.
  17. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam visited the grave of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and was accompanied by the women who were then forbidden from wailing and complaining.
  18. Sayyidina Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha came to the grave of her sister and wept.
  19. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam addressed Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha: “Join our pious forerunner, ‘Uthman ibn Maz’un.”
  20. The discussion on sending salutations on Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha (only recorded in the books of the Shia).
 

NEXT⇒ Removing Doubts Regarding Sayyidah Ruqayyah

 

[1]Tarikh al Khamis vol. 1 pg. 274 – Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah radiya Llahu ‘anha

[2]Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 24 – Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Al Isabah vol. 4 pg. 297 – Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Tafsir Ahkam al Qur’an vol. 14 pg. 242 – under the verse, “O Nabi, tell your wives and your daughters” (Surah al Ahzab)

[3]Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 24 – Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam radiya Llahu ‘anha

Tafsir al Qurtubi vol. 14 pg. 242 – (Surah al Ahzab)

Al Isabah vol. 4 pg. 297 – Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam radiya Llahu ‘anha

Tarikh al Khamis vol. 1 pg. 274 – Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam radiya Llahu ‘anha

[4]  At this juncture, we find it necessary to clarify as to which son of Abu Lahab was killed by the beast. Our ‘ulama’ have mentioned the following which will clarify this matter. Hafiz Ibn Hajar al ‘Asqalani rahimahu Llah and other ‘ulama’ have written that on the day of the Conquest of Makkah, ‘Utbah ibn Abi Lahab and his brother Mu’attab ibn Abi Lahab ran away from Makkah due to fear and went somewhere else. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam enquired from ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib as to the whereabouts of his nephews who replied that out of fear, they absconded. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered that they be called. Thus, ‘Abbas went in search of them and brought both ‘Utbah and Mu’attab. Both of them came into the presence of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and accepted Islam. It is even recorded that after the Conquest of Makkah, these brothers participated in the Battle of Hunayn and were awarded with booty. ‘Ulama’ also write that these were among those who remained steadfast in the Battle of Hunayn. Thereafter, both of them lived in Makkah..

Al Isabah vol. 2 pg. 448, 449 – ‘Utbah ibn Abi Lahab radiya Llahu ‘anhu

Al Isabah vol. 3 pg. 422, 423 – Mu’attab ibn Abi Lahab radiya Llahu ‘anhu

We learn from this that if the incident of the beast is true (as mentioned by some ‘ulama’) then it happened to ‘Utaybah who died prior to the Conquest of Makkah and did not embrace iman. It is not regarding ‘Utbah. And Allah knows the truth.

Kanz al ‘Ummal vol. 6 pg. 375 – The virtues of Dhu al Nurayn ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

Dhakha’ir al ‘Uqba pg. 162, 163 – Mention of who married Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam radiya Llahu ‘anha

Tarikh Al Khamis vol. 1 pg. 274 – Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam radiya Llahu ‘anha (Tabarani has narrated it in his Mujam)

[6]Kanz al ‘Ummal vol. 6 pg. 379 with reference to Ibn ‘Asakir narration no. 5875 – Chapter regarding the virtues of Dhu al Nurayn ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[7]Tarikh al Khamis vol. 1 pg. 274 – Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam radiya Llahu ‘anha

Dhakha’ir al ‘Uqba pg. 162 – The biography of Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

[8]Tafsir al Qurtubi vol. 14 pg. 242 – (Surah al Ahzab)

[9]Al Bidayah Wa al Nihayah vol. 3 pg. 66 – The chapter of hijrah; who emigrated from Makkah to the land of Abyssinia

Tafsir al Qurtubi vol. 14 pg. 242 – (Surah al Ahzab)

[10]Al Bidayah vol. 3 pg. 66, 67 – The chapter of hijrah; who emigrated from Makkah to the land of Abyssinia

Usd al Ghabah vol. 5 pg. 457 – Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Dhakha’ir al ‘Uqba pg. 63 – Her emigration

Sharh Mawahib al Laduniyyah vol. 3 pg. 198 – Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Tarikh al Khamis vol. 1 pg. 275 – Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam radiya Llahu ‘anha

Kanz al ‘Ummal vol. 6 pg. 381 narration 5885 – The virtues of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[11]Hayat al Qulub vol. 2 pg. 330 ch. 22 – The Emigration to Abyssinia

Al Anwar al No’maniyyah vol. 1 pg. 367 – Nur Mowludi

[12]Al Isabah vol. 4 pg. 298 – Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Majma’ al Zawa’id vol. 9 pg. 217 – The chapter concerning Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Dhakha’ir al ‘Uqba pg. 162 – Mention of who married Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah radiya Llahu ‘anha

[13]  There was a need to board a ship in the emigration to Abyssinia. There was no way to get to Abyssinia in those days without ships. Hence, the emigrants to Abyssinia are also called ‘the people of the ship’.

[14]Muslim vol. 2 pg. 304 – The chapter concerning the virtues of Jafar and Asma’ bint ‘Umays radiya Llahu ‘anhuma

[15]  Tafsir al Qurtubi vol. 14 pg. 242 – (Surah al Ahzab)

Usd al Ghabah vol. 5 pg. 456 – Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 24 – Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Al Bidayah vol. 3 pg. 37 – The section concerning the children of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol. 3 pg. 37 – ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[16]  Al Anwar al No’maniyyah vol. 1 pg. 80 – Nur Murtadwi

Al Anwar al No’maniyyah vol. 1 pg. 367 – Nur Mowludi

[17]  Muruj al Dhahab vol. 2 pg. 341 – ‘Uthman; his lineage and a glimpse into his life and biography

[18]Ansab al Ashraf vol. 1 pg. 401 – The daughters of Rasulullah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Tarikh al Khamis vol. 1 pg. 275 – Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

[19]Usd al Ghabah vol. 5 pg. 607 – Umm ‘Ayyash radiya Llahu ‘anha

[20]Usd al Ghabah vol. 5 pg. 607 – Umm ‘Ayyash radiya Llahu ‘anha

[21]Dhakha’ir al ‘Uqba pg. 162 – Mention of who married Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Kanz al ‘Ummal vol. 6 pg. 380 with reference to Baghawi – The virtues of Dhu al Nurayn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[22]  Some linguistics say it is a type of dish made from dates and butter.

[23]Al Bidayah vol. 7 pg. 212 – The narrations concerning the virtues of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[24]Kanz al ‘Ummal vol. 6 pg. 149 narration 2442 – The virtues of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[25]Bukhari vol. 1 pg. 523 – The virtues of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

Bukhari vol. 1 pg. 442 – The chapter concerning when a leader sends a messenger for his work

Bukhari vol. 2 pg. 582 – Under the commentary of verse 155 of Surah Al ‘Imran.

[26]Majma’ al Zawa’id vol. 9 pg. 217 – The chapter concerning the biography of Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah radiya Llahu ‘anha

[27]Al Tanbih wa al Ashraf pg. 205 – The second year of hijrah

[28]Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 24, 25 – Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Tafsir al Qurtubi vol. 14 pg. 242 – (Surah al Ahzab)

[29]Musnad Abu Dawood Tayalisi pg. 351 – The musnadat of Yusuf ibn Mahran narrating from Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[30]Manhat al Ma’bud fi Tartib Musnad al Tayalisi Abi Dawood vol. 1 pg. 159 – The chapter concerning leeway to cry without wailing and screaming

Dhakha’ir al ‘Uqba pg. 163 – Mention of Ruqayyah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha demise

Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 24 – Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Wafa’ al Wafa’ vol. 3 pg. 895 – The grave of Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah radiya Llahu ‘anha

[31]Manhat al Ma’bud fi Tartib Musnad al Tayalisi Abi Dawood vol. 1 pg. 159 – The chapter concerning leeway to cry without wailing and screaming

Al Sunan al Kubra vo. 4 pg. 71 – Kitab al Jana’iz; the chapter furnishing those narrations which prove the permissibility of crying after death

Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 24 – Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Wafa’ al Wafa’ vol. 3 pg. 895 – The grave of Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah radiya Llahu ‘anha

[32]Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 24 – Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Al Isabah vol. 4 pg. 297 – Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Al Zarqani Sharh Mawahib al Laduniyyah vol. 3 pg. 199 – Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Wafa’ al Wafa’ vol. 3 pg. 894 – The grave of Ruqayyah bint Rasulullah radiya Llahu ‘anha

[33]Al Isabah vol. 2 pg. 457 – Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn Maz’un radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[34]Furu’ al Kafi vol. 1 pg. 133 – Kitab al Jana’iz; the chapter concerning questioning in the grave

[35]Furu’ al Kafi vol. 1 pg. 129 – Kitab al Jana’iz; the chapter concerning questioning in the grave

[36]  A doubt may arise in minds of some that since Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at the demise of Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was at Badr how can the above mentioned events be true? The brief answer to this, as stated by our ‘ulama’, is as follows:

يحمل على انه اتى قبرها بعد ان جاء من بدر

After returning from Badr, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came to the grave of Ruqayyah and these events transpired.

Refer to:

Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 25 – Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Al Isabah vol. 4 pg. 297 – Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Sharh Mawahib al Laduniyyah vol. 3 pg. 199 – Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha

Perhaps this might satisfy the Shia scholars. This is dependent upon their reliability.

[37]Muntaha al Amal vol. 1 pg. 108 sec. 8 – The chapter concerning the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[38]Tahdhib al Ahkam pg. 154 – Kitab al Salah; the tasbihat in Ramadan

[39]Tuhfat al ‘Awam ch. 19 – Blessed month of Ramadan sec. 7 by Haji Hasan ‘Ali Shia

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