Removing Doubts Regarding Sayyidah Zaynab

Mention of the Children of Sayyidah Zaynab
August 27, 2015
The biography of Sayyidah Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah
August 27, 2015

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Removing Doubts Regarding Sayyidah Zainab

We have mentioned a sufficient amount of the biography; virtues, accolades and actions of the biological daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha. If a person with a just gaze looks at this biography, he will safely come to the conclusion that she is the biological daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam whose honoured mother is Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Khadijah bint Khuwaylid radiya Llahu ‘anha. Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha is neither a step daughter nor the niece of Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha, but in fact the true biological daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. If any person turns away from the above facts and doggedly adopts a bias attitude of hatred to the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam by claiming that Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha is a step daughter, then he is rejecting facts of history.

With regards to this discussion, we have previously listed the references of the Ahlus Sunnah in sequence coupled with the references of the Shia of every generation. Now everyone has the opportunity to contemplate and ponder over this discussion.

We will now unearth the reality of the claim of those who wish to establish that Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha is a step daughter. Do they have any worthy proof or are their proofs fallacious? Kindly have a look at what they regard as proofs. Thereafter, the reality of it will be presented. The readers will then come to a conclusion themselves.

 

An Odd View of Some Historians

Some present a report from the history books that among the children of Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha from her previous husband, Abu Halah ibn Malik, were a daughter by the name of Zainab bint Abi Halah and a son by the name of Hind ibn Abi Halah. Due to this report, they opted that Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha is not the biological daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but in fact the child of

the late husband of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha, Abu Halah. The entire claim rests on this report. They have no other proof besides this.

 

Explanations

For the benefit of the readers, a few important points are mentioned here. After understanding them thoroughly, one will, Allah willing, be satisfied regarding this discussion.

  1. This report that Zainab is the daughter of Abu Halah and whose mother is Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha has been documented by some historians like Ibn Hisham. Neither a sanad has been presented for it nor has it been referred to by anyone, e.g. this is the view of a Sahabi or Tabi’i or Taba’ Tabi’i nor has the name of any reliable Muhaddith or historian been recorded. In short, it is unknown whose statement this is. Whoever’s statement this is, it has no sanad which holds absolutely no weight.
  2. Whoever has recorded this view from the historian Ibn Hisham, none of them have presented a sanad nor has anyone correctly attributed it to anyone.
  3. A point to consider is that scores of Muhaddithin, historians and geologists have listed the children of the previous husbands of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha but none of them have listed Zainab as one of them. This is strong evidence that Abu Halah had no daughter by the name of Zainab from Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Otherwise, the scholars would have definitely recorded it. We will now present references of these scholars from their books to satisfy the readers. We will firstly present references of the Ahlus Sunnah ‘ulama’ followed by the statements of Shia authors and Shia mujtahidin to substantiate it.
 

References

This discussion appears in Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d in these words:

فولدت خديجة لابى هالة رجلا يقال هند و هالة رجل ايضا ثم خلف عليها بعد ابى هالة عتيق بن عائذ بن عبد الله

Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha gave birth to a son for Abu Halah by the name of Hind and Halah was another son. After Abu Halah, she got married to ‘Atiq ibn ‘A’idh ibn Abdullah.[1]

 

و اخوة ولد رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لامهم هند بن عتيق بن عائذ بن عبد الله و هند بن ابى هالة و نباش بن زرارة و هالة بنت ابى هالة

The uterine siblings of the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are Hind ibn ‘Atiq ibn ‘A’idh ibn Abdullah, Hind ibn Abi Halah, Nabbash ibn Zurarah and Halah bint Abi Halah.[2]

There is no mention of a daughter by the name of Zainab.

 

We will only list the references hereunder, because reproducing the text takes too much of time. All of these references have the same subject matter.

  1. Kitab al Muhabbar pg. 78 – The wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam
  2. Kitab al Muhabbar pg. 452 – The names of the women who married three or more men
  3. Al Ma’arif pg. 58, 59 – The lineage of Sayyidina Muhammad ibn Abdullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam
  4. Kitab Ansab al Ashraf vol. 1 pg. 406, 407
  5. Jamharat Ansab al ‘Arab pg. 142, 143
  6. Al Sunan al Kubra vo. 7 pg. 71 – Kitab al Nikah, the names of the wives and daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam
  7. Majma’ al Zawa’id vol. 9 pg. 219 – The virtues of Khadijah bint Khuwaylid radiya Llahu ‘anha
  8. Al Isti’ab with al Isabah vol. 3 pg. 568 – Hind ibn Abi Halah
  9. Al Rowd al Unf vol. 1 pg. 124 – The marriage of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to Khadijah
  10. Usd al Ghabah vol. 5 pg. 434 – Khadijah Umm al Muʾminin radiya Llahu ‘anha
  11. Al Bidayah vol. 5 pg. 293, 294 – The wives and children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam
  12. Al Isabah vol. 4 pg. 410 – Hind ibn ‘Atiq
  13. Sirah Halabiyyah vol. 1 pg. 167 – The marriage of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to Khadijah
 

The above authors have listed the names of the children of Abu Halah and ‘Atiq from Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. However, none of them have listed a daughter by the name of Zainab anywhere. Therefore, Ibn Hisham is the only person to list Zainab as one of the daughters of the previous husbands.

 

Shia References

Some references of the Shia scholars and Mujtahidin will be written so that this discussion becomes explicitly clear in front of all and everyone can consider.

1. ‘Ali ibn ‘Isa Arbili has written under the virtues of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha in vol. 2 of Kashf al Ghummah:

كانت خديجة قبل ان يتزوج بها رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله عند عتيق بن عائذ بن عبد الله بن عمرو بن مخزوم يقال ولدت له جارية و هى ام محمد بن صيفى المخزومى ثم خلف عليها بعد عتيق ابو هالة هند بن زرارة التميمى فولدت له هند بن هند ثم تزوجها رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم

Before Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married Khadijah, she was married to ‘Atiq ibn ‘A’idh ibn Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn Makhzum. It is said that she gave birth to a daughter for him who is the mother of Muhammad ibn Saifi al Makhzumi. After ‘Atiq, she got married to Abu Halah Hind ibn Zurarah al Tamimi. She bore for him Hind ibn Hind. Then, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married her.[3]

 

2. Sheikh Ni’mat Allah al Jaza’iri in vol. 1 of al Anwar al No’maniyyah under Nur Mowludi has written:

فاول امراة تزوجها خديجة بنت خويلد و كانت قبله عند عتيق بن عائذ المخزومى فولدت له جارية ثم تزوجها رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله و ربى ابنها هندا

The first woman he (Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) got married to was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid. Previously she was married to ‘Atiq ibn ‘A’idh al Makhzumi. She bore a daughter for him. Then Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married her and nurtured her son Hind.[4]

 

3. Mulla Baqir al Majlisi has mentioned in vol. 3 chapter 52 of Hayat al Qulub:

و پیش از انکہ حضرت او تزویج نماید عتیق بن عائذ مخزومی اورا تزویج کردہ بود و از او دختر بہم رسانید و بعد از او ابو ہالہ اسدی اورا خواستگاری نمود و ہند پسر اورا تربیت نمود

Prior to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam marrying her, she was married to ‘Atiq ibn ‘A’idh al Makhzumi. She bore a daughter for him. She then married Abu Halah Asadi. She bore for him Hind ibn Abi Halah. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then married her and nurtured her son Hind.[5]

 

4. Sheikh ‘Abbas al Qummi has written in vol. 1 ch. 8 of his book Muntaha al Amal:

و آں مخدرہ دختر خویلد بن اسد بن عبد العزی بودہ و نخست زوجہ عتیق بن عائذ المخزومی بود و فرزندے ازاو آورد کہ جاریہ نام داشت و از پس عتیق زوجہ ابو ہالہ بنی منذر الاسدی گشت و ازو ہند بن ہالہ را آورد

She was the daughter of Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn ‘Abdul ‘Uzza. Her first husband was ‘Atiq ibn ‘A’idh al Makhzumi. She had a child whose name was Jariyah. After ‘Atiq, she married Abu Halah ibn Mundhir al Asadi and bore Hind ibn Abi Halah for him.[6]

 

The synopsis of the above Shia references is that a daughter was born for the first husband of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha ‘Atiq by the name of Jariyah. She has also been known as Umm Muhammad ibn Saifi. After ‘Atiq, Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha married Abu Halah. She had a son from him by the name of Hind ibn Abi Halah. Then Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

None of these Shia have recorded any daughter by the name of Zainab from the previous husbands of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Hence, we know that whoever wrote that Zainab is the daughter of Abu Halah has opposed the consensus of the Ahlus Sunnah and Shia ‘ulama’ and mentioned his own odd view and on top of that not recorded any sanad thereof. It is evident that odd views are not accepted. In the terminology of the ‘ulama’ it will be stated:

هذا قول شاذ لا يتابع عليه

This statement of Ibn Hisham is obscure and odd. No support is found for it.

 

Therefore, the general ‘ulama’ (Muhaddithin, historians and geologists) have not mentioned it. Hence, such an odd view can never be accepted because of the rule:

الثقة اذا شذ لا يقبل ما شذ فيه

If a reliable narrator mentions an odd view, his odd view is not accepted.[7]

 

Eliminating a Confusion

Those who oppose the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam have created many doubts amongst Muslims. One doubt regarding the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha, is that in the time of nubuwwah, there were many women with the name Zainab one of them being the daughter of Umm al Mu’minin Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha from her previous husband Abu Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. When the ‘ulama’ mentioned her, they referred to her as the step daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This daughter of Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha was Zainab who was reared in the house of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Hence, she is known as the step child of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Simply due to this similarity in name, the objectors relate her to the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha, by saying that Zainab is the step daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ; whereas Sayyidah Zainab’s radiya Llahu ‘anha mother is Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha and from the offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the step child’s mother is Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha and her father is Abu Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

If you wish to verify this, refer to the book of Hafiz Ibn Hajar al ‘Asqalani rahimahu Llah Al Isabah.[8] Ibn Athir al Jazari rahimahu Llah has elucidated further on this point that the step daughter, Zainab’s radiya Llahu ‘anha husband’s name was Abdullah ibn Zama’ah.[9] It is well known that the husband of the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha, was Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[10]

By studying these texts, the heart will be at rest and the doubt raised by the objectors due to the similarity of names will be totally obliterated. For further satisfaction, read the ‘reliable’ book of the Shia scholar Tanqih al Maqal vol. 3 regarding Zainab bint Abi Salamah where the biography of Zainab bint Abi Salamah has been clearly documented i.e. her mother’s name was Umm Salamah and her father’s name was Abu Salamah and her original name was Barrah which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam changed to Zainab. When Umm Salamah emigrated to Habshah (with her husband Abu Salamah) this daughter Zainab was born there. She then came with her mother to Madinah Munawwarah. She was a great faqihah of the women of her time and a renowned intelligent woman with regards to laws of jurisprudence. She is titled Hasanah al Hal

These are the statements of the Shia scholars. Have a look at the original text of al Mamaqani so that you attain the highest level of conviction and the matter is settled upon by both sects.

 

زينب بنت ابى سلمة عدها الشيخ الطوسى فى رجاله و ابن عبد البر و ابن مندة و ابو نعيم من صحابة رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و هى على ما صرحوا به زينب بنت ابى سلمة بن عبد الاسد القريشية المخزومية و هى ربيبة رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و امها ام سلمة زوجة النبى صلى الله عليه و سلم كان اسمها برة فسماها رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم زينب ولدتها امها بارض الحبشة حين هاجرت اليها مع زوجها و قدمت بها معها و قد قيل انها كانت من افقه زمانها و انى اعبرها حسنة الحال

Zainab bint Abi Salamah – Sheikh al Tusi in his book , Ibn ‘Abdul Barr, Ibn Mandah and Abu Nuaim have listed her amongst the companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She is, as they have explicitly mentioned, Zainab bint Abi Salamah ibn ‘Abdul Asad al Qurashiyyah al Makhzumiyyah. She is the step daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and her mother is Umm Salamah the wife of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Her name was Barrah. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam named her Zainab. Her mother gave birth to her in the land of Habshah when she emigrated there with her husband and came with her to Madinah. It is said that she was amongst the most learned of her time and I give her the title Hasanah al Hal.[11]

 

The readers know fully well that we have removed this doubt in the book Ruhama’ Baynahum (vol. 1 Siddiqi section, pg. 167) but we have reproduced it here in the biography of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha due to its connection. We have established from the books of both parties Sunni and Shia that Zainab the daughter of Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha is another personality whose husband’s name was Abdullah ibn Zama’ah and that Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is another personality whose mother’s name is Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha and whose husband’s name is Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

اگر درخانہ کس است ہمیں گفتہ بس است

If there is a person in the house, then sufficient is our speech.

 

The biography of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha terminates here. Hereafter, the biography of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha will be mentioned, Allah willing.

 

NEXT⇒ The biography of Sayyidah Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah


[1]Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 8 – Naming the Muslim women emigrants

[2]Kitab Nasab Quraysh pg. 22 – The children of Abdullah ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib

[3]Kashf al Ghummah fi Ma’rifat al A’immah vol. 2 pg. 76 with translation of al Manaqib (Persian) – The chapter of the virtues of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha

[4]Al Anwar al No’maniyyah vol. 1 pg. 367 – Nur Mowludi; the biography of Khadijah bint Khuwaylid radiya Llahu ‘anha

[5]Hayat al Qulub vol. 2 pg. 728 ch. 52 – The wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[6]Muntaha Al Amal vol. 1 pg. 45 sec. 8 – The incidents and events of the blessed life of the seal of Prophets

[7]Mirqat Sharh Mishkat vol. 6 pg. 328 – The chapter of ‘iddah, section one under the narrations of Fatimah’s bint Qais radiya Llahu ‘anha

[8]Al Isabah vol. 4 pg. 210 – Zainab bint Abi Salamah

Usd al Ghabah vol. 5 pg. 468 – Zainab bint Abi Salamah

[9]Usd al Ghabah vol. 5 pg. 469

[10]Ansab al Ashraf vol. 1 pg. 430

Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 338 – Zainab bint Abi Salamah

[11]Tanqih al Maqal vol. 3 pg. 78 – Zainab bint Abi Salamah, section 7, 10, 11 of women

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