The Biography of Sayyidah Zaynab bint Rasulillah

The Four Daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam
August 27, 2015
Mention of the Children of Sayyidah Zaynab
August 27, 2015

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The Biography of Sayyidah Zainab bint Rasulillah

 

The eldest daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha whose honoured mother was Sayyidah Khadijah bint Khuwaylid ibn Asad radiya Llahu ‘anha.

 

Blessed Birth

The marriage of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha was in accordance with the custom prevalent before the advent of Islam. According to the report of some historians, after five years of this blessed marriage Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was born when the blessed age of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam closed in on thirty. At the advent of Islam, the age of Sayyidah Zainab reached about 10 years. After the proclamation of nubuwwah, firstly Khadijah was honoured with Islam coupled with the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Naturally, the mother has an effect on the thoughts and preferences of children. Accordingly, all the daughters being honoured with Islam is manifest and in accordance to the principles of nature.

The ‘ulamaʼ state that Sayyidah Zainab lived up to the era of Islam and accepted the faith, and when the time to migrate came, she migrated. The incident of her migration will come further on. The natural attachment one has with one’s elder children is well known. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would display special love to his eldest daughter. This has been recorded by Ibn ‘Abdul Barr which also appears in the book of Muhib al Tabari Dhakha’ir al ‘Uqba. Al Sheikh Hussain Dayyar al Kubra writes in Tarikh al Khamis:

عبيد الله بن محمد بن سليمان الهاشمى يقول ولدت زينب بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فى سنة ثلاثين من مولد النبى صلى الله عليه و سلم و ادركت الاسلام و اسلمت و هاجرت و كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم محبا فيها

‘Ubaidullah ibn Muhammmad ibn Sulaiman al Hashimi relates: “Zainab bint Rasulillah was born thirty years after the birth of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She lived until the era of Islam, accepted the faith and migrated.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used to love her dearly.”[1]

 

The Narration Regarding the Marriage of Sayyidah Zainab

عن عائشة رضى الله عنها قالت كان ابو العاص بن ربيع من رجال مكة المعدودين مالا و تجارة و امانة فقالت خديجة لرسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم زوجه و كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لا يخالفها و ذلك قبل ان ينزل عليه الوحى فزوجه زينب فلما اكرم الله نبيه صلى الله عليه و سلم بنبوته امنت خديجة و بناته

Some narrations are related from Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha who says: “Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’[2] (ibn ‘Abdul ‘Uzza ibn ‘Abdul Shams ibn ‘Abd Manaf)[3]was considered to be among the affluent businessmen of Makkah. He was an honest person. Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha requested Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to marry Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha to Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would not oppose Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha in any matter, but instead would accept her opinion. So accordingly Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was married to Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu. (According to this narration, this marriage was contracted prior to nubuwwah.) When Allah Ta’ala commanded Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to proclaim his nubuwwah, Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha accepted iman coupled with her daughters.[4]

 

The Services of Sayyidah Zainab in the Initial Stages of Nubuwwah

When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam began inviting the people to din and called the Quraysh towards Islam, they were extremely angered. They were not at all prepared to listen to the call of Islam and were at the forefront in harming Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Accordingly, an incident of this era is narrated in the hadith from which the services of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha become manifest.

‘Allamah al Haythami with reference to Tabarani narrates the words of Harith ibn al Harith:

 

My father and I once reached Makkah. People were surrounding a man who they were calling sabi (one who has renounced his faith). This man was Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who was inviting the people towards the oneness and belief in Allah. However, the people were belying Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and were trying to harm him. This continued until noon when the people dispersed from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Then a young girl came who (out of concern and worry) threw her scarf behind her. She was carrying a large bowl of water and a scarf. She presented this to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam drank the water and wiped his face. He then lifted his gaze and said: “My beloved daughter! Place your scarf over your chest and do not fear destruction for your father in these circumstances. (Allah Ta’ala is the protector and helper.)” We asked: “Who is this girl?” to which the people replied: “This is the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Zainab.” (Narrated by Tabarani with reliable narrators.)[5]

 

Regarding this portion of the incident, plenty narrations appear in the ahadith. The original text of one authentic narration is presented for the benefit of the scholars.

عن الحارث بن الحارث قال قلت لابى ما هذه الجماعة قال هؤلاء القوم الذين اجتمعوا على صابى لهم قال فنزلنا فاذا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يدعوا الناس الى توحيد الله عز و جل و الايمان و هم يردون عليه و يؤذونه حتى انتصف النهار و انصرع الناس عنه اقبلت امراة قد بدا نحرها تحمل قدحا و منذيلا فتناوله منها فشرب و توضا ثم رفع راسه فقال يا بنيه خمرى عليك نحرك و لا تخافين على ابيك قلنا من هذه قالوا هذه زينب بنته

The following points are deduced from this incident:

Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha always remained busy in helping her beloved father in the hardships and difficulties of the initial stages of Islam and according to her capacity lent her full service. At that stage, to help Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam even a little was a mammoth task. In fact, it was synonymous to throwing oneself into destruction. In those most challenging stages, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lovingly consoles his beloved against the fears of his destruction that we should not dread or fear, for Allah is our protector and helper. The enemies of din cannot harm us in anyway.

Just as this era was the most arduous for the last Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, it was just as tough for his children and beloved daughters. Those innocent pure souls remaining diligent in supporting the truth in trying situations and continuing to aid in the problematic stage of Islam is a lofty paragon of their religious status and practical assistance which is a thing of great envy for all the Muslim women of the ummah and an example to follow.

It should be noted that an incident similar to this has been related by the Muhaddithin regarding Sayyidah Fatimah al Zahra radiya Llahu ‘anha which will be mentioned in her biography, Allah willing.

 

The Sincere Services of Abu Al ‘As During the Boycott (as mentioned in Shia books)

The scholars of history have written among the incidents that took place in the Shi’ab (valley) of Abi Talib:

و ابو العاص بن ربیع کہ داماد رسول بود بر در شعب شتر مے آورد کہ گندم و خرما بر آنہا بار کردہ بود و صدا میزد برآں شتراں کہ داخل درہ میشدند و برمے گشتند لہذا حضرت فرمود کہ ابو العاص حق دامادی مارا نیکو رعایت

Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’, the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, at the time of poverty and wont of the people ostracised in the valley, would bring camel loads of wheat and dates to help and assist them. He would call out and leave the supplies at the entrance of the valley so that it could enter the valley and would then return from there. In this manner, Abu al ‘As would help the ostracised people and would arrange for food to be delivered to them. For this very reason, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would remark: “Abu al ‘As has duly considered our in-law relationship and has fulfilled its right.”[6]

 

Numerous Shia scholars have narrated this incident in their writings. Hereunder, the original text of this incident is presented from the book Hayat al Qulub of Mulla Baqir al Majlisi, Sheikh ‘Abbas al Qummi has also related this incident:

و از کسا نیکہ گا ہے براۓآنہا خوردنی مے فرستاد ابو العاص بن ربیع داماد پیغمبر صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم و ہشام بن عمرو و حکیم بن حزام بن خویلد برادر زادہ خدیجہ بود

و نقل شدہ کہ ابو العاص شتران از گندم و خرما حمل دادہ بشعب مے برد و رہا مے کرد و ازیجنا است کہ حضرت پیغمبر صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ فرمودہ کہ ابو العاص حق دامادی ما بگزاشت

Among the good people who would send food were Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ who was the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Hisham ibn ‘Amr and Hakim ibn Hizam ibn Khuwaylid radiya Llahu ‘anhu the cousin of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. It has been reported that Abu al ‘As would bring camel loads of wheat and dates and leave it by the valley. For this very reason, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would comment, “Abu Al ‘As has fulfilled the responsibility of a son-in-law.

 

Sheikh ‘Abbas al Qummi has in the above quotation clarified that amongst those who arranged for food to be taken to the ostracised people in the valley of Abu Talib was Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ who was the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Hisham ibn ‘Amr and Hakim ibn Hizam ibn Khuwaylid radiya Llahu ‘anhu the cousin of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

To summarise the above, Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu specially assisted Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the other ostracised people of the Banu Hashim in this most challenging time and fulfilled the right of kinship in the most beautiful manner. This is proof of the sincerity and noble habit of Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu and an admirable example of caring and sympathy. This incident is counted among the special feats of Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

The renowned Shia scholar Mulla Baqir al Majlisi has mentioned this subject in his book Mirʾat al ‘Uqul Sharh al Usul vol. 5 pg. 183 under the chapter concerning the birth of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

The Assistance of Hakim ibn Hizam in the Valley of Abu Talib

Ibn Kathir rahimahu Llah has mentioned this in al Bidayah wa al Nihayah (vol. 8 pg. 68) under the chapter of Hakim ibn Hizam in the following words:

كان حكيم (بن حزام) يقبل بالعير يقدم من الشام فيشتريها بكمالها ثم يذهب بها فيضرب ادبارها حتى يلج الشعب يحمل الطعام و الكسوة تكرمة لرسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و لعمته خديجة بنت خويلد

Hakim (ibn Hizam) would approach the caravans coming from Sham and buy the entire caravan. He would then ride them until he entered the valley carrying food and clothes as a form of honouring Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his paternal aunt, Khadijah bint Khuwaylid radiya Llahu ‘anha.

 

The Scheme to Incite Abu al ‘As to Divorce Zainab and his Open Rejection

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went through extremely challenging times in Makkah. All the residents of Makkah and the surrounding areas were averse to Islamic teachings. This populace was not at all prepared to listen and understand the injunctions of tawhid and risalat and harboured deep hatred for the Muslims. The hatred for Islam and the Muslims had reached its peak. In these difficult times, just as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam continued the efforts to spread Islamic teachings and din, he fulfilled social responsibilities in a kind loving way.

According to the prevalent custom of the Arabs, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam got his daughters married in his family and tribe. The Makkans opposed Islam and made it their objective and goal to put obstacles in every step of the way. Even in the matter of marriage, they adopted the path of opposition and made a firm intention to incite those who were married to the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to terminate the marriage and divorce them.

فلما نادى قريشا بامر الله تعالى اتوا ابا العاص بن ربيع فقالوا فارق صاحبتك و نحن نزوجك باي امراة شئت من قريش فقال لا و الله لا افارق صاحبتى و ما يسرنى ان لى بامراتى افضل امراة من قريش

The eldest daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was already married to Sayyidina Abu Al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The leaders of the Quraysh compelled Sayyidina Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu to divorce Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and promised to marry him to whichever woman of the Quraysh he desired. Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied that he will not separate from Zainab and divorce her, and that he does not like nor desire any woman from the Quraysh in lieu of her.[7]

 

The Sincerity of Sayyidina Abu al ‘As to Maintain Family Ties and Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Appreciation of him

Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu at this instance displayed his full steadfastness notwithstanding the coercion extended by the Quraysh to terminate that relation he enjoyed with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Sayyidina Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu is worthy of being congratulated a thousand times, more so when this was his attitude despite having not embraced Islam yet. When the people forced the issue of divorce and separation from his wife, he considered the relationship he enjoyed with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and flatly refused declaring:

فقال لا و الله اذا لا افارق صاحبتى

By Allah! I will never separate from my wife (Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha)![8]

 

At this juncture, the historians write in favour of Abu al ‘As:

و كان ابو العاص بن ربيع مواخيا لرسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم مصافيا له و كان صلى الله عليه و سلم قد شكر مصاهرة و اثنى خيرا حين ابى ان يطلق زنب لما سالته قريش ذلك

This steadfastness of Abu al ‘As is worthy of appreciation. Sayyidina Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu fully appreciated Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and sincerely maintained the family relation he enjoyed with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also expressed his thankfulness and appreciation in sublime words and praised Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu. These statements of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were made at that time when the Quraysh persuaded him to divorce Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha which Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu flatly refused. [9]

 

The Arduous Life of Makkah

When the hatred of the Makkans for the Muslims reached its peak, the command of Allah Ta’ala descended and permission was granted to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Muslims to migrate to Madinah Munawwarah. Accordingly, this migration continued until with the command of Allah, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also made hijrah.

After hijrah, a second phase of Islam began. After reaching Madinah Munawwarah, the Most Beneficent Master gave permission to fight the kuffar. In the Madani period, great battles took place between Islam and kufr, and several battles were fought. One famous battle is known as the Battle of Badr where on one side, the Quraysh — fully prepared — came to Badr to fight the Muslims and on the other side the Muslims under the leadership of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came from Madinah to the battlefield. The details of this battle (Badr) is well known to the general scholars. There is no need to mention them here. Only one incident will be narrated here which deals with Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha.

 

The Episode of the Necklace of Khadijah

When the Muslims were victorious in the Battle of Badr then according to the laws of war, the Muslims imprisoned the defeated kuffar who were according to custom brought to the base of Islam, Madinah. Judgement was passed by the Muslims that a fair ransom be taken from those people who were imprisoned at Badr after which they will be freed. Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu had also been captured at the hands of the Muslims and brought to Madinah and Sayyidina ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib radiya Llahu ‘anhu the paternal uncle of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was also among the captives.

It should be remembered that Sayyidina ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu were such individuals who were forced to come with the kuffar. However, they did not kill any of the Muslims. Nevertheless, they were counted among the enemy. The people of Makkah sent ransoms to Madinah to free their captives. Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha sent her necklace (which was gifted to her by her mother Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha as ransom to free her husband, Abu al ‘As.

عن عائشة قالت لما بعث اهل مكة فى فداء اسرائهم بعثت زينب فى فداء ابى العاص بمال و بعثت فيه بقلادة كانت خديجة ادخلتها بها على ابى العاص حين بنا عليها فلما راها رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم رق لها رقة شديدة و قال ان رايتم ان تطلقوا لها اسيرها و تردوا عليها الذى لها فافعلوا قالوا نعم يا رسول الله فاطلقوه و ردوا عليها الذى لها و كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قد اخذ عليه او وعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ان يخلى زينب اليه[10]

These ransoms were presented to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the ransom of Sayyidina Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu was presented in the form of a necklace. As soon as Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam glance fell on the necklace, he became emotional, for the necklace had refreshed the memories of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. All the people in the gathering were affected by the emotions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam addressed the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum saying that if they wish to free Abu al ‘As and return the necklace of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha which was sent as his ransom, then they are free to do so. The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum acceded to the proposition of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and decided to free Abu al ‘As without any ransom and return the necklace of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then took a vow and promise from Abu al ‘As that as soon as he reaches Makkah, he will grant Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha permission to come to him. Abu al ‘As made this vow. Hence, Abu al ‘As was released without ransom and the necklace of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha was returned to Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha.

 

This episode has been narrated by the great Muhaddithin and famous historians in their own respective ways. Only a few references will be quoted here. Firstly, references of the Ahlus Sunnah have been presented, which will now be followed by the texts of the Shia scholars for corroboration. The Shia scholars write:

ابو العاص در جنگ بدر اسیر شد و زینب قلادہ کہ حضرت خدیجہ باد دادہ بود بنزد حضرت رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم فرستاد براۓ فداۓ شوہر خود چوں حضرت نظرش بر قلادہ افتاد خدیجہ را یا و نمود و رقت کرد و از صحابہ طلب نمود کہ فداۓ اورا بخشند و ابو العاص بے فدا رہا کنند صحابہ چنیں کردند حضرت از ابو العاص شرط گرفت کہ چوں بمکہ بر گرد و زینب را بخدمت آنحضرت فرستد او شرط خود وفا نمود زینب را فرستاد بعد ازاں خود بمدینہ آمد و مسلمان شد

Abu al ‘As was captured in the Battle of Badr. Thus, Zainab sent to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam the necklace given to her by her mother, Sayyidah Khadijah as ransom of her husband (Abu al ‘As). When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saw the necklace, the memories of Khadijah were refreshed, which had an emotional effect on the pure body of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam expressed his wish to the Sahabah to free Abu al ‘As without any ransom. Thus, the Sahabah conformed to this request. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took a pledge from Abu al ‘As that when he goes to Makkah, he will send Zainab to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Madinah Munawwarah which Abu al ‘As fulfilled. When he reached Makkah, he sent Zainab. Thereafter, he himself migrated to Madinah and became a Muslim.[11]

 

In this episode, after taking this pledge, Abu al ‘As was freed coupled with the necklace of Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha being returned.

و بعث رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم زيد بن حارثة و رجلا من انصار فقال كونا ببطن يأجج حتى تمر بكما زينب فتصحباها حتى تأتيا بها

After a few days, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent Zaid ibn Harithah and another Ansari to bring Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha with orders to wait at a certain place in a certain valley. (Some Muhaddithin say that the valley’s name was Ya’jaj.) It was his command that Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha will come to that valley. She will accompany you until you bring her here to Madinah.[12]

 

A Point of Reflection

If a daughter is step, then family connection with her remains until the wife (her mother) is alive. The above episode is long after Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha had passed away. At that time, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had left his homeland already. Now in this situation, the desire for Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha to return and come to Madinah after the demise of her mother is a display of fatherly love and affection. If Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was the daughter of the first husband of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would have never called her to Madinah after conditions have changed.

 

The Incident of the Migration of Sayyidah Zainab and the Attack of Habbar ibn Aswad

When Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu after being set free reached Makkah, he informed Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha about what happened. Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu told Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha that he grants her permission to go happily to her beloved father. Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha began preparations for the migration. When her preparations were complete and the promised days came, Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu left her in the protection of his brother Kinanah ibn Rabi’. Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha mounted the camel. Kinanah took a bow and quiver etc. with him. Kinanah was walking ahead of her pulling the reigns of the camel. Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was on the palanquin on top of the conveyance. In the meanwhile, the people of Makkah were informed that Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha is migrating. (This happened during the day.) When Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha reached the valley of Dhu Tuwa, the Makkans reached there to assault her.

و كان اول من سبق اليها هبار بن الاسود بن المطلب بن اسد بن عبد العزى الفهرى فروعها هبار بالرمح و هى فى الهودج و كانت حاملا فيما يزعمون فطرحت برك حموها كنانة و نثر كنانة ثم قال و الله لا يدنوا منى رجل الا وضعت فيه سهما فتكركر الناس عنه

The first person who began the assault was Habbar ibn Aswad[13] who plunged his spear. Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was in the palanquin and she was with child. The historians explain that Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha fell off the camel onto a rock. Due to the severe blow, blood began to ooze out and she was injured very badly. At this, Kinanah pulled out his quiver and began firing arrows at the opponents shouting: “Whoever comes close will be ripped to pieces with arrows!” They then softened up and fell back.[14]

 

Due to the fierce assault, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha had to return. The people of Makkah could not accept Sayyidah Zainab’s radiya Llahu ‘anha open migration. For this reason, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha paused her advance.

فاقامت ليال حتى اذا هدأت الاصوات خرج بها ليلا حتى اسلمها الى زيد بن حارثة و صاحبه فقدما بها على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم

When the chatter of this incident simmered down, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha left Makkah with her brother-in-law at night. She was delivered to Zaid ibn Harithah and his comrade who were sent for this task from Madinah Munawwarah and who were anticipating her. Thus, they brought her to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and handed over the trust of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with dignity and honour.[15][16]

 

A Special Virtue of Sayyidah Zainab

Similar to how the Muslim men endured great hardships in their journey of hijrah, the Muslim women also underwent severe difficulties in the incident of hijrah. Due to woman being the more sensitive gender and naturally weaker and frailer in comparison to men, they get very worried and fearful in the face of a little harm.

The fearful incidents of the hijrah of the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha, have been narrated above. This noble woman bore all of these adversities only for the cause of din and only because she was the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, she had to undergo grave suffering. Her being stopped during her hijrah and being treated so harshly was only because she was the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Otherwise, she neither made any mistake nor was guilty of any crime. She was at that time not considered the daughter of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha but rather the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, hence she had to suffer those hardships. Nonetheless, when Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha passed through these adversities and bore these difficulties and then finally reached the court of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam exclaimed in favour of his beloved daughter:

هى خير بناتى اصيبت فى

Some narrations have the wording:

هى افضل بناتى اصيبت فى

She is the best of my daughters who suffered the most because of me.[17]

 

This exclamation of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was after the hijrah of Sayyidah Zainab which has been documented by numerous ‘ulamaʼ in their books. We have sufficed on reproducing the quotations of only two authors which is sufficient. Herein, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has proclaimed a great virtue in favour of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha.

In regard to Islam, conviction and iman, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha enjoys a lofty rank, the glad tidings of which have been proclaimed from the station of nubuwwah.

For the benefit of the readers, we would like to clarify this point that this virtue mentioned in favour of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha from the blessed tongue of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is with regards to bearing adversities and undergoing hardships and the great virtue of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha articulated on the tongue of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is with relation to superiority. Often is the case that a father is present and is superior to his son, but due to other factors the son becomes the leader of the people. To be superior is one thing and to be a leader is something else. Both these daughters’ virtue on its place is accepted. There is no need to compare the two. The Arabic proverb is most apt here:

انزلوا الناس على قدر منازلهم

Treat people according to their status

 

Thus, to practice accordingly from every angle is correct.

Furthermore, this explanation may also be extended that the words of virtue in favour of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha mentions a partial virtue attained by her lengthy companionship with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam whereas the words narrated regarding Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha is an encompassing virtue. This daughter of his lived after his demise and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was only survived by her. Therefore, there is no polarity between the two statements. Alla willing, this will be further discussed in the biography of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

 

Caution

At this point, the dialogue between Sayyidina ‘Urwah and Sayyidina Zayn al ‘Abidin which is found is mudraj[18] from some narrators and their own speech. The evidence for this is that in the lifetime of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, deficiency in the right of Fatimah had not been an issue. In fact, this issue only popped up after that blessed era, which was then falsely attributed to the seniors. To recognise the addition of words in a narration is the work of alert Muhaddithin. Any addition or subtraction should not be adopted in this matter. The matter is clarified itself just as we have explained above.

 

The Incident Regarding the Protection Extended by Sayyidah Zainab Followed by the Islam of Abu al ‘As

Abu al ‘As remained in Makkah and did not enter the fold of Islam while Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha remained with her father in Madinah. The people of Makkah would travel to Syria for business. A business caravan left for Syria which Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu joined. The capital of the Quraysh was with him. When this caravan returned from Syria after conducting business, the Muslims came to know of their arrival. They detained this caravan in Jumada al Ula 6 A.H and took possession of their wealth. Abu al ‘As slipped away from the caravan and reached Madinah Munawwarah before the caravan and then sought protection by Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha. Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha gave him protection. The rest of the caravan reached Madinah thereafter. The general Muslims came to know of this after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam led the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in the Fajr Salah. After making salam, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha called out from the rows of the women: “O Muslims! Abu al ‘As is under my protection.” When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam heard this he turned to the congregation and asked them if they had heard what he just heard. They replied in the affirmative. Thereafter Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam swore on oath that he had no knowledge of this before. And after even the lowest ranking Muslim gives protection to someone, his protection is accepted and upheld. Therefore, the protection of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha for Abu al ‘As is correct which should be respected by the Muslims.

Thereafter, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went to the house of his daughter Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha and addressed her: “O my beloved daughter! Treat him well and serve him with honour. However, avoid matrimonial relations with him.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then sent a messenger to those Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum who had captured the wealth of Abu al ‘As and had it in their possession. Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam command was to return all of Abu al ‘As’s wealth to him without hoarding even a cent. Therefore, Abu al ‘As was returned all of his wealth after which he proceeded to Makkah. After reaching Makkah Mukarramah, he called all the people whose wealth he had and gave them the same. He then asked them, “O people of Quraysh! Do I still have any outstanding wealth or have you all received your wealth?” They all replied that he had none of their wealth.

فجزاك الله خيرا قد وجدناك وقيا

May Allah Ta’ala reward you well. We found you to be very noble and loyal.

 

Subsequently, Abu al ‘As announced in front of the gathering of Quraysh:

I bear witness that there is no deity except Allah and that Muhammad is the servant and Rasul of Allah. By Allah! Only this prevented me from accepting Islam in Madinah that it should not happen that you think that I had the intention to usurp your wealth. After Allah Ta’ala returned your wealth to you and the job is completed, I now embrace Islam.

 

Sayyidina Abu al ‘As[19] radiya Llahu ‘anhu then left Makkah and came into the presence of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. His Islam was then strengthened and beautified. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam returned Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha to Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu

 

Corroboration of These Incidents from the Shia historians

For the benefit of the scholars, the text of the Shia historian, al Yaqubi will be reproduced verbatim:

و اقبل ابو العاص بن ربيع حتى دخل المدينة فاستجار بزينب بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فلما صلى رسول الله الغداة نادت زينب الا انى قد اجرت ابا العاص بن ربيع فقال رسول الله حين انصرف اسمعتم؟ قالوا نعم قال قد اجرت من اجارت ان ادنى المؤمنين يجير اقصاهم و قام فدخل عليهما فقال لا يفوتنك اكرمى مثواه و رد عليه ما اخذ له فرجع الى مكة فرد الى كل ذى حق حقه ثم اسلم و رجع الى رسول الله فرد عليه زينب بالنكاح الاول

When the Muslims captured the Quraysh’s caravan and took possession of their wealth, Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ fled to Madinah Munawwarah and sought protection with Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha. When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam completed the Fajr salah, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha announced that she had given protection to Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’, whereupon Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam exclaimed: “O gathering of Muslims! Have you heard?” Everyone replied in the affirmative. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then said: “I have given protection to whom my daughter has given protection. Even if a low ranking Muslim wishes to give protection, he is free to do so.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then exited from the Masjid and went to Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha and Abu al ‘As. He then addressed her saying: “O Zainab! Do not fail in serving him and treat him with honour and respect.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam returned the wealth of Abu al ‘As which was captured to him. Abu al ‘As then returned to Makkah and paid back all of those he owed. He thereafter embraced Islam and returned to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Madinah Munawwarah. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam returned Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha to Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu in their primary marriage.[20]

 

Some Points Regarding this Incident

This incident regarding Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha and Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu holds great importance in Islamic history.

  • Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu flees from the Muslims and seeks protection with Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha.
  • Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha gives him protection which is announced in the presence of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
  • Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam accepts this protection.
  • Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then goes to the house of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha and Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu and gives them some relevant advice.
  • He commands Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha to look after and honour him.
  • He orders that all the wealth of Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu be returned to him.
  • Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu then returns to Makkah and pays back the dues of those he owes. He then embraces Islam which is accepted by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
  • He is then honoured by Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha being given to him in their primary marriage or a new marriage according to the different views.
 

All these points are a display of kind consideration from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha and Sayyidina Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu. To deny these virtues and considerations can only be out of hatred for the noble offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Otherwise, these have been transmitted through reliable well known sources from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to the entire ummah and documented by the scholars and authors of every era.

 

Donning Expensive Clothing

The books of ahadith have this documented regarding Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha that on some occasions she wore expensive clothing. In Islam, it is permissible for a woman to wear such expensive garments.

عن انس بن مالك قال رايت على زينب بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قميص حرير سيراء

Thus, the servant of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu relates at one place: “I saw Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wearing a striped dress made of silk.[21]

 

Some narrations have a silk shawl instead of a dress.

 

NEXT⇒ Mention of the Children of Sayyidah Zainab


[1]Dhakha’ir al ‘Uqba pg. 156 sec. 4 – Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Al Isti’ab vol. 4 pg. 305 – The daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Tarikh al Khamis vol. 1 pg. 273 – Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha

[2]

  • Some say that the full name of Abu al ‘As was Laqit while others have said Muqassim. His lineage is as follows: Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ ibn ‘Abdul ‘Uzza ibn ‘Abdul Shams ibn ‘Abdul Manaf, i.e. Abu al ‘As’s lineage meets with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu at the fourth forefather.
  • Regarding the demise of Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu the scholars have written that it took place in the khilafah of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Dhu al Hijjah 12 A.H while others say that Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred in the Battle of Yamamah.
  • Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu is the nephew of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. His mother’s name is Halah bint Khuwaylid ibn Asad, who is the sister of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha and Khadijah is the aunt of Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
  • Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu is the cousin of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha and a very loyal and dignified son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam . Allah willing, points regarding his loyalty will ensue.
  • Since Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha are biological sisters, Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu become brothers-in-law joint by this honourable relationship.
  • Just as Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu is the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , similarly ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is Abu al ‘As’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu son-in-law (Kitab al Muhbir pg. 99).
  • Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha bequeathed ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu prior to her demise that if you marry after me then marry my niece i.e. Umamah bint Abi al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anha. Hence, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu practiced on this bequest and married Umamah bint Abi al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anha. More detail will come further, Allah willing.
  • Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ is the father-in-law of Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha due to this marriage becomes his mother-in-law. These family relationships are not temporary but rather permanent.
  • The readers should notice that we mentioned briefly about Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha and Sayyidina Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Ruhama’ Baynahum the section of al Siddiq pg. 166, 167. Here again in the biography of Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha they are mentioned.
  • When Abu al ‘As is the son of Halah bint Khuwaylid and his marriage takes place with Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha then it becomes evident that the narration of Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha being the daughter of Halah is absolutely false otherwise brother and sister will be getting married which is not permissible in any religion or creed.

[4]  a) Dhakha’ir al ‘Uqba pg. 157 – Chapter regarding her marriage (Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam )

b) Al Bidayah 3 pg. 311 – Section regarding the news of the adversities of the participants of Badr

c) Sirah Ibn Hisham 1 pg. 651, 652 – Chapter regarding the reason why Abu al ‘As married Zainab

[5]Majma’ al Zawa’id vol. 6 pg. 21 – The book of battles, section regarding Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam spreading the message he was sent with and his perseverance while doing this

[6]Hayat al Qulub vol. 2 pg. 337 sec. 26 – Section regarding entering the gorge of Abu Talib

[7]  a) Dhakha’ir al ‘Uqba pg. 157 – Chapter regarding her marriage (i.e. Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam )

b) Al Bidayah 3 pg. 311 – Section regarding the news of the adversities of the participants of Badr

c) Tarikh al Khamis 1 pg. 273 – Mention of Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha

[8]Al Bidayah vol. 3 pg. 311 – Section regarding the news of the adversities of the participants of Badr

[9]  a) Dhakha’ir Al ‘Uqba pg. 158 – Chapter concerning the Islam of her husband Abu al ‘As

b) Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 3 pg. 311, 312 – Section regarding the news of the adversities of the participants of Badr

[10]  a) Dala’il al Nubuwwah vol. 2 pg. 423, 424 – The narrations regarding Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

b) Musnad Ahmed 6 pg. 276 – The musnadat of ‘Aishah radiya Llahu ‘anha

c) Abu Dawood 2 pg. 367 – Section concerning ransoming the captives with wealth

d) Mishkat 346 – The chapter concerning the ruling regarding captives – sec. 2 with reference to Ahmed and Abu Dawood

e) Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 3 pg. 312 – Section regarding the news of the adversities of the participants of Badr

[11]  Footnotes of Muntaha al Amal vol. 1 pg. 108 sec. 8

[12]  a) Abu Dawood vol. 2 pg. 367 – Section concerning ransoming the captives with wealth

b) Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d 8 pg. 20

[13]  Regarding Habbar ibn Aswad, Hafiz Ibn Hajar has recorded in al Isabah that Habbar came into the presence of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and testified to tawhid and risalat. He then sincerely apologised for his previous crimes and sins, acknowledged his ignorance and sought forgiveness. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told him:

قد عفوت عنك و قد احسن اليك حيث هداك الى الاسلام و الاسلام يجب ما قبله

I have forgiven you. Indeed Allah has been extremely kind to you that He guided you to Islam. Islam wipes out all previous sins. [al Isabah vol. 3 pg. 566 – Habbar ibn Aswad]

[14]a) Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 3 pg. 330 – Section regarding the migration of Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from Makkah to Madinah

b) Majma’ al Zawa’id vol. 9 pg. 215, 216 – Chapter concerning the virtues of Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha

c) Nasab Quraysh 219 – Biography of Habbar ibn Aswad

[15]  a) Bukhari vol. 1 pg. 438 – The chapter concerning the armour of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

b) Bukhari 1 pg. 528 – The chapter of virtues; in laws of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

c) Musnad Ahmed 4 pg. 326 – The narrations of Musawwar ibn Makhramah

[16]  It is important to clarify this point that when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam freed Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu from the captives of Badr and returned to him the necklace of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha, he took a pledge from Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu that when he reaches Makkah, he will send Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam daughter Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha to him in Madinah. Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu promised to fulfil this pledge. Hence, when Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu reached Makkah, he despatched Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha to Madinah in compliance with the pledge. This is the reason why Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would say:

انى انكحت ابا العاص بن الربيع فحدثنى و صدقنى

Indeed I married (my daughter) to Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’. He promised me and was true to his promise.

In the narration of Ibn Hisham, it appears thus, Musawwar says:

سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ذكر صهرا له من بنى عبد الشمس فاثنى عليه فى مصاهرته اياه فاحسن قال حدثنى و صدقنى و وعدنى فوفى لى

I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam speaking about his son-in-law from Banu ‘Abdul Shams. He praised him for upholding this relationship and appreciated his kindness. He said: “He promised me and was true to his promise and vowed to me and fulfilled his vow.”

In short, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would praise Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu for being his son-in-law and would appreciate his fulfilment of promises. This is a great attestation in favour of Abu al ‘As’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu noble practice and an appreciation of his relationship. The attestation and confirmation of someone on the blessed tongue of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is no ordinary thing. It is a grand accolade which speaks volumes of his noble traits. [Al Bidayah vol. 6 pg. 345 – Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’]

[17]  a) Majma’ al Zawa’id vol. 9 pg. 213 – The chapter concerning the virtue of Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

b) Dala’il al Nubuwwah 2 pg. 426 – The chapter concerning Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[18]Idraj: Refers to the inclusion of the commentary of the narrator into a narration, which is not part of the actual narration. This addition is then termed as Mudraj.

[19]Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ by al Dhahabi vol. 2 pg. 176 – The biography of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha

[20]Tarikh al Yaqubi vol. 2 pg. 71 – The leaders of the contingents

[21]  a) Al Sunan li al Nasa ʾi pg. 252 – The chapter concerning giving the women (to their husbands) while wearing silk garments

b) Kitab al Ma’rifah wa al Tarikh

c) Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d 8 pg. 22 – The chapter concerning Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

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