The Battle of Siffin (37 A.H)

How `Uthman was murdered
May 25, 2015
Chain of events leading up to the battle
June 3, 2015

Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam gestured towards Hasan radiya Llahu `anhu, who was sitting in his lap, and said: “This son of mine is a leader, and perhaps Allah will reconcile two great groups of the Muslims through him.” The hadith mentioned above refers to the people of Iraq who were with `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu and the people of Syria who were with Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan radiya Llahu `anhu, during the Battle of Siffin. They were also included in the general meaning of the verse: “And if two parties [or groups] among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both.” We have seen above that this verse encompasses all of them, may Allah be pleased with them all. The article below examines what truly transpired in this battle — in light of authentic narration — and refutes the baseless allegations cast against the Sahabah, whose virtue has been engraved in the Noble Qur’an until eternity.


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Chain of events leading up to the battle

  1. Umm Habibah bint Abi Sufyan sends No’man ibn Bashir with `Uthman’s chemise to Muawiyah and the people of Syria
  2. Muawiyah’s motives for not swearing allegiance
  3. Muawiyah responds to Amir al-Mu’minin `Ali ibn Abi Talib
  4. Amir al-Mu‘minin `Ali’s preparations for the march to Syria, and Hasan’s objection to that
  5. After the Battle of the Camel, Amir al-Mu’minin `Ali sent Jarir ibn `Abd Allah to Muawiyah
  6. `Ali’s march to Syria
  7. Muawiyah’s going out to Siffin
  8. The fight for the water
  9. Cooling off and attempts at reconciliation

Outbreak of fighting

  1. The first day of the battle
  2. The second day
  3. The night of clamour and Friday
  4. The call for arbitration
  5. Noble conduct during battle
  6. Treatment of captives
  7. The number of people slain
  8. Amir al-Mu’minin `Ali’s inspection of the dead and praying for mercy for them
  9. Attitude of Muawiyah towards the Byzantine ruler
  10. A false story about `Amr ibn al-`As at Siffin
  11. Amir al-Mu’minin `Ali visits a graveyard on his way back from Siffin
  12. Insistence of `Uthman’s murderers that the battle should continue
  13. Amir al-Mu’minin `Ali forbids impugning Muawiyah and cursing the people of Syria



Biography of Abu Musa al-Ash`ari

The badge of honour that the Rasul of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam pinned to the chest of Abu Musa

  1. “You migrated twice: your migration to Abyssinia and your migration to me.”
  2. “They are your people, O Abu Musa.”
  3. “O Allah forgive `Abd Allah ibn Qais for his sins, and admit him to a gate of great honour on the Day of Resurrection.”
  4. “This one has rejected glad tidings; you two should accept it.”
  5. “He has been given a beautiful voice like that of Dawood.”
  6. “O `Abd Allah ibn Qais, shall I not tell you of one of the treasures of paradise?”
  7. “Be easy going, and do not be harsh. Give glad tidings, and do not put people off.”

The status of Abu Musa in the view of `Umar ibn al-Khattab

Governorship of Abu Musa at the time of `Umar and `Uthman


Biography of `Amr ibn al-`As

His becoming Muslim

`Amr ibn al-`As leads a campaign to Dhat al-Salasil 7 A.H

  1. The sincerity of `Amr ibn al-`As
  2. `Amr’s keenness to keep his troops safe
  3. `Amr’s understanding of Islam

Virtues of ‘Amr

  1. The Rasul of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam testified to his faith
  2. The Rasul of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam gave him precedence over others and testified that he was one of the righteous men of Quraysh
  3. Supplication of the Rasul of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam for him

His deeds at the time of Abu Bakr, `Umar and `Uthman


The text of the arbitration document

The famous story of the arbitration, which is incorrect for many reasons

Attitude of Ahl al-Sunnah towards these wars


Warning against some books which distort the history of the Sahabah

  1. Al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah
  2. Nahj al-Balaghah
  3. Al-Aghani by al-Isfahani
  4. Tarikh al-Yaqubi
  5. Muruj al-Dhahab

The Orientalists and Islamic history