How `Uthman was murdered

The effect of `Uthman’s murder in creating further turmoil and division
May 25, 2015
The Battle of Siffin (37 A.H)
June 3, 2015

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How ‘Uthman was murdered

The rebels attacked the house and were confronted by Hassan ibn ‘Ali, ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair, Muhammad ibn Talhah, Marwan ibn Hakam and Sa’id ibn al ‘As, and other sons of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum who stayed with them. Fighting broke out and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu called to them:

(By) Allah, (by) Allah, I do not want you to defend me.

But they insisted, and ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu slaves came in to defend him, but he told them not to do that, rather he announced that whoever among them refrained from fighting would be a free man.[1]

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu said clearly and decisively, as the khalifah who was to be obeyed:

I insist that everyone who believes that he is obliged to hear and obey should restrain himself and refrain from fighting.[2]

The only justification for saying that was that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was certain that he would become a martyr, based on the testimony of Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Hence he did not want blood to be shed on his account or division to arise among the Muslims because of him.[3]

Mughirah ibn al Akhnas was among those who had done hajj, then hastened to leave Mina after two days instead of three, along with a group who had performed hajj with him. He managed to come to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu before he was martyred; he entered the house to protect him and said:

What excuse will we have before Allah if we leave you when we are able to stop them until we die?

The rebels came and wanted to burn down the door and portico, but the people in the house leapt up to stop them, whilst ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was praying. Mughirah ibn al Akhnas, Hassan ibn ‘Ali, Muhammad ibn Talhah, Sa’id ibn al ‘As, Marwan ibn al Hakam and Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhum fought and did their utmost, but ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent word to them telling them to leave and not fight, then he went back to his prayer. He started to read:

طٰهٰ ۚ ﴿1﴾ مَآ اَنْزَلْنَا عَلَیْكَ الْقُرْاٰنَ لِتَشْقٰٓیۙ ﴿2﴾ اِلَّا تَذْکِرَةً لِّمَنْ یَّخْشٰی ۙ

Taha. [These letters are one of the miracles of the Qur’an, and none but Allah (Alone) knows their meanings]. We have not sent down the Qur’an unto you [O Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam] to cause you distress, but only as a Reminder to those who fear [Allah].[4]

 

He was a fast reader, and he was not disturbed by what he heard. He carried on reading and did not make any mistake or stumble, until he came to the end of the surah before they reached him. Then he recited a du’a and sat down and recited the verse:

قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ سُنَنٌ ۙ فَسِیْرُوْا فِی الْاَرْضِ فَانْظُرُوْا کَیْفَ کَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُکَذِّبِیْنَ

Many similar ways [and mishaps of life] were faced by nations [believers and disbelievers] that have passed away before you [us you have faced in the Battle of Uhud], so travel through the earth, and see what was the end of those who disbelieved [in the Oneness of Allah, and disobeyed Him and His Rasuls].[5]

 

On that day, four young men of Quraysh were injured: Hassan ibn ‘Ali, ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair, Muhammad ibn Hatib and Marwan ibn al Hakam.[6] Mughirah ibn al Akhnas, Niyar ibn ‘Abdullah al Aslami and Ziyad al Fihri were killed.[7] ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu managed to persuade the defenders to leave the house and leave him alone with the rebels. So no one was left in the house except ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his family, and there was no defender or guard between him and the people, then he opened the door of the house.[8]

After those who had wanted to defend him had left the house, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu spread the Mushaf before him and began to read from it, and at that time he was fasting. Then one of the besiegers, whose name is not mentioned in the reports, entered upon him. When ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu saw him he said to him: “Between me and you there is the Book of Allah.”[9] So the man went out and left him alone.

But no sooner had he left but another one came in. He was a man from Banu Sadus who was called al Mawt al Aswad (the Black Death). He strangled him before striking him with the sword. He said:

By Allah, I never saw anything more soft when strangling. I strangled him until I felt that his soul was moving in his body like a jinn.[10]

Then he struck him with his sword, and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu tried to protect himself with his hand, but he cut it off. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

By Allah, it was the first hand to write al Mufassal.[11]

That was because he was one of the scribes who wrote down the wahi, and he had been the first one to write the Mushaf as dictated by the Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.’Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was killed when the Mushaf was in front of him, and when his hand was cut off, the blood spilled onto the Mushaf that was in front of him, and it fell upon the verse:

فَسَیَكْفِیْكَهُمُ اللّٰهُ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِیْعُ الْعَلِیْمُ

So Allah will suffice for you against them, And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.[12]

 

According to another report, the first one to strike him was a man who was called Ruman al Yamani, who struck him with a short, hooked staff. When they surrounded him, his wife Na’ilah bint al Farafisah said:

Whether you kill him or spare him, he used to stay up all night, reciting the entire Qur’an in a single rak’ah.[13]

Na’ilah defended her husband ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and shielded him, and she received several blows of the sword on her hands. Sowdan ibn Hamran went to her and struck her fingers, and cut them off. She turned away and he poked her in the hips.[14]

When one of the slaves of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, whose name was Nujayh, saw what was happening, he was distressed by the killing of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Nujayh attacked Sowdan ibn Hamran and killed him, and when Qutayrah ibn Fulan al Sakuni saw that Nujayh had killed Sowdan, he attacked Nujayh and martyred him. Another slave of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, whose name was Subayh, then attacked Qutayrah ibn Fulan and killed him. So there were four who were killed in the house, two martyrs and two criminals. The martyrs were ‘Uthman and his slave Nujayh, and the criminals were Sowdan and Qutayrah, who were both from the tribe of Sakun. When ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred, a caller from among the Saba’iyyah cried out:

It cannot be the case that the man’s blood is permissible for us and his property is forbidden for us; his property is permissible for us too.

So they ransacked the house, and the Saba’iyyah thugs did a lot of mischief in the house. They ransacked everything, even taking the jewellery that the women were wearing. One of the Saba’iyyah, whose name was Kulthum al Tajibi attacked ‘Uthman’s wife, Na’ilah, and took the abayah (cloak) that she was wearing, then he poked her in the hips and said to her:

Woe to your mother, what a perfect backside.

‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu slave Subayh saw that and heard the ugly words he said to Na’ilah, so he attacked him with a sword and killed him.[15] One of the Saba’iyyah then attacked the slave and killed him. After the Saba’iyyah had finished ransacking the house of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, they called out:

Let us go and raid the bayt al mal before anyone else gets there, and take whatever is in it.

The guards of the bayt al mal heard their voices, but there was nothing in it except two containers of food, so they said:

Save yourselves, for these people are after worldly gains.

The Saba’iyyah attacked the bayt al mal and ransacked it.[16]

The Saba’iyyah rebels achieved their aim of killing the khalifah, but after that, many of the thugs and hooligans who had followed them stopped and thought. They had never thought that it would end with them killing him, but the devilish Saba’iyyah had fooled them and used them to stir up trouble against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Killing him was something that they found abhorrent and could not accept. These thugs regretted it, and there happened to them the same as happened to the Children of Israel when they worshipped the calf: some of them regretted it as Allah says:

وَ اتَّخَذَ قَوْمُ مُوْسٰی مِنْۢ بَعْدِهٖ مِنْ حُلِیِّهِمْ عِجْلًا جَسَدًا لَّه خُوَارٌ ؕ اَلَمْ یَرَوْا اَنَّهلَا یُکَلِّمُهُمْ وَلَا یَهْدِیْهِمْ سَبِیْلًاؐ اِتَّخَذُوْهُ وَکَانُوْا ظٰلِمِیْنَ ﴿148﴾ وَلَمَّا سُقِطَ فِیْٓ اَیْدِیْهِمْ وَرَاَوْا اَنَّهُمْ قَدْ ضَلُّوْا ۙ قَالُوْا لَئِنْ لَّمْ یَرْحَمْنَا رَبُّنَا وَیَغْفِرْ لَنَا لَنَكُوْنَنَّ مِنَ الْخٰسِرِیْنَ

And the people of Musa [‘alayh al Salam] made in his absence, out of their ornaments, the image of a calf [for worship]. It had a sound [as if it was mooing]. Did they not see that it could neither speak to them nor guide them to the way? They took it [for worship] and they were zalimin (wrongdoers). And when they regretted and saw that they had gone astray, they (repented and) said: “If our Rabb have not mercy upon us and forgive us, we shall certainly be of the losers.”[17]

 

The righteous people in Madinah were grieved by the murder of their khalifah, and they began to say: “Truly, to Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return”, and wept. But what could they do when the rebel Saba’iyyah armies were occupying Madinah and spreading mischief and preventing its people from doing anything? The de facto ruler of Madinah was the leader of the Egyptian rebels, al Ghafiqi ibn Harb al ‘Akki, and they had with them the architect of their devilish plans, ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’, who was rejoicing greatly at the achievement of his fiendish aims.

 

The senior Sahabah commented on the murder of ‘Uthman[18]

 

a. Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam

When Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam radiya Llahu ‘anhu learned of the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he said:

May Allah have mercy on ‘Uthman. Truly, to Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return.

It was said to him: “The people are regretting it.” He said:

They planned it for a long time, but it is as Allah says:

وَ حِیْلَ بَیْنَهُمْ وَ بَیْنَ مَا یَشْتَهُوْنَ کَمَا فُعِلَ بِاَشْیَاعِهِمْ مِّنْ قَبْلُ ؕ اِنَّهُمْ کَانُوْا فِیْ شَكٍّ مُّرِیْبٍ

And a barrier will be set between them and that which they desire [i.e. turning to Allah in repentance and the accepting of faith], as was done in the past with the people of their kind. Verily, they have been in grave doubt.[19]

 

b. Talhah ibn ‘Ubaidullah

When Talhah ibn ‘Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu learned of the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he said:

May Allah have mercy on ‘Uthman. Truly, to Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return.

It was said to him: “The people are regretting it.” He said: “May they perish!” And he recited the words of Allah:

مَا یَنْظُرُوْنَ اِلَّا صَیْحَةً وَّاحِدَةً تَاْخُذُهُمْ وَ هُمْ یَخِصِّمُوْنَ ﴿49﴾ فَلَا یَسْتَطِیْعُوْنَ تَوْصِیَةً وَّ لَآ اِلٰٓی اَهْلِهِمْ یَرْجِعُوْنَ

They await only but a single sayhah (shout) which will seize them while they are disputing! Then they will not be able to make bequest, nor will they return to their family.[20]

 

c. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib

When ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu learned of the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he said:

May Allah have mercy on ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Truly, to Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return.

It was said to him: “The people are regretting it.” He recited the verse:

کَمَثَلِ الشَّیْطٰنِ اِذْ قَالَ لِلْاِنْسَانِ اكْفُرْ ۚ فَلَمَّا کَفَرَ قَالَ اِنِّیْ بَرِیْٓءٌ مِّنْكَ اِنِّیْٓ اَخَافُ اللّٰهَ رَبَّ الْعٰلَمِیْنَ ﴿16﴾ فَکَانَ عَاقِبَتَهُمَآ اَنَّهُمَا فِی النَّارِ خَالِدَیْنِ فِیْهَاؕ وَ ذٰلِكَ جَزٰٓؤُا الظّٰلِمِیْنَ

[Their allies deceived them] like shaitan, when he says to man: “Disbelieve in Allah”, but when [man] disbelieves in Allah, shaitan says : “I am free of you, I fear Allah, the Rabb of the ‘Alamin [mankind, jinn and all that exists]!” So the end of both will be that they will be in the Fire, abiding therein. Such is the recompense of the zalimin.[21]

 

d. Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas

When Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu learned of that, he said: “May Allah have mercy on ‘Uthman.” Then he recited the verse:

قُلْ هَلْ نُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِالْاَخْسَرِیْنَ اَعْمَالًا ﴿103﴾ؕ اَلَّذِیْنَ ضَلَّ سَعْیُهُمْ فِی الْحَیٰوةِ الدُّنْیَا وَ هُمْ یَحْسَبُوْنَ اَنَّهُمْ یُحْسِنُوْنَ صُنْعًا ﴿104﴾ اُولٰٓئِكَ الَّذِیْنَ کَفَرُوْا بِاٰیٰتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَلِقَآئِهٖ فَحَبِطَتْ اَعْمَالُهُمْ فَلَا نُقِیْمُ لَهُمْ یَوْمَ الْقِیٰمَةِ وَزْنًا ﴿105﴾ ذٰلِكَ جَزَآؤُهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ بِمَا کَفَرُوْا وَ اتَّخَذُوْٓا اٰیٰتِیْ وَ رُسُلِیْ هُزُوًا

Say [O Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam]: “Shall We tell you the greatest losers in respect of [their] deeds? “Those whose efforts have been wasted in this life while they thought that they were acquiring good by their deeds. They are those who deny the ayat [proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.] of their Rabb and the Meeting with Him [in the hereafter]. So their works are in vain, and on the Day of Resurrection, We shall assign no weight for them. That shall be their recompense, Hell; because they disbelieved and took My ayat and My Rasul by way of jest and mockery.[22]

Then Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

O Allah, make them regret it and make them grieve, humiliate them then seize them.[23]

 

And Allah answered the prayer of Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu – who was a man whose prayers were answered – and He seized everyone who had taken part in the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, such as ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’, Ghafiqi, Ashtar, Hakim ibn Jablah and Kinanah al Tajibi, as they were all killed later on.[24]

 

The date of his martyrdom, his age when martyred, his funeral and burial

 

The date of his murder

There is virtual consensus among historians as to the date of ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu murder. There is no dispute that it took place in 35 A.H, apart from the report narrated from Mus’ab ibn ‘Abdullah which says that it happened in 36 A.H.[25] This is an odd view which differs from the consensus. Those who were of the first view are a large number, including ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman, ‘Amir ibn Shurahbil al Sha’bi, Nafi’ the freed slave of Ibn ‘Umar, Makhramah ibn Sulaiman and many others.[26] The historians did not differ concerning the month in which he was killed, which was Dhu al Hijjah. But after that, they differed as to the day and hour. Of the many scholarly points of view, it seems most likely to me is that he was martyred on the 18th of Dhu al Hijjah 35 A.H.[27] As for the particular day of the week on which he was killed, there are three views; the one which seems most likely to me is the view of the majority, which is that it was a Friday, because there is no stronger view that contradicts the view of the majority.[28] The time of his killing was the morning. This is the view of the majority and there is no stronger view that contradicts this majority view.[29]

 

His age when he was martyred

There are conflicting reports about his age when he was martyred, and this is an old dispute. Al Tabari rahimahu Llah said:

The early generation before us differed as to how old he was.[30]

I am inclined to think that he was eighty-two years old when he died. This is the view of the majority and is more likely to be correct for a number of reasons, including the following:

This is the result of comparing the year of his birth with the year of his martyrdom. He was born in the sixth year after the Year of the Elephant, and he was martyred in 35 A.H. Subtracting the date of his birth from the date of his martyrdom shows us his age at the time he was martyred.

It is the view of the majority and is not contradicted by any stronger view.

 

His funeral and burial

On the day that he was killed, a number of the Sahabah washed him, shrouded him and carried him, including Hakim ibn Hizam, Huwaytib ibn ‘Abdul ‘Uzza, Abu al Jahm ibn Hudhayfah, Niyar ibn Makram al Aslami, Jubayr ibn Mut’im, Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhum, and a number of his companions and womenfolk, including his two wives Na’ilah and Umm al Banin bint ‘Utbah ibn Hussain, and two boys. Jubayr ibn Mut’im offered the funeral prayer for him, or it was said that this was done by Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam, Hakim ibn Hizam, Marwan ibn al Hakam or al Miswar ibn Makhramah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[31] What seems most likely in my view is that the one who offered the funeral prayer for him was Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam radiya Llahu ‘anhu, because of the report narrated by Imam Ahmed in his Musnad. This report states that Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam radiya Llahu ‘anhu offered the funeral prayer for ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and buried him, and that was in accordance with ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu wishes.[32] He was buried at night; this is supported by the report narrated by Ibn Sa’d and al Dhahabi, as they said that he was buried between Maghrib and ‘Isha’.[33]

 

As for the report narrated by al Tabarani via ‘Abdul Malik ibn al Majashun who said:

I heard Malik say: “‘Uthman was killed and was left thrown on the garbage heap of Banu Fulan for three days.”[34]

The isnad of this report is da’if (weak) and its text is false. Its isnad has two faults:

  • The weakness of ‘Abdul Malik ibn Majashun who used to narrate munkar (rejected) reports from Imam Malik rahimahu Llah.
  • This report is mursal, because Imam Malik was not alive at the time of the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, as he was not born until 93 A.H.[35]
 

As for the text of this report, it is false. Ibn Hazm said concerning it:

 

Whoever says that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was left thrown on a trash heap for three days is lying. This is the fabrication of one who has no shame. The Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered that the bodies of the kuffar who had been slain at Badr be thrown into a dry well, and he threw dirt on top of them even though they were the worst of Allah’s creation. And he ordered that ditches be dug for the slain Jews of Qurayzah, who were the worst of those who are buried in the ground. Burying believers and disbelievers alike is obligatory for the Muslims. So how could anyone who has any sense of shame claim that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who was the most prominent figure and those of the Sahabah who were in Madinah, would leave a dead man on a garbage heap for three days without burying him?[36]

 

It would not occur to any man of sound reason who is free from Rafidi influences that they would leave their leader like that without burying him for three days, no matter how strong those evildoers were who had come to besiege him and kill him. The Sahabah, as their Rabb described them, strove in the way of Allah and did not fear the blame of the blamers (al Ma’idah: 54). Rather these reports are fabrications which were inserted into the history books by the Rawafid.[37]

The innocence of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu with regard to the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

The one who killed ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was an Egyptian man. The reports do not clearly state his name, but they say that he was originally from the tribe of Sadus and was black skinned. He was nicknamed Jabalah because of the blackness of his skin, and he was also known as al Mawt al Aswad (the Black Death). Muhibb al Din al Khatib was of the view that the killer was ‘Abd-Allah ibn Saba’ himself, as he said:

It is proven that Ibn Saba’ was with the Egyptian rebels when they came from al Fustat to Madinah, and in all similar events he was keen to work behind the scenes.

Perhaps al Mawt al Aswad was a nickname that he wanted to hide behind in order to continue his plots to destroy Islam.[38] What supports this is the fact that Ibn Saba’ was also black skinned. It is narrated in a sahih report that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu described him as evil and black skinned.[39]

As for the accusation that Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu killed ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu with his arrow head, this is false. There are weak reports which mention that, as well as texts which are regarded as odd because they contradict the sahih report which states that the killer was an Egyptian man. Dr. Yahya al Yahya lists a number of reasons why Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu is innocent in the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, including the following:

‘Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha went out to Basrah to demand retaliation for the killing of ‘Uthman. If her brother had been one of them she would not have grieved for him when he was killed later on. We will discuss that in detail when we speak of ‘Ali ibn Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Allah willing.

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu cursed the killers of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and disavowed them, which implies that he did not let them become close to him and did not appoint them to any position. But he appointed Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu as governor of Egypt. If Muhammad had been one of them, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would not have done that.

The report narrated by Ibn ‘Asakir with his isnad from Muhammad ibn Talhah ibn Musarrif who said:

 

I heard Kinanah the freed slave of Safiyyah bint Huyayy say: “I was present when ‘Uthman was killed and I was fourteen years old (at that time),” she said: “Was Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr involved in his killing at all?” He said: “Allah forbid. He entered upon him and ‘Uthman said: ‘O son of my brother, you cannot be the one who kills me;’ then he went out, and he was not involved in his killing at all.”[40]

 

This is supported by the report narrated by khalifah ibn Khayyat and al Tabari with isnad whose men are trustworthy, from Hassan al Basri -who was one of those who were present on the day of the siege[41] -which says that Ibn Abi Bakr took hold of ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu beard and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu said: “You are holding me in a way that your father would not do.” Then he went out and left him.[42]

Thus it is clear that Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was innocent in the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, just as the wolf was innocent of the blood of Yusuf ‘alayh al Salam. It is also clear that the reason for this accusation was that he had entered upon him before the murder took place.[43] Ibn Kathir rahimahu Llah stated that when ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu spoke to him, he felt ashamed and went back, and he regretted his actions and covered his face, and he tried to defend him, but to no avail.[44]

 

NEXT⇒ Praise of Ahlul Bayt for ‘Uthman and their innocence of shedding his blood


[1]Al Dawlah al lslamiyyah fi ‘Asr al Khulafa’ al Rashidin, p. 282; Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/190

[2]Al ‘Awasim min al Qawasim, p. 133

[3]Al Dawlah al lslamiyyah fi ‘Asr al Khulafa’ al Rashidin, p. 283

[4]  Surah Taha: 1-3

[5]  Surah Al ‘Imran: 137

[6]Fitnat Maqtal ‘Uthman, 1/169; Tarikh al Tabari, 5/404. A sahih report.

[7]Al Khulafa’ al Rashidin by al Khalidi, p. 184,185; Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah,7/196

[8]Fitnat Maqtal ‘Uthman, 1/188

[9]Tarikh al Tabari, 5/405,406

[10]Tarikh Ibn Khayat, p. 174,175. Its isnad is sahih or Hassan.

[11]Tarikh al Tabari, 5/398

[12]  Surah al Baqarah: 137, op. cit., 5/398. The report has numerous isnads, which when taken together bring it to the level of Hassan due to corroborating evidence.

[13]Al Tabaqat, 3/76; Fitnat Maqtal ‘Uthman, 1/191

[14]Tarikh al Tabari, 5/406, 407

[15]  op. cit., 5/407

[16]  ibid

[17]  Surah al A’raf: 148-149, Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 7/197, 198

[18] Al Khulafa’ al Rashidin by al Khalidi, p. 190; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/197

[19]  Surah Saba’: 54

[20]  Surah Yasin: 49, 50

[21]  Surah al Hashar: 16, 17

[22]  Surah al Kahf: 103-106

[23]Tarikh al Tabari, 5/407,408; Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/189

[24]Al Khulafa’ al Rashidun by al Khalidi, p. 192

[25] Tarikh al Tabari, 5/435,436

[26]Fitnat Maqtal ‘Uthman, 1/193,194

[27]Tarikh al Tabari, 5/435

[28]  op. cit., 5/436

[29]  op. cit., 5/437

[30]  op. cit., 5/438

[31] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/199

[32]Al Mowsu’ah al Hadithiyyah, Musnad al Imam Ahmed, 1/555.

[33]Tabaqat, 3/78; Tarikh al Islam (‘Ahd al Khulufa’), p. 481

[34] Al Mujam al Kabir, 1/78; Istishhad ‘Uthman, p. 194

[35] Al Tahdhib by Ibn Hajar, 6/408

[36]Al Fasl, 4/239, 240

[37]‘Aqidat Ah1 al Sunnah, 3/1091

[38]Al ‘Awasim min al Qawasim, quoted from Fitnat Maqtal ‘Uthman, 1/207

[39]Lisan al Mizan, 3/209

[40]Marwiyat Abi Mikhnaf fi Tarikh al Tabari, p. 243

[41]  op. cit., p. 244; Tahdhib al Kamal, 6/97

[42]Marwiyat Abi Mikhnaf, p. 244

[43] Fitnat Maqtal ‘Uthman, 1/209

[44]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/193

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