The turmoil of ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu murder was the cause of a great deal of further turmoil and it cast its shadow on the events that followed it. People’s hearts changed and lying became widespread, and deviation from the laws and teachings of Islam began from that point. The murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was one of the greatest causes of fitnah among people; because of it the ummah became divided and has remained so until today.
Hatred was created against one another and there were many calamities; evildoers prevailed and the righteous were humiliated, those who had previously been unable to create division now became active and those who loved good were unable to do good. They swore allegiance to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who was the most, entitled to become khalifah at that point, and was the best of those who remained, but people were divided and the fire of fitnah had been lit. There was no unity and no discipline, and the khalifah and the best of the ummah were not able to achieve all they wanted of goodness, and many people took part in spreading fitnah and division.
The conquest movement grew gradually weaker in the last few years of ‘Uthman’s khilafah, when the turmoil began in the Muslim lands and the centre of the khilafah, then it ceased when ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was killed. That continued to be the case, and there was even some loss of conquered lands, until the beginning of Muawiyah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu reign, when the Muslims affairs stabilised and the conquests began in the east, west and north.
Wronging and transgressing against others unlawfully are causes of doom in this world and in the hereafter, as Allah says:
وَ تِلْكَ الْقُرٰٓی اَهْلَكْنٰهُمْ لَمَّا ظَلَمُوْا وَجَعَلْنَا لِمَهْلِكِهِمْ مَّوْعِدًا
And these towns [population, ‘Ad, Thamud] We destroyed them when they did wrong. And We appointed a fixed time for their destruction.
The one who researches what happened to those who rebelled against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and transgressed against him will find that Allah did not give them respite rather He humiliated them and wreaked vengeance on them, and none were spared.
Khalifah ibn Khayyat narrated in his Tarikh with a sahih isnad that ‘Imran ibn al Hudayr said:
‘Abdullah ibn Shaqiq told me that the first drop of ‘Uthman’s blood fell on the words:
So Allah will suffice for you against them.
As Abu Hurayth mentioned that he and Suhayl al Numairi went and took out the Mushaf, and the drop of blood on (the words):
So Allah will suffice for you against them.
is still in the Mushaf and has not been erased.
In Tarikh ibn ‘Asakir it is narrated that Muhammad ibn Sirin said:
I was circumambulating the Ka’bah and I saw a man saying: “O Allah, forgive me, but I don’t think You will forgive me.” I said: “O slave of Allah, I have never heard anyone saying what you are saying.” He said: “I promised Allah that if I could slap ‘Uthman on the face I would do so.” When he was killed and placed on the bier in the house, and the people were coming to pay their last respects, I entered as if I wanted to pay my last respects, and I found myself alone with him. I lifted the cloth from his face and slapped his face, and then I covered him again. Now my right arm is paralyzed.”
Muhammad ibn Sirin said: “I saw it, like a piece of wood.”
Were it the case that nothing resulted from the wrongdoing of these haters except the Muslims unsheathing their swords against them until the Day of Resurrection, that would be a sufficient deterrent to them and everyone who joined them. Al Qasim ibn Muhammad said:
‘Ali passed by two men in Madinah, after ‘Uthman had been killed and before allegiance was sworn to him, and they were saying: “Ibn al Bayda’ (i.e., ‘Uthman) has been killed and his seniority in Islam and position among the Arabs was well known, but by Allah no one is seeking to avenge him.” ‘Ali said: “What did you say?” He repeated it and ‘Ali said: “No, by Allah, a lot of men will be killed and there will be a great deal of fighting, until the son of Maryam appears.”
The calamity had a great impact on the believers; they were overwhelmed with grief and their eyes filled with tears; they spoke in praise of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and prayed for mercy for him. Hassan ibn Thabit radiya Llahu ‘anhu eulogised the khalifah and lamented his killing a great deal, condemning the murderers and their actions.
Ka’b ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu also lamented the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in verse:
Then he restrained his hands and closed his door,
And he was certain that Allah is not forgetful,
He said to the people of the house, Do not kill them!
May Allah pardon every man who does not fight.
So how have you seen Allah pour out upon them
Enmity and hatred after harmony with each other!
And how you have seen the good turning back from people
After him, the way the driving winds turn (the clouds) back!
And the close of our request is: All praise be to Allah the Lord of the Worlds.
 Op. cit., p. 590
 Majmu’ al Fatawa, 25/162
 op. cit., 25/163
 Ahdath wa ahadith Fitnat al Haraj, p. 591
 Surah al Kahf: 59
 Surah al Baqarah: 137
 ibid, p. 62