Introduction

Foreword
February 28, 2024
The Meaning of al Sahabi according to the Ahlus Sunnah and Rafidah in brief
February 28, 2024

BACK⇒ Return to Table of contents

 

Introduction

 

  • Determination of the terminologies: Ahlus Sunnah and Rafidah in brief.
  • The meaning of al Sahabi according to the Ahlus Sunnah and Rafidah in brief.
  • Sources in discovering the reports on the Sahabah.
  • The Rank of the Sahabah in the sight of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah.

 

Determination of the Terminologies: Ahlus Sunnah and Rafidah

Definition of the term: Ahlus Sunnah

1. Ahl

Lexical meaning:

Ibn Faris[1] explains:

 

والهمزة والهاء واللام أصلان متباعدان أحدهما الأهل … أهل الرجل زوجته والتأهل التزويج وأهل الرجل أخص الناس به وأهل البيت سكانه وأهل الإسلام من يديه به … والأصل الآخر الإهالة … الإهالة الألية ونحوها يؤخذ فيقطع ويذاب فتلك الإهالة والجميل والجمالة

Hamzah, Ha’, and Lam form two separate origins.

First is al Ahl. Ahl al rajul: a man’s wife. Al ta’ahhul: marriage. Ahl al rajul: a man’s closest people. Ahlul Bayt: residents of a home. Ahl al Islam: those who adhere to Islam.

Second is al Ihalah. Al Ihalah: fat of the tail and the like. It is taken, cut up, and melted. That is al ihalah, al jamil (beautiful), and al jumalah (beauty).[2]

 

The purport of al ahl here is: Companions and the most special people to something.

 

2. Al Sunnah

Lexically, it refers to a path or behaviour/biography, whether good or bad.

Ibn Faris explains:

 

السين والنون أصل واحد مطرد وهو جريان الشيء واطراده … ومما اشتق منه السنة وهي السيرة وسنة رسول الله سيرته … وإنما سميت بذلك لأنها تجري جريا

Sin and nun: one origin, constant. It is the movement and continuity of a thing.

One of its derivatives is: al Sunnah – it is a behaviour/biography. The Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah: his biography.

It is named this as it moves.[3]

 

Ibn Manzur[4] rahimahu Llah explains:

 

وقد تكرر في الحديث ذكر السنة وما تصرف منها والأصل فيها الطريقة والسيرة

Sunnah and its derivatives appear frequently in the Hadith. It originally means path and behaviour/biography.[5]

 

In the Qur’an, the statement of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala:

 

قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ سُنَنٞ فَسِيرُواْ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَٱنظُرُواْ كَيۡفَ كَانَ عَٰقِبَةُ ٱلۡمُكَذِّبِينَ

Many patterns of behaviour have passed on before you, so proceed throughout the earth and observe how was the end of those who denied.[6]

 

Al Zajjaj[7] rahimahu Llah comments, “The meaning is: the people of the biographies. The mudaf (modifier/dependent) was deleted.”[8]

It appears in the famous hadith:

 

من سن في الإسلام سنة حسنة فله أجرها وأجر من عمل بها من بعده من غير أن ينقص من أجورهم شيء ومن سن في الإسلام سنة سيئة كان عليه وزرها ووزر من عمل بها من بعده من غير أن ينقص من أوزارهم شيء

Whoever initiates a good practice in Islam will receive its reward as well as the reward of those who practice upon it after him, without their reward being diminished in the least. Whoever initiates a bad practice in Islam will receive its sin as well as the sin of those who practice upon it after him, without their sin being diminished in the least.[9]

 

  • Technical Definition of al Sunnah

Its definition differs according to the terminologists:

According to the Muhaddithin:

 

ما أثر عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم من قول أو فعل أو تقرير أو صفة خلقية أو خلقية أو سيرة سواء كان ذلك قبل البعثة أو بعدها

A statement, action, endorsement, physical description, behavioural quality, or biographical aspect attributed to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, immaterial of whether this was before or after appointment [as Nabi].[10]

 

According to the Usuliyyin:

 

ما نقل عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم من قول أو فعل أو تقرير

A statement, action, or endorsement transmitted from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[11]

 

According to the Fuqaha’ [Jurists]:

 

ما ثبت عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم من حكم وهو دون الفرض والواجب

A verdict established from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, lesser than fard and wajib.[12]

 

Sunnah is also used to refer to the action of the Sahabah. It is also used in contrast to bid’ah (innovation).[13]

Sunnah is also applicable to Shari’ah and Din. Ibn Taymiyyah explains:

 

السنة هي الشريعة وهو ماشرعه الله ورسوله من الدين

Sunnah is the Shari’ah, i.e. the Din Allah and His Messenger prescribed.[14]

 

Sunnah in the chapter of belief – The purport of it: the way of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his Companions—may Allah be pleased with them all, free from doubts in beliefs, especially the aspects of belief in Allah, His angels, His books, His Messengers, the Last Day, the issues of Destiny, and the merits of the Sahabah.[15]

Imam al Shafi’i rahimahu Llah explains this meaning:

 

القول في السنة التي أنا عليها ورأيت عليها الذين رأيتهم مثل سفيان ومالك وغيرهما الإقرار بشهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله وأن الله على عرشه في سمائه يقرب من خلقه كيف شاء وينزل إلى السماء الدنيا كيف شاء

The meaning of Sunnah upon which I am and upon which I have seen the [distinguished men] like Sufyan, Malik, etc., is attestation to the testimony that there is no deity besides Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger, that Allah is above His Throne in His sky, He draws close to His creation as He pleases, and He descends to the lowest sky as He wishes.[16]

 

Hafiz Ibn Rajab[17] rahimahu Llah enlightens:

 

السنة هي الطريقة المسلوكة فيشمل ذلك التمسك بما كان عليه هو وخلفاؤه الراشدون من الاعتقادات والأعمال والأقوال وهذه في السنة الكاملة ولهذا كان السلف قديما لا يطلقون اسم السنة إلا على ما يشمل ذلك كله وروي معنى ذلك عن الحسن والأوزاعي والفضيل بن عياض

Sunnah is the treated path. This includes adhering to the beliefs, actions, and statements he and his rightly-guided successors were upon. This is regarding the complete Sunnah. Hence, the pious predecessors would formerly not apply sunnah except to that which includes all of this. This meaning is reported from Hassan[18], al Awza’i[19], and Fudayl ibn ‘Iyad[20].[21]

 

Experts of knowledge have written books on belief with the title al Sunnah since the opposer in this is upon great danger and upon the brink of annihilation. Hafiz Ibn Rajab rahimahu Llah states:

 

وكثير من العلماء المتأخرين يخص السنة بما يتعلق بالاعتقاد لأنها أصل الدين والمخالف فيها على خطر عظيم

Many of the latter ‘Ulama’ specify Sunnah to that which deals with belief, as it is the fundamental of din and the opposer in it is in great danger.[22]

 

Definition of Ahlus Sunnah

They are the pious predecessors and Imams of the Ummah, viz. the Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, those who follow them in goodness, and all the believers who adhere to their method, emulate them, and follow their path while adhering to their actions and traditions until the Day of Qiyamah.[23]

Ibn Hazm writes:

 

وأهل السنة الذين نذكرهم أهل حق ومن عداهم فأهل البدعة فإنهم الصحابة رضي الله عنهم وكل من سلك نهجهم من خيار التابعين رحمة الله عليهم ثم أصحاب الحديث ومن تبعهم من الفقهاء جيلا فجيلا إلى يومنا هذا ومن اقتدى بهم من العوام في شرق الأرض وغربها رحمة الله عليهم

The Ahlus Sunnah we speak of are the adherents of truth whereas all besides them are men of innovation. They [the Ahlus Sunnah] are the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, all the outstanding Tabi’in—Allah’s mercy be upon them—who tread their way, then the masters of Hadith and the Jurists who followed them generation after generation to this day, as well as the masses in the east and west of the world who emulated them—may Allah’s mercy be upon them.[24]

 

Ibn Taymiyyah expounds:

 

هم المتمسكون بكتاب الله وسنة رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم وما اتفق عليه السابقون الأولون من المهاجرين والأنصار والذين اتبعوهم بإحسان

They are those who adhere strictly to the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and what the first forerunners among the Muhajirin and Ansar and those who followed them in goodness unanimously agreed to.[25]

 

‘Allamah Ibn Sa’di rahimahu Llah defines them:

 

فأهل السنة المحضة السالمون من البدع الذين تمسكوا بما كان عليه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وأصحابه في الأصول كلها أصول التوحيد والرسالة والقدر ومسائل الإيمان وغيرها وغيرهم من خوارج ومعتزلة وجهمية وقدرية ورافضة ومرجئة ومن تفرع عنهم كلهم من أهل البدع الاعتقادية

The adherents of the pure Sunnah are safe from innovations, those who adhere to all the fundamentals the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his Companions were upon—the fundamentals of Tawhid (Oneness of Allah), Risalah (Prophethood), Qadr (Destiny), and the aspects of faith and other. All sects besides them, including the Khawarij, Mu’tazilah, Jahmiyyah, Qadariyyah, Rafidah, Murji’ah, and those who splintered from these are men of ideological innovation.[26]

 

The term Ahlus Sunnah is one of the Shar’i terms. It is not from the modern, innovated terms to which the adherents of innovation and passions affiliate or the terms which the adherents of falsehood apply to the adherents of truth to deter from them.

Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma articulates this meaning in the commentary of Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala statement:

 

يَوۡمَ تَبۡيَضُّ وُجُوهٞ وَتَسۡوَدُّ وُجُوهٞۚ فَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسۡوَدَّتۡ وُجُوهُهُمۡ أَكَفَرۡتُم بَعۡدَ إِيمَٰنِكُمۡ فَذُوقُواْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَكۡفُرُونَ

On the Day [some] faces will turn white and [some] faces will turn black. As for those whose faces turn black, [to them it will be said], “Did you disbelieve after your belief? Then taste the punishment for what you used to reject.”[27]

 

فأما الذين ابيضت وجوههم فأهل السنة والجماعة وأولو العلم وأما الذين اسودت وجوههم فأهل البدع والضلال

Those whose faces are illuminated are the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah and those possessing [sound] knowledge. Those whose faces are blackened are the adherents of innovations and deviation.[28]

 

Sa’id ibn Jubayr[29] rahimahu Llah comments on Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala statement:

 

وَإِنِّي لَغَفَّارٞ لِّمَن تَابَ وَءَامَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَٰلِحٗا ثُمَّ ٱهۡتَدَىٰ

But indeed, I am the Perpetual Forgiver of whoever repents and believes and does righteousness and then continues in guidance.[30]

 

استقام على السنة والجماعة

They remained steadfast upon the Sunnah and the Jama’ah.[31]

 

The term Ahlus Sunnah according to the ‘Ulama’ has two applications:

The first: It is applied to and directed at one who affirms the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Thus, all sects will enter it, besides the Rafidah.

The second: It is applied to and directed at the pure Ahlus Sunnah. Thus, none enters it besides one who believes in the beliefs of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah, including affirming Allah’s qualities, viewing the Qur’an as revealed and not created, believing that Allah will be seen in the Hereafter, affirming Qadr (Destiny), and other beliefs well-known according to the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah.[32]

They are named Ahlus Sunnah as they adhere to the Sunnah of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, practice upon it, and practice upon its demands. They are also named al Jama’ah as they united upon the truth and adhered to it and they followed the tracks of the group of Muslims—i.e. the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, Tabi’in, and their followers—who adhere to the Sunnah coupled with uniting upon the one to whom Allah handed over their affairs, without breaking the pole of obedience, as the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed them.

They are also called al Ta’ifah al Mansurah (the Assisted Group) and al Firqah al Najiyah (the Saved Sect) due to the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declarations:

 

ألا إن من قبلكم من أهل الكتاب افترقوا على اثنتين وسبعين ملة وإن هذه الملة ستفترق على ثلاث وسبعين اثنتان وسبعون في النار وواحدة في الجنة وهي الجماعة

Harken! Certainly, the people of the book before you split into seventy-two sects. This nation will split into seventy-three: seventy-two in Hell and one in Jannat and it is the Jama’ah.[33]

 

لا تزال طائفة من أمتي ظاهرين على الحق لا يضرهم من خذلهم حتى يأتي أمر الله وهو ظاهرون

A group of my Ummah will remain triumphant upon the truth. Those who desert them will not harm them until Allah’s decision comes while they are triumphant.[34]

 

Ibn Taymiyyah writes:

 

أما بعد فهذا اعتقاد الفرقة الناجية المنصورة إلى قيام الساعة أهل السنة والجماعة

After introductory points, this is the belief of the saved sect, assisted until the Day of Qiyamah: the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah.[35]

 

They are also named Ahl al Hadith as they adhere to and follow the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Hadith and traditions. The term is not confined to one who devotes his attention to the Hadith in terms of knowledge. Rather, it includes all those who are steadfast on the Sunnah, the companions of Hadith, and others.

Ibn Taymiyyah explains:

 

ونحن لا نعني بأهل الحديث المقتصرين على سماعه أو كتابته أو روايته بل نعني بهم كل من كان أحق بحفظه ومعرفته وفهمه ظاهرا وباطنا

We do not intend by the term Ahl al Hadith only those who are involved in its listening, writing, or transmitting. Rather, we intend all those who are most entitled to its memorisation, recognition, and comprehension, externally and internally.[36]

 

Imam al Lalaka’i[37] rahimahu Llah enlightens on who the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah are:

 

فهي الطائفة المنصورة والفرقة الناجية والعصبة الهادية والجماعة العادلة المتمسكة بالسنة التي لا تريد برسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بديلا ولا عن قوله تبديلا ولا عن سنته تحويلا ولا يثنيهم عنها تقلب الأعصار والزمان … ولا يصرفهم عن سمتها ابتداع من كاد الإسلام ليصد عن سبيل الله ويبغيها عوجا

They are the assisted group, the saved sect, the guided party, and the just faction adhering firmly to the Sunnah, who do not wish for any substitute to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, any change to his word, or any movement away from his Sunnah. The changing of eras and time does not divert them from it. The innovation of one who plots against Islam to stop from the path of Allah and seeks crookedness therein does not turn them away from its direction.[38]

Definition of the term Rafidah

Al Rafd lexically means: abandonment/rejection. Rafadtu al shay’: I abandoned/rejected the thing.[39]

Technically: Those who reject the Imamah of Sheikhayn—Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma—and reject the majority of the Sahabah, dissociate from them, abuse them, disparage them, and excommunicate the four Imams, except ‘Ali, ‘Ammar, Miqdad, and Salman.[40]

Ibn Taymiyyah educates:

 

وهؤلاء الرافضة كفرت أبا بكر وعمر وعثمان وعامة المهاجرين والأنصار الذين اتبعوهم بإحسان الذين رضي الله عنهم ورضوا عنه وكفروا جماهير أمة محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم من المتقدمين والمتأخرين

These Rafidah excommunicated Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, and the general Muhajirin and Ansar, those who followed them in goodness, those with whom Allah is pleased and they are pleased with Him. They excommunicated the overwhelming majority of Muhammad’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Ummah, including the early and latter personalities.[41]

 

The researchers among the ‘Ulama’ suppose that the reason behind applying the name to the Rafidah is their desertion of Zaid ibn ‘Ali[42] after being part of his army. Zaid ibn ‘Ali rahimahu Llah would give superiority to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu over all the Sahabah of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; however, when he heard some of his comrades insulting Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, he rejected that. Thus, those who pledged allegiance to him deserted him. He said to them, “Rafadtumuni (You deserted me.)” Hence, they were called Rafidah due to their rafd (desertion) of Zaid ibn ‘Ali.[43]

The first to innovate Rafd was ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’, the Jew.[44] He portrayed Islam, yet concealed Judaism. He publicised extremism regarding ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu by claiming Imamah and infallibility for him, with the intention to corrupt Islam—just as Bulas[45], the Jew, did to corrupt the religion of the Christians.[46]

This indicates that this sect existed before their involvement with Zaid ibn ‘Ali, in the sense that their ‘aqidah (belief) was Rafd, due to their saturation from the ideologies of ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’ and their complete denunciation from partisanship for the Ahlul Bayt, which was an expression for love and mutual assistance. However, when they deserted Zaid, they were labelled Rafidah. Thus, division between them was obtained. From that date, the Rafidah become a distinct sect common with its name and beliefs.[47]

Based upon this, it becomes evident that the reason for them being labelled Rafidah is due to their desertion of din, rejection of majority of the Sahabah, and denunciation of the Imamah of Abu Bakr al Siddiq and ‘Umar ibn al Khattab—may Allah be pleased with them all.[48]

A common error that is made is to use the word al Shia when referring to the Rafidah without specifying this term. This is because this term [al Shia] compounds them with the early Shia who lived in the time of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and after. These were unanimous on the superiority of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar over ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum. They only considered ‘Ali superior to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Although they are erroneous in this, there were plenty men of knowledge and excellence among them.[49]

Ibn Taymiyyah writes:

 

ولهذا كانت الشيعة المتقدمون الذين صحبوا عليا أو كانوا في ذلك الزمان لم يتنازعوا في تفضيل أبي بكر وعمر وإنما كان نزاعهم في تفضيل علي وعثمان

Therefore, the early Shia who accompanied ‘Ali or were in that time did not dispute over the superiority of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. Their dispute was about the superiority of ‘Ali and ‘Uthman.[50]

 

Imam al Dhahabi rahimahu Llah says:

 

فالشيعي الغالي في زمن السلف وعرفهم هو من تكلم في عثمان والزبير وطلحة ومعاوية وطائفة ممن حارب عليا وتعرض لسبهم والغالي في زماننا وعرفنا هو الذي يكفر هؤلاء السادة ويتبرأ من الشيخين أيضا فهذا ضال مفتر

The extremist Shia in the time and usage of the pious predecessors was one who spoke negatively about ‘Uthman, Talhah, Muawiyah, and a group of those who battled ‘Ali, and went on to abuse them. The fanatic in our time and usage is one who excommunicates these leaders and also dissociates from Sheikhayn (Abu Bakr and ‘Umar). Such an individual is deviant, a slanderer.[51]

 

Some Rafidah believe that the term Rafidah was coined by their opponents, the Ahlus Sunnah, to take vengeance from them. Muhsin al Amin[52] states:

 

الرافضة لقب ينبز به من يقدم عليا في الخلافة وأكثر ما يستعمل للتشفي والانتقام

Rafidah is a title given derisively to one who places ‘Ali at the head of the Caliphate. It is mostly used to satisfy one’s thirst for revenge and vengeance.[53]

 

However, this proposition is incorrect. There are narrations in their books which affirm that they were named such. It is reported that Jafar al Sadiq[54] stated:

 

إن الرافضة هم سبعون رجلا من بني إسرائيل رفضوا فرعون وقومه لما لحقوا بموسى فسموا في عسكر موسى الرافضة لأنهم رفضوا فرعون فأوحى الله لموسى أن يثبت لهم اسم الرافضة في التوراة

The Rafidah are seventy men from the Banu Isra’il who rejected Firoun and his people when they joined Musa. They were thus called Rafidah in Musa’s army as they rejected Firoun. Allah thus revealed to Musa to establish the name Rafidah for them in the Torah.[55]

 

Shia Sheikh al Majlisi[56] sets up a chapter in his book Bihar al Anwar he titles: chapter on the merit of the Rafidah and the glorification of being named such. He cites a few narrations regarding the glory of being named Rafidah. One of them is reported from Abu Basir who says:

 

قلت لأبي جعفر عليه السلام جعلت فداك اسم سمينا به استحلت به الولاة دماءنا وأموالنا وعذابنا قال ما هو قلت الرافضة فقال جعفر إن سبعين رجلا من عسكر موسى عليه السلام لم يكن في قوم موسى أشد اجتهادا وأشد حبا لهارون منهم فسماهم قوم موسى الرافضة فأوحى الله إلى موسى أن أثبت لهم هذا الاسم في التوراة فإني نحلتهم وذلك اسم قد نحلكموه الله

I complained to Abu Jafar ‘alayh al Salam, “May I be sacrificed for you. We have been given a name through which the rulers consider our blood, wealth, and chastisement permissible.”

“What is it,” he asked.

I replied, “Al Rafidah.”

Jafar explained, “Indeed, seventy men from Musa’s ‘alayh al Salam army were the most hard-working and had the deepest love for Harun from all. Musa’s people named them the Rafidah. Consequently, Allah revealed to Musa, ‘Establish this name for them in the Torah as I have attributed it to them.’ This is a name which Allah attributed to you.”[57]

 

As if they wished to beautify the name in their hearts and the hearts of their followers through this, after being applied to them condescendingly and mockingly.[58]

This is to what their books testify. Accordingly, it is only correct to label them Rafidah and not to name them Shia unrestrictedly—as this contains ambiguity and indistinctness—or they should be called Shia with the qualification Imamiyyah or Ithna ‘Ashariyyah.[59]

 

NEXT⇒ The Meaning of al Sahabi according to the Ahlus Sunnah and Rafidah in brief


[1] He is Ahmed ibn Faris ibn Zakariyya ibn Muhammad ibn Habib al Qazwini, known as al Razi, Abu al Hussain al Maliki, the Linguist. He was born in Qazwin in 329 AH and passed away in Rayy in Safar 395 AH. The most outstanding books of his are: Mujam Maqayis al Lughah, Jami’ al Ta’wil, and al Sahabi. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 17 pg. 103 – 105.)

[2] Mujam Maqayis al Lughah, vol. 1 pg. 150 – 151.

[3] Mujam Maqayis al Lughah, vol. 3 pg. 60 – 61.

[4] He is Muhammad ibn Mukarram ibn ‘Ali ibn Ahmed al Ansari al Afriqi then al Misri, Abu al Fadl Jamal al Din ibn Manzur, the Linguist. He was born in Egypt in 630 AH and passed away there in 711 AH. Lisan al ‘Arab, Mukhtar al Aghani, and Mukhtasar Mufradat Ibn al Baytar are some of his works. (Al Durar al Kaminah, vol. 2 pg. 262.)

[5] Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 3 pg. 2124.

[6] Surah Al ‘Imran: 137.

[7] He is Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn al Sari al Zajjaj al Baghdadi, Abu Ishaq, the Grammarian of his era. He remained with al Mubarrad who would favour him with a silver coin for the glasswork he did. He was from the masters of knowledge and literature. Abu ‘Ali al Farisi learnt the sciences of Arabic from him. He passed away in 311 AH. A weaker view suggests 316 AH. He authored Ma’ani al Qur’an, al ‘Urud, al Nawadir, etc. (Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 1 pg. 49; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 14 pg. 360.)

[8] Al Shawkani: Fath al Qadir, vol. 1 pg. 578.

[9] Sahih Muslim, vol. 7 pg. 144, book on Zakat, chapter encouraging charity even with a piece of a date, Hadith: 1017.

[10] Dr. Mustafa al Siba’i: Al Sunnah wa Makanatuha fi al Tashri’ al Islami, pg. 65.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Al Qadi Abu Ya’la al Farra’: Al ‘Uddah fi Usul al Fiqh, vol. 1 pg. 166.

[13] Al Shatibi: Al Muwafaqat, vol. 4 pg. 290.

[14] Majmu’ al Fatawa, vol. 4 pg. 436.

[15] Ibn Rajab: Kashf al Kurbah fi Mazhab Ahl al Ghurbah, pg. 320.

[16] Al Dhahabi: Kitab al ‘Ulu, pg. 436.

[17] He is ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Ahmed ibn Rajab al Baghdadi then al Dimashqi al Hanbali, the Muhaddith and Hafiz. He was born in Baghdad in 706 AH and passed away in Damascus in Rajab, 795 AH. From his works are Sharh al Tirmidhi, Jami’ al ‘Ulum wa al Hikam, and Fada’il al Sham. (Al Durar al Kaminah, vol. 2 pg. 321-322.)

[18] He is Hassan ibn Abi al Hassan Yasar, Abu Sa’id, the freed slave of Zaid ibn Thabit radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He was born in 21 AH and passed away in 110 AH. He is from the leaders of the Tabi’in. He mastered every science, knowledge, asceticism, and devotion. (Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 2 pg. 69; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 4 pg. 563.)

[19] He is ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Amr ibn Yahmed al Awza’i, Abu ‘Amr, the Jurist, ascetic, Imam of the people of Sham. He was born in Ba’labak in 88 AH and passed away in Beirut in 157 AH. He authored Kitab al Sunan. (Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 3 pg. 127.)

[20] He is Fudayl ibn ‘Iyad ibn Mas’ud ibn Yashr al Tamimi al Yarbu’i. He was an Imam, devout scholar, worshipper, and ascetic. He was trustworthy in Hadith. Born in Samarqand in 105 AH, he relocated to Makkah and passed away in the Haram in 187 AH. (Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 4 pg. 47-49; al Shadharat, vol. 2 pg. 399-400.)

[21] Ibn Rajab: Jami’ al ‘Ulum wa al Hikam, vol. 2 pg. 120.

[22] Jami’ al ‘Ulum wa al Hikam, vol. 2 pg. 120.

[23] ‘Ubaidullah ibn Sa’id al Sijzi: Risalat al Sijzi ila Ahl Zabid fi al Radd ‘ala man Ankara al Harf wa al Sawt, vol. 1 pg. 68; Majmu’ al Fatawa, vol. 12 pg. 191; al Dhahabi: Al ‘Arsh, vol. 1 pg. 11.

[24] Al Fasl fi al Milal wa al Nihal, vol. 2 pg. 271.

[25] Majmu’ al Fatawa, vol. 3 pg. 223.

[26] Al Fatawa al Sa’diyyah, pg. 63.

[27] Surah Al ‘Imran: 106.

[28] Al Ajurri: Al Shari’ah, vol. 5 pg. 2561; al Lalka’i: Sharh Usul Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah, vol. 1 pg. 79; al Dani: Al Risalah al Wafiyah li Mazhab Ahlus Sunnah fi al I’tiqadat wa Usul al Diyanat, vol. 1 pg. 264; Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 1 pg. 419; al Shatibi: Al I’tisam, vol. 1 pg. 80; al Shawkani: Fath al Qadir, vol. 1 pg. 559.

[29] He is Sa’id ibn Jubayr al Asadi al Kufi, Abu ‘Abdullah, the Mufassir (Exegetist), Faqih (Jurist), and Muhaddith. He is a Tabi’i who acquired knowledge from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar. He was born in 45 AH and was killed by Hajjaj in 95 AH at the age of 50. (Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 2 pg. 371; al Shadharat, vol. 1 pg. 382.)

[30] Surah Taha: 82.

[31] Al Baghawi: Ma’alim al Tanzil, vol. 3 pg. 270; Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 3 pg. 179; Tafsir al Mawardi (al Nukat wa al ‘Uyun), vol. 3 pg. 416; al Qurtubi: Al Jami’ li Ahkam al Qur’an, vol. 14 pg. 114.

[32] Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 2 pg. 221.

[33] Sunan Abi Dawood, book on Sunnah, chapter on the commentary of the Sunnah, vol. 2 pg. 608, Hadith: 4597. Al Albani categorised the hadith as sahih in Sahih al Jami’, vol. 1 pg. 516.

[34] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 13 pg. 306, book on adhering to the Book and Sunnah, chapter on there remaining a group of my Ummah triumphant upon the truth, Hadith: 7311; Sahih Muslim, vol. 13 pg. 97, book on leadership, chapter on there remaining a group of my Ummah triumphant upon the truth, Hadith: 1921.

[35] Ibn ‘Uthaymin: Sharh al ‘Aqidah al Wasitiyyah, vol. 1 pg. 48.

[36] Majmu’ al Fatawa, vol. 4 pg. 60.

[37] He is Hibat Allah ibn al Hassan ibn Mansur, al Tabari al Razi al Shafi’i, the Muhaddith of Baghdad. He is from the residents of Tabaristan. He settled in Baghdad but left during his last days to al Dinawar where he passed away in 418 AH. He has written Sharh Usul I’tiqad Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah and Karamat al Auliya’. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 17 pg. 419; al Shadharat, vol. 5 pg. 92-93.)

[38] Sharh Usul I’tiqad Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah, vol. 1 pg. 25.

[39] Maqayis al Lughah, vol. 2 pg. 422.

[40] Maqalat al Islamiyyin, vol. 1 pg. 88-89; Abu Ya’la: Tabaqat al Hanabilah, vol. 1 pg. 67.

[41] Majmu’ al Fatawa, vol. 28 pg. 261.

[42] He is Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. He was a personality endowed with knowledge, augustness, and righteousness. He reports from his father—Zayn al ‘Abidin, brother—al Baqir, and ‘Urwah ibn al Zubair. He was martyred in 120 AH at the approximate age of forty. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 5 pg. 389-391.)

[43] Maqalat al Islamiyyin, vol. 1 pg. 137; Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 1 pg. 34-35; Majmu’ al Fatawa, vol. 28 pg. 268.

[44] He is ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’—the head of the Saba’iyyah sect, one of the fanatical heretics. Deviated and a deviator. He is a Jew from the residents of Yemen who outwardly showed Islam and publicised his innovation to enter evil and dissention in the ranks of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. (Mizan al I’tidal, vol. 2 pg. 426; Lisan al Mizan, vol. 4 pg. 383-448.)

[45] He is one of the most prominent individuals of the first clerical in the history of Christianity. His name prior to embracing Christianity was Sha’ul. He was born in Tartus (modern day Turkiye) in a Jewish family. He became a teacher among them. He headed the campaign of pursuit of the first Christians to destroy the church in its inception. He then converted to Christianity and began preaching about al Masih, building churches, travelling the east and west of the world, and sending letters; founding a religion opposed to the Shari’ah of ‘Isa ‘alayh al Salam which he adopted from the Roman polytheists who prostrated to the sun and fire, the Barahimah, the Indians who believed in three basic elements, and the Greek Philosophers. Upon this, the Jews resented him and tried to kill him but were unsuccessful. In the year 67, he was detained in Rome and he consolidated therein. (Muhammad al A’zami: Dirasat fi al Adyan al Yahudiyyah wa al Nasraniyyah li Sa’ud al Khalaf wa Adyan al Hind, pg. 346; 26; Sami ibn ‘Abdullah al Maghluth: Atlas al Adyan, pg. 220.)

[46] Majmu’ al Fatawa, vol. 4 pg. 64; vol. 28 pg. 264.

[47] Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 1 pg. 35.

[48] Maqalat al Islamiyyin, vol. 1 pg. 89.

[49] Dr. al Rahili: Al Intisar li al Sahb wa al Al min Iftira’at al Samawi al Dall, pg. 22.

[50] Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 1 pg. 13.

[51] Mizan al I’tidal, vol. 1 pg. 6.

[52] He is Muhsin ibn ‘Abdul Karim ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al Amin al Hussaini al ‘Amili then al Dimashqi of the Rafidah Imamiyyah in Sham. He was born in the Shaqra’ village of Jabal ‘Amil in 1282 AH and died in Damascus in 1371 AH. He wrote A’yan al Shia and al Rahiq al Makhtum. (Al A’lam, vol. 5 pg. 287.)

[53] A’yan al Shia, vol. 1 pg. 20.

[54] He is Jafar ibn Muhammad al Baqir ibn ‘Ali, Zaid al ‘Abidin, ibn al Hussain al Sibt, al Hashimi al Qurashi, Abu ‘Abdullah, titled al Sadiq. He was born in 80 AH. He narrates from his father, Abu Jafar al Baqir, ‘Ubaidullah ibn Abi Rafi’, ‘Urwah ibn al Zubair, and ‘Ata’ ibn Abi Rabah. He passed away in 148 AH. He is the sixth of the twelve Imams according to the Imamiyyah. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 6 pg. 255-270; al Shadharat, vol. 2 pg. 216.)

[55] Al Kulayni: Al Kafi, vol. 8 pg. 33; al Saduq: Fada’il al Shia, pg. 20; al Mufid: Al Ikhtisas, pg. 104; al Majlisi: Bihar al Anwar, vol. 56 pg. 48.

[56] He is Muhammad ibn Baqir ibn Taqi ibn Maqsud ibn ‘Ali. He was born in 1037 AH and died in 1111 AH. He is from the Imamiyyah. He assumed sheikhdom of Islam in Asbahan. He authored Bihar al Anwar, Imamah, and other books. (Al A’lam, vol. 6 pg. 48-49.)

[57] Bihar al Anwar, vol. 65 pg. 96-97.

[58] Firaq Mu’asirah Tantasibu li al Islam, vol. 1 pg. 353-354.

[59] Al Intisar li al Sahb wa al Al min Iftira’at al Samawi al Dall, pg. 26.