Foreword

Abu Dharr al Ghifari Radiyallahu ‘anhu between the Ahlus Sunnah and Rafidah: A Doctrinal Study – NEW UPLOAD!!!
February 28, 2024
Introduction
February 28, 2024

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Foreword

 

All praise belongs to Allah, Creator and Sustainer of the worlds. Salutations and peace upon the cream of His creation, sent as a mercy to the worlds, his family, Companions, supporters, lovers, and those who follow them in goodness until the Day of Recompense.

No fair person will doubt the lofty status, elevated rank, sincere determination, composure, and sound guidance the Companions of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam possess. They personally witnessed the Wahi and revelation and were acquainted with its commentary and interpretation. They possessed the purest hearts, deepest knowledge, and least formalities of this Ummah. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala selected them for the companionship and assistance of His Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and for establishing His din. He appointed them as authorities and models for us. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares, highlighting their prestige and status:

 

مُّحَمَّدٞ رَّسُولُ ٱللَّهِۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ مَعَهُۥٓ أَشِدَّآءُ عَلَى ٱلۡكُفَّارِ رُحَمَآءُ بَيۡنَهُمۡۖ تَرَىٰهُمۡ رُكَّعٗا سُجَّدٗا يَبۡتَغُونَ فَضۡلٗا مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرِضۡوَٰنٗاۖ سِيمَاهُمۡ فِي وُجُوهِهِم مِّنۡ أَثَرِ ٱلسُّجُودِۚ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمۡ فِي ٱلتَّوۡرَىٰةِۚ وَمَثَلُهُمۡ فِي ٱلۡإِنجِيلِ كَزَرۡعٍ أَخۡرَجَ شَطۡـَٔهُۥ فَـَٔازَرَهُۥ فَٱسۡتَغۡلَظَ فَٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِۦ يُعۡجِبُ ٱلزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ ٱلۡكُفَّارَۗ وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّٰلِحَٰتِ مِنۡهُم مَّغۡفِرَةٗ وَأَجۡرًا عَظِيمَۢا

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure. Their sign is in their faces from the effect of prostration [i.e., prayer]. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers, so that He [i.e., Allah] may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward.[1]

 

He warned us of forsaking their path and not adhering to their guidance:

 

وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ ٱلرَّسُولَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ ٱلۡهُدَىٰ وَيَتَّبِعۡ غَيۡرَ سَبِيلِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِۦ مَا تَوَلَّىٰ وَنُصۡلِهِۦ جَهَنَّمَۖ وَسَآءَتۡ مَصِيرًا

And whoever opposes the Messenger after guidance has become clear to him and follows other than the way of the believers, We will give him what he has taken and drive him into Hell, and evil it is as a destination.[2]

 

They are the cream of this Ummah.

 

عن عمران بن حصين رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال خير أمتي قرني ثم الذين يلونهم ثم الذين يلونهم قال عمران فلا أدري أذكر بعد قرنه قرنين أو ثلاثة ثم إن بعدكم قوما يشهدون ولا يستشهدون ويخونون ولا يؤتمنون وينذرون ولا يوفون ويظهر فيهم السمن

‘Imran ibn Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated, “The best of my Ummah are those of my era, then the subsequent era, and then the subsequent era.”

‘Imran submits: I do not know whether he mentioned two or three eras after his.

“After you are a nation who will give testimony when the same is not sought from them, will be treacherous and will not be trusted, will vow but will not prove loyal, and obesity will become common among them.”[3]

 

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam therefore warned against reviling them or offending with them:

 

عن أبي سعيد الخدري رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا تسبوا أصحابي فلو أن أحدكم أنفق مثل أحد ذهبا ما بلغ مد أحدهم ولا نصيفه

Abu Sa’id al Khudri radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commanded, “Do not revile my Companions, for if any of you were to spend gold equivalent to Uhud, you would not reach their mudd, nor even half of it.”[4]

 

The Ahlus Sunnah adhere firmly to these texts. Their beliefs concerning the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum thus became fundamentals [of belief] which distinguish the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah from other sects and adherents of deviation.

There are some innovators and deviants who oppose this belief. They thus revile and curse the Companions of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. At the forefront of these are the Rafidah who have adopted this as their symbol and belief. Their books are replete with cursing and excommunicating the most superior generation and the frontrunners among the friends of Allah. This belief of theirs has become so obvious that it cannot be concealed behind Taqiyyah, especially in current times when their narrations are submerged in this disbelief.

Ibn Taymiyyah states:

 

وأصل قول الرافضة … وأن المهاجرين والأنصار كتموا النص وكفروا بالإمام المعصوم واتبعوا أهواءهم وبدلوا الدين وغيروا الشريعة وظلموا واعتدلوا بل كفروا إلا نفرا قليلا

The original stance of the Rafidah… is that the Muhajirin and Ansar concealed the textual evidence, disbelieved in the infallible Imam, followed their desires, adulterated the din, changed the Shari’ah, oppressed, and went astray; in fact, they disbelieved, except a small group.[5]

 

Among these whom the Rafidah exclude [from this excommunication] is the eminent Companion Sayyidina Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He, according to them, is one of the four pillars who confirmed their loyalty to Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu after the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam departure. He was one of the Muhajirin who publicised the outstanding traits of the Ahlul Bayt and the defects of their enemies.[6]

The Rafidah exploited the differences that occurred between Sayyidina Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu and some of the Sahabah—like Sayyidina ‘Uthman and Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma—and gave an evil image to it. They depicted this eminent Companion as a rebel to the governors, oppressed, displaced, and one deprived of his rights. They depicted ‘Uthman and Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma as oppressive governors, playing with the affairs of the Ummah. This, with a wicked objective in mind, spelt out by Imam Malik rahimahu Llah in his words:

 

إنما هؤلاء أقوام أرادوا القدح في النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فلم يمكنهم ذلك فقدحوا في أصحابه حتى يقال رجل سوء ولو كان رجلا صالحا لكان أصحابه صالحين

These are such persons who intended to disparage the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but were unable to. They thus resorted to disparaging his Companions, so that it would be said that he was an evil man and if he had been righteous, his Companions would have been righteous.[7]

 

Imam Abu Zur’ah al Razi[8] rahimahu Llah announces:

 

إذا رأيت الرجل ينتقص أحدا من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فاعلم أنه زنديق وذلك أن الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم عندنا حق والقرآن حق وإنما أدى إلينا هذا القرآن والسنن أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وإنما يريدون أن يجرحوا شهودنا ليبطلوا الكتاب والسنة والجرح بهم أولى

When you see a man degrading any of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, then realise he is a heretic. This is because the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is true according to us and the Qur’an is true. Only and only the Companions of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam transmitted the Qur’an and Sunnah practices to us. They (those who degrade the Sahabah) only seek to declare our witnesses unreliable so that they may abolish the Book and Sunnah. Declaring them (those who degrade the Sahabah) unreliable is more befitting.[9]

 

Based on this deception the Rafidah have employed, the lofty position of Sayyidina Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu in the eyes of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah, and the abundance of doubts created in relation to him by the Rafidah, I felt it appropriate to highlight the reputation and merits of this eminent Sahabi radiya Llahu ‘anhu in the sight of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah, elucidate on the belief of the Rafidah, list the doubts they spread about him, and refute these in accordance to the technique of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah in a treatise titled: Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu between the Ahlus Sunnah and Rafidah – a doctrinal study.

 

The Significance of the Topic and the Reasons behind its Selection

  1. This discussion covers Sayyidina Abu Dharr al Ghifari’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu prestige among the Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. It is of utmost importance to publicise the merits of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and defend them.
  2. The importance of revealing and exposing the reality of the Rafidah’s stance on Sayyidina Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
  3. The magnitude of expounding on the standpoint of the Ahlus Sunnah in matters raised about Sayyidina Abu Dharr al Ghifari’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu
  4. I have not come across an academic treatise clarifying the doctrinal stance of the Rafidah on Sayyidina Abu Dharr al Ghifari’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu

Objective behind Studying the Topic

Highlighting the excellence of the eminent Sahabi, Sayyidina Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and his merits in the sight of the Ahlus Sunnah and clarifying the belief of the Rafidah and the misconceptions they raised about him as well as refuting them.

 

Previous Studies

Through research, asking the duly qualified, and discussing at the universities through the medium of the guide to the comprehensive treatises, I have not come across an academic treatise covering this topic and discussing it from a doctrinal angle. There are treatises and books; however, not purely doctrinal. Moreover, they do not elucidate on the Rafidah’s stance and doubts about the eminent Sahabi, Sayyidina Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu, or the books are mainly on his biography and life while some deal with political, historical, and other sciences. Some of these are:

  1. Researcher Huwaydah Zaghlul: Abu Dharr al Ghifari Hayatuhu wa Ahadithuhu (Abu Dharr al Ghifari: His Life and Narrations). A masterful study in Alexandria which is connected to ahadith or the science of terminology.
  2. Nasir ‘Ali al Sheikh: ‘Aqidat Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah fi al Sahabah al Kiram (The Belief of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah concerning the Noble Companions). His discussion on Abu Dharr is extremely concise, not more than four pages.
  3. ‘Abdul Qadir Muhammad ‘Ata’ Sufi: Mawqif al Rafidah al Ithnay ‘Ashariyyah min al Sahabah (The Stance of the Rafidah Ithna ‘Ashariyyah on the Sahabah). This is a master thesis. It does not contain a discussion [specifically] on Abu Dharr al Ghifari.
  4. ‘Abdul Majid Muhammad al Aqtash: Abu Dharr al Ghifari wa Ara’uhu fi al Siyasah (Abu Dharr al Ghifari and his Views on Politics). It is a master thesis in the al Azhar University, the College of Shari’ah and Law. This treatise is not connected to the [current] discussion.
  5. Researcher ‘Adil al Mulhim: Al ‘Alaqah bayn Al al Bayt wa al Sahabah fi Daw’ Mu’taqad Ahlus Sunnah wa Ma Yuwafiq Dhalik ‘ind al Imamiyyah (The Relationship between the Ahlul Bayt and Sahabah in the light of the beliefs of the Ahlus Sunnah and what conforms to this according to the Imamiyyah). It is a master thesis in the King Sa’ud University.
  6. Researcher ‘Aliyah al Qarni: Al ‘Alaqah bayn Al al Bayt wa al Sahabah Muqaranah bayn Ahlus Sunnah wa al Shia al Ithnay ‘Ashariyyah (The Relationship between the Ahlul Bayt and Sahabah compared between the Ahlus Sunnah and Shia Ithna ‘Ashariyyah). This is a doctoral dissertation in the Umm al Qura University.

 

The above two theses cover the relationship between the Ahlul Bayt and Sahabah from a general angle. They do not venture into the Rafidah’s stance on the Sahabi, Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and the doubts spread about him.

  1. Researcher Ahmed Lisan al Haqq: Al Sahabi al Jalil Abu Dharr al Ghifari Radiya Allah ‘anhu wa Naw’ Ishtirakiyyatihi (The Eminent Sahabi Abu Dharr al Ghifari Radiya Allah ‘anhu and the Nature of his Socialism). It is a master thesis in Dar al Hadith al Hassaniyyah in Morocco.
  2. Researcher ‘Abdul Karim al Tuwayjiri: Abu Dharr al Ghifari wa Ara’uhu al Fiqhiyyah fi al ‘Ibadat (Abu Dharr al Ghifari and his Jurisprudential Views on Forms of Worship).
  3. ‘Abdul Hamid Jawdah al Sahhar: Abu Dharr al Ghifari Radiya Allah ‘anhu wa al Ishtirakiyyah fi al Islam (Abu Dharr al Ghifari Radiya Allah ‘anhu and Socialism in Islam).
  4. Abu Dharr al Ghifari Radiya Allah ‘anhu Jadaliyyat al Dhat wa al Mujtama’ (Abu Dharr al Ghifari Radiya Allah ‘anhu: Controversial Being and Society), Majallat al Majma’ al ‘Ilmi al ‘Iraqi.
  5. Sadiq al Jamili: Min A’lam al ‘Arifin Abu Dharr al Ghifari (From the Outstanding Recognisers Abu Dharr al Ghifari), Majallat al Tarbiyah al Islamiyyah.
  6. Mahmud Shalbi: Hayat Abi Dhar al Ghifari Radiya Allah ‘anhu (The Life of Abu Dharr al Ghifari Radiya Allah ‘anhu).
  7. ‘Abdul Halim Mahmud: Abu Dharr al Ghifari wa al Shuyu’iyyah (Abu Dharr al Ghifari and Communism).
  8. Hassani Sheikh ‘Uthman: Hadha Abu Dharr al Ghifari Radiya Allah ‘anhu (This is Abu Dharr al Ghifari Radiya Allah ‘anhu).
  9. Khalid Muhammad: Abu Dharr al Ghifari Radiya Allah ‘anhu.
  10. Qadari Qal’aji: Abu Dharr al Ghifari Radiya Allah ‘anhu.
  11. ‘Ali Nasir al Din: Abu Dharr al Ghifari Radiya Allah ‘anhu.

 

There are other treatises and books. However, they are not on the methodology of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah, but rather on the methodology of the Rafidah. Some of these are:

  1. Researcher Riyad ‘Abdul Hussain Radi: Mu’aradat Abi Dhar al Ghifari (al Dawafi’ wa al Asbab wa al Nata’ij wa al Athar), Wasit University, History section, a Shia treatise.
  2. Musa Mushtaq Muhsin: Abu Dharr Tha’ir al ‘Adalah al Islamiyyah wa Shahiduha.
  3. ‘Ali Hubb Allah: Abu Dharr al Ghifari wa Nisbat al Tashayyu’ fi Jabal ‘Amil Ilayh.
  4. Muhammad Jawwad Taqi al Faqih: Abu Dharr al Ghifari.

 

Of the most outstanding additions of this treatise are the following:

  1. Highlighting the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah’s belief on the Sahabi Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu and elucidating on the true nature of the dispute that took place between him and the majority of the Sahabah—may Allah be pleased with them all.
  2. Encompassing and gathering the doubts of the Rafidah concerning this Sahabi and refuting them according to the style of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah.

 

Layout of the Treatise

I divided the treatise into a foreword, an introduction, three sections, a conclusion, and an index.

 

Foreword

The significance of the topic and the reasons behind its selection, the object behind writing on the topic, previous studies, layout of the treatise, and the methodology I adopted in writing the treatise.

 

Introduction

  • Determination of the terminologies: Ahlus Sunnah and Rafidah in brief.
  • The meaning of al Sahabi according to the Ahlus Sunnah and Rafidah in brief.
  • Sources in discovering the reports on the Sahabah.
  • The reputation of the Sahabah in the sight of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah.

 

Section 1: Abu Dharr al Ghifari according to the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah.

This contains three discussions:

Discussion 1: The biography of Abu Dharr al Ghifari according to the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah.

Discussion 2: The merits of Abu Dharr al Ghifari according to the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah. This contains two points.

Point 1: The ahadith reported on his merits.

Point 2: The statements of the Sahabah and the Pious Predecessors of the Ummah about him.

Discussion 3: The relationship between Abu Dharr al Ghifari and the remaining Sahabah.

 

Section 2: Abu Dharr al Ghifari according to the Rafidah.

This contains two discussions:

Discussion 1: The Rafidah’s stance on the Sahabah in brief.

Discussion 2: Abu Dharr al Ghifari’s status in the sight of the Rafidah and the reasons behind their feigning to defend him.

 

Section 3: The doubts of the Rafidah on the Sahabi Abu Dharr al Ghifari and their refutation.

This contains three discussions:

Discussion 1: His stance on Abu Bakr al Siddiq’s Caliphate.

Discussion 2: His stance on ‘Uthman and Muawiyah.

Discussion 3: Abu Dharr al Ghifari’s relationship with the Ahlul Bayt.

 

Conclusion

This covers the most important conclusions I reached in this treatise.

 

Methodology

  1. The methodology of the treatise will be investigative and analytical with usage of critical examination. This will take place in the following manner:
  2. Gathering scattered academic content from the books of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah.
  3. Examining and analysing the statements of the Rafidah regarding the Sahabi Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu from sources considered reliable by them.
  4. Analysing and critically examining the texts and refuting them with the technique of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah.
  5. Documenting Qur’anic verses and referencing them to their chapters.
  6. Documenting prophetic ahadith and referencing them to their sources coupled with revealing the experts’ verdict on the ahadith that do not appear in Sahih al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.
  7. Authentication of references from their original sources, whether from the books of the Ahlus Sunnah or Rafidah.
  8. Commentary of uncommon words in the footnotes.
  9. Biography of lesser-known scholars. If I did not find a biography, I revealed this. Likewise, briefly introducing places and sects.
  10. Setting up an academic index (verses, ahadith, athar (statements), eminent personalities whose biographies are mentioned, references, and topics).

 

Gratitude and Appreciation

Firstly, I praise Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala for His help and granting of ability to complete this treatise. Everything correct is from Allah. Any fault is from my carnal self and Shaitan; Allah and His Messenger are free from it.

I extend my appreciation to my honourable parents. Their grace upon me has been extensive. May Allah reward them with the best recompense and the greatest reward and elevate their status in the gardens of bliss.

Fulfilling the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instruction, “Whoever does not thank people does not thank Allah,”[10] I record my gratitude and appreciation to his excellence Ustadh Dr. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Abdullah al Turku, the supervisor of this treatise, who spent a great amount of his time and effort. His views and guidance have had a great impact on the development of this treatise. May Allah place what he prepared for me in his scales of good deeds.

Then, I extent gratitude and appreciation to Jami’at al Imam Muhammad ibn Sa’ud al Islamiyyah, representative in the College of Usul al Din, in the section of ‘Aqidah and contemporary mazahib, for the great benefit I found from them in serving knowledge and the people of knowledge, the promotion of the treatise and the academic acquisition.

I record my gratitude and appreciation to his excellence Ustadh Dr. ‘Umar ibn Sa’ud al ‘Id and his excellence Ustadh Dr. Hamd ibn ‘Abdul Muhsin al Tuwayjiri, who were so kind to accept proofreading this treatise and the benefit I gained from their valuable guidance and corrections. May Allah reward them with the best reward from me.

I do not forget to express my gratitude to all my teachers and colleagues who assisted me in this treatise with advices and suggestions. May Allah reward them abundantly.

I beseech Allah, the Grand, to favour us with sincerity in word and action, to bless our actions and lives, and to make our end favourable. Indeed, He is over everything, Powerful, and appropriate to answer. And all praise belongs to Allah, Rabb of the worlds.

May Allah send salutations upon our Nabi Muhammad, his family, and all his Companions.

 

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[1] Surah al Fath: 29.

[2] Surah al Nisa’: 115.

[3] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 5 pg. 7, book on the excellence of the Sahabah, chapter on the merit of the Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Hadith: 3650; Sahih Muslim, vol. 16 pg. 131, book on the excellence of the Sahabah, chapter on the merit of the Companions, Hadith: 2535.

[4] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 7 pg. 25, book on the excellence of the Sahabah, chapter on the merit of Abu Bakr, Hadith: 3673; Sahih Muslim, vol. 16 pg. 139, book on the excellence of the Sahabah, chapter on the prohibition of swearing the Companions, Hadith: 2541.

[5] Ibn Taymiyyah: Majmu’ al Fatawa, vol. 2 pg. 221.

[6] Al Mufid: Al Ikhtisas, pg. 6.

[7] Al Sarim al Maslul, pg. 580.

[8] He is ‘Ubaidullah ibn ‘Abdul Karim ibn Yazid ibn Farrukh al Makhzumi, one of the Imams and Huffaz (of Hadith), an Imam from the Imams of the Sunnah and Hadith. He sat in the company of Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal. He was born in 200 AH and passed away in Rayy in 264 AH. (Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 4 pg. 22; Mujam al Mu’allifin, vol. 2 pg. 351.)

[9] Al Kifayah fi ‘Ilm al Riwayah, pg. 49.

[10] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 3 pg. 32; Sunan al Tirmidhi, vol. 4 pg. 299, book on piety and relation, chapter on gratitude towards the one who does good to you, the narration of Abu Sa’id al Khudri. Al Tirmidhi labelled it hassan. Al Albani labelled it sahih in Sahih al Jami’, vol. 2 pg. 1114, Hadith: 6541.