Biography of Sayyidina Zubair ibn al-`Awwam – NEW UPLOAD!

Sayyidina Zubair ibn al-`Awwam radiya Llahu `anhu

 

The Disciple of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, his Cousin, the Unparalleled

 

Sayyidina Zubair ibn al-`Awwam radiya Llahu `anhu was one of the Ten Promised Jannat who had an ardent desire for martyrdom and was passionate about giving his life in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala. He was a man of firmness without leniency, determination without lassitude, and conviction without uncertainty; Sayyidina Zubair ibn al-`Awwam radiya Llahu `anhu, the disciple of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and his dear cousin.

The time has come to gain proximity to him and realise his grand personality and observe highlights of his valour and jihad, the effects of his contribution towards this religion and the ummah, and to realise the quality that entered him in the rows of the noted heroes and the Ten Promised Jannat, of enjoyment upon the tongue of the noble Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam through revelation from the Grand Master subhanahu wa ta `ala.

In the beginning, if we want to label Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu with a title which covers the most significant aspects of his personality, we would say: nasij wahdah: unparalleled.

This word will probably be one of the marks for Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu and a key to his personality. A man with self-confidence, relied upon after Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala. This confidence and self-honour was employed in the service of din by Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu. This is an aspect we will observe while discussing him in the forthcoming pages.

 

Name and Lineage

He is Zubair ibn al-`Awwam ibn Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn `Abd al-`Uzza ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ibn Ka`b ibn Lu’ayy al-Qurashi al-Asadi. His mother is Safiyyah bint `Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn `Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy.[1]

His lineage meets with Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam lineage from both his mother’s and father’s side. From his father’s side at Qusayy ibn Kilab and from his mother’s side at his grandfather `Abd al-Muttalib.

His mother is the paternal aunt of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. Hence, he is the cousin (paternal aunt’s son) of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. He is also the nephew of Sayyidah Khadijah bint Khuwaylid radiya Llahu `anha, the wife of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu being the son of her brother.[2]

These ties of kinship show us the close connection between Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu and indicate to us his position in Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam household.[3]

This proves without doubt that Sayyidina Zubair ibn al-`Awwam radiya Llahu `anhu has a foot and shin in the household of Nubuwwah, from the side of his father, his mother, and his aunt who is the wife of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Khadijah bint Khuwaylid radiya Llahu `anhu.

 

Agnomen

Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu was famous with two agnomens. One of them was given to him by his mother Sayyidah Safiyyah radiya Llahu `anha, i.e. Abu al-Tahir. She would call him by this name since it was the agnomen of her brother, Zubair ibn `Abd al-Muttalib. The second agnomen―which stuck with him―was Abu `Abdullah, after his son `Abdullah.[4]

 

Title

With regards to his titles, the most recognised of all his titles, is Hawari Rasul Allah (the disciple of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam).[5] This title stuck with him his entire life and remained with him after his demise as well.

The dictionary definition of al-hawari is helper.[6] Being the hawari of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam means that he was one of his close Companions and assistants.[7]

Abu Nuaim has listed few titles of Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu derived from his timeline. He says:

 

و من أسمائه المشتقة من أحواله الحواري و الجاد و المفدى بالأبوين و ركن الدين و عمود الإسلام

Some of his names derived from his accomplishments are al-Hawari (the disciple), al-Jadd (earnest), al-Mufda bi l-Abawayn (for whom parents are sacrificed), Rukn al-Din (the support of the religion), and `Amud al-Islam (the pillar of Islam).”[8]

 

Description

It is reported that Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu was a towering man, to the extent that when he was mounted, his legs touched the floor. He had little facial hair.[9]

 

Glance at his Household (wives and children)

Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu married quite a number of times. The total number of his wives were six. Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu had 11 sons and 9 daughters from 6 wives. Here are the names of his offspring and consorts. (Repeated by author)

 

  1. Asma’ bint Abi Bakr al-Siddiq radiya Llahu `anhuma

Children from her:

i. `Abdullah

ii. `Urwah

iii. Mundhir

iv. `Asim: Passed away in infancy

v. Muhajir: Passed away in infancy

vi. Khadijah al-Kubra

vii. Umm al-Hasan

viii. Aisha

 

  1. Umm Khalid

She was a slave girl of the daughter of Khalid ibn Sa`id ibn al-`As ibn Umayyah.

Children from her:

i. Khalid

ii. `Amr

iii. Habibah

iv. Sawdah

v. Hind

 

  1. Rabab bint Anif ibn `Ubaid, from the Kalb.

Children from her:

i. Mus`ab

ii. Hamzah

iii. Ramlah

 

  1. Zainab, Umm Jafar bint Marthad ibn `Amr

Children from her:

i. `Ubaidah

ii. Jafar

 

  1. Umm Kulthum bint `Uqbah ibn Abi Mu`ayt

Children from her:

i. Zainab

 

  1. Halal bint Qais ibn Naufal from the Banu Asad

Children from her:

i. Khadijah al-Sughra[10]

 

Worthy to mention here is that Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu loved his Muslim brethren from the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam which prompted him to name his sons after them, hoping that his children will tread their path and impersonate their behaviour, manners, and deeds.

Ibn Sa`d reports from `Urwah ibn al-Zubair who in turn relates that his father stated:

 

إن طلحة بن عبيد الله التيمي يسمي بنيه بأسماء الأنبياء و قد علم أن لا نبي بعد محمد و إني أسمي بني بأسماء الشهداء لعلهم أن يستشهدوا فسمى عبد الله بعبد الله بن جحش و المنذر بالمنذر بن عمرو و عروة بعروة بن مسعود و حمزة بحمزة بن عبد المطلب و جعفر بجعفر بن أبي طالب و مصعبا بمصعب بن عمير و عبيدة بعبيدة بن الحارث و خالدا بخالد بن سعيد و عمرا بعمرو بن سعيد بن العاص قتل يوم اليرموك

Talhah ibn `Ubaidullah al-Taymi would give his children the names of the Ambiya’, and it is known that there is no nabi after Muhammad. I, however, name my children after the martyrs so that they become martyrs.

`Urwah expounds: He thus named `Abdullah after `Abdullah ibn Jahsh, Mundhir after Mundhir ibn `Amr, `Urwah after `Urwah ibn Mas`ud, Hamzah after Hamzah ibn `Abd al-Muttalib, Jafar after Jafar ibn Abi Talib, Mus`ab after Mus`ab ibn `Umair, `Ubaidah after `Ubaidah ibn al-Harith, Khalid after Khalid ibn Sa`id, and `Amr after `Amr ibn Sa`id ibn al-`As who was killed on the Day of Yarmuk.[11]

 

His Islam

Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu accepted Islam when he was young. It is reported that he embraced the faith at the age of 8, 12, 15, or 16 according to different opinions.[12]

He entered the faith shortly after Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu `anhu. He is the fourth or fifth individual to enter Islam. He later emigrated to Abyssinia and Madinah. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam contracted brotherhood between him and Sayyidina `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud radiya Llahu `anhu when he contracted brotherhood between the Muhajirin in Makkah. When he arrived in Madinah and Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam contracted brotherhood between the Muhajirin and Ansar, he became the brother of Salamah ibn Salamah ibn Waqsh.[13]

On the other hand, al-Zuhri reports from `Urwah in al-Tabaqat that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam contracted brotherhood between Zubair ibn al-`Awwam and Ka`b ibn Malik radiya Llahu `anhuma.[14]

As soon as Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu accepted Islam efforts began to trap him and dissuade him from Islam; however, all these deliberations and endeavours ended in failure and their perpetrators returned without having achieved their mission. They did not affect the being or heart of Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu. To the contrary, his faith and purpose increased.

Ibn Hajar mentioned in al-Isabah on the authority of Abu al-Aswad:

 

كان عم الزبير يعلقه في حصير و يدخن عليه ليرجع إلى الكفر فيقول لا أكفر أبدا

Zubair’s uncle would fasten him in a mat and burn smoke in his face so that he returns to kufr. In the face of this torture, he would declare, “I will never disbelieve.”[15]

 

When the persecutions against Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu intensified and the fire of it turned into an inferno, Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu left to travel to Abyssinia with the other Muslims.

 

Virtues and Merits

Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu enjoyed the favour of obtaining a number of merits and virtues which only a few enjoy. He is the steadfast, custodian, possessor of the sharp sword and prudent view; One who submitted to his Master, seeking aid from Him alone, assassinator of heroes of disbelief and spender of wealth.[16]

His lineage meets with Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam from the side of both his mother and father. He is thus the son of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam paternal aunt. His other paternal aunt is Umm al-Mu’minin Khadijah bint Khuwaylid radiya Llahu `anha. He accepted Islam in the very beginning at a tender age. He bore difficulties in the path of his Islam. He then went on to making hijrah to Abyssinian and then to Madinah al-Munawwarah. He is the first to unsheathe a sword in Islam. He participated in all the major campaigns alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and proved himself a brave soldier in war. The angels descended with his sign in Badr. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam gave him the title al-Hawari and Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said, “May my parents be sacrificed for you.” The Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam would send him on distinct dangerous military operations.

In the forthcoming lines, we will present the most significant characteristic of Sayyidina Zubair ibn al-`Awwam’s radiya Llahu `anhu personality coupled with his virtues and merits.

 

Zubair: the Unparalleled[17]

When we attempt to discuss the key to Sayyidina Zubair ibn al-`Awwam’s radiya Llahu `anhu personality, helplessness will not seize us nor will the discussion tire us. This is due to the fact that the key to his personality is apparent from the achievements of his life. It is self-confidence.

Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu was rightfully self-confident and dependable. He utilised this quality for the service of the religion. He was unparalleled. He fought as if he is fighting single-handedly. When he attacked, no one would stand in his way. How many times his love for his religion and self-honour urged him to present his soul for sacrifice in challenging circumstances, ready to give his life for his religion and nation.

One of these episodes is when he was in Abyssinia. The background to this is that as the persecutions against the Muslims intensified in Makkah, Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam allowed them to leave to Abyssinia since the king there would allow no oppression on his subordinates. They did in fact immigrate to Abyssinia. The king there was Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu `anhu who welcomed them, honoured them, and included them among his subordinates and favourites. He also refused to hand them over to the polytheists who made great attempts to bring them back to Makkah.

He was from the early Muhajirin and the youngest of them in age. He immigrated taking along with him―after reliance in Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala―bravery, courage, and self-confidence.

Sayyidah Umm Salamah radiya Llahu `anha relates to us one of the anecdotes of the adventure in Abyssinia which highlights the bravery of Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu. She says:

 

فأقمنا مع خير جار في خير دار فلم ينشب أن خرج عليه أي النجاشي رجل من الحبشة ينازعه في ملكه فوالله ما علمنا حزنا قط كان أشد منه فرقا أن يظهر ذلك الملك عليه فيأتي ملك لا يعرف من حقنا ما كان يعرف فجعلنا ندعو الله و نستنصره للنجاشي فخرج إليه سائرا فقال أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بعضهم لبعض من رجل يخرج فيحضر الوقعة حتى ينظر على من تكون فقال الزبير و كان من أحدثهم سنا أنا فنفخوا له قربة فجعلها في صدره ثم خرج يسبح عليها في النيل حتى خرج من شقه الآخر إلى جنب التقاء الناس فحضر الوقعة فهزم الله ذلك الملك و قتله و ظهر النجاشي عليه فجاءنا الزبير فجعل يلمح إلينا بردائه و يقول ألا أبشروا فقد أظهر الله النجاشي فوالله ما علمنا فرحنا بشيء قط فرحنا بظهور النجاشي ثم أقمنا عنده حتى خرج من خرج منا راجعا إلى مكة و أقام من أقام

We stayed with the best neighbour in the best country. It was not long before a man from Abyssinia rebelled against him, Najashi, contesting with him for his kingdom. By Allah, we never experienced any grief more serious than this, fearing that this new king will overpower him―a king who will not recognise our right the way he did. So we began imploring Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala seeking His aid for Najashi. He went out to face the man, in full force.

The Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said to one another, “Who will travel and attend the battle to see who is victorious?” Zubair, who was the youngest of them, shouted, “I will.” They blew up a waterskin and attached it to his chest. He then left swimming upon it in the Nile until he came out on the other side where the people were assembling for war and witnessed the battle. Allah defeated that other king and killed him and Najashi was triumphant over him. Thereafter, Zubair came to us, flashing his shawl to draw our attention, yelling, “Harken, be of cheer, for Allah has made Najashi victorious.” By Allah, we never experienced such jubilation with anything the joy we experienced upon Najashi’s victory. We then continued staying by him. Some of us left to Makkah while others stayed on.[18]

 

Heroism refused to part from Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu. If we claim that Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu was a man who loved difficult terrains, extreme challenges, and current dilemmas, we would not have been more accurate, nor opposed to reality.

In the Battle of Ahzab, when fear became common and widespread and the polytheists gathered in their huge numbers together with their impressive weapons to uproot the pillars of the new Islamic state, it was Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu who was despatched by Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, in this perilous time, to gather intelligence of the Banu Qurayzah.

Al-Bukhari reports on the authority of Sayyidina Jabir radiya Llahu `anhu:

 

قال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم من يأتيني بخبر القوم يوم الأحزاب قال الزبير أنا ثم قال من يأتيني بخبر القوم قال الزبير أنا فقال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم إن لكل نبي حواريا و حواري الزبير

On the Day of al-Ahzab, the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam announced, “Who will bring me intelligence of the enemy?”

Zubair said, “I will.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam announced for a second time, “Who will bring me intelligence of the enemy?”

“I will,” Zubair submitted.

Upon this the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam declared, “Every nabi has a special disciple. And my special disciple is Zubair.”[19]

 

After Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam demise, his expertise in warfare and self-confidence did not fade away. As a result, we find him participating in the conquest of Egypt and presenting his life in the siege of the fort of Babylon, affirming that he will breach the fort single-handed. So he climbs the walls of the fort and then raises his voice with the takbir which sends shivers through the hearts of the enemy. The rest of the Muslims then join him until finally, Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala grants them victory through His open assistance.

Ibn Kathir, while discussing the conquest of Egypt, mentions:

 

و حاصر المسلمون عين شمس من مصر في اليوم الرابع و ارتقى الزبير عليهم سور البلد حصن بابليون فلما أحسوا بذلك خرجوا إلى عمرو بن الباب الآخر فصالحوه و اخترق الزبير البلد حتى خرج من الباب الذي عليه عمرو فأمضوا الصلح و كتب لهم عمرو كتاب أمان

The Muslims besieged `Ayn Shams in Egypt on the fourth day and Zubair climbed the walls of the city―the fort of Babylon. When they realised this, they went out to `Amr from the other gate and made a compromise with him. Meanwhile, Zubair burned the city and exited from the gate where `Amr was at. Nonetheless, the reconciliation was passed and `Amr wrote for them the document of peace.[20]

 

A Lion with Claws

Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu was accustomed to a rough life and dramatics of war. He was the experienced warrior and the expert champion. He would fight all alone, having full reliance on Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala and then on his strength. This is the way his mother nurtured him and prepared him from his infancy to make him worthy to lead armies and bear responsibilities.

In this regard, when he was young she would display harshness to him and beat him sternly. She was reprimanded, “You have killed him. You have taken out his heart. You have destroyed this youngster.” She would explain,

 

إنما أضربه كي يلب و يجر الجيش ذا الجلب

I only beat him so that he becomes intelligent and leads a noisy (huge) army.[21]

 

The meaning of yulibb here is to become intelligent.[22] And al-jalab means abundant noise. It is metaphorical for him leading a massive army.[23]

Ibn Sa`d narrates in al-Tabaqat:

 

إن الزبير كسر يد غلام ذات يوم و في رواية يد رجل فجيء بالغلام إلى صفية و قيل لها ذلك فقالت صفية كيف وجدت زبرا أأقطا حسبته أم تمرا أم مشمعلا صقرا

Zubair broke the hand of a youngster―or man (according to another report). The youngster was brought to Safiyyah and told what had happened. Safiyyah enquired, “How did you find Zubair? Did you find him to be like cottage cheese[24], or a date, or a fiery falcon?”[25]

 

Ibn Hajar mentions is al-Isabah in the book on lineage on the strength of Zubair ibn Bakkar from `Abdullah ibn Mus`ab:

 

أن العوام لما مات كان نوفل بن خويلد يلي ابن أخيه الزبير و كانت صفية تضربه و هو صغير و تغلظ عليه فعاتبها نوفل و قال ما هكذا يضرب الولد إنك لتضربينه ضرب مبغضة فرجزت به صفية من قال إني أبغضه فقد كذب و إنما أضربه لكي يلب و يهزم الجيش و يأتي بالسلب و لا يكن لما له خبأ مخب يأكل في البيت من تمر وحب

When al-`Awwam passed away, Naufal ibn Khuwaylid looked after his brother’s son, Zubair. Safiyyah would beat him when he was young and display harshness towards him. Naufal scolded her for this saying, “A child is not beaten in this manner. You beat him like a hateful woman.” Hearing this, she sang poetry in the rajaz meter: “Whoever says I hate him has spoken a lie. I only hit him so he becomes smart, defeats the army, and obtains spoils. He should not be a concealer of the hidden thing he has, eating in the house from dates and grains.”[26]

 

In this manner was Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu specially trained from childhood for the days of unpleasant warfare. This preparation bore strong and ripe fruit, as the clamour zones surrounded him and handed over to him their shackles. They did not find him save to be a raging champion, an aggressive hero, and an audacious rider flying to the right and left uprooting the roots of shirk and the Mushrikin with his sword, having full dedication, very unlikely to find his match. He fought as if he is all alone, and as though he is the entire army.

 

Zubair the Mujahid

Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu witnessed all the major campaigns at the side of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. He himself confirms this as reported by al-Hakim via `Urwah ibn al-Zubair:

 

والله ما خرج رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم مخرجا في غزوة غزاها و لا سرية إلا كنت فيها

By Allah, Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam did not travel on any campaign or expedition except that I was part of it.[27]

 

Sayyidina Zubair’s radiya Llahu `anhu outstanding efficiency was manifested in the Battle of Badr. On that fateful day, he was one of the commandos and brave champions of Islam. He was in charge of the right flank of the Muslim army and he proved his excellence, to the extent that he killed his own uncle, Naufal ibn Khuwaylid.

His courage did not end at the battle of Badr. In every battle and expedition, you will find Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu a heroic lion; energetic, courageous, and a great victor, having full reliance on his Rabb subhanahu wa ta `ala coupled with self-honour. We find him to be a tower of courage on the Day of Uhud. He remained steadfast with Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam on that day. One of the flags of the Muhajirin was held by him. When the Mushrikin turned away from Uhud and Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam encouraged his Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum to pursue them, Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu was one of those who left in compliance to Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam command.

Al-Bukhari reports on the authority of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu `anha:

 

الَّذِيْنَ اسْتَجَابُوْا لِلَّهِ وَالرَّسُوْلِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا أَصَابَهُمُ الْقَرْحُ لِلَّذِيْنَ أَحْسَنُوْا مِنْهُمْ وَاتَّقَوْا أَجْرٌ عَظِيْمٌ قالت لعروة يا ابن أختي كان أبواك منهم الزبير و أبو بكر لما أصاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ما أصاب يوم أحد و انصرف عنه المشركون خاف أن يرجعوا قال من يذهب في إثرهم فانتدب منهم سبعون رجلا قال كان فيهم أبو بكر و الزبير

Sayyidah `Aʾishah radiya Llahu `anha recited, Those [believers] who responded to Allah and the Messenger after injury had struck them. For those who did good among them and feared Allah is a great reward.[28]

She said to `Urwah, “O my nephew! Your two (grand) fathers, viz. Zubair and Abu Bakr, are amongst them; when Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was afflicted with the suffering of the Day of Uhud and the Mushrikin had left, he feared that they might return so he called out, ‘Who will pursue them?’ Seventy men from them volunteered.”

He elucidates, “Among them were Abu Bakr and Zubair.”[29]

 

In the Battle of Khandaq, when the eyes shifted (in fear) and the hearts reached the throats, Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu remained steadfast and resolute. The adversities did not frighten him and the dangers did not perturb him. Rather, he remained a man of dangerous tasks and Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam despatched him to bring information of the Banu Qurayzah.

Ahmed narrates in his al-Musnad on the strength of Jabir ibn `Abdullah radiya Llahu `anhuma who says:

 

أشتد الأمر يوم الخندق فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ألا رجل يأتينا بخبر بني قريظة فانطلق الزبير فجاء بخبرهم ثم اشتد الأمر أيضا فذكر ثلاث مرات فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إن لكل نبي حواريا و إن الزبير حواري

Matters intensified on the Day of the Trench, so Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam announced, “Which individual will bring us intelligence of the Banu Qurayzah?” Zubair departed and gathered intelligence. Thereafter, matters intensified further―altogether three times this happened [and every time Zubair gathered intelligence]. Upon this Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam commented, “Every nabi has a disciple and Zubair is my disciple.”[30]

 

Al-Bukhari narrates from Sayyidina Jabir radiya Llahu `anhu:

 

قال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم من يأتيني بخبر القوم يوم الأحراب قال الزبير أنا ثم قال من يأتيني بخبر القوم قال الزبير أنا فقال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم إن لكل نبي حواريا و حواري الزبير

On the Day of al-Ahzab, the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam announced, “Who will bring me intelligence of the enemy?”

Zubair said, “I will.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam announced for a second time, “Who will bring me intelligence of the enemy?”

“I will,” Zubair submitted.

Upon this the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam declared, “Every nabi has a special disciple. And my special disciple is Zubair.”[31]

 

It was in the course of this very battle that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said to him:

 

فداك أبي و أمي

May my father and mother be sacrificed for you.[32]

 

He was present at Yarmuk from the operation of Damascus and he was one of the leaders of the detachments on that day. He also witnessed Jabiyah with Sayyidina `Umar ibn al-Khattab radiya Llahu `anhu.[33]

In conclusion, Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu never missed a single campaign. No event passed by him except that it left its marks on his body. As if they served as souvenirs for his sacrifice, bravery, and daring.

Al-Bukhari narrates from `Urwah ibn al-Zubair:

 

إن أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قالوا للزبير يوم اليرموك ألا تشد فنشد معك فحمل عليهم فضربوه ضربتين على عاتقه بينهما ضربة ضربها يوم بدر قال عروة فكنت أدخل أصابعي في تلك الضربات ألعب و أنا صغير

The Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said to Zubair on the Day of Yarmuk, “You attack and we will attack with you.” So he attacked the enemy who gave him two blows on his shoulder, between which was an injury he sustained in the Battle of Badr.

`Urwah comments, “I would put my fingers in these wounds while playing when I was young.”[34]

 

Jafar ibn Khalid says that an old man who came to them from Mosul said:

 

صحبت الزبير بن العوام في بعض أسفاره فأصابته جنابة بأرض قفر فقال استرني فسترته فحانت مني إليه التفاتة فرأيته مجدعا بالسيوف قلت والله لقد رأيت بك آثارا ما رأيتها بأحد قط قال وقد رأيت ذلك قلت نعم قال أما والله ما منها جراحة إلا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في سبيل الله

I accompanied Zubair ibn al-`Awwam in one of his travels. Once, he needed to take a bath from janabah in a forlorn land so he told me to veil him which I did. I happened to accidently glance at him and saw that his body was mutilated with swords. I exclaimed, “By Allah, I seen so many injuries on you, which I never saw on anyone.”

“Did you really see that,” he enquired. I replied in the affirmative.

He exclaimed, “By Allah, each of those wounds was sustained alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam in the Path of Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala.”[35]

 

Zubair between Fear and Aspiration

Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu had this deep aspiration not to fall into any form of sin even if it be forgetfully and unintentionally. Owing to this, we find that his reports of ahadith are very little compared to the reports of other Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum.

He has a total of 38 ahadith in Musnad Baqi ibn Khalid. 2 of these ahadith are found both in Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, while al-Bukhari alone mentions another 7.[36]

The reason for this is what Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu himself mentioned; his fear that he unintentionally attributes something to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam which the latter did not actually say, thus falling into the ambit of the Nabi’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam warning:

من كذب علي فليتبوأ مقعده من النار

Whoever lies against me should prepare his abode in Hell.

 

Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu believed that the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam did not mention the word, “intentionally”. Due to this, he narrated very few ahadith.

Ibn Sa`d narrates from Jami` ibn Shaddad who says that he heard `Amir ibn `Abdullah ibn al-Zubair who reports from his father:

 

 

قلت للزبير ما لي لا أسمعك تحدث عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كما يحدث فلان و فلان قال أما إني لم أفارقه منذ أسلمت و لكني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول من كذب علي فليتبوأ مقعدا من النار قال وهب بن جرير في حديثه عن الزبير والله ما قال متعمدا و أنتم تقولون متعمدا

I asked Zubair, “Why do I not find you narrating from Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam the way so and so narrates?”

He explained, “Harken! I never separated from Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam from the day I accepted Islam. However, I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam warning, ‘Whoever falsely attributes something to me should prepare an abode in Hell.’”

Wahb ibn Jarir would comment after reporting this hadith of Zubair: “By Allah, he did not say intentionally and you say it.”[37]

 

Zubair ibn Bakkar reports from the chain of Hisham ibn `Urwah from his father from `Abdullah ibn al-Zubair who said:

 

سألت الزبير عن قلة حديثه عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال كان بيني و بينه من الرحم و القرابة ما قد علمت و لكني سمعته يقول من قال علي ما لم أقل فليتبوأ مقعده من النار

I enquired from Zubair the reason for reporting very few ahadith from Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam to which he replied, “You know the family link and kinship between him and me. However, I heard him declare, ‘Whoever attributes to me what I did not say should prepare an abode in Hell.’”[38]

 

Al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban report through their respective chains from Hisham ibn `Urwah from his father who says:

 

قال عبد الله بن الزبير لأبيه يا أبت حدثني عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم حتى أحدث عنك فإن كل أبناء الصحابة يحدث عن أبيه قال يا بني ما من أحد صحب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بصحبة إلا و قد صحبته مثلها أو أفضل و لقد علمت يا بني أن أمك أسماء بنت أبي بكر كانت تحتي و لقد علمت أن عائشة بنت أبي بكر خالتك و لقد علمت أن أمي صفية بنت عبد المطلب و أن أخوالي حمزة بن عبد المطلب و أبو طالب و العباس و أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ابن خالي و لقد علمت أن عمتي خديجة بنت خويلد و كانت تحته و أن ابنتها فاطمة بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و لقد علمت أن أمه صلى الله عليه و سلم آمنة بنت وهب بن عبد مناف بن زهرة و أن أم صفية و حمزة هالة بنت وهب بن عبد مناف بن زهرة و لقد صحبته بأحسن صحبة و الحمد لله و لقد سمعته صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول من قال علي ما لم أقل فليتبوأ مقعده من النار

`Abdullah ibn al-Zubair said to his father, “O my beloved father, narrate to me from Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam so that I may relate from you. All the sons of the Sahabah narrate from their fathers.”

Zubair explained, “O my beloved son, no one sat in the company of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam except that I sat in a like or better manner. And you know very well, O my son, that your mother Asma’ bint Abi Bakr was in my wedlock and you know that Aisha bint Abi Bakr is your aunt. You know that my mother is Safiyyah bint `Abd al-Muttalib and that my maternal uncles are Hamzah ibn `Abd al-Muttalib, Abu Talib, and `Abbas and that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam is my maternal cousin. You also realise that my paternal aunt is Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam wife and that her daughter is Fatimah bint Rasulillah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. You understand that Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam mother is Aminah bint Wahb ibn `Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah and Safiyyah’s mother is Halah bint Wahb ibn `Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah (i.e. they are sisters). I benefitted from his company in the best way, and all praise belongs to Allah. I also heard him state, ‘Whoever falsely attributes something to me should prepare an abode in Hell.’”[39]

 

The First to Unsheathe his Sword in Islam

One of the magnificent merits and distinct specialities of Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu is that he was the first to unsheathe his sword in Islam to defend Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. A group of scholars have affirmed this.[40]

Ibn Abi Shaybah, `Abd al-Razzaq, and al-Tabarani relate, via their respective chains, the narration of Hisham ibn `Urwah from his father:

 

إن أول رجل سل سيفه في سبيل الله الزبير و ذلك أنه نفخت نفخة من الشيطان أخذ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فخرج الزبير يشق الناس بسيفه و رسول الله بأعلى مكة قال فلقي النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال مالك يا زبير قال أخبرت أنك أخذت قال فصلى عليه و دعا له و لسيفه

The first man to draw his sword in the way of Allah was Zubair. The incident behind this is that shaitan spread a rumour, “Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam has been captured.” Immediately, Zubair rushed, channelling through the people with his sword, while Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was at the uppermost section of Makkah. He got to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam who asked, “What is the matter, O Zubair?” “I was informed that you were captured,” he explained. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam prayed for him and supplicated for him and his sword.[41]

 

Al-Bayhaqi reports in his Sunan from `Urwah who relates:

 

أسلم الزبير و هو ابن ثمان سنين قال عروة و نفخت نفخة من الشيطان أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أخذ بأعلى مكة فخرج الزبير و هو غلام ابن اثنتي عشرة سنة و معه السيف فمن رءاه ممن لا يعرفه قال الغلام معه السيف حتى أتى النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ما لك يا زبير قال أخبرت أنك أخذت قال فكنت صانعا ماذا قال كنت أضرب به من أخذك قال فدعا له رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و لسيفه و كان أول سيف سل في سبيل الله

Zubair accepted Islam at the age of 8. Once, shaitan spread the rumour that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was apprehended in the upper section of Makkah. Zubair rushed instantly―only 12 years old at the time―with sword in hand. Those who saw him who did not recognise him said in amazement, “A youngster with a sword.”

Finally, he arrived by Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. “What is the problem, O Zubair?” asked Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam.

“I was informed that you had been seized,” he explained.

 “So what were you planning to do,” Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam enquired.

 “I would have struck the one who seized you with this (sword),” he affirmed.

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam supplicated for him and for his sword. This is thus the first sword drawn in the path of Allah.[42]

 

Angels Descend with the Sign of Zubair

One of the glorious merits of Sayyidina Zubair ibn al-`Awwam radiya Llahu `anhu is that the angels on the Day of Badr descended, to assist the Muslims, with the sign of Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu, i.e. wearing clothes similar to his, as an honour from Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala upon him.

Ibn Sa`d reports in al-Tabaqat with his chain from Musa ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim from his father who said:

 

كان الزبير بن العوام يعلم بعصابة صفراء و كان يحدث أن الملائكة نزلت يوم بدر على خيل بلق عليها عمائم صفر فكان على الزبير يومئذ عصابة صفراء

Zubair ibn al-`Awwam was recognised with a yellow turban. He would recall that the angels descended on the Day of Badr upon black and white horses donning yellow turbans. On that day as well, Zubair had on a yellow turban.[43]

 

`Urwah reports:

كانت على الزبير ريطة صفراء معتجرا بها يوم بدر فقال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم إن الملائكة نزلت على سيماء الزبير

Zubair had tied a fine yellow cloth around his head on the Day of Badr. The Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam remarked, “Certainly, the angels descended with the mark of Zubair.”[44]

 

Al-Hakim relates from `Abbad ibn `Abdullah ibn al-Zubair who said:

 

كانت على الزبير بن العوام يوم بدر عمامة صفراء متعجرا بها فنزلت الملائكة عليهم عمائم صفر

Zubair ibn al-`Awwam had tied a yellow turban on the Day of Badr and the angels descended donning yellow turbans.[45]

 

His Position by Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam

Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu secured a high position by Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, owing to his great jihad, fearless sacrifices, superb heroism, and his sincere love for his religion and Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam thus encouraged, through his words and deeds, that he be revered and placed on a high pedestal of honour which he is deserving of, due to his accomplishments for Islam and the Muslims. This is an aspect recognised and widely accepted by the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum. They affirmed that the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam loved him and praised him. Tokens of this high rank ensue.

 

The Hawari of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam compensated Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu on the Day of Ahzab, the day he presented himself in a dangerous situation and presented his soul to be sacrificed for the din. He decided to go, in these trying times, to bring intelligence of the Mushrikin. It was on that occasion that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam pronounced emphatically, without any ambiguity whatsoever, that Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu is his special disciple.

Al-Bukhari reports on the authority of Sayyidina Jabir radiya Llahu `anhu:

 

قال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم من يأتيني بخبر القوم يوم الأحراب قال الزبير أنا ثم قال من يأتيني بخبر القوم قال الزبير أنا فقال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم إن لكل نبي حواريا و حواري الزبير

On the Day of al-Ahzab, the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam announced, “Who will bring me intelligence of the enemy?”

Zubair said, “I will.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam announced for a second time, “Who will bring me intelligence of the enemy?”

“I will,” Zubair submitted.

Upon this the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam declared, “Every nabi has a special disciple. And my special disciple is Zubair.”[46]

 

This is a superb privilege for Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu; Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam affirming that he is one of his exclusive and unique Companions who followed and assisted him.

 

The Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam joins his parents for Zubair

Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu is one of the few Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum for whom Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said, “May my parents be sacrificed for you.”

Al-Bukhari reports from Hisham ibn `Urwah―from his father―from `Abdullah ibn al-Zubair who recalls:

 

كنت يوم الأحزاب جعلت أنا و عمر بن أبي سلمة في النساء فنظرت فإذا أنا بالزبير على فرسه يختلف إلى بني قريظة مرتين أو ثلاثا فلما رجعت قلت يا أبت رأيتك تختلف قال أو هل رأيتني يا بني قلت نعم قال كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال من يأت بني قريظة فيأتيني بخبرهم فانطلقت فلما رجعت جمع لي رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أبويه فقال فداك أبي و أمي

In the Battle of Ahzab, `Umar ibn Abi Salamah and I were placed to guard the women. I watched carefully and suddenly spotted Zubair on his horse making two or three rounds to the Banu Qurayzah. When I returned, I said, “O my beloved father, I saw you going up and down.”

“Did you see me, O my son,” he asked in surprise. “Yes,” I replied.

He explained, “Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam had announced, ‘Who will go to the Banu Qurayzah and bring me intelligence.” So I went in compliance. When I returned, Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said to me, “May my father and mother be sacrificed for you.”[47]

 

Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam love for Zubair

The Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam loved Sayyidina Zubair ibn al-`Awwam radiya Llahu `anhu dearly and the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum testified to this love. One of the signs of Sayyidina Zubair’s radiya Llahu `anhu position by Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and his love for him is the following.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim document from `Urwah―that `Abdullah ibn al-Zubair reported to him:

 

إن رجل من الأنصار خاصم الزبير عند النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم في شراج الحرة التي يسقون بها النخل فقال الأنصاري سرح الماء يمر فأبى عليه فاختصما عند النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم للزبير اسق يا زبير ثم أرسل الماء إلى جارك فغضب الأنصاري فقال أن كان ابن عمتك فتلون وجه رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ثم قال اسق يا زبير ثم احبس الماء حتى يرجع إلى الجدر فقال الزبير والله إني لأحسب هذه الآية نزلت في ذلك فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ

A man from the Ansar disputed with Zubair by the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam regarding the streams of Harrah with which the date-palms were irrigated.

The Ansari said, “Let the water flow,” but Zubair refused.

So they took their dispute to the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam.

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam told Zubair, “Irrigate (your land), O Zubair. Then allow the water to pass to your neighbour.”

Hearing this, the Ansari got upset and remarked, “Just because he is your cousin.”

The face of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam turned colour and he said, “Irrigate, O Zubair, and keep the water until it fills up till the walls.”

Zubair remarks, “By Allah, I have strong conviction that this verse was revealed regarding this: But no, by your Lord, they will not [truly] believe until they make you, [O Muhammad], judge concerning that over which they dispute among themselves.[48][49]

 

It appears in al-Tabaqat:

 

إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لما خط الدور بالمدينة جعل للزبير بقيعا واسعا و عن أسماء ابنة أبي بكر أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أقطع الزبير نخلا و عن عروة عن أبيه أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أقطع الزبير أرضا فيها نخل كانت من أموال بني النضير و أن أبا بكر أقطع الزبير الجرف قال أنس بن عياض في حديثه أرضا مواتا و قال عبد الله بن نمير في حديثه و أن عمر أقطع الزبير العقيق أجمع

When Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam cut out plots in Madinah, he apportioned a large plot for Zubair.

Asma’ bint Abi Bakr said, “The Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam allocated for Zubair date-palms.”

`Urwah reports from his father that the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam allotted to Zubair a land which had date-palms from the wealth of the Banu al-Nadir and Abu Bakr assigned to him Jurf.

Anas ibn `Iyad adds in his report: A desolate land.

`Abdullah ibn Numair adds: `Umar allotted for Zubair the entire `Aqiq.[50]

 

Al-Bukhari reports via his sanad from Hisham ibn `Urwah―from his father who says―Marwan ibn al-Hakam informed me:

 

أصاب عثمان بن عفان رعاف شديد سنة الرعاف حتى حبسه عن الحج و أوصى فدخل عليه رجل من قريش قال استخلف قال و قالوه قال نعم قال و من فسكت فدخل عليه رجل آخر أحسبه الحارث فقال استخلف فقال عثمان و قالوا فقال نعم قال و من هو فسكت قال فلعلهم قالوا الزبير قال نعم قال أما والذي نفسي بيده إنه لخيرهم ما علمت و إن كان لأحبهم إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم

`Uthman ibn `Affan was afflicted with severe nose bleeding the year of al-Ru`af to the extent that it prevented him from going to Hajj and he bequeathed. A man from the Quraysh entered his presence and said, “Appoint a successor.”

He asked, “Did they name him?” He replied in the affirmative.

“Who?” he asked but the man remained silent.

After a while, another man―I think it was Harith―entered his presence and said, “Appoint a successor.”

He asked, “Did they name him?” He replied in the affirmative.

“Who is he?” he enquired but the man remained silent.

`Uthman suggested, “Most probably they named Zubair.”

“Yes,” he affirmed.

`Uthman remarked, “Verily, by the Being Who controls my life, he is the best of them as far as I know and he was the most beloved of them to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam.”[51]

 

All these are examples illustrating the rank Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu enjoyed in the sight of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. Nonetheless, the greatest testimony upon Sayyidina Zubair’s radiya Llahu `anhu sincerity and Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam love for him and appreciation for his accomplishments is that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam guaranteed him Jannat on the strength of revelation from the Almighty subhanahu wa ta `ala.

The Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam unequivocally announced that Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu is one of the dwellers of Jannat in the hadith reported by Ahmed:

 

أبو بكر في الجنة و عمر في الجنة و علي في الجنة و عثمان في الجنة و طلحة في الجنة و الزبير في الجنة و عبد الرحمن بن عوف في الجنة و سعد بن أبي وقاص في الجنة و سعيد بن زيد بن عمرو بن نفيل في الجنة و أبو عبيدة بن الجراح في الجنة

Abu Bakr is in Jannat. `Umar is in Jannat. `Ali is in Jannat. `Uthman is in Jannat. Talhah is in Jannat. Zubair is in Jannat. `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Auf is in Jannat. Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas is in Jannat. Sa`id ibn Zaid ibn `Amr ibn Nufayl is in Jannat. Abu `Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah is in Jannat.[52]

 

It appears in Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’ that al-Sha`bi stated:

 

أدركت خمس مئة أو أكثر من الصحابة يقولون علي و عثمان و طلحة و الزبير في الجنة

I met 500 or more Sahabah who affirmed: `Ali, `Uthman, Talhah, and Zubair will be in Jannat.[53]

This is because they were the first forerunners to Islam regarding whom Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala announced He is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him. They were from the participants of Badr, those who attended Bay`at al-Ridwan, and those endowed with martyrdom. Therefore, we love them dearly and hate those who killed them.

 

Surrounding Conditions of the Battle of the Camel and Zubair’s assassination

Undoubtedly, the episode of Jamal was one of the catastrophes which the enemies of din and those Muslim who possess little knowledge, those misled by the enemies’ speech and who follow in their tracks, use to criticise Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu and his brothers. However, when the dust settles, the innocence of Sayyidina `Ali, Zubair, and Aisha radiya Llahu `anhum becomes absolutely manifest.

When the rebels murdered Sayyidina `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu, without consent and approval of the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum, they called to give bay`ah to Sayyidina `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu knowing fully well that he was the most superior of the remaining Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum. The rebels themselves entered the army of Sayyidina `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu with the support and protection of their tribes. Matters were muddled. They feared that the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum will reach a unanimous decision and the ummah will unite against them and subsequently take revenge from them for Sayyidina `Uthman’s radiya Llahu `anhu murder. Therefore, it was necessary that matters remain disordered so they remain safe. That is why, when Umm al-Mu’minin Aisha, Sayyidina Talhah, and Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhum travelled to Basrah to create unity among the Muslims and they united with Sayyidina `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu, the rebels jumped to initiate the fighting between the two factions which resulted in the ranks of both armies getting locked in battle without knowledge of the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum. Thus, the disaster of Jamal took place, against the desire and knowledge of Sayyidina `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu and his supporters. As a result of this battle, Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu `anhu was martyred although he did not fight. Thereafter, Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu was deceived while he was departing from the battlefield, displeased with what occurred and without him participating in the fight. Sayyidina `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu on the other hand arranged for the return of Umm al-Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu `anha to Madinah.

Al-Bayhaqi narrates from Abu Jarw al-Mazini who says:

 

شهدت عليا و الزبير حين توافقا فقال علي يا زبير أنشدك الله أسمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول إنك تقاتلني و أنت لي ظالم قال نعم و لم أذكره إلا في موقفي هذا ثم انصرف

I was present when `Ali and Zubair settled on an agreement. `Ali said, “O Zubair, I implore you in the name of Allah, did you hear Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam saying that you will fight me while you are oppressing me?”

He replied, “Yes and I have not recalled it except right now.”

He then immediately left.[54]

 

Abu Nuaim reports in Hilyat al-Awliya’ from `Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Layla who recalls:

 

انصرف الزبير يوم الجمل عن علي فلقيه ابنه عبد الله فقال جبنا جبنا قال قد علم الناس أني لست بجبان و لكن ذكرني علي شيئا سمعته من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فحلفت أن لا أقاتله ثم قال ترك الأمور التي أخشى عواقبها في الله أحسن في الدنيا و في الدين و قيل إنه أنشد و لقد علمت لو أن علمي نافعي أن الحياة من الممات قريب فلم ينشب أن قتله ابن جرموز

Zubair turned away from `Ali on the Day of the Camel. His son, `Abdullah, met him and said, “We are cowards! We are cowards!”

Zubair explained, “People know with certainty that I am not a deserter. However, `Ali reminded me of something I heard from Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam so I swore on oath that I will never fight him.”

He then recited, “Issues have been abandoned, the outcomes of which I am afraid of. I do good for the pleasure of Allah in worldly matters and religious matters.”

It is said that he recited, “And I know for sure that if my knowledge is beneficial to me, life is closer than death.”

It was not long before Ibn Jurmuz killed him.[55]

 

Ibn Sa`d narrates in al-Tabaqat from Hisham ibn `Urwah―from his father―from `Abdullah ibn al-Zubair who relates:

 

لما وقف الزبير يوم الجمل دعاني فقمت إلى جنبه فقال يا بني إنه لا يقتل اليوم إلا ظالم أو مظلوم و إني لا أراني إلا سأقتل اليوم مظلوما و إن من أكبر همي لديني أفترى ديننا يبقي من مالنا شيئا ثم قال يا بني بع مالنا و اقض ديني و أوص بالثلث فإن فضل من مالنا من بعد قضاء الدين شيء فثلثه لولدك

When Zubair took his position on the Day of the Camel, he called me. I stood at his side and he said to me, “O my beloved son, certainly only an oppressor or oppressed will be killed today. I divine that I will be killed today unjustly. The greatest of my worries is my debt. Do you think that our debt will leave any of our wealth?”

He then said, “O my beloved son, sell our properties and settle my debt and give a third as bequests. If any of our wealth remains after settlement of the debt, then a third of it is for your children.”[56]

 

Ibn Sa`d recalls the incident of his murder:

 

خرج الزبير بن العوام يوم الجمل و هو يوم الخميس لعشر ليال خلون من جمادى الآخرة سنة ست و ثلاثين بعد القتال على فرس له يقال له ذو الخمار منطلقا يريد الرجوع إلى المدينة فلقيه رجل من بني تميم يقال له النعر بن زمام المجاشعي بسفوان فقال له يا حواري رسول الله إلي إلي فأنت في ذمتي لا يصل إليك أحد من الناس فأقبل معه و أقبل رجل من بني تميم آخر إلى الأحنف بن قيس فقال له فيما بينه و بينه هذا الزبير في وادي السباع فرفع الأحنف صوته و قال ما أصنع و ما تأمروني إن كان الزبير لف بين غارين من المسلمين قتل أحدهما الآخر ثم هو يريد اللحاق بأهله فسمعه عمير بن جرموز التميمي و فضالة بن حابس التميمي و نفيع أو نفيل بن حابس التميمي فركبوا أفراسهم في طلبه فلحقوه فحمل عليه عمير بن جرموز فطعنه طعنة خفيفة فحمل عليه الزبير فلما ظن أن الزبير قاتله دعا يا فضالة يا نفيع ثم قال الله الله يا زبير فكف عنه ثم سار فحمل عليه القوم جميعا فقتلوه رحمه الله فطعنه عمير بن جرموز طعنة أثبتته فوقع فاعتوروه و أخذوا سيفه و أخذ بن جرموز رأسه فحمله  حتى أتى به و بسيفه عليا فأخذه علي و قال سيف والله طالما جلا به عن وجه رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم الكرب و لكن الحين و مصارع السوء و دفن الزبير رحمه الله بوادي السباع و جلس علي يبكي عليه هو و أصحابه

Zubair ibn al-`Awwam left on the Day of the Camel, Thursday, 10th of Jumada al-Akhirah, 36 A.H, upon his horse Dhu al-Khimar, with the intention of returning to Madinah. A man from the Banu Tamim by the name al-Na`r ibn Zamam al-Mujashi`i met him at Safwan. He said to him, “O disciple of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, come to me, come to me. You are in my protection. No person will get to you.” So he came with him.

Another man from the Banu Tamim went to Ahnaf ibn Qais and said to him secretly, “Zubair is here in the valley of Siba`.”

Ahnaf raised his voice and said, “So what should I do and what do you instruct me to do if Zubair folded two Muslim factions, one killing the other, while he intends to go home.”

`Umair ibn Jurmuz al-Tamimi, Fudalah ibn Habis al-Tamimi, and Nufay` or Nufayl ibn Habis al-Tamimi heard him, so they mounted their horses and went in pursuit of him. As soon as they caught up with him, `Umair ibn Jurmuz attacked him and stabbed him slightly. Zubair counter attacked. When he realised that Zubair was going to kill him, he called out to Fudalah and Nufay` for help. He then said, “Fear Allah, fear Allah! O Zubair!” So Zubair spared him and went away. The three of them ganged up and pounced upon him at once and killed him, may Allah shower his mercy upon him. `Umair ibn Jurmuz stabbed him deeply which caused him to fall down. They tackled him successively and took his sword. Ibn Jurmuz severed his head and brought it along with his sword to `Ali. `Ali held the sword and said, “A sword, by Allah, which frequently eliminated adversities from the face of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, but now what a woeful demise.” Zubair was buried―may Allah have mercy on him―in the valley of Siba`. `Ali sat, with his companions, and cried over him.[57]

 

Worthy of mention at this juncture is that Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu presented his soul for sacrifice throughout his life. How often he held his soul in his palm, seeking Allah’s subhanahu wa ta `ala pleasure, eagerly awaiting death to come to him from any place and any person.

In this manner, Sayyidina Zubair’s radiya Llahu `anhu soul went forth to its Creator after a life replete with accomplishments and offerings presented for his religion and the ummah, seeking nothing other than the countenance of Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala.

 

Ahmed narrates from Zirr ibn Hubaysh:

 

استأذن ابن جرموز على علي رضي الله عنه فقال من هذا قالوا ابن جرموز يستأذن قال ائذنوا له ليدخل قاتل الزبير النار إني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول إن لكل نبي حواري و حواري الزبير

Ibn Jurmuz sought permission to enter `Ali’s radiya Llahu `anhu presence. `Ali asked, “Who is it.”

“Ibn Jurmuz seeks permission to enter,” they said.

`Ali stated, “Grant him permission, so that the killer of Zubair may enter Hell. Certainly, I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam declaring, ‘Every nabi has a disciple and my disciple is Zubair.’”[58]

 

He killed him on the Day of Jamal in Jumada al-Ula 36 A.H. He was buried in the valley of Siba` in the section of Basrah.[59]

Tarikh Dimashq states that the Battle of Jamal occurred on Thursday, 10th of Jumada al-Akhirah 36 A.H. Abu `Abdullah Zubair ibn al-`Awwam ibn Khuwaylid radiya Llahu `anhu was killed in the valley of Siba` approximately 40 km from Basrah by Ibn Jurmuz.[60]

Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu divined before his demise that he will be killed, so he bequeathed to his son to settle his debt.

Al-Bukhari narrates that when Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu was killed, he left not a single silver or gold coin behind. He only left behind two properties in Ghabah, one house in Madinah, one house in Basrah, a house in Kufah, and a house in Egypt. His sons shouldered the responsibility to settle his debts so they sold these properties and lands and paid off all his debts. After Ibn al-Zubair completed paying off his debt, the sons of Zubair told him to divide the inheritance between them. He said, “No, by Allah, until I announce for four years during the pilgrimage that whoever has an unsettled debt upon Zubair should come to us and we will settle it.” Thus every year, he would announce during the Hajj season. After four years passed, he distributed the inheritance between them. Zubair had four wives. After a third of the estate was disposed of, each wife received 1 100 000. Thus, his entire estate amounted to 50 200 000.[61]

Al-Dhahabi mentions the same narration in al-Siyar with the addition:

 

و بلغ حصة عاتكة بنت زيد بن عمرو بن نفيل زوجة الزبير من ميراثه ثمانين ألف درهم

The share of his inheritance for `Atikah bint Zaid ibn `Amr ibn Nufayl, Zubair’s wife, reached 80 000 silver coins.[62]

 

Subtle Point

Sayyidah `Atikah bint Zaid ibn `Amr ibn Nufayl radiya Llahu `anha was in the wedlock of Sayyidina Zubair ibn al-`Awwam radiya Llahu `anhu. The people of Madinah would fondly say:

 

من أراد الشهادة فليتزوج عاتكة بنت زيد كانت عند عبد الله ابن أبي بكر فقتل عنها ثم كانت عند عمر بن الخطاب فقتل عنها ثم كانت عند الزبير فقتل عنها

Whoever desires martyrdom should marry `Atikah bint Zaid. She was first married to `Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr and he was martyred. Thereafter, she married `Umar ibn al-Khattab and he was martyred. Thereafter, she married Zubair and he was martyred.[63]

 

When news of Sayyidina Zubair’s radiya Llahu `anhu martyrdom reached her, Sayyidah `Atikah radiya Llahu `anha recited the following eulogy:

يوم اللقاء و كان غير معرد

غدر ابن جرموز بفارس بهمة

لا طائشا رعش البنان و لا اليد

يا عمرو لو نبهته لوجدته

فيما مضى مما تروح و تغتدي

ثكلتك أمك إن ظفرت بمثله

عنها طرادك يا ابن فقع القردد

كم غمرة قد خاضها لم يثنه

حلت عليك عقوبة المتعمد

والله ربك إن قتلت لمسلما

On the Day of Battle, Ibn Jurmuz treacherously killed a mighty warrior who was not fleeing.

O ‘Amr! Had you given him fair warning, you would have found him neither capricious nor unsteady of hand.

May your mother be bereaved of you, if ever you find the like of him in all the days gone by.

How many battles did he rush into, undeterred in the least by your assaults, O son of a putrid toadstool.

By your Lord Allah, the man you killed was a Muslim, so upon you will be the punishment of intentional murder.[64]

 

Ibn Jurmuz and Zubair’s Sons

Ibn `Asakir reports that Ibn Jurmuz came to Mus`ab ibn al-Zubair and said, “Take revenge from me for Zubair.” Mus`ab wrote to Sayyidina `Abdullah ibn al-Zubair radiya Llahu `anhuma concerning this who wrote back:

 

أن أقتل ابن جرموز بالزبير خل عنه و لا بشسع نعله

I should kill Ibn Jurmuz in lieu of Zubair? Leave him, he is not even equal to his shoelace.

 

`Abdullah ibn Mus`ab reports―from Farwah ibn Khalid:

 

كتب مصعب إلى عبد الله بن الزبير إني قد أخذت قاتل الزبير بن العوام فكتب إليه عبد الله لا تخفف عنه دعه يلق الله بدم الزبير فتركه فأسف فخرج إلى الصياقلة فنظر إلى سيف فأعجبه فاشتراه ثم حكم في عرض الناس فقتل

Mus`ab wrote to `Abdullah ibn al-Zubair, “I have apprehended the killer of Zubair ibn al-`Awwam.”

`Abdullah replied, “Do not ease matters upon him. Leave him, so that he meets Allah with Zubair’s blood.” In compliance, he spared him.

Ibn Jurmuz regretted so he went to the swordsmiths where a sword caught his attention, so he purchased it. Thereafter, judgement was passed against him in the presence of people and he was subsequently killed.

 

Another narration says that after Mus`ab spared him, life became constrained for Ibn Jurmuz for he was terrified and would see nightmares. So he instructed a person to throw him from the top of one of the palaces.[65]

This is how Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu met his Rabb, pleased with Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala and vice versa. Congratulations to him for Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam affirming his place in Jannat. Congratulations to the ummah who has the likes of Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu `anhu and others among them. A nation that has the likes of these men is capable of accomplishing great feats. Such a nation is deserving to be at the forefront of the caravan of humankind, not at the back where the weak and the tails of men are.

 

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[1] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 100; Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 2 pg. 196.

[2] Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 2 pg. 196.

[3] Zubair’s position in the household of nubuwwah, from the book: al-Al wa al-Ashab Mahabbatan wa Qarabatan, pg. 34.

[4] Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 2 pg. 196.

[5] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 18 pg. 339; Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 41.

[6] Al-Sihah, vol. 2 pg. 639; Mukhtar al-Sihah, pg. 92.

[7] Al-Nihayah, vol. 1 pg. 458; Lisan al-`Arab, vol. 4 pg. 219.

[8] Ma`rifat al-Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 458.

[9] Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 42; al-Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 458; Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 275.

[10] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 100.

[11] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 100, 101; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 7 pg. 46.

[12] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 102; Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 41.

[13] Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 2 pg. 196, 197; al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 102; al-Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 457.

[14] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 102.

[15] Al-Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 457.

[16] Hilyat al-Awliya’, vol. 1 pg. 89.

[17] Nasij wahdahu: a word used for a remarkable person. It is used to describe an outstanding person who hardly has any match. (Al-Mujam al-Awsat, vol. 5 pg. 148; Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi, vol. 10 pg. 230.

[18] Sirat Ibn Ishaq, vol. 4 pg. 193 – 197; Ibn Hisham: al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, vol. 1 pg. 225; Ibn Kathir: al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, vol. 2 pg. 23.

[19] Sahih al-Bukhari, book of jihad and expeditions, chapter on the virtue of the vanguard, Hadith: 2846; Sahih Muslim, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on some of the virtues of Talhah and Zubair, Hadith: 6396.

[20] Al-Bidayah wa l-Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 112.

[21] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 101.

[22] Al-Nihayah fi Gharib al-Hadith, vol. 4 pg. 223.

[23] Ibid, vol. 1 pg. 281.

[24] Al-Aqit: solid dried milk that is boiled (Al-Nihayah, vol. 1 pg. 57.)

[25] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 101.

[26] Al-Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 458.

[27] Al-Mustadrak, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam disciple, Hadith: 5553.

[28] Surah Al `Imran: 172

[29] Sahih al-Bukhari, book on battles, chapter on those who answered the call of Allah and the Messenger, Hadith: 3849.

[30] Musnad Ahmed, musnad of Jabir ibn `Abdullah, Hadith: 14415. Shu`ayb comments, “His isnad is Sahih on the standards of al-Bukhari and Muslim.”

[31] Sahih al-Bukhari, book of jihad and expeditions, chapter on the virtue of the vanguard, Hadith: 2846, only in the book on expeditions, Hadith: 2997.

[32] Sahih al-Bukhari, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on the merits of Zubair ibn al-`Awwam radiya Llahu `anhu, Hadith: 3515.

[33] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 18 pg. 332.

[34] Sahih al-Bukhari, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of Zubair ibn al-`Awwam radiya Llahu `anhu, Hadith: 3516; Sahih Muslim, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on the merits of Talhah and Zubair, Hadith: 6389.

[35] Hilyat al-Awliya’, vol. 1 pg. 90; Ma`rifat al-Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 457, Hadith: 408; Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 275.

[36] Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 67.

[37] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 107; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 18 pg. 335.

[38] Al-Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 458.  Al-Bukhari reports from Salamah:

 

سمعت النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول من يقل علي ما لم أقل فليتبوأ مقعده من النار

I heard the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam declare, “Whoever attributes to me what I did not say should prepared an abode in Hell.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, book on knowledge, chapter on the sin of one who fabricates against the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, Hadith: 109.

 

[39] Al-Mustadrak, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam disciple, Hadith: 5557; Sahih Ibn Hibban, discussion on Zubair ibn al-`Awwam, Hadith: 6982. Shu`ayb al-Arna’ut classifies the hadith as sahih.

[40] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 18 pg. 350; Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 41; Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 2 pg. 197; al-Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 459; Tahdhib al-Kamal, vol. 9 pg. 319.

[41] Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 4 pg. 226; Musannaf `Abd al-Razzaq, vol. 4 pg. 289 – 290; al-Mujam al-Kabir, vol. 1 pg. 119; Majma` al-Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 150. Al-Haythami comments, “His narrators are reliable.”

[42] Sunan al-Bayhaqi, chapter on giving fay’ upon the register, Hadith: 12863; al-Mustadrak, chapter on the merits of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam disciple, Hadith: 5551, from the chain of Ibn Lahi`ah from al-Aswad.

[43] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 103.

[44] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 103; al-Mujam al-Kabir, vol. 1 pg. 120; Majma` al-Zawa’id, vol. 6 pg. 84. Al-Haythami comments, “Al-Tabarani reported it. It is mursal, with a sahih isnad.” Al-Salihi al-Shami labelled the sanad sahih in Subul al-Huda wa al-Rashad, vol. 4 pg. 43.

[45] Al-Mustadrak, book on virtues, chapter on the virtues of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam disciple, Hadith: 5554.

[46] Sahih al-Bukhari, book of jihad and expeditions, chapter on the virtue of the vanguard, Hadith: 2846; only in the book on expeditions, Hadith: 2997; Sahih Muslim, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on some of the virtues of Talhah and Zubair, Hadith: 6396.

[47] Sahih al-Bukhari, book on virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on the merits of Zubair ibn al-`Awwam, Hadith: 3515.

[48] Surah al-Nisa’: 65.

[49] Sahih al-Bukhari, book on irrigation, chapter on the dams of rivers, Hadith: 2231; Sahih Muslim, book on virtues, chapter on the compulsion to follow him salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, Hadith: 6258.

[50] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 103 – 104.

[51] Sahih al-Bukhari, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of Zubair ibn al-`Awwam radiya Llahu `anhu, Hadith: 3512.

[52] Musnad Ahmed, the hadith of `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Auf, Hadith: 1675. Shu`ayb al-Arna’ut comments, “Its isnad is strong on the standards of Muslim.”

[53] Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 62.

[54] Musnad Abi Ya`la, vol. 2 pg. 29, Hadith: 666; al-Mustadrak, Hadith: 5576; Dala’il al-Nubuwwah, Hadith: 2719 from the same isnad. The muhaqqiq of Musnad Abi Ya`la said, “Its isnad is extremely da`if. Nonetheless, al-Hakim reported the hadith from Abi Harb (Hadith: 5574) and classified it sahih. Al-Dhahabi concurred.

[55] Hilyat al-Awliya’, vol. 1 pg. 91; Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 60; the last couplet is reported by al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak, Hadith: 5568.

[56] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 108; al-Mustadrak, Hadith: 5566.

[57] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 111 – 112; al-Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 461.

[58] Musnad Ahmed, musnad `Ali ibn Abi Talib, Hadith: 680. Shu`ayb al-Arna’ut says, “Its isnad is hasan.” Al-Mustadrak, Hadith: 5579. Al-Hakim declared it sahih and al-Dhahabi concurred.

[59] Tahdhib al-Kamal, vol. 9 pg. 329.

[60] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 18 pg. 436.

[61] Sahih al-Bukhari, book on khums, chapter on the blessings of a warrior’s wealth, Hadith: 2961.

[62] Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 66 – 67.

[63] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 112; Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 2 pg. 199.

[64] Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 112; Siyar A`lam al-Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 67.

[65] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 18 pg. 437 – 438.

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