‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu
The Trustworthy Businessman, the Benevolent, the Munificent
The truthful businessman will be in the Gardens of Bliss along with the Ambiya’, the Siddiqin (truthful), the martyrs, and the pious. What if this salient quality is coupled with sincerity in din, sacrifice, and spending lavishly in Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala path?
Our discussion revolves around one such truthful entrepreneur, a man blessed with affluence; affluence he utilised in the service of the religion and the ummah. He is none other than Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
Name and Lineage
He is ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf ibn ‘Abd ‘Awf ibn ‘Abdul Harith ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilab. His name during the days of ignorance was ‘Abd ‘Amr (lit. slave of ‘Amr) which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam changed to ‘Abdur Rahman when he accepted Islam.
It is reported that he said:
كان اسمي عبد عمرو فلما أسلمت سماني رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم عبد الرحمن
My name was ‘Abd ‘Amr. As soon as I embraced Islam, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam named me ‘Abdur Rahman.
Another report says that his name in Jahiliyyah was ‘Abdul Ka’bah which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam changed to ‘Abdur Rahman.
His mother is Safiyyah bint ‘Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilab. It is said that her mother was al Shifa’ bint ‘Awf ibn ‘Abdul Harith ibn Zuhrah.
This makes it clear that the lineage of Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu meets with the lineage of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from both his father’s and mother’s side, at his forefather Zuhrah.
Ibn Sa’d reports in al Tabaqat that he was born 10 years after the year of the elephants.
Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu was known with the agnomen Abu Muhammad.
It is reported from Sahlah bint ‘Asim:
كانت عبد الرحمن بن عوف أبيض أعين أهدب الأشفار أقنى طويل النابين الأعليين ربما أدمى نابه شفته له جمة أسفل من أذنيه أعنق ضخم الكتفين
‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf was fair in complexion, large-eyed, with large eye-lashes, a prominent nose, long upper canine teeth―many times his canines will cut his lip―with long hair reaching below his ear lobes, with a long neck, and large shoulders.
Ziyad al Bakka’i reports from Ibn Ishaq:
كان ساقط الثنيتين أهتم أعسر أعرج كان أصيب يوم أحد فهتم و جرح عشرين جراحة بعضها في رجله فعرج
His front two incisors had fallen off, he was left-handed, and lame. He was injured on the Day of Uhud and lost his front teeth and also sustained 20 wounds, some in his leg, which made it lame.
Yaqub ibn ‘Utbah says:
كان عبد الرحمن رجلا طوالا حسن الوجه رقيق البشرة فيه جنأ أبيض مشربا حمرة لا يغير شيبه
Glance at his Household (Wives and Children)
Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu had many wives [at different times] and was blessed with a number of children. The number of his children reach close to 28, 20 sons and 8 daughters. In the forthcoming lines, we will discuss them briefly.
- Umm Kulthum bint ‘Utbah ibn Rabi’ah
Children from her:
i. Salim al Akbar: He passed away before Islam.
- The daughter of Shaibah ibn Rabi’ah ibn ‘Abd Shams
Children from her:
i. Umm al Qasim: she was born in Jahiliyyah.
- Umm Kulthum bint ‘Uqbah ibn Mu’ayt
Children from her:
i. Muhammad: After whom he was given his agnomen.
vi. Amat al Rahman
- Sahlah bint ‘Asim ibn ‘Adi
Children from her:
v. Amat al Rahman al Sughra
- Bahriyyah bint Hani’ ibn Qabisah
Children from her:
i. ‘Urwah al Akbar: He was martyred in the Battles in Africa.
- Sahlah bint Suhayl ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Abd Shams
Children from her:
i. Salim al Asghar: He was killed on the Day of the Conquest of Africa.
- Umm Hakim bint Qarid ibn Khalid ibn ‘Ubaid
Children from her:
i. Abu Bakr
- The daughter of Abu al Hays ibn Rafi’ ibn Imra’ al Qais
Children from her:
i. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdur Rahman: He was killed in Africa the day it was conquered.
- Tumadir bint al Isba’ ibn ‘Amr ibn Tha’labah ibn Hisn ibn Damdam.
She is the first woman from Kalb to be married to a Qurayshi man.
Children from her:
i. Abu Salamah: he is ‘Abdullah al Asghar.
- Asma’ bint Salamah ibn Makhrabah
Children from her:
i. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Abdur Rahman
- Umm Hurayth
From the captives of Bahra’.
Children from her:
- Majd bint Yazid ibn Salamah Dhi Fa’ish al Humairiyyah
Children from her:
i. Suhayl: He is Abu al Abyad
- Umm Walad*: Ghazal bint Kisra
An Umm Walad from the captives of Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu from the Battle of Mada’in.
Children from her:
- Umm walad*: Zainab bint al Sabah ibn Tha’labah
Also from the captives of Bahra’.
Children from her:
i. Umm Yahya bint ‘Abdur Rahman
- Badiyah bint Ghaylan ibn Salamah ibn Mut’ab al Thaqafi
Children from her:
i. Juwairiyah bint ‘Abdur Rahman
Children from other Umm Walads*:
i. ‘Urwah: Passed away in infancy.
ii. Yahya: Passed away in infancy.
iii. Bilal: Passed away in infancy.
*Umm Walad is a slave who bears children for her master, as a result she cannot be sold and will be automatically set free on the death of the master.
Islam and Hijrah
Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman recognised Islam at an early stage and entered the faith prior to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam entering Dar al Arqam ibn Abi al Arqam and preaching there. He is one of the five who accepted Islam at the hands of Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu after his invitation. He is also one of the first eight attesters to the faith.
After he accepted Islam, he bore his share of persecution and harassment of the Mushrikin. He was among those who immigrated to Abyssinia, on both occasions. Thereafter, he emigrated to Madinah al Munawwarah, seeking the pleasure of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and with the intention to assist His religion, leaving behind in Makkah an abundance of wealth and plenty property.
Al Bukhari narrates on the authority of Sayyidina Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
قدم عبد الرحمن بن عوف المدينة فآخى النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم بينه و بين سعد بن الربيع الأنصاري فعرض عليه أي سعدا أن يناصفه أهله و ماله فقال عبد الرحمن بارك الله لك في أهلك و مالك دلني على السوق فربح شيئا من أقط و سمن فرآه النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم بعد أيام و عليه وضر من صفرة فقال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم مهيم يا عبد الرحمن قال يا رسول الله تزوجت امرأة من الأنصار قال فما سقت فيها فقال وزن نواة من ذهب فقال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أولم و لو بشاة
‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf arrived in Madinah. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam contracted brotherhood between him and Sa’d ibn al Rabi’ al Ansari. Sa’d offered to share half of his family and wealth with him but ‘Abdur Rahman politely declined saying, “May Allah bless you in your family and wealth. Just show me the marketplace.” He gained some cheese and butter as profit. After a few days, the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam spotted him with some yellow die. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked, “What is the good news, O ‘Abdur Rahman?”
He explained, “O Messenger of Allah, I got married to a woman from the Ansar.”
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam enquired, “What did you give as dowry to her?”
“Gold equivalent to a date pit,” he explained.
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advised, “Make walimah, even if it be with a sheep.”
From this we can realise the extent of distress Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu faced and the amount of perseverance he displayed in the face of difficulties and hardships. The man, merely by entering the faith, receives his full share of harassment and annoyance. Add to this that he left his wealth and property and immigrated to Abyssinia, then returned and subsequently immigrated back a second time, and thereafter went to Madinah on a third time, with empty hands; without any wealth or belongings. All of this sacrifice in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. It was not long before Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala honoured him with plenty of wealth, which he did not hoard but rather spent in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.
His Fear of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic
Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu had deep fear for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, and envisaged Him in all aspects of his life, always anticipating His mercy and compassion.
Al Bukhari narrates from Ibrahim ibn Sa’d―from Sa’d―from his father who says:
أتي عبد الرحمن بن عوف يوما بطعامه فقال قتل مصعب بن عمير و كان خيرا مني فلم يوجد له ما يكفن فيه إلا بردة و قتل حمزة أو رجل آخر خير مني فلم يوجد له ما يكفن فيه إلا بردة لقد خشيت أن يكون عجلت لنا طيباتنا في حياتنا الدنيا ثم جعل يبكي
Food was brought to ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf one day. He commented, “Mus’ab ibn ‘Umair was killed and he was superior to me. Sufficient cloth to shroud him was not found, except one shawl. Hamzah―or another man―was killed who was better than me and sufficient cloth to shroud him was not available except a shawl. I fear that our good deeds have been hastened for us in our worldly life.” After saying this, he began to weep.
Fragrant Shower of the Virtues of Ibn ‘Awf
Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu is one of the first forerunners to the faith. He is among the first eight that entered Islam, and one of the five that brought iman at the hands of al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He immigrated twice to Abyssinia and then to Madinah. He witnessed Badr and all the major campaigns alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He is one of the Ten Promised Jannat and one of the six men of the committee regarding whom Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu confirmed that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away while being pleased with them. He is also one of the affluent Muslims who utilised all their wealth for the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.
When we attempt to discuss the key to his personality, then something of utmost significance will appear before us. Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was one of the phenomenal economical structures in Islam; one who spent his wealth generously, to the extent that we can safely say that the wealth of Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was for Islam. In other words, the share of Islam from his wealth was far more that his own share.
Islam at the beginning rested on the shoulders of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. The services of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in support of din differed. Each one played his part according to his capability and strength. Some were gallant leaders who served the religion in terms of bravery and heroism in leadership. Others were courageous warriors whose daring was nothing less than leadership. Yet others played great economical roles by spending their wealth for Islam, the likes of Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
On one hand, he participates in Jihad alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhu with great sacrifice, and at the same time he was an outstanding individual in the financial field. This is one of the most significant keys to his personality. An angle that is noteworthy due to him mobilising armies, feeding the poor and needy, and fulfilling the needs of those in privation. This is a fact which Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu himself attests to as reported by Ahmed in his al Musnad:
لقد رأيتني و لو رفعت حجرا رجوت أن أصيب تحته ذهبا أو فضة
I definitely remember my past, if I had to lift a stone, I hoped to find underneath it gold or silver.
In the forthcoming lines, a presentation of the virtues and merits of the prominent Sahabi Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu will come to view. We will see that the Jannat guaranteed to him by the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was the result of his perpetual sincerity and continuous sacrifice with his being and wealth.
Jannat is the Most Expensive desired Commodity
We mentioned previously―and nothing prevents us from repeating what was mentioned in meaning, if not verbatim―that the greatest and most sublime virtue possible for any being to obtain is the guarantee of Jannat. This is because Jannat is the most expensive abode desired and yearned for by a Muslim. So receiving the glad tidings of entering it is only a token of a bondsman’s sincerity to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and the Master’s pleasure with him and love for him.
Ahmed and al Tirmidhi report from Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أبو بكر في الجنة و عمر في الجنة و عثمان في الجنة و علي في الجنة و طلحة في الجنة و الزبير في الجنة و عبد الرحمن بن عوف في الجنة و سعد في الجنة و سعيد في الجنة و أبو عبيدة بن الجراح في الجنة
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated, “Abu Bakr is in Jannat. ‘Umar is in Jannat. ‘Uthman is in Jannat. ‘Ali is in Jannat. Talhah is in Jannat. Zubair is in Jannat. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf is in Jannat. Sa’d is in Jannat. Sa’id is in Jannat. Abu ‘Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah is in Jannat.”
Al Tirmidhi reports from the same sanad, via Sayyidina Sa’id ibn Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال عشرة في الجنة أبو بكر في الجنة و عمر في الجنة و عثمان و علي و الزبير و طلحة و عبد الرحمن و أبو عبيدة و سعد بن أبي وقاص قال فعد هؤلاء التسعة و سكت عن العاشر فقال القوم ننشدك الله يا أبا الأعور من العاشر قال نشدتموني بالله أبو الأعور في الجنة قال أبو عيسى أبو الأعور هو سعيد بن زيد بن عمرو بن نوفل
Indeed, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared: “Ten individuals are in Jannat. Abu Bakr is in Jannat. ‘Umar is in Jannat as well as ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, Zubair, Talhah, ‘Abdur Rahman, Abu ‘Ubaidah, and Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas.”
He enumerated these nine and did not list the tenth. The people thus asked, “We implore you by Allah, O Abu al A’war, who is the tenth?”
He submitted, “You have implored me by Allah. Abu al A’war is in Jannat.”
Abu ‘Isa says, “Abu al A’war is Sa’id ibn Zaid ibn ‘Amr ibn Nawfal.”
It is also authentically transmitted that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam praised the one who cares for his wives and sympathises with them after his demise. This is exactly what Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu did. He bequeathed that an orchard be sold for a handsome amount of money which ought to be given to Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam spouses.
Ahmed, al Tabarani, and al Hakim report on the authority of Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha:
قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يعني لأزواجه الذي يحنو عليكن بعدي لهو الصادق البار اللهم اسق ابن عوف من السلسبيل
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told his wives, “The one who displays compassion towards you after my passing is definitely the truthful and devout.
[She would then pray:] O Allah, give Ibn ‘Awf drink from al Salsabil (a river in Jannat).”
Ibn Majah reports from Sayyidina Sa’id ibn Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
أشهد على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أني سمعته يقول اثبت حراء فما عليك إلا نبي أو صديق أو شهيد و عدهم رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أبو بكر و عمر و عثمان و علي و طلحة و الزبير و سعد و ابن عوف و سعيد بن زيد
I bear testimony upon Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that I heard him stating, “Remain firm, O Hira’, for only a nabi, siddiq, or martyr is upon you. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam listed them: Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, Talhah, Zubair, Sa’d, Ibn ‘Awf, and Sa’id ibn Zaid.”
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam performs salah behind him in the Tabuk Campaign
One of the privileges of the prominent Sahabi, Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu is that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam performed salah behind him in the Tabuk campaign. This is an implicit testimony from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam of his righteousness because Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam will not follow a transgressor, and it is not befitting for him to do so.
Muslim reports via his sanad from Sayyidina Mughirah ibn Shu’bah radiya Llahu ‘anhu who participated alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the battle of Tabuk. Mughirah radiya Llahu ‘anhu recalls:
فتبرز رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قبل الغائط فحملت معه إداوة قبل صلاة الفجر فلما رجع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إلي أخذت أهريق على يديه من الإداوة و غسل يديه ثلاث مرات ثم غسل وجهه ثم ذهب يخرج جبته عن ذراعيه فضاق كما جبته فأدخل يديه في الجبة حتى أخرج ذراعيه من أسفل الجبة و غسل ذراعيه إلى المرفقين ثم توضأ على خفيه ثم أقبل قال المغيرة فأقبلت معه حتى نجد الناس قد قدموا عبد الرحمن بن عوف فصلى لهم فأدرك رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إحدى الركعتين فصلى مع الناس الركعة الآخرة فلما سلم عبد الرحمن بن عوف قام رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يتم صلاته فأفزع ذلك المسلمين فأكثروا التسبيح فلما قضى النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم صلاته أقبل عليهم ثم قال أحسنتم أو قال قد أصبتم يغبطهم أن صلوا الصلاة لوقتها
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went to relieve himself in the field before Salat al Fajr so I took along a utensil (filled with water) for him. When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam returned to me, I began pouring water from the utensil on his hands. He washed his hands thrice and thereafter washed his face. Then, he tried to uncover his forearms from the jubbah, but the sleeves of the jubbah were too tight, so he pulled out his hands and exposed his arms from beneath the jubbah and then washed his arms up to the elbows. He then washed over his khuffs. Then he came back.
Mughirah continues: I came back with him only to find that the people had put ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf ahead, who was leading them in salah. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made one of the two rak’at, so he prayed the second rak’at with the people. After ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf made salam, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stood up to complete his salah. This alarmed the Muslims, who began reciting tasbih in great abundance. After the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam completed his salah, he turned to them and said, “You have done well―or he said: you have acted correctly.” He applauded them for performing salah on time.
Abu Ya’la reports from ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu in his al Musnad:
أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لما انتهى إلى عبد الرحمن بن عوف و هو يصلي بالناس أراد عبد الرحمن أن يتأخر فأومأ إليه النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أن مكانك فصلى و صلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بصلاة عبد الرحمن
When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam reached ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, who was leading the people in salah, the latter intended to move back. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gestured to him to remain in his place. Thus he led the salah and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam followed the salah of ‘Abdur Rahman.
Spending in the Path of Allah
Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu was an extremely generous and big-hearted individual. Miserliness and greed never gripped his heart. He would thus spend lavishly without fearing poverty and give our charity only seeking the countenance of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. One sample of his lavish spending is that he freed 30 slaves in one day.
Ma’mar reports from al Zuhri:
تصدق عبد الرحمن بن عوف على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بشطر ماله أربعة آلاف ثم تصدق بأربعين ألفا ثم تصدق بأربعين ألف دينار ثم حمل على خمسمائة فرس في سبيل الله ثم حمل على خمسمائة راحلة في سبيل الله و كان عامة ماله من التجارة
During the lifetime of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf gave half his wealth, 4000 (silver coins) in charity, followed by 40 000, followed by 40 000 gold coins. He then mounted 500 warriors on horses in the path of Allah followed by mounting 500 soldiers on camels in the path of Allah. Majority of his wealth was accrued from business.
Ibn ‘Asakir reports―from Abu Salamah―from Abu Hurairah that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared:
خياركم خياركم لنسائي قال فأوصى عبد الرحمن لهن بحديقة قومت أو بيعت بأربعمائة ألف
“The best of you are the ones who are best to my wives.”
Accordingly, ‘Abdur Rahman bequeathed in their name an orchard valued at or sold for 400 000.
Al Tirmidhi reports―from Muhammad ibn ‘Amr―from Abu Salamah:
إن عبد الرحمن بن عوف أوصى بحديقة لأمهات المؤمنين بيعت بأربعمائة ألف
‘Abdur Rahman bequeathed an orchard for the Ummahat al Mu’minin sold for 400 000.
Al Tirmidhi reports on the authority of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha:
إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم كان يقول لهن إن أمركن مما يهمني بعدي و لن يصبر عليكن إلا الصابرون قال ثم تقول عائشة فسقى الله أباك من سلسبيل الجنة تريد عبد الرحمن بن عوف و كان قد وصل أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم بمال بيعت بأربعين ألفا
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would say to them [his wives], “Your matter is what worries me after my demise. No one will tolerate you except the patient.”
Thereafter Aisha would pray, “May Allah give your father drink from the salsabil of Jannat―referring to ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf.”
He gave the wives of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wealth sold for forty thousand [dirhams] to maintain good ties with them.
Ahmed narrates in his al Musnad from Umm Bakr bint al Musawwir:
إن عبد الرحمن بن عوف باع أرضا له من عثمان بن عفان بأربعين ألف دينار فقسمه في فقراء بني زهرة و في المهاجرين و أمهات المؤمنين قال المسور فأتيت عائشة بنصيبها فقالت من أرسل بهذا فقلت عبد الرحمن قالت أما أني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول و قال الخزاعي إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال لا يحنو عليكن بعدي إلا الصابرون سقى الله عبد الرحمن بن عوف من سلسبيل الجنة
‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf sold a land of his to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan for 40 000 gold coins which he distributed among the needy of the Banu Zuhrah, the Muhajirin, and the Ummahat al Mu’minin.
Musawwir relates: I came to Aisha with her share. “Who sent this,” she asked.
“‘Abdur Rahman,” I replied.
She then stated, “Truly, I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying―al Khuza’i said: Indeed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said [addressing his wives]: ‘No one will show compassion to you after me except the perseverant.’ May Allah grant ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf drink from the Salsabil of Jannat.”
His Jihad alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam
Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not content with sacrificing only his wealth in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. He also presented his soul to be sacrificed for his din. He thus participated in all the campaigns alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He never slackened in assisting Islam.
He is among the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum who witnessed Badr. He, Abu Bakr, and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhum shared one camel, taking turns to ride.
In the battle of Badr, two of the leaders of the mushrikin were killed in his presence. One, in whose killing he was instrumental by pointing him out, is Abu Jahl and the other who was killed after Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu took him captive is Umayyah ibn Khalaf, the head of disbelief.
As regards the slaying of Abu Jahl, Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman tells us the story as reported by al Bukhari and Muslim:
بينا أنا واقف في الصف يوم بدر فنظرت عن يميني و عن شمالي فإذا أنا بغلامين من الأنصار حديثة أسنانهما تمنيت أن أكون بين أضلع منهما فغمزني أحدهما فقال يا عم هل تعرف أبا جهل قلت نعم ما حاجتك إليه يا ابن أخي قال أخبرت أنه يسب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم والذي نفسي بيده لئن رأيته لا يفارق سوادي سواده حتى يموت الأعجل منا فتعجبت لذلك فغمزني الآخر فقال لي مثلها فلم أنشب أن نظرت إلى أبي جهل يجول في الناس قلت ألا إن هذا صاحبكما الذي سألتماني فابتدراه بسيفيهما فضرباه حتى قتلاه ثم انصرفا إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فأخبراه فقال أيكما قتله قال كل واحد منهما أنا قتلته فقال هل مسحتما سيفيكما قالا لا فنظر في السيفين فقال كلاكما قتله سلبه لمعاذ بن عمرو بن الجموح و كانا معاذ بن عفراء و معاذ بن عمرو بن الجموح
As I was standing in the ranks on the Day of Badr, I looked to my right and left only to find two youngsters of the Ansar, tender in age. I wished that I had been between men stronger than them. Just then, one of them nudges me and says, “Uncle, you know Abu Jahl?”
“Yes,” I respond, “What work do you have with him, my child?”
He says, “I have been told that he swears Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. By the Being in whose hands lies my life, if I see him, our bodies will not separate until the quickest of us dies.”
I was totally amazed at this. The other youngster then nudges me and we have the same chat. Just then I spot Abu Jahl roaming among the people. I shouted, “Hey! That is your target whom you asked me about.”
Instantaneously, they rushed with their swords and struck him until they killed him. Then they hurried back to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and notified him. He asked, “Which of you two killed him?”
“I killed him,” each one of them yelled.
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked, “Did you wipe your swords.”
“No,” they replied.
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took a look at both the swords and decided, “Both of you have killed him.”
His belongings went to Muaz ibn ‘Amr ibn al Jamuh. The two youngsters were Muaz ibn ‘Afra’ and Muaz ibn ‘Amr ibn al Jamuh.
As for the second of them, Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu yet again narrates as documented by al Bukhari:
كاتبت أمية بن خلف كتابا بأن يحفظني في صاغيتي بمكة و أحفظه في صاغيته بالمدينة فلما ذكرت الرحمن قال لا أعرف الرحمن كاتبني باسمك الذي كان في الجاهلية فكاتبته عبد عمرو فلما كان في يوم بدر خرجت إلى جبل لأحرزه حين نام الناس فأبصره بلال فخرج حتى وقف على مجلس من الأنصار فقال أمية بن خلف لا نجوت إن نجا أمية فخرج معه فريق من الأنصار في آثارنا فلما خشيت أن يلحقونا خلفت لهم ابنه لأشغلهم فقتلوه ثم أبوا حتى يتبعونا و كان رجلا ثقيلا فلما أدركونا قلت له ابرك فبرك فألقيت عليه نفسي لأمنعه فتخللوه بالسيوف من تحتي حتى قتلوه و أصاب أحدهم رجلي بسيفه و كان عبد الرحمن ين عوف يرينا ذلك الأثر في ظهر قدمه
I made a pact with Umayyah ibn Khalaf that he will look after my property (or family) in Makkah and I will look after his in Madinah. When I mentioned the word al Rahman (in my name), he said, “I do not recognise al Rahman. Write the document with your name during the Jahiliyyah.” So I wrote it as ‘Abd ‘Amr.
When the Day of Badr came, I went to a mountain to protect him when the people dozed off. However, Bilal caught sight of him so he went and stood by a gathering of the Ansar and announced, “Umayyah ibn Khalaf! I will not be spared if Umayyah is saved.”
Hearing this, a group of the Ansar came in hot pursuit of us. When I feared that they will catch up with us, I left his son behind to keep them busy. They killed him at once and refused to stop pursuing us. He was a hefty man. So when they caught up with us, I told him to kneel. He knelt accordingly and I placed my body over him to protect him. However, they sliced with their swords from underneath me until they killed him. One of them also struck my leg with his sword.
The narrator says: ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf would show us that scar at the back of his leg.
‘Abdur Rahman also participated in Uhud and excelled. He is one of those who remained steadfast at the side of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He sustained 21 wounds on that day. He was injured on his leg due to which he had a limp and his two front incisors fell out as well.
Despatched by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to Dawmat al Jandal
One of his merits is that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent him to Dawmat al Jandal in Sha’ban, 6 A.H. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam first summoned him and seated him in front of himself. He then tied a turban around his head with his own blessed hand and commanded, “Wage war in the name of Allah in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and kill those who disbelieve in Allah. Do not steal booty nor deceive, and do not kill a child.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam despatched him to the Kalb tribe in Dawmat al Jandal. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also instructed him, “If they accept your invitation, then marry the daughter of their king.” ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu advanced. He reached Dawmat al Jandal and stayed for three days, inviting them to Islam. Asbagh ibn ‘Amr al Kalbi accepted Islam. He was a former Christian and was their leader. Multitudes of people of his tribe also accepted Islam. Those who did not, chose to give Jizyah. Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu married Tumadir bint al Asbagh and brought her with him back to Madinah. She is the mother of Abu Salamah ibn ‘Abdur Rahman.
A Station with ‘Abdur Rahman’s Deep Understanding
Just as Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is unique for his spending in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, he is exceptional for his deep understanding, perception, and retention of what he heard from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum would thus refer to him in these matters and had full reliance on his words.
One of the incidents that point out his intelligence, his position among the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, and their reliance in his declaration is the following:
Ahmed reports in his al Musnad
عن ابن عباس أنه قال له عمر يا غلام هل سمعت من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أو من أحد من أصحابه إذا شك الرجل في صلاته ماذا يصنع قال فبينا هو كذلك إذ أقبل عبد الرحمن بن عوف فقال فيم أنتما فقال عمر سألت هذا الغلام هل سمعت من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أو من أحد من أصحابه إذا شك الرجل في صلاته ماذا يصنع فقال عبد الرحمن سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول إذا شك أحدكم في صلاته فلم يدر أواحدة صلى أم ثنتين فليجعلها واحدة و إذا لم يدر ثنتين صلى أم ثلاثا فليجعلها ثنتين و إذا لم يدر أثلاثا صلى أم أربعا فليجعلها ثلاثا ثم يسجد إذا فرغ من صلاته و هو جالس قبل أن يسلم سجدتين
Ibn ‘Abbas relates that ‘Umar questioned him, “O lad, have you heard anything from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam or any of his Sahabah regarding what a person should do when he has doubts in his salah?”
Just then, ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf arrived and asked, “What were you discussing?”
‘Umar explained, “I asked this young boy if he heard anything from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam or any of his Sahabah regarding what a person should do when he doubts in his salah.”
‘Abdur Rahman said, “I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying: ‘When any of you has doubt in his salah and does not know whether he performed a single or two rak’at, he should settle on one. If he is confused between whether he read two or three, then settle on two. And if he is not sure whether he read three or four, he should settle on three. Thereafter, he should make two sajdahs just before competing his salah while sitting before making salam.
Al Bukhari reports from Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:
إن عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه خرج إلى الشام حتى إذا كان بسرغ لقيه أمراء الأجناد أبو عبيدة بن الجراح و أصحابه فأخبروه أن الوباء قد وقع بأرض الشام قال ابن عباس فقال عمر ادع لي المهاجرين الأولين فدعاهم فاستشارهم و أخبرهم أن الوباء قد وقع بالشام فاختلفوا فقال بعضهم قد خرجت لأمر و لا نرى أن ترجع عنه و قال بعضهم معك بقية الناس و أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و لا نرى أن تقدمهم على هذا الوباء فقال ارتفعوا عني ثم قال ادع لي الأنصار فدعوتهم فاستشارهم فسلكوا سبيل المهاجرين و اختلفوا كاختلافهم فقال ارتفعوا عني ثم قال ادع لي من كان ها هنا من مشيخة قريش من مهاجرة الفتح فدعوتهم فلم يختلف منهم عليه رجلان فقالوا نرى أن ترجع بالناس و لا تقدمهم على هذا الوباء فنادى عمر في الناس إني مصبح على ظهر فأصبحوا عليه قال أبو عبيدة بن الجراح أفرارا من قدر الله فقال عمر لو غيرك قالها يا أبا عبيدة نعم نفر من قدر الله إلى قدر الله أرأيت لو كان لك إبل هبطت واديا له عدوتان إحداهما خصبة و الأخرى جدبة أليس إن رعيت الخصبة رعيتها بقدر الله و إن رعيت الجدبة رعيتها بقدر الله قال فجاء عبد الرحمن بن عوف و كان متغيبا في بعض حاجته فقال إن عندي في هذا علما سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول إذا سمعتم به بأرض فلا تقدموا عليه و إذا وقع بأرض و أنتم بها فلا تخرجوا فرارا منه قال فحمد الله عمر ثم انصرف
‘Umar ibn al Khattab left for Sham. When he reached Sargh, the leaders of the armies met him, viz. Abu ‘Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah and his colleagues. They informed him that a plague has ravaged the land of Sham.
Ibn ‘Abbas continues: ‘Umar instructed, “Summon for me the early Muhajirin.” He called them and sought counsel from them informing them that the plague had affected Sham. They had diverse views. Some said, “You have set out for a purpose so we do not feel that you should return.” While others were of the opinion, “With you are the rest of the people and the Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, so we do not feel that you should take them to this plague.”
‘Umar said, “You may leave.”
He then said, “Summon the Ansar for me.” I called them and he sought their counsel. They also followed the path of the Muhajirin and differed as they differed. ‘Umar told them to leave.
He then instructed, “Summon for me those elders of Quraysh who are here from the immigration of the conquest.” Accordingly, I called them. Not even two of them disputed over it. They all said, “We feel that you should return with the people and not take them to this plague.” ‘Umar thus publicly announced that he is leaving first thing the next morning so they should prepare to depart.
Abu ‘Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah said, “Running away from the fate of Allah?”
‘Umar said, “If only someone besides you had said it, O Abu ‘Ubaidah. Yes, we are running from Allah’s fate to Allah’s fate. See if you had camels that descended into a valley with two slopes, one lush and the other barren. Is it not that if you graze them in the lush side, it is the fate of Allah, and if you graze them on the barren side, it is the fate of Allah?”
Just then, ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf arrived―and he was not present that whole time due to some personal need. He submitted, “I have knowledge regarding this. I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advising, ‘When you hear of a plague in a land, then do not go to it. And if it breaks out in a land where you are present, then do not leave, running away from it.’” Hearing this, ‘Umar praised Allah and then departed.
Another testimony of his is with regards the issue of accepting Jizyah from the Magians of Hajar.
Al Bukhari narrates from Sufyan―I heard ‘Amr relating:
كنت جالسا مع جابر بن زيد و عمرو بن أوس فحدثهما بجالة سنة سبعين عام حج مصعب بن الزبير بأهل البصرة عند درج زمزم قال كنت كاتبا لجزء بن معاوية عم الأحنف فأتانا كتاب عمر بن الخطاب قبل موته بسنة فرقوا بين كل ذي محرم من المجوس و لم يكن عمر أخذ الجزية من المجوس حتى شهد عبد الرحمن بن عوف أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أخذها من مجوس هجر
I was sitting with Jabir ibn Zaid and ‘Amr ibn Aws when Bajalah narrated to them in the year 70, the year Mus’ab ibn al Zubair performed Hajj with the people of Basrah when he entered Zam Zam. He said, “I was a scribe for Jaz’ ibn Muawiyah, the paternal uncle of Ahnaf. ‘Umar ibn al Khattab’s letter came to us one year before he passed away commanding, “Separate between all mahrams of the fire-worshippers.” ‘Umar had not accepted Jizyah from the Magians until ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf bore witness that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam accepted it from the Magians of Hajar.
Similarly, the issue of whipping after consuming liquor.
Muslim narrates from Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
إن نبي الله صلى الله عليه و سلم جلد في الخمر بالجريد و النعال ثم جلد أبو بكر أربعين فلما كان عمر و دنا الناس من الريف و القرى قال ما ترون في جلد الخمر فقال عبد الرحمن بن عوف أرى أن تجعلها كأخف الحدود قال فجلد عمر ثمانين
The Nabi of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, in the case of liquor, beat with palm branches stripped of their leaves and with shoes. Abu Bakr then gave 40 lashes. When the era of ‘Umar came and people drew close to countrysides and villages (and consuming liquor became common as a result), he asked, “What do you feel regarding the punishment of consuming liquor?”
‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf suggested, “I feel that you make it equal to the lightest hadd.” Accordingly, ‘Umar gave 80 lashes.
All these incidents and others―which could not be mentioned here―are the best indications to the intelligence of Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his aspiration to emulate Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, learn from him, and pass this knowledge on to others. In all of these events lie great lessons for the Muslims with regards to the manner in which they should schedule their times and manage their affairs. Despite the man having a roaring business and an abundance of wealth, this did not prevent him from learning knowledge from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
‘Abdur Rahman’s Question is the Cause for Ease on the Excusable
One of the many virtues of this illustrious Sahabi radiya Llahu ‘anhu is that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala made his question the reason for takhfif (ease) for the special excusable Muslims who cannot fulfil some shar’i requirement due to their condition, like the wearing of silk for men.
Al Bukhari and Muslim narrate from Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم رخص لعبد الرحمن بن عوف و الزبير بن العوام في القمص الحرير في السفر من حكة كانت بهما أو وجع كان بهما
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam allowed ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf and Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam to wear silk robes during a journey due to itchiness or a disease they were experiencing.
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam testifies for Goodness for ‘Abdur Rahman
Just as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam testified and gave glad tidings to Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu of Jannat, he testified that he is of the elite and privileged Muslims.
Al Tabarani and Ibn ‘Asakir report from Basrah bint Safwan:
إن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم سألها من يخطب أم كلثوم بنت عقبة قالت فلان و فلان و عبد الرحمن بن عوف فقال انكحوا عبد الرحمن بن عوف فإنه من خيار المسلمين و من خيارهم من كان مثله
The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked her, “Who proposed to Umm Kulthum bint ‘Uqbah?”
She replied, “So and so and ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf.”
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advised, “Marry her to ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf since he is from the cream of the Muslims. And the best Muslims are those similar to him.
This testimony of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is a badge of honour on the chest of Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. In fact, it is far greater than that. It is not any badge, but a badge from the tongue of Nubuwwah. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would not have afforded him this honour except if he was worthy of the same.
Why would Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu not be deserving of this honour when he gifted his wealth generosity to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala? In fact, he sacrificed his whole life. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala be pleased with him and make him happy.
‘Uthman bears witness to the Goodness of ‘Abdur Rahman
Ibn Sa’d and al Hakim report from Miswar ibn Makhramah:
بينما أنا أسير في ركب بين عثمان و عبد الرحمن بن عوف و عبد الرحمن قدامي عليه خميصة سوداء فقال عثمان من صاحب الخميصة السوداء قالوا عبد الرحمن بن عوف فناداني عثمان يا مسور فقلت لبيك يا أمير المؤمنين فقال من زعم أنه خير من خالك في الهجرة الأولى و في الهجرة الثانية الآخرة فقد كذب
Once, I was travelling in a caravan between ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan and ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf. ‘Abdur Rahman was ahead of me and had on a black woollen shawl. ‘Uthman asked, “Who is wearing the black woollen shawl?”
“‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf,” they replied.
‘Uthman then shouted out to me, “O Miswar!”
“I am present,” I replied, “O Amir al Mu’minin.”
‘Uthman explained, “Whoever thinks that he is better than your maternal uncle (i.e. ‘Abdur Rahman) in the first and second hijrah, is lying.”
After a life filled with spending for Islam and upon the Muslims, Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu breathed his last. Just before his demise, an amazing incident took place which the scholars mention.
Al Bayhaqi quotes from Ibrahim ibn ‘Abdur Rahman:
أنه ليلة غشي على عبد الرحمن بن عوف في وجعه غشية حتى ظنوا أنه قد فاضت نفسه حتى قاموا من عنده و جللوه ثوبا و خرجت أم كلثوم بنت عقبة امرأته إلى المسجد لتستعين بما أمرت أن تستعين به من الصبر و الصلاة فلبثوا ساعة و هو في غشيته ثم أفاق فكان أول ما تكلم به أن كبر فكبر أهل البيت و من يليهم ثم قال لهم غشي علي فقالوا نعم فقال صدقتم إنه انطلق بي رجلان أحدهما فيه شدة و فظاظة فقالا انطلق نحاكمك إلى العزيز الأمين فانطلقا بي حتى لقيا رجلا فقال أين تذهبان بهذا فقالا نحاكمه إلى العزيز الأمين قال ارجعا فإنه من الذين كتب الله لهم السعادة و المغفرة في بطون أمهاتهم و أنه سيتمتع به بنوه إلى ما شاء الله فعاش بعد ذلك شهرا ثم توفي رضي الله عنه
One night ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf fell unconscious for a long period during his illness, so they thought that his soul has departed. They stood up and moved away from his presence and covered him with a cloth. Umm Kulthum bint ‘Uqbah, his wife, set off to the Masjid to seek help in the manner she had been ordered to, i.e. through patience and prayer. For a long while, he remained unconscious. He then regained consciousness and the first thing he uttered was the takbir. The people of the house and those adjacent to them also shouted the takbir. He then asked them, “Was I unconscious?” They replied in the affirmative. He said, “You have spoken the truth. Two men took me, one of whom was stern and harsh. They told me, ‘Walk, we are taking you for judgement to the Mighty, the Trustworthy.’ Thus, they took me until they met a man who asked them where they were taking me. They said, ‘We are taking him for judgement to the Mighty, the Trustworthy.’ He told them, ‘Return, for he is among those for whom Allah decreed good fortune and forgiveness while they were in their mother’s wombs. Moreover, his sons will enjoy his company until Allah wishes.’” He remained alive after this incident for a month and thereafter passed away.
This dream was one form of glad tiding which Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman radiya Llahu ‘anhu received. It is as if Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala wanted to inform him that He is pleased with him. May Allah be pleased with him and make him happy.
After a life filled with sacrifice, he passed away in the year 31 A.H. in Madinah at the age of 75. He bequeathed 50 000 gold coins for the path of Allah. ‘Urwah ibn al Zubair mentioned this. Al Zuhri says:
أوصى عبد الرحمن لمن بقي فيمن شهد بدرا لكل رجل أربعمائة دينار و كانوا مائة فأخذوها و أخذها عثمان فيمن أخذ و أوصى بألف فرس في سبيل الله … و كان سعد بن أبي وقاص فيمن حمل جنازته و هو يقول واجبلاه و خلف مالا عظيما من ذهب قطع بالفؤوس حتى مجلت أيدي الرجال منه و ترك ألف بعير و مائة فرس و ثلاثة آلاف شاة ترعى بالبقيع و كان له أربع نسوة أخرجت امرأة بثمانين ألفا يعني صولحت
‘Abdur Rahman made a bequest of 400 gold coins for each of the participants of Badr who were alive. They were 100 in number. They took their respective shares and ‘Uthman also took his share. He also bequeathed 1000 horses for the path of Allah.
Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas was one of those who carried his janazah saying, “What a huge mountain!” He left behind plenty wealth, including gold which was cut up with axes until the hands of men became sore due to it. He left behind 1000 camels, 100 horses, and 3000 sheep to be pastured in al Baqi’. He had four wives, each one received 80 000.
Upon his demise, Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu expressed few words which firstly point out the amicable relationship they shared and secondly his rank. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:
ذهب ابن عوف فقد أدركت صفوها و سبقت رنقها
Congratulations to you, O Ibn ‘Awf for the reward of what you spent in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, seeking His pleasure. And congratulations to you for Jannat which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave you glad tidings of.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 124; Tabaqat Khalifah, pg. 45.
 Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 7731. Al Hakim authenticated it and al Dhahabi concurred.
 Al Mujam al Kabir, Hadith: 253; al Mustadrak, Hadith: 5335, al Dhahabi classified it sahih; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 124; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 69, Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 313.
 Tabaqat Khalifah, pg. 45; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 313.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 124; al Isabah, vol. 4 pg. 290.
 Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 68; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 124.
 Ahdab al ashfar: plenty hair on the eye lids of both eyes. (Al Qamus al Muhit, vol. 1 pg. 183.)
 Al Qada: A quality of the nose, i.e. long, with a soft tip, and elevation in the middle. (Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith, vol. 4 pg. 192.)
 Al Jummah: Hair (Ismail ibn ‘Abbas al Taliqani: al Muhit fi al Lughah, vol. 6 pg. 419.)
 A’naq: Lock neck. (Mujam Maqayis al Lughah, vol. 4 pg. 128.)
 Al Jana’: Hunch in the back or neck. (Al Nihayah, vol. 1 pg. 818.)
 Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 84 – 85.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 127 – 128.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 124; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 35 pg. 235; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 68.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 125; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 314.
 Al wadar: coloured with dye or colourful perfume. (‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 11 pg. 164.)
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on how Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam contracted brotherhood between his Companions, Hadith: 3722; Sahih Muslim, book on nikah, chapter on dowry and the permissibility of it being teaching of Qur’an, Hadith: 1427.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on funerals, chapter on shroud from all the wealth, Hadith: 1215.
 Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 13890. Shu’ayb comments, “Its isnad is sahih, according to the standard of Muslim.”
 Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 1675―Shu’ayb al Arna’ut comments, “Its isnad is strong on the standards of Muslim.” Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, the virtues of ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Hadith: 3747, al Albani classified it sahih; al Nasa’i: al Sunan al Kubra, Hadith: 8194; Sahih Ibn Hibban, book on his informing of the virtues of the Sahabah, Hadith: 7002.
 Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, the virtues of ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Hadith: 3748. Al Albani classified it sahih.
 Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 26601; al Mujam al Kabir, Hadith: 19588; al Mustadrak, Hadith: 5357. Al Haythami comments in Majma’ al Zawa’id, “Ahmed and al Tabarani narrated it and their narrators are reliable.” Shu’ayb classified it hasan in his footnotes on al Musnad.
 Sunan Ibn Majah, book on the merits of the ten, Hadith: 134. Classified sahih by al Albani.
 Sahih Muslim, book on salah, chapter on the congregation appointing something to lead them in salah when the Imam is delayed, Hadith: 979.
 Musnad Abi Ya’la, from the musnad of ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Hadith: 853, Hussain Salim Asad labels the isnad sahih; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 316.
 Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 316.
 Al Mujam al Kabir, Hadith: 265; Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 99. Al Haythami mentioned it in al Majma’ and said, “Al Tabarani narrated it. It is mursal and his narrators and reliable.” Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 35 pg. 263; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 81; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 64.
 Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 35 pg. 282.
 Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Hadith: 3750. He comments, “This is a hasan gharib hadith.” Al Albani said, “Isnad is hasan. Sahih li ghayrihi.”
 Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Awf, Hadith: 3749. He comments, “This is a hasan sahih gharib hadith.” Al Albani classified it as hasan. Sahih Ibn Hibban, mention of ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf al Zuhri, Hadith: 6995. Shu’ayb al Arna’ut classified the hadith sahih.
 Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 24768. Shu’ayb al Arna’ut labelled it hasan in the footnotes.
 Maghazi al Waqidi, vol. 1 pg. 24.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on khums (a fifth), chapter on he who does not take a khums from the belongings and whoever kills an enemy gets his belonging without a fifth being taken, Hadith: 2972; Sahih Muslim, book on jihad and expeditions, chapter on the killer deserving the belongings of the slain, Hadith: 1752.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on wakalah, chapter when a Muslim appoints a harbi (disbelieving enemy the Muslims are at war with) as his representative in the land of war, or in the land of Islam, it is permissible, Hadith: 2179.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 2 pg. 89; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 314.
 Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 314.
 Musnad Ahmed, the hadith of ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Hadith: 1656, Shu’ayb al Arna’ut labelled it hasan li ghayrihi; Sunan Ibn Majah, chapter on the narration regarding one who doubts in his salah, and settles on conviction, Hadith: 1209, al Albani classified this narration sahih.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on medicine, chapter on what has been mentioned about a plague, Hadith: 5397; Sahih Muslim, book on salam, chapter on plagues and evil omens, Hadith: 2219.
 Sahih al Bukhari, chapters of jizyah and muwada’ah, chapter on jizyah and muwada’ah with the people of dhimmah and war, Hadith: 2987.
 Sahih Muslim, book on legal punishments, chapter on the punishment of liquor, Hadith: 1706.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on jihad, chapter on wearing silk in war, Hadith: 2762; Sahih Muslim, book on clothing, chapter on the permissibility of a man wearing silk due to itchiness or a similar sickness, Hadith: 5550.
 Al Mujam al Awsat, vol. 2 pg. 43, Hadith: 1187; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 35 pg. 279; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Awsat, vol. 1 pg. 90; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 65. Al Haythami comments, “Yaqub ibn Humaid and Sulaiman ibn Salim are present therein. Both of them are reliable. The rest of the narrators are the narrators of al Sahih.”
 Al khamisah: square woollen shawl.
 Al Mustadrak, chapter on mention of the merits of ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Hadith: 5352; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 125.
 Dala’il al Nubuwwah, vol. 8 pg. 83, Hadith: 2968; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 35 pg. 297; al Mustadrak, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Hadith: 5341.
 Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 317; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 90.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 136; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 35 pg. 301.Back to top