Biography of Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas – NEW UPLOAD!

Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu

 

The Maternal Uncle of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the first to shoot an arrow in the Path of Allah

 

Jannat is the most expensive commodity a Muslim yearns and longs for. Whoever Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala promises Jannat to, undoubtedly will enter it. Nothing can thwart the decree of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Congratulations to its inhabitants and dwellers. From among those Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala sounded this grand glad tiding for and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam conveyed it was Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

He is thus one of the Ten Promised Jannat, one of the first forerunners to Islam, and the first to shoot an arrow in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Here is a quick glance at some of his distinctions and his excellent qualities and characteristics.

 

Glance of Greatness into Sa’d’s Lineage

Name and Lineage

He is Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas ibn Wuhayb ibn ‘Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilab, Abu Ishaq al Qurashi al Zuhri. His father’s name is Malik. One of the Ten and the forerunners to the faith. He participated in Badr and Hudaybiyyah and is one of the six men of the committee with whom Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was pleased when he left this world.[1]

His mother is Hamnah bint Abi Sufyan ibn Umayyah ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy.[2]

It appears in al Isabah that she is Hamnah bint Sufyan ibn Umayyah, the daughter of the paternal uncle of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb ibn Umayyah.[3]

This is how the lineage of Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu meets with Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lineage from both his mothers and father’s side. Kilab is the fifth forefather of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from his father’s side and the fourth forefather of Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu from his father’s side as well. With regards to his mother’s side, his lineage meets with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at Qusayy, the fourth forefather of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from his father’s side and the fourth forefather of Sa’d from his mother’s side.

From another angle, Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu meets with the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from the latter’s mother Aminah. Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mother is Aminah bint Wahb ibn ‘Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah. On the other hand, Sayyidina Sa’d’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu grandfather is Wuhayb. Wuhayb is the twin brother of Wahb. Thus, Malik―Sa’d’s father―is the son of Aminah’s paternal uncle, making them first cousins. This makes Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu second cousins.

 

Agnomen

Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu was known and famous with the agnomen, Abu Ishaq[4], after his son Ishaq.

 

Description

Al Dhahabi described him as:

كان قصيرا دحداحا غلظا ذا هامة شنن الأصابع جعد الشعر أشعر الجسد آدم أفطس

He was short in stature, with short legs[5], tough, with a large head, strong dry fingers[6], curly hair, plenty bodily hair, brown in complexion, and flat-nosed.[7]

 

Ibrahim ibn al Mundhir explains:

كان هو و طلحة و الزبير و علي عذار عام واحد أي كان سنهم واحدا

He, Talhah, Zubair, and ‘Ali were born in the same year, i.e. they were equal in age.[8]

 

Glance at his Household (Wives and Children)

Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu married quite a number of times and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala blessed him with plenty children. His wives and children are as follows:

 

  1. The daughter of Shihab ibn ‘Abdullah ibn al Harith ibn Zuhrah

Children from her:

i. Ishaq al Akbar: After whom he was given his agnomen. He passed away during infancy.

ii. Umm al Hakam al Kubra.

 

  1. Mawiyah bint Qais ibn Ma’dikarab

Children from her:

i. ‘Umar: Al Mukhtar killed him.

ii. Muhammad ibn Sa’d: He was killed on the Day of Dir al Jamajim by Hajjaj.

iii. Hafsah

iv. Umm al Qasim

v. Umm Kulthum

 

  1. Umm ‘Amir bint ‘Amr ibn ‘Amr ibn Ka’b 

Children from her:

i. ‘Amir

ii. Ishaq al Asghar

iii. Ismail

iv. Umm ‘Imran

 

  1. Zabad

Her children believe that she is the daughter of al Harith ibn Ya’mur ibn Sharahil ibn ‘Abd ‘Awf ibn Malik

Children from her:

i. Ibrahim

ii. Musa

iii. Umm al Hakam al Sughra

iv. Umm ‘Amr

v. Hind

vi. Umm al Zubair

vii. Umm Musa

 

  1. Salma from the Banu Taghlib ibn Wa’il

Children from her:

i. ‘Abdullah ibn Sa’d

 

  1. Khawlah bint ‘Amr ibn Aws ibn Salamah ibn Ghaziyyah ibn Ma’bad

Children from her:

i. Mus’ab ibn Sa’d

 

  1. Umm Hilal bint Rabi’ ibn Nari ibn Aws ibn Harithah

Children from her:

i. ‘Abdullah al Asghar

ii. Bujayr: His name was ‘Abdur Rahman

iii. Hamidah

 

  1. Umm Hakim bint Qarid from the Banu Kinanah

Children from her:

i. ‘Umair al Akbar: Passed away before his father

ii. Hamnah

 

  1. Salma bint Khasfah ibn Thaqf ibn Rabi’ah

Children from her:

i. ‘Umair al Asghar

ii. ‘Amr

iii. ‘Imran

iv. Umm ‘Amr

v. Umm Ayub

vi. Umm Ishaq

 

  1. Tayyibah bint ‘Amir ibn ‘Utbah ibn Sharahil

Children from her:

i. Salih ibn Sa’d.

 

  1. Umm Hujayr

Children from her:

i. ‘Uthman

ii. Ramlah

 

Other children:

i. ‘Amrah: She was blind. Suhayl ibn ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf married her. Her mother is a woman from the captives of the Arabs.

ii. Aisha bint Sa’d.[9]

 

Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas in the Convoy of Iman

Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu is one of the very first to accept Islam and believe in Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He entered the faith in the very early stages.

Ibn Kathir mentions that the day he embraced Islam, he was 17 years of age[10] while al Dhahabi mentions that he was 19 at the time.[11]

Al Bukhari narrates via his sanad from Sa’id ibn al Musayyab who said that he heard Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu pronouncing:

 

ما أسلم أحد إلا في اليوم الذي أسلمت فيه و لقد مكثت سبعة أيام و إني لثلث الإسلام

No one accepted Islam except on the day I embraced the faith. I remained for seven days a third of Islam.[12]

 

Sa’d’s Resoluteness and Composure

No sooner Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu accepted Islam, the doors of plots and diversion were opened upon him. His family and relatives attempted to divert him away from his religion and prevent him from continuing upon it. However, when iman enters the heart of a man or woman with sidq (sincerity), it never exits. Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu remained resolute like a formidable pillar, persevering though every difficulty that came upon him. All their attempts were met with the resoluteness of a believer and the iman of a dedicated man. Hence, he neither doubted for a second nor lost determination for a moment.

When all their attempts to divert him and prevent him from Islam failed, his mother resorted to a means which no one doubted would defeat his soul and avert his determination towards the idolatry of his family and close ones. Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu was extremely obedient to his mother and loved her dearly. She announced her abandonment of food and drink until Sa’d returned to the religion of his forefathers and nation. She continued her unbroken fast and determination; her continuous discarding of food and drink was unrelenting, until she almost met her death. When she looked at the face of death, some of his family members grabbed him to show him a last glance at her, hopeful that his heart will soften when he sees her in the throes of death. Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu went and saw the plight of his mother, torturing herself, but his faith in Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam surmounted everything else. He thus informed her that if she had more than one life, and each life was sacrificed one after the other, still too he will not abandon his religion.

Al Dhahabi, Ibn Kathir, and others mention that the following verse was revealed regarding Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حُسْنًا وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ لِتُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا

And We have enjoined upon man goodness to parents. But if they endeavour to make you associate with Me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them.[13]

 

Muslim narrates from Mus’ab ibn Sa’d from his father:

 

إنه أي سعدا نزلت فيه آيات من القرآن قال حلفت أم سعد أن لا تكلمه أبدا حتى يكفر بدينه و لا تأكل و لا تشرب قالت زعمت أن الله وصاك بوالديك و أنا أمك و أنا آمرك بهذا قال مكثت ثلاثا حتى غشي عليها من الجهد فقال ابن لها يقال له عمارة فسقاها فجعلت تدعو على سعد فأنزل الله عز و جل في القرآن هذه الآية وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حُسْنًا وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ لِتُشْرِكَ بِي و فيها وَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًا

Many verses of the Qur’an were revealed concerning Sa’d.

The mother of Sa’d swore that she will never speak to him until he rejects his religion and she will neither eat nor drink. She said, “I believed that Allah commanded you to display kindness to your parents. I am your mother and I am commanding you with this.”

He continues: She remained for three days in this state until she fell unconscious due to the difficulty. One of her sons ‘Umarah stood up and gave her to drink. She began cursing Sa’d. Upon this, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed this verse in the Qur’an: And We have enjoined upon man goodness to parents. But if they endeavour to make you associate with Me … [do not obey them]. [14] It appears therein: But accompany them in [this] world with appropriate kindness.[15][16]

 

There is yet another sign of Sayyidina Sa’d’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu resoluteness and determination in the face of hardships. It was manifested in the boycott of the Muslims in the gorge of Abu Talib. Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu was among those boycotted with the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the other Muslims who remained steadfast in these trying times.

Abu Nuaim reports in Hilyat al Auliya’ via his sanad from Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

كنا قوما يصيبنا ظلف العيش بمكة مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و شدته فلما أصابنا البلاء اعترفنا لذلك و مرنا عليه و صبرنا له و لقد رأيتني مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بمكة خرجت من الليل أبول و إذا أنا أسمع بقعقعة شيء تحت بولي فإذا قطعة جلد بعير فأخذتها فغسلتها ثم أحرقتها فوضعتها بين حجرين ثم استفها و شربت عليها من الماء فقويت عليها ثلاثا

We were a nation afflicted with the challenges[17] and hardship of life with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. When the calamity befell us, we recognised it so we persevered and endured it. I remember myself with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Makkah; I left one night to urinate. While relieving myself, I suddenly hear the echoing of something under my urine and found it to be a piece of the hide of a camel. So I took it, washed it, and then burnt it. I then placed it between two rocks [and crushed it]; then I swallowed it and drank water, to gain strength for three days.[18]

 

‘Utbah ibn Ghazawan tells us another incident of the difficulties bore by Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu and other Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He says, as related by Muslim:

 

و لقد رأيتني سابع سبعة مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ما لنا طعام إلا ورق الشجر حتى قرحت أشداقنا فالتقطت بردة فشققتها بيني و بين سعد بن مالك فاتزرت بنصفها و اتزر سعد بنصفها فما أصبح اليوم منا أحد إلا أصبح أميرا على مصر من الأمصار

I remember myself, as one of seven with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; we had no food besides the leaves of trees until our flanks became lean. I found a shawl, so I split it in half between myself and Sa’d ibn Malik[19], using half as a lower garment while Sa’d used the other half as his. Today, each of us has become a leader of a city.[20]

 

While reading these incidents, it is noticeable that the more the persecution of the Mushrikin increased, the more the resoluteness and steadfastness of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum increased. This is exactly the case of Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The more harm and adversity came his way, his persistence and iman continued to escalate. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala be pleased with him and all his Sahabah brethren radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

 

A bouquet of Roses on the Virtues of Sa’d

Abu Nuaim discusses the virtues of Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

و أما سعد بن أبي وقاص فقديم السبق بدء أمره مقاساة الشدة و احتمال الضيقة و هو مع الرسول صلى الله عليه و سلم بمكة هون عليه تحمل الأثقال و مفارقة العشيرة و المال لما باشر قلبه من حلاوة الإقبال و نصر على الأعداء بالمقاتلة و النضال و خص بالإجابة في المسألة و الابتهال ثم ابتلي في حالة الإمارة و السياسة و امتحن بالحجابة و الحراسة ففتح الله على يديه السواد و البلدان و منح عدة من الإناث و الذكران ثم رغب عن العمالة و الولاية و آثر العزلة و الرعاية و تلافي ما بقي من عمره بالعناية فهو قدوة من ابتلي في حاله بالتلوين و حجة من تحصن بالوحدة و العزلة من التفتين إلى أن تتضح له الشبهة بالحجج و البراهين

As regards Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, he entered the fold very early on. His affair began facing difficulties and bearing afflictions, along with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Makkah. Bearing burdens and separating from his family and wealth was easy for him after his heart came into contact with the sweetness of (spiritual) development and divine aid against the enemies by fighting and battling. He was distinctive with acceptance when asking and beseeching. Thereafter, he was tested in the condition of leadership and politics and he was trialled with the office of gatekeeping and guarding. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala opened at his hands the fields and cities and he was blessed with a number of girls and boys. Thereafter, he turned away from administration and authority and he gave preference to seclusion and self-consideration and remedied the remainder of his life with meticulousness. Therefore, he is a leader for the one afflicted in his condition with various difficulties and a proof for the one who fortifies himself with solitude and detachment against falling prey to trial until the doubts are removed with proofs and evidences.[21]

 

Al Dhahabi mentions that Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu is responsible for transmitting a number of ahadith. 15 of his transmissions are documented in Sahih al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, while al Bukhari alone mentions another 5 and Muslim alone another 18.[22]

Ibn Hajar comments:

 

و هو أحد الستة أهل الشورى و كان مجاب الدعوة مشهورا بذلك و كان أحد الفرسان من قريش الذين كانوا يحرسون رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في مغازيه و هو الذي كوف الكوفة و تولى قتال فارس و فتح الله على يديه القادسية و كان أميرا على الكوفة لعمر ثم عزله ثم أعاده ثم عزله و قال في مرضه إن وليها سعد فذاك و إلا فليستعن به الوالي فإني لم أعزله عن عجز و لا خيانة و مناقبه كثيرة جدا

He is one of the six men of the committee [selected by Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu]. His prayers were instantaneously answered, and he was famous for this. He was one of the horsemen of Quraysh who would guard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam during the battles and he developed Kufah. He shouldered the responsibility to fight the Persians and Allah brought the conquest of Qadisiyyah at his hands. He was the governor over Kufah for ‘Umar. ‘Umar then dismissed him, then reinstated him, and then dismissed him. ‘Umar said during his last sickness, “Its guardian is Sa’d. Take this or else the governor should seek assistance from him. I did not dismiss him due to any inability or breach of trust.” His virtues are plenty.[23]

 

Al Safdi describes Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu as:

 

أحد العشرة المشهود لهم بالجنة و أحد الستة أهل الشورى و أحد متقدمي الإسلام شهد بدرا و المشاهد بعدها و كان أول من رمى بسهم في سبيل الله أسر يوم بدر أسيرين و ثبت يوم أحد و كان من أخوال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم و كان مستجاب الدعوة و يقال له فارس الإسلام وكان مقدم الجيوش في فتح العراق و هاجر إلى المدينة قبل مقدم النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم

One of the Ten Promised Jannat and one of the six men of the committee. He is one of the forerunners of Islam. He witnessed Badr and all the campaigns and is the first individual to shoot an arrow in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. He caught two captives in the Battle of Badr and remained steadfast in Uhud. He is one of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam maternal uncles. His prayers were readily answered. He is called: The horseman of Islam. He led the armies in the Conquest of Iraq. He made hijrah to Madinah before Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam arrival.[24]

 

In the forthcoming pages, we will present a few of his virtues and excellences.

 

The Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam love for Sa’d, his Supplication in his Favour, and promising him Jannat

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam loved Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu dearly for he observed the latter’s excellent character and his possessiveness and sincerity for his religion. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would praise him abundantly and supplicate for his goodness.

Al Bukhari narrates from Aisha bint Sa’d that her father said:

 

تشكيت بمكة شكوى شديدة فجاءني النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يعودني فقلت يا نبي الله إني أترك مالا و إني لم أترك إلا ابنة واحدة فأوصي بثلثي مالي و أترك الثلث فقال لا قلت فأوصى بالنصف و أترك النصف قال لا قلت فأوصي بالثلث و أترك لها الثلثين قال الثلث و الثلث كثير ثم وضع يده على جبهتي ثم مسح يده على وجهي و بطني ثم قال اللهم اشف سعدا و أتمم له هجرته فما زلت أجد برده على كبدي فيما يخال إلي حتى الساعة

I fell extremely ill in Makkah. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came to me to visit me. I said, “O prophet of Allah, I leave behind plenty wealth and only one daughter survives me. So may I bequeath two thirds of my wealth and leave a third?”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied in the negative.

I said, “So may I bequeath half and leave half?”

“No,” replied Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

I said, “I bequeath a third and leave two thirds for her?”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam agreed, “A third, although a third is much.”

He then placed his hand on my forehead and passed his hand over my face and stomach and prayed, “O Allah, cure Sa’d and make his hijrah complete.” I continue feeling its coolness on my liver―what appears to me―until this moment.[25]

 

The narration of Muslim from Humaid ibn ‘Abdur Rahman al Himyari from three of Sayyidina Sa’d’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu children, each of them reporting from his father, reads:

 

إن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم دخل على سعد يعوده بمكة فبكى قال ما يبكيك فقال قد خشيت أن أموت بالأرض التي هاجرت منها كما مات سعد بن خولة فقال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم اللهم اشف سعدا اللهم اشف سعدا ثلاث مرات

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam entered the presence of Sa’d to visit him in Makkah. Sa’d cried. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked, “What makes you cry?”

He explained, “I fear that I will pass away in a land I immigrated from just as Sa’d ibn Khawlah passed away.”

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “O Allah, cure Sa’d. O Allah, cure Sa’d.” three times.[26]

 

Verily, Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu has a long history with good fortune, for indeed Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala had given him a share from his name (Sa’d: good fortune). Sufficient for him is that the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would supplicate in his favour. Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam praise and supplication for Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not the limit of his luck. Rather, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam further promised him Jannat on the strength of divine revelation, congratulating his endeavours and repaying him for his sincerity.

Ibn Hibban narrates in his al Sahih from Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

كنا قعودا عند رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال يدخل عليكم من ذا الباب رجل من أهل الجنة قال و ليس منا أحد إلا و هو يتمنى أن يكون من أهل بيته فإذا سعد بن أبي وقاص قد طلع

We were sitting by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He said, “A man from the inhabitants of Jannat will enter upon you from this door.” Each one of us desired that it be someone from his household. Suddenly, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas appeared on the scene.[27]

 

Ahmed and al Tirmidhi report from Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أبو بكر في الجنة و عمر في الجنة و عثمان في الجنة و علي في الجنة و طلحة في الجنة و الزبير في الجنة و عبد الرحمن بن عوف في الجنة و سعد في الجنة و سعيد في الجنة و أبو عبيدة بن الجراح في الجنة

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated: “Abu Bakr is in Jannat. ‘Umar is in Jannat. ‘Uthman is in Jannat. ‘Ali is in Jannat. Talhah is in Jannat. Zubair is in Jannat. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf is in Jannat. Sa’d is in Jannat. Sa’id is in Jannat. Abu ‘Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah is in Jannat.”[28]

 

These narrations are the most superior indications to the providence of Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu in this world and the Hereafter. Fortunate indeed is that person whose abode is Jannat.

 

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam says may his Parents be sacrificed for Sa’d

One of the most outstanding distinctions of Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu is that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said “may my father and mother be sacrificed for you.” This is such a great honour which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would not give except to a person whose heart was clean, intention was truthful, and faith was complete.

Al Bukhari narrates via his sanad from Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn Shaddad radiya Llahu ‘anhu who said:

 

سمعت عليا رضي الله عنه يقول ما رأيت النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يفدي رجلا بعد سعد سمعته يقول ارم فداك أبي و أمي

I heard ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu saying, “I have never seen the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announcing the sacrifice for a person after Sa’d. I heard him shout, “Shoot, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you.’”[29]

 

Muslim reports in his Sahih from ‘Amir ibn Sa’d from his father that the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “May my parents be sacrificed for you,” on the Day of Uhud. He says:

 

كان رجل من المشركين قد أحرق المسلمين فقال له النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم ارم فداك أبي و أمي قال فنزعت له بسهم ليس فيه نصل فأصبت جنبه فسقط فانكشفت عورته فضحك رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم حتى نظرت إلى نواجذه

A man from among the polytheists was wreaking havoc among the Muslims. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to him (Sa’d), “Shoot, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you.”

He continues: So I pulled out an arrow having no arrowhead and shot him in his flank. He fell to the ground and his private area became exposed. Seeing this, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam laughed until I could see his molars.[30]

 

‘Abdur Razzaq reports in his al Musannaf that Aisha, the daughter of Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu, would boast:

 

أنا ابنة المهاجر الذي فداه رسول الله يوم أحد بالأبوين

I am the daughter of the emigrant for whom Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announced the sacrifice of his parents on the Day of Uhud.[31]

 

Sa’d and Witnessing the Angels on the Day of Uhud

One of the miracles of Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala favoured him with is that he saw the angels fighting in the Battle of Uhud.

Muslim narrated via his sanad from Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu who recalls:

 

رأيت عن يمين رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و عن شماله يوم أحد رجلين عليهما ثياب بياض ما رأيتهما قبل و لا بعد يعني جبريل و ميكائيل عليهما السلام

On the Day of Uhud, I saw on the right and left flank of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam two men wearing white clothes, whom I neither saw before nor after that, i.e. Jibril and Mika’il ‘alayh al Salam.[32]

 

Sa’d as Mustajab al Da’wah (one whose prayers are readily answered)

Probably among the many excellences of the eminent Sahabi, Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu was that his prayers were readily accepted. This merit resulted from the supplication of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his favour for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to answer his supplications.

It appears in Tahdhib al Kamal:

 

و كان أي سعدا مجاب الدعوة مشهورا بذلك و ذلك أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال فيه اللهم سدد رميته و أجب دعوته

Sa’d’s supplications were readily answered and he was recognised for this. This came after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prayed for him, “O Allah, guide his shot in the right direction and answer his supplication.”[33]

 

Al Hakim reports from Aisha bint Sa’d from her father Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu in al Mustadrak:

 

لما جال الناس عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم تلك الجولة يوم أحد تنحيت فقلت أذود عن نفسي فإما أن استشهد و إما أن أنجو حتى ألقى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فبينا أنا كذلك إذا برجل مخمر وجهه ما أدري من هو فأقبل المشركون حتى قلت قد ركبوه ملأ يده من الحصى ثم رمى به في وجوههم فنكبوا على أعقابهم القهقرى حتى يأتوا الجبل ففعل ذلك مرارا و لا أدري من هو و بيني و بينه المقداد بن الأسود فبينا أنا أريد أن أسأل المقداد عنه إذ قال المقداد يا سعد هذا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يدعوك فقلت و أين هو فأشار لي المقداد إليه فقمت و لكأنه لم يصبني شيء من الأذى فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أين كنت اليوم يا سعد فقلت حيث رأيت رسول الله فأجلسني أمامه فجعلت أرمي و أقول اللهم سهمك فارم به عدوك و رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول اللهم استجب لسعد اللهم سدد لسعد رميته إيها سعد فداك أبي و أمي فما من سهم أرمي إلا و قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم اللهم سدد رميته و أجب دعوته إيها سعد حتى إذا فرغت من كنانتي نثر رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ما في كنانته فنبلني سهما نضيا قال و هو الذي قد ريش و كان أشد من غيره

When the people wandered away from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that time during the Battle of Uhud, I went aside and said, “I will protect myself. Either I am martyred or either I survive and meet Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.” Just then, I suddenly spot a man whose faced was covered, totally unaware of who he is. At the same time, the polytheists advanced in his direction and I said, “They are after him.” The veiled man fills his hand with pebbles and throws them at their faces. They retreat backwards until they reach the mountain. He did this several times, and all this time I was completely ignorant of who the man was. Between me and the man stood Miqdad ibn al Aswad. Just as I was about to ask Miqdad about the man, he shouted, “Sa’d, this is Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam calling you.” “Where is he,” I panicked, and he pointed right in the man’s direction. I stood up spontaneously as if I was experiencing no pain. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked, “Where were you the whole day, O Sa’d?” I indicated to the spot from where I saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

He sat me in front of him and I began shooting arrows and praying, “O Allah, it is Your arrow so let it hit Your enemy.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, on the other hand, began supplicating, O Allah, answer Sa’ds prayer. O Allah, guide Sa’ds arrow. Shoot, Sa’d, may my parents be sacrificed for you!

Each arrow I shot, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prayed, “O Allah, guide his arrow and answer his prayer. Shoot, O Sa’d!” When all the arrows in my quiver were finished, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam emptied out his quiver and handed to me a glowing[34] arrow. It had been feathered and inflicted more pain than the others.[35]

 

Al Zuhri says:

رمى سعد يوم أحد ألف سهم

Sa’d shot a thousand arrows throughout the Battle of Uhud.[36]

 

Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu was recognised by his brothers and associates as one whose prayer was like a sharp sword. He also realised this. He never cursed anyone, except that that person’s affair was handed to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.

Some of the evidence of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala accepting his supplications is what follows. Al Dhahabi narrates via his sanad from Qabisah ibn Jabir who relates:

 

قال ابن عم لنا يوم القادسية ألم تر أن الله أنزل نصره و سعد بباب القادسية معصم فأبنا و قد آمت نساء كثيرة و نسوة سعد ليس فيهم أيم فلما بلغ سعدا قال اللهم اقطع عني لسانه و يده فجاءت نشابة أصابت فاه فخرس ثم قطعت يده في القتال و كان في جسد سعد قروح فأخبر الناس بعذره عن القتال

One of our cousins sarcastically commented about him on the Day of Qadisiyyah: “Have you not seen how Allah sent His help while Sa’d was holding the door of Qadisiyyah [i.e. he did not actively participate in the fighting]? We celebrated, at a time when numerous women had been widowed but not one woman of Sa’d’s was a widow.”

When this reached Sa’d he said, “O Allah, cut his tongue and hand from me.”

An arrow came and struck the man in his mouth which resulted in him becoming dumb. Thereafter, his hand was severed during the course of battle.

During this battle, there were sores all over Sa’d’s body so he informed the people that he could not participate.[37]

 

Al Bukhari reports via his sanad from Sayyidina Jabir ibn Samurah radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

شكا أهل الكوفة سعدا إلى عمر رضي الله عنه فعزله و استعمل عليهم عمارا فشكوا حتى ذكروا أنه لا يحسن يصلي فأرسل إليه فقال يا أبا إسحق إن هؤلاء يزعمون أنك لا تحسن تصلي قال أبو إسحق أما أنا والله فإني كنت أصلي بهم صلاة رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ما أخرم عنها أصلي صلاة العشاء فأركد في الأولين و أخف في الأخريين قال ذاك الظن بك يا أبا إسحق فأرسل معه رجلا أو رجالا إلى الكوفة فسأل عنه أهل الكوفة و لم يدع مسجدا إلا سأل عنه و يثنون معروفا حتى دخل مسجدا لبني عبس فقام رجل منهم يقال له أسامة بن قتادة يكنى أبا سعدة قال أما إذ نشدتنا فإن سعدا كان لا يسير بالسرية و لا يقسم بالسوية و لا يعدل في القضية قال سعد أما والله لأدعون بثلاث اللهم إن كان عبدك هذا كاذبا قام رياء و سمعة فأطل عمره و أطل فقره و عرضه بالفتن و كان بعد إذا سئل يقول شيخ كبير مفتون أصابتني دعوة سعد قال عبد الملك فأنا رأيته بعد قد سقط حاجباه على عينيه من الكبر و إنه ليتعرض للجواري في الطرق يغمزهن

The people of Kufah complained about Sa’d to ‘Umar so ‘Umar dismissed him and appointed over them ‘Ammar. They complained and even mentioned that he does not perform salah properly. ‘Umar summoned him and said, “O Abu Ishaq, these people feel that you do not perform salah properly.”

Abu Ishaq (Sa’d) replied, “Well, by Allah, I would lead them in salah, the way Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would, without deficiency. While performing the Salat al ‘Isha’, I would lengthen the first two rak’at and shorted the last two.”

‘Umar said, “This is what they suspect you of, O Abu Ishaq.” So he sent with him a man or few men to Kufah who asked the people of Kufah about him. They did not leave any Masjid out but they asked about him and the people praised him duly. Until finally, he entered the Masjid of the Banu ‘Abs where a man from among them stood up by the name Usamah ibn Qatadah with the agnomen, Abu Sa’dah. He said, “Since you have adjured us: Sa’d did not participate in jihad, did not divide the spoils equally, and did not judge fairly.”

Sa’d said, “By Allah, I will make three prayers. O Allah, if this servant of Yours is a liar who has stood up out of ostentation and show, then prolong his life and his poverty, and afflict him with trails.”

Thereafter, when he would be questioned, he would say, “I am an old man afflicted with trials and overtaken by the curse of Sa’d.”

‘Abdul Malik says, “I saw him thereafter. His eyebrows had covered his eyes as a result of extreme old age. He would walk aimlessly, following young girls in the streets, winking at them.”[38]

 

Mus’ab ibn Sa’d reports:

أن رجلا نال من علي فنهاه سعد فلم ينته فدعا عليه فما برح حتى جاء بعير ناد فخبطه حتى مات

A man insulted ‘Ali [in the presence of Sa’d]. Sa’d prevented him but he did not stop so Sa’d cursed him. It was not long before a wild runaway camel rushed in and stamped the man to death.[39]

 

Al Dhahabi mentioned from Ibn al Musayyab:

 

أن رجلا كان يقع في علي و طلحة و الزبير فجعل سعد ينهاه و يقول لا تقع في إخواني فأبى فقام سعد و صلى ركعتين و دعا فجاء بختي يشق الناس فأخذه بالبلاط فوضعه بين كركرته و البلاط حتى سحقه فأنا رأيت الناس يتبعون سعدا يقولون هنيئا لك يا أبا إسحق استجيبت دعوتك قال الذهبي في هذا كرامة مشتركة بين الداعي و الذين نيل منهم

A man began to pass nasty remarks about ‘Ali, Talhah, and Zubair. Sa’d prohibited the man saying, “Do you speak evil about my brothers.” But the man insisted. So Sa’d stood up, performed two rak’at of salah and prayed. A bukhti[40] camel suddenly appeared on the scene and ran through the people. It lifted the man from the floor and then placed him between the mill[41] and the earth, and crushed him.

Thereafter, I saw the people walking behind Sa’d saying, “Congratulations to you, O Abu Ishaq. Your supplication was answered.”

Al Dhahabi comments: “This is a miracle jointly shared by the supplicator and those who were criticised.”[42]

 

My brother, have a look at these two narrations which reveal the level of mutual love and compassion in the hearts of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and the Ahlul Bayt. Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu could not stand Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu being insulted, or Sayyidina Talhah and Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu being ridiculed. He did not suffice by rejecting it in his heart, but cursed those who disparaged them, affirming their virtue and attesting to the love he cherished for them. Is there anyone to take heed?

 

Sa’d is the Maternal Uncle of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu attained a lofty rank in the eyes of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would happily refer to him as his maternal uncle. This is due to the fact that Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu was from the Banu Zuhrah, the maternal uncles of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[43] Although Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu was in reality the second cousin of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, yet the latter referred to him as his uncle out of respect.

The Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mother is Aminah bint Wahb ibn ‘Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah. Sayyidina Sa’d’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu grandfather is Wuhayb. Wuhayb is the twin brother of Wahb. In this manner, Malik―Sa’d’s father―is the paternal cousin of Aminah, Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mother.

According to the expression of al Dhahabi. Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mother was a Zuhriyyah. She is Aminah bint Wahb ibn ‘Abd Manaf, the daughter of Abu Waqqas’s paternal uncle.[44]

Al Tirmidhi reports on the authority of Sayyidina Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma who recalls:

 

أقبل سعد فقال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم هذا خالي فليرني امرؤ خاله

Sa’d approached so the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam exclaimed joyfully, “This is my maternal uncle. Let someone show me his maternal uncle (as good as mine).”[45]

 

Love of a Unique Type

Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu possessed extreme love for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that had filled the crevices of his heart and governed his affairs of life. His greatest hope was to sacrifice his life for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and present his neck to be severed as a substitute of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and prevent the polytheists from approaching Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam so that nothing unpleasant happens to him.

Ibn Hajar rahimahu Llah says in al Tahdhib:

 

و كان سعد أحد الفرسان من قريش الذين كانوا يحرسون رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في مغازيه

Sa’d was one of the knights of Quraysh who would guard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on his expeditions.[46]

 

Al Bukhari narrates on the strength of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir ibn Rabi’ah who said that he heard Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha stating:

 

كان النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم سهر فلما قدم المدينة قال ليت رجلا من أصحابي صالحا يحرسني الليلة إذ سمعنا صوت سلاح فقال من هذا فقال أنا سعد بن أبي وقاص جئت لأحرسك و نام النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was unable to sleep one night. When he reached Madinah, he expressed his desire, “Would that a righteous man from my Companions guard me tonight.”

Suddenly, we heard the noise of weapons. “Who is there?” enquired Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

“Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas,” came the reply, “I have come to guard you.”

Due to this, the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam slept peacefully.[47]

 

The narration of Muslim has this wording of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

سهر رسول الله مقدمه المدينة ليلة فقال ليت رجلا صالحا من أصحابي يحرسني الليلة قالت فبينا نحن كذلك سمعنا خشخشة سلاح فقال من هذا قال سعد بن أبي وقاص فقال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ما جاء بك قال وقع في نفسي خوف على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فجئت أحرسه فدعا له رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ثم نام

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was unable to fall asleep one night while on his return to Madinah so he exclaimed, “If only a righteous man from my Companions guards me tonight.”

Just then, we heard the clashing of weapons. “Who is it?” asked Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

“It is Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas,” came the reply.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam enquired, “Why have you come?”

“I feared that something might happen to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam so I came to protect him,” he explained.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prayed for him and then slept soundly.[48]

 

Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas: Remarkable Jihad and Bravery

There is a strong connection and an aspiration of a special type between Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu and bravery. The man was truly a brave soldier and sincere warrior. He would fight like one who does not fear death. In the forthcoming pages, we will discuss signs of valour in the life of Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

 

Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas: the First Marksman in Islam

Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu loved to fight from a young age. He would stick feathers to the arrows and design arrows during the period of ignorance. When Islam came, he became one of the proficient marksmen, the strongest riders, and the eminent brave leaders.

Sayyidina Sa’d’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu valour was recognised. He is among the most muscular Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and would not miss his target when he shot at someone during battle. Moreover, when he supplicated to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in earnest, his prayer was granted!

Ibn Ishaq says:

كان أشد أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أربعة عمر و علي و الزبير و سعد يعني ابن أبي وقاص

The toughest Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were four viz. ‘Umar, ‘Ali, Zubair, and Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas.[49]

 

Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu participated in all the campaigns alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and is the first to shoot an arrow in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. He was referred to as the knight of Islam.[50]

Ibn Kathir confirms:

 

و هاجر سعد و شهد بدرا و ما بعدها و هو أول من رمى بسهم في سبيل الله و كان فارسا شجاعا من أمراء رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و كان في أيام الصديق معظما جليل المقدار و كذلك في أيام عمر

Sa’d immigrated and witnessed Badr and all the subsequent battles. He is the first to shoot an arrow in the way of Allah. He was a courageous horseman from the leaders appointed by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. In the days of al Siddiq, he was honoured to a great extent and similarly in the days of ‘Umar.[51]

 

Ibn ‘Asakir mentioned:

 

و شهد سعد بدرا و أحدا و ثبت يوم أحد مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم حين ولى الناس و شهد الخندق و الحديبية و خيبر و فتح مكة و كانت معه يومئذ إحدى رايات المهاجرين الثلاث و شهد المشاهد كلها مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم  وكان من الرماة المذكورين من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم

Sa’d participated in Badr and Uhud. He remained steadfast in Uhud at the side of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when the people fled. He then went on to participate in Khandaq, Hudaybiyyah, Khaybar, and the Conquest of Makkah. On that day, one of the three flags of the Muhajirin was with him. In short, he participated in all the battles alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He was one of the renowned marksmen from the Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[52]

 

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam attested to his strength and sternness against the polytheists. He told him, in a report of al Tirmidhi from Sa’id ibn al Musayyab who says:

 

قال علي ما جمع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أباه و أمه لأحد إلا لسعد بن أبي وقاص قال له يوم أحد ارم فداك أبي و أمي قال له ارم أيها الغلام الحزور

‘Ali said: Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did say that his parents be sacrificed for anyone except for Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas. He said to him on the Day of Uhud, “Shoot, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you.”

He also told him, “Shoot, O robust lad.”[53]

 

الغلام الحزور الشديد القوي الصلب

Al Ghulam al Hazur refers to a strong, tough, robust lad.[54]

 

It is obvious that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would not have awarded him this attribute had he not been worthy of it.

Al Bukhari reports via his sanad from Qais who says that he heard Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu saying:

 

إني لأول العرب رمى بسهم في سبيل الله و كنا نغزو مع النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم و ما لنا طعام إلا ورق الشجر حتى إن أحدنا ليضع كما يضع البعير أو الشاة ما له خلط ثم أصبحت بنو أسد تعزرني على الإسلام لقد خبت إذا و ضل عملي و كانوا وشوا بي إلى عمر قالوا لا يحسن يصلي

Certainly, I am the first Arab to shoot an arrow in the path of Allah. We would go out on expeditions with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and we had no food except leaves of trees. Our excreta would come out like the excreta of a camel or sheep, without any dampness and combination. Then too the Banu Asad have the audacity to reprove me over Islam? I am certainly a loser and my actions have become null and void (if their claims are true). They informed ‘Umar against me saying that I do not perform salah correctly.[55]

 

Jabir ibn Samurah says:

أول الناس رمى بسهم في سبيل الله سعد رضي الله عنه

The first man to shoot an arrow in the path of Allah is Sa’d.[56]

 

Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas: an Excellent Warrior and Magnificent Leader

We mentioned previously that Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu participated in all the battles alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He never hesitated even for a moment to assist his din and ummah.

In the battle of Badr, his forcefulness and valour was demonstrated, as Sayyidina Ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu relates that he took two captives singlehandedly.[57]

Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu also recalls:

 

لقد رأيت سعدا يقاتل يوم بدر قتال الفارس في الرجال

I certainly observed Sa’d in the battle of Badr fighting like a hero among the men.[58]

 

In Uhud, his daring and resolution became apparent as he stood to defend the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam like a formidable mountain and strong pillar. He never lost courage nor displayed laxity. He did not chicken out or become lazy. Rather, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam continued handing arrows to him―as mentioned previously―instructing him, “Shoot, may my parents be sacrificed for you.”

The favour upon Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not end here. The man acquired multitudes and numerous goodness. He witnessed the Battle of Khandaq where the polytheists gathered with all their allies and all their weapons, with the sole intention of uprooting Islam and breaking its pillars and annihilating the signs of the new Islamic state. It was at that time, that some determinations grew spiritless and some hearts shook with fear, but Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu and a large concentration of Sahabah and Ahlul Bayt radiya Llahu ‘anhum remained resolute, presenting their lives for sacrifice for the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the din of Islam.

At Hudaybiyyah, Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu pledged allegiance under the tree thereby earning the pleasure of al Rahman by the emphatic declaration of the Qur’an:

 لَّقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُوْنَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ

Certainly was Allah pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, [O Muhammad], under the tree.[59]

 

In Khaybar, he was one of those who stormed the fort, side by side with the brave overpowering soldier, Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu. During the Conquest of Makkah, he held one of the banners of the Muhajirin until Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala aided his sincere bondsmen with His manifest assistance.

His bounties never came to an end even with the demise of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rather, he continued achieving more and more. So he waged jihad during the reigns of al Siddiq and al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.

Due to his gallantry and military expertise, he was appointed commander-in-chief in many of the Muslim conquests and he proved his bravery in those battles. One of these conquests was the conquest of Iraq.

The most significant of these conquests was the Battle of Qadisiyyah, in which the Muslims defeated the Persians during the khilafah of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu under the leadership of Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu sought assistance from Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu and said to those around him that he found a man worthy of leading the Muslims in that epic battle.

Al Tabari reports from Shu’ayb―from Saif―from Muhammad and Talhah who say:

 

كان سعد بن أبي وقاص على صدقات هوازن فكتب إليه عمر فيمن كتب إليه بانتخاب ذوى الرأي و النجدة ممن كان له سلاح أو فرس فجاءه كتاب سعد إني قد انتخبت لك ألف فارس (مؤد) كلهم له نجدة و رأي و صاحب حيطة يحوط حريم قومه و يمنع ذمارهم إليهم انتهت أحسابهم و رأيهم فشأنك بهم و وافق كتابه مشورتهم فقالوا قد وجدته قال فمن قالوا الأسد عاديا قال من قالوا سعد فانتهى إلى قولهم فأرسل إليه فقدم عليه فأمره على حرب العراق و أوصاه

Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas was collecting the zakat of the Hawazin when ‘Umar wrote to him, among others, to select men of good judgment and support, those who possess weapons or a horse.

Sa’d’s letter reached him stating, “I have selected 1000 horsemen, each of them possessing good judgment and bravery, men of prudence who guard their nations’ families and safeguard their cherished goods. Their lineage as well as intelligence are par excellence. So you decide in their matter.”

His letter reached ‘Umar while the latter was consulting with the people (regarding Iraq).

They said, “You have found him.”

“Who,” he asked.

They said, “The lion is attacking.”

“Who?” he asked again.

“Sa’d,” they clarified.

So he settled on their proposal and sent word to Sa’d to come to him. As soon as he arrived, he appointed him army general over the war in Iraq and advised him.[60]

 

وأدار سعد معركة القادسية و أجاد في قيادتها رغم أنه كان مريضا فقد أصيب بعرق النسا و كان لا يستطيع ركوب الخيل إلا أن الله وفقه و كان النصر حليف المسلمين

Sa’d managed the Battle of Qadisiyyah and accomplished the job par excellence despite his sickness. He was afflicted with sciatica and was unable to mount a horse. Nonetheless, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala inspired him and victory was for the Muslims.[61]

 

Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu also conquered Mada’in. This battle took place around 2 years after the Battle of Qadisiyyah. Between the two, there were continuous skirmishes between the Persians and Muslims. Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu was able to finally give the Persians a crushing defeat when he led the army and divided them into two battalions; one battalion called the battalion of Ahwal under the leadership of ‘Asim ibn ‘Amr al Tamimi and the second known as the battalion of Kharsa’ under the management of Qa’qa’ ibn ‘Amr al Tamimi. He crossed the Euphrates River with them which was brimming with water. The horses swam across the river until they reached the other river bank. Then, an amazing and fierce battle broke out between the Muslims and Persians in which the Muslims had victory on their side.[62]

 

Sa’d avoids the fitnah

Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu is the last of the Ten Promised Jannat to pass away. In fact, the last of the Muhajirin to pass on. So this means that he lived through the passage of time in which civil strife and fitnah broke out in the Muslim ranks. He adopted a stance, contrary to many at that time. He avoided the fitnah. He thus did not join any party nor became a member of any rank.

Prior to this, he had given allegiance to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the leader of the believers, as did everyone else. This was at the end of the 35th year after hijrah.

However, when the situation changed, Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu determined to stay away from this matter and to prevent his hand from being soiled with the blood of Muslims. Most probably, this was due to the warnings he heard from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which he narrates; those ahadith which indicate towards avoiding the fitnah and remaining far away from their grounds and causes.

Al Tirmidhi reports in his Sunan from Busr ibn Sa’id that Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu stated during the strife against Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

أشهد أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال إنها ستكون فتنة القاعد فيها خير من القائم و القائم خير من الماشي و الماشي خير من الساعي قال أفرأيت إن دخل علي بيتي و بسط يده إلي ليقتلني قال كن كابن آدم

I bear testimony that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared, “Soon, fitnah will appear. The one seated will be better than the one standing. The one standing will be better than the one walking. And the one walking will be better than the one running.”

Someone asked, “What if a person enters my house and stretches his hand out to kill me.”

“Be like the son of Adam,” he replied.[63]

 

Muslim reports from ‘Uthman al Shahham:

 

انطلقت أنا و فرقد السبخي إلى مسلم بن أبي بكرة و هو في أرضه فدخلنا عليه فقلنا هل سمعت أباك يحدث في الفتن حديثا قال نعم سمعت أبا بكرة يحدث قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إنها ستكون فتن ألا ثم تكون فتنة القاعد فيها خير من الماشي فيها و الماشي فيها خير من الساعي إليها ألا فإذا نزلت أو وقعت فمن كان له إبل فليلحق بإبله و من كانت له غنم فليلحق بغنمه ومن كانت له أرض فليلحق بأرضه قال فقال رجل يا رسول الله أرأيت من لم يكن له إبل و لا غنم و لا أرض قال يعمد إلى سيفه فيدق على حده بحجر ثم لينج إن استطاع النجاء اللهم هل بلغت اللهم هل بلغت اللهم هل بلغت قال فقال رجل يا رسول الله أرأيت إن أكرهت حتى ينطلق بي إلي أحد الصفين أو إحدى الفئتين فضربني رجل بسيفه أو يجيء سهم فيقتلني قال يبوء بإثمه و إثمك و يكون من أصحاب النار

I went along with Farqad al Subkhi to Muslim ibn Abi Bakrah who was in his land. We entered his presence and said, “Have you heard your father narrating a hadith regarding the trials.” He replied in the affirmative and continued, “I heard Abu Bakrah narrating the following.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “There would soon be turmoil. Behold! There would be turmoil in which the one seated would be better than one standing and the one standing would be better than the one running. Behold! When the turmoil comes or it appears, the one who has camels should stick to his camels and he who has sheep should stick to his sheep and he who has a land should stick to his land.”

A person said: “Allah’s Messenger, what is your opinion about one who has neither camels nor sheep nor a land?”

Thereupon, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “He should take hold of his sword and beat its edge with the help of a stone and then try to find a way of escape. O Allah, have I conveyed (the message); O Allah, have I conveyed; O Allah, have I conveyed?”

A person asked, “O Allah’s Messenger, what if I am forced and taken to one of the ranks or one of the groups and a man strikes me with his sword or there comes an arrow and kills me?”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam explained, “He will bear the punishment of his sin and that of yours and he would be one amongst the denizens of Hell.[64]

 

The result of these narrations transmitted by Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu and others was that he shunned the fitnah. He purchased a land at a good distance from Madinah and built a house on that land, making it comfortable for residence. When the fitnah broke out towards the end of the 35th year, he went to his land, into isolation from all the new developments. The land he purchased and prepared for his isolation was Qalahhi.

In Mujam al Buldan it appears as Qalahhi with a fathah on the first and second letters and a tashdid and kasrah on the ha’: an excavated area of Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu where he secluded himself from people after Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred. He instructed that he should not be informed of any news of the people until they reconcile.[65]

Al Dhahabi states:

و سعد كان ممن اعتزل عليا و معاوية

Sa’d was among those who steered clear from both ‘Ali and Muawiyah.[66]

 

He also says:

اعتزل سعد الفتنة فلا حضر الجمل و لا صفين و لا التحكيم و لقد كان أهلا للإمامة كبير الشأن رضي الله عنه

Sa’d kept away from the fitnah. Following this, he neither was present at Jamal, nor Siffin, nor the arbitration. He was worthy of leadership; prominent. May Allah be pleased with him.[67]

 

Zubair ibn Bakkar said:

كان سعد قد اعتزل في الآخر في قصر بناه بطرف حمراء الأسد و اتخذها ارضا و مات بها و حمل إلى المدينة فدفن بها

Sa’d at the end of his life adopted seclusion in a palace that he had built adjacent to Hamra’ al Asad. He had adopted it as his land and he passed away there. He was carried to Madinah for burial.[68]

 

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu spoke about the stance taken by Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu which depicts his approval of it. After the arbitrators spoke, he delivered a sermon saying:

 

لله منزل نزله سعد بن مالك و عبد الله بن عمر والله لئن كان ذنبا يعني اعتزالهما إنه لصغير مغفور و لئن كان حسنا إنه لعظيم مشكور

Congratulations to the stance adopted by Sa’d ibn Malik and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar. By Allah, if their isolation is a sin, then it is a minor one which is forgiven and if it is an act of virtue, then it is indeed great and appreciated.[69]

 

So Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu isolated himself away from the strife and avoided the khilafah. His position on the issue of khilafah was quite clear. Hashim ibn ‘Utbah, his nephew, had come to him with the request that he assume the post of khilafah and spare the blood of Muslims due to the disagreement between Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Sayyidina Sa’d’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu answer was clear and emphatic. Ibn ‘Asakir narrates:

 

إن هاشم بن عتبة بن أبي وقاص جاء سعدا فقال له ها هنا مائة ألف سيف يرونك أحق الناس بهذا الأمر فقال أريد من مائة ألف سيف سيفا واحدا إذا ضربت به المؤمن لم يصنع شيئا و إذا ضربت به الكافر قطع

Hashim ibn ‘Utbah ibn Abi Waqqas came to Sa’d and said to him, “Here are 100 000 swords who deem you most worthy of all in this affair (i.e. the khilafah).”

Sa’d responded, “I desire from 100 000 swords one such sword, that when utilised against a Muslim it does nothing and when used against a disbeliever it slashes.”[70]

 

Similar was the case when his son hinted to him in this direction, he rejected it and sought Allah’s protection from its evil.

Muslim narrates from ‘Amir ibn Sa’d:

 

كان سعد بن أبي وقاص في إبله فجاءه ابنه عمر فلما رآه سعد قال أعوذ بالله من شر هذا الراكب فنزل فقال له أنزلت في إبلك و غنمك و تركت الناس يتنازعون الملك بينهم فضرب سعد في صدره فقال اسكت سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول إن الله يحب العبد التقي الغني الخفي

Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas was among his camels when his son ‘Umar came to him. As soon as Sa’d saw him, he remarked, “I seek Allah’s protection from the evil of this rider.” ‘Umar alighted and said to him, “Have you settled among your camels and sheep and left the people to struggle over kingdom?”

Sa’d hit him in the chest and said, “Keep quiet. I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, ‘Certainly, Allah loves the bondsman who is devout, independent, and secluded.”[71]

 

The report of ‘Amir ibn Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas appears in Musnad Abi Ya’la:

 

إن أباه حين رأى اختلاف أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و تفرقهم اشترى له ماشية ثم خرج فاعتزل فيها بأهله على ماء يقال له قلهي قال و كان سعد أحد الناس بصرا فرأى ذات يوم شيئا يزول فقال لمن تبعه ترون شيئا قالوا نرى شيئا كالطير قال أرى راكبا على بعير ثم جاء بعد قليل عمر بن سعد على بختي أو بختية ثم قال اللهم إنا نعوذ بك من شر ما جاء به فسلم عمر ثم قال لأبيه أرضيت أن تتبع أذناب هذه الماشية بين هذه الجبال و أصحابك يتنازعون في أمر الأمة فقال سعد بن أبي وقاص سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول إنها ستكون بعدي فتن أو قال أمور خير الناس فيها الغني الخفي التقي فإن استطعت يا بني أن تكون كذلك فكن  فقال له عمر أما عندك غير هذا فقال له سعد لا يا بني فوثب عمر ليركب و لم يكن حط عن بعيره فقال له سعد أمهل حتى نغذيك قال لا حاجة لي بغدائكم قال سعد فنحلب لك فنسقيك قال لا حاجة لي بشرابكم ثم ركب فانصرف مكانه

When his father witnessed the disagreement and controversy of the Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he bought some livestock and left to isolate himself with his family at a waterplace called Qalahhi. Sa’d had extremely sharp eyesight. One day, he saw something moving so he said to those around him, “Do you see anything?”

They replied, “We something like a bird.”

He said, “I see a rider on a camel.”

After a little while, ‘Umar ibn Sa’d came on a bukhti camel (or camel cow). Sa’d supplicated, “O Allah, we seek your refuge from the evil of what he brought.”

‘Umar greeted and then said to his father, “Are you pleased with following the tails of these cattle between these mountains while your companions are contesting over the ummah’s affair?”

Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas remarked, “I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, ‘Indeed, there will be trials after me. The best of people in them is the independent, isolated, righteous individual.’ So, O my son, if you can observe this then do so.”

‘Umar asked him, “Do you not have any other report?”

“No, O my son,” said Sa’d.

‘Umar jumped up to mount and had not yet settled upon his camel when Sa’d told him, “Wait, until we provide food for you.”

“I have no need for your food,” he replied.

Sa’d said, “So let us milk (the cattle) for you and give you to drink.”

“I have no need for that.” Saying this, he mounted and left.[72]

 

Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu had a definite stance on the leadership of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his khilafah during the days of fitnah.

Al Dhahabi mentions that ‘Umar ibn al Hakam reported from ‘Awanah:

 

دخل سعد على معاوية فلم يسلم عليه بالإمارة فقال معاوية لو شئت أن تقول غيرها لقلت قال فنحن المؤمنون و لم نؤمرك فإنك معجب بما أنت فيه والله ما يسرني أني على الذي أنت عليه و أني هرقت محجمة دم

Sa’d entered the presence of Muawiyah and did not greet him as a leader ought to be greeted so Muawiyah said, “Had you intended to say something else, you would have said it.”

Sa’d said, “We are believers and we have not appointed you as leader. You are amazed with the position you hold. By Allah, it would not please me to be in your position after spilling a cupping bowl of blood.”[73]

 

Ibn Kathir mentions that Kathir al Nawa relates on the strength of ‘Abdullah ibn Budayl who said:

 

دخل سعد على معاوية فقال له مالك لم تقاتل معنا فقال إني مرت بي ريح مظلمة فقلت أخ أخ فأنخت راحلتي حتى انجلت عني ثم عرفت الطريق فسرت فقال معاوية ليس في كتاب الله أخ أخ و لكن قال الله تعالى وَ إِنْ طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ اقْتَتَلُوْا فَأَصْلِحُوْا بَيْنَهُمَا فَإِنْ بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الْأُخْرىٰ فَقَاتِلُوا الَّتِيْ تَبْغِيْ حَتّىٰ تَفِيْءَ إِلىٰ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ فوالله ما كنت مع الباغية على العادلة و لا مع العادلة على الباغية فقال سعد ما كنت لأقاتل رجلا قال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أنت مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى غير أنه لا نبي بعدي فقال معاوية من سمع هذا معك فقال فلان و فلان و أم سلمة فقال معاوية أما إني لو سمعته منه صلى الله عليه و سلم لما قاتلت عليا

Sa’d entered upon Muawiyah. The latter questioned him, “Why did you not fight at our side?”

Sa’d responded, “A dark wind blew in my direction so I said, ‘Sit! Sit!’ and made my conveyance kneel down until the atmosphere cleared. Thereafter, I recognised the path and resumed my travel.”

Muawiyah said to him, “Sit! Sit! does not feature anywhere in the Book of Allah. Instead, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala stated: “And if two factions among the believers should fight, then make settlement between the two. But if one of them oppresses the other, then fight against the one that oppresses until it returns to the ordinance of Allah.”[74] By Allah, you were neither with the transgressing party against the just party nor vice versa.”

Sa’d responded, “I was not to fight a man Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told, ‘You hold that position to me like the position of Harun to Musa, except that there is no nabi after me.’”

Muawiyah said, “Who heard this with you?”

“So and so and Umm Salamah,” he replied.

Muawiyah commented, “Lo, had I heard it from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, I would never have contested with ‘Ali.”

 

In another report it appears that this dialogue took place while in Madinah during a Hajj journey Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu had undertaken.[75]

Have a look, may Allah have mercy on you, at this bravery from Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He had adopted a position and was convinced of it and defended it right in the presence of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Also have a look at the calm and collected manner in which Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu welcomed Sayyidina Sa’d’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu words. In fact, he announced that had he known what Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu knew, he would not have ventured to challenge.

Indeed, this scene is a beautiful token of the spirit of love shared by the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum despite their disagreement.

 

Sa’d’s Demise

After a life filled with iman and sacrificing for Islam, Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed away, leaving behind a grand and honourable legacy; each person hoping to be attributed or connected to.

Ibn Sa’d writes in al Tabaqat:

 

مات سعد في قصره بالعقيق على عشرة أميال من المدينة فحمل إلى المدينة على رقاب الرجال فدفن بالبقيع و ذلك سنة خمس و خمسين و صلى عليه مروان بن الحكم و هو يومئذ والي المدينة لمعاوية و كان سعد يوم مات ابن بضع و سبعين سنة و كان قد ذهب بصره هكذا قال محمد بن عمر في وقت وفاته و قال غيره توفي سنة خمسين

Sa’d passed away in his palace in ‘Aqiq, 10 miles away from Madinah. He was carried to Madinah on the necks of men and buried in Baqi’. This took place in 55 A.H. Marwan ibn al Hakam led his Salat al Janazah, Muawiyah’s governor over Madinah at the time. Sa’d had passed the age of 70 when he passed on. He lost his eyesight prior to that. This is what Muhammad ibn ‘Umar said about his demise. Others say that he passed away in 50 A.H.[76]

 

Ibn Hajar mentions that he passed away in 51 A.H. It is said 56, 57, or 58, but the second is most famous. It is also said that he passed in 55 or 54.[77]

Before he left this world, he had high hopes in the mercy of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and eagerly awaited meeting Him. His son Mus’ab speaks of his last moments just before his soul departed to its Creator. He says:

 

كان رأس أبي في حجري و هو يقضي فدمعت عيناي فنظر إلي فقال ما يبكيك أي بني فقلت لمكانك و ما أرى بك قال فلا تبك علي فإن الله لا يعذبني أبدا و أنا من أهل الجنة إن الله يدين المؤمنين بحسناتهم ما عملوا لله و أما الكفار فيخفف عنهم بحسناتهم فإذا نفذت قال ليطلب كل عامل ثواب عمله ممن عمل له

My father’s head rested in my lap as life slowly escaped his body so I began to cry. He looked at me and said, “What makes you cry, my son?”

I said, “Your condition and the pain I see you in.”

He said, “Do not cry over me for most certainly, Allah will never punish me and I am from the dwellers of Jannat. Indeed, Allah recompenses the believers for their good deeds they performed solely for Allah. As regards to the disbelievers, He lessens their punishment due to their good actions. So when I breathe my last, He will say, ‘Let every doer of good seek the reward for his action from the one he carried it out for.’”[78]

 

Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu departed having full hope in Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, aspiring for His mercy and forgiveness, with conviction in His justice and grace. In this manner, the pure soul of Sayyidina Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu left for its Creator, after a life of iman which he lived for his din and sacrificed to support it. The result of his sincerity was that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave him glad tidings of Jannat. Congratulations to him!

 

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[1] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 6 pg. 12; al Bidayah wa l-Nihayah, vol. 8 pg. 78; Tarikh al Islam, vol. 4 pg. 212; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 20 pg. 280.

[2] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 6 pg. 12; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 20 pg. 294; Tarikh al Islam, vol. 4 pg. 214.

[3] Al Isabah, vol. 3 pg. 62.

[4] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 6 pg. 12; al Wafi bi al Wafiyyat, vol. 15 pg. 90; ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 6 pg. 5.

[5] Al Rajul al dahdah wa al da’da’: short-stepped in his walk with swiftness. (Taj al ‘Urus, vol. 11 pg. 114.)

[6] Shanan al asabi’: dry skinned fingers or that his fingers had roughness and strength. (Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 13 pg. 241.

[7] Tarikh al Islam, vol. 4 pg. 214.

[8] Al Isabah, vol. 3 pg. 62.

[9] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 137 – 138.

[10] Al Bidayah wa l-Nihayah, vol. 8 pg. 78.

[11] Tarikh al Islam, vol. 4 pg. 214; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 20 pg. 293.

[12] Sahih al Bukhari, book on virtues, chapter on the virtues of Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Hadith: 3521.

[13] Surah al ‘Ankabut: 8.

[14] Surah al ‘Ankabut: 8.

[15] Surah Luqman: 15.

[16] Sahih Muslim, book on virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on the virtue of Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Hadith: 43, 1738.

[17] Zalaf al ‘Aysh: Difficulty of life and its harshness. (Al Nihayah, vol. 3 pg. 159.)

[18] Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 93.

[19] Malik: The name of Abu Waqqas, father of Sa’d.

[20] Sahih Muslim, book on asceticism and softness, chapter 1, Hadith: 7625.

[21] Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 92.

[22] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 92, 93.

[23] Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 420.

[24] Al Wafi bi al Wafiyyat, vol. 15 pg. 90, 91.

[25] Sahih al Bukhari, book on the sick, chapter on placing the hand on the patient, Hadith: 5335.

[26] Sahih Muslim, book on bequests, chapter on bequeathing a third, Hadith: 1628.

[27] Sahih Ibn Hibban, mention of affirmation of Jannat for Sa’d, Hadith: 6991.

[28] Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 1675―Shu’ayb al Arna’ut comments, “Its isnad is strong on the standards of Muslim;” Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, the virtues of ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Hadith: 3747, al Albani classified it sahih; al Nasa’i: al Sunan al Kubra, Hadith: 8194; Sahih Ibn Hibban, book on his informing of the virtues of the Sahabah, Hadith: 7002.

[29] Sahih al Bukhari, book on jihad and expeditions, chapter on the shield and one who uses his partner’s shield to shield himself, Hadith: 2749.

[30] Sahih Muslim, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on the merits of Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Hadith: 6390.

[31] Musannaf ‘Abdur Razzaq, vol. 11 pg. 236, Hadith: 20419; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 100.

[32] Sahih Muslim, book on virtues, chapter on Jibril and Mika’il fighting at the side of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the day of Uhud, Hadith: 2306; Sahih al Bukhari, book on wars, chapter on when two parties among you were about to lose courage, Hadith: 3828.

[33] Tahdhib al Kamal, vol. 10 pg. 312.

[34] Al Sahm al Nadi: an arrow the head of which glows due to excessive sharpening and smoothing. (Al Nihayah, vol. 5 pg. 73.)

[35] Al Mustadrak, book on wars and expeditions, Hadith: 4314 commenting, “This is a sahih hadith on the standard of Muslim, although they have not recorded it.” Al Dhahabi concurs in al Talkhis; Musnad al Bazzar, vol. 2 pg. 170, Hadith: 1213; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 6 pg. 113 and said, “Al Bazzar narrated it. ‘Uthman ibn ‘Abdur Rahman al Waqqasi appears in the sanad and he is matruk (suspected of hadith forgery).

[36] ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 17 pg. 149; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 2 pg. 291.

[37] ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 17 pg. 149; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 2 pg. 291.

[38] Sahih al Bukhari, book on adhan, the chapter on recitation being mandatory upon both the follower and leader in the prayers, Hadith: 722; Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 1 pg. 155, 156; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 20 pg. 341.

[39] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 115.

[40] Al Bukhti: Attributed to bukht. It is a Khurasani camel, produced from a mix between an Arab and foreign camel.

[41] Al Karkarah: Mill operated by camels.

[42] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 116; al Mujam al Kabir, 307 from the way of Ibn ‘Awn from Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al Aswad from ‘Amir ibn Sa’d; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 154 attributing it to al Tabarani and commenting, “His narrators are the narrators of al Sahih.”

[43] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 20 pg. 288; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 6 pg. 12; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 92.

[44] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 110.

[45] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, the merit of Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Hadith: 3752, declared sahih by al Albani; al Mustadrak, book on recognition of Sahabah, chapter on the merits of Abu Ishaq Sa’d, Hadith: 6113. Al Hakim comments, “This is a sahih hadith on the standard of al Bukhari and Muslim but they have not documented it. Al Dhahabi concurs in al Talkhis.

[46] Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 420.

[47] Sahih al Bukhari, book on jihad, chapter on security and fighting in the path of Allah, Hadith: 2729.

[48] Sahih Muslim, book on virtues, the merits of Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Hadith: 2410.

[49] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 20 pg. 322.

[50] Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 419; Tahdhib al Kamal, vol. 10 pg. 310.

[51] Al Bidayah WA l-Nihayah, vol. 8 pg. 78, 79.

[52] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 20 pg. 290.

[53] Sunan al Tirmidhi, book on etiquette, chapter regarding the words: may my parents be sacrificed for you, Hadith: 2829. Abu ‘Isa says, “This is a hasan sahih hadith.” Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3519; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2412 without the addition of robust lad.

[54] Mujam Maqayis al Lughah, vol. 2 pg. 55.

[55] Sahih al Bukhari, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on the merits of Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Hadith: 3522; Sahih Muslim, book on asceticism and heart-touching reports, Hadith: 7623.

[56] Al Bidayah wa l-Nihayah, vol. 8 pg. 79.

[57] Sunan Abi Dawood, chapter on partnership on something besides capital, Hadith: 3390; Sunan al Nasa’i, book on trade, chapter on partnership in persons, Hadith: 3937. Al Albani classified it da’if.

[58] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 100.

[59] Surah al Fath: 18.

[60] Tarikh al Tabari, vol. 3 pg. 4.

[61] Al Kamil fi al Tarikh, vol. 2 pg. 451.

[62] Tarikh al Tabari, vol. 3 pg. 121, 122.

[63] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on trials, chapter on soon there will be strife, Hadith: 2194, al Albani classified it sahih; Musnad Ahmed, musnad Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Hadith: 1609, Shu’ayb al Arna’ut stated that it is sahih on the standard of Muslim.

[64] Sahih Muslim, book on trials, chapter on fitnahs appearing like rain, Hadith: 2887.

[65] Mujam al Buldan, vol. 4 pg. 393 – 394.

[66] Tarikh al Islam, vol. 4 pg. 219.

[67] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 122.

[68] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 123; Tarikh al Islam, vol. 4 pg. 220; al Wafi bi al Wafiyyat, vol. 15 pg. 92.

[69] Al Mujam al Kabir, Hadith: 319; Tarikh al Islam, vol. 4 pg. 220.

[70] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 20 pg. 287.

[71] Sahih Muslim, book on asceticism and heart-softening reports, chapter the world is a jail for a believer, Hadith: 2965.

[72] Musnad Abi Ya’la, musnad Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Hadith: 749―Hussain Salim Asad comments, “His narrators are the narrators of al Sahih.”

[73] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 122.

[74] Surah al Hujurat: 9.

[75] Al Bidayah wa l-Nihayah, vol. 8 pg. 83 – 84.

[76] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 6 pg. 13.

[77] Al Isabah, vol. 3 pg. 62.

[78] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 20 pg. 364; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 147.

 

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