Biography of Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah – NEW UPLOAD!

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May 28, 2019
Biography of Sayyidina Zubair ibn al-`Awwam – NEW UPLOAD!
June 10, 2019

Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah

 

An Excellent and Magnanimous Individual & a Martyr walking on Earth

 

We discuss now a mine from the mines of guidance and belief, a soldier from the first squadron of troops, proverbial in magnanimity, generosity, big-heartedness, and kindness, as well as bravery and piety. A man whose name transmits tales of benevolence. He is Talhah, the magnanimous; Talhah, the excellent; Talhah, the benevolent; Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

 

Name and Lineage

He is Talhah ibn Ubaidullah ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Amr ibn Ka’b ibn Sa’d ibn Taym ibn Murrah ibn Ka’b ibn Lu’ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn al Nadr ibn Kinanah, al Qurashi al Taymi al Makki.[1]

The ancestry of Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu meets with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his forefather, Murrah ibn Ka’b. This also highlights the strong family bond between this renowned Sahabi and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Similarly, it meets up with Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Taym ibn Murrah, both are from the Taym tribe.

His mother is al Hadramiyyah. Her name is Sa’bah bint ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Imad ibn Malik ibn Rabi’ah bin Akbar ibn Malik ibn al Khazraj ibn Iyad ibn al Sadaf ibn Hadramawt ibn Kindah. Her father, ‘Abdullah, is known as al Hadrami and she is called the daughter of al Hadrami. Her mother is ‘Atikah bint Wahb ibn ‘Abd ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab. Wahb ibn ‘Abd was in charge of al rifadah (feeding the pilgrims), to the exclusion of all Quraysh.[2]

You will notice from here that Sayyidina Talhah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu lineage via his maternal grandmother meets up with Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lineage at Qusayy ibn Kilab, the forefather of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

Agnomen

Talhah is well-known with an agnomen that stuck with him and never separated from him: Abu Muhammad, after his son Muhammad.[3]

 

Title

Talhah is recognised by a few titles which indicate traits of a noble being and qualities of an ingenious individual, as well as his noble personality and characteristics.

These titles are: Talhah al Fayyad (the magnanimous); Talhah al Khayr (the excellent); Talhah al Jud (the generous).[4] These titles Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu earned due to praiseworthy actions. The hadith concerning the reason these titles were awarded to Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu will appear shortly.

 

Description

It is necessary to give a physical description of Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu so that his appearance becomes perceptible in order for the reader to merge his internal characteristics with his physical features which will result in a mental picture of Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu being created in the mind, as if he one is seeing him. This is a very important aspect to mention when discussing a Sahabi radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Ibn Sa’d says in al Tabaqat that Abu ‘Abdullah ibn Mandah said:

 

كان أي طلحة رجلا آدم كثير الشعر ليس بالجعد القطط و لا بالسبط حسن الوجه إذا مشى أسرع و لا يغير شعره

Talhah had a brown complexion, with plenty hair; his hair was not extremely curly nor very straight. He had a handsome face. He walked with a quick pace and never dyed his hair.[5]

 

Musa ibn Talhah (his son) describes him in this manner:

 

كان أبي أبيض يضرب إلى الحمرة مربوعا إلى القصر هو أقرب رحب الصدر بعيد ما بين المنكبين ضخم القدمين إذا التفت التفت جميعا

My father was fair in complexion with a tinge of redness; of average height towards the shorter side, with a wide chest, broad shoulders, and fleshy feet. When he turned, he turned his whole body.[6]

 

Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, as is apparent from the aforementioned, had features found in many others. The issue leading to a decisive conclusion is that the barometer of superiority is not by external appearances but rather by internal characteristics and qualities.

 

Wives and children of Sayyidina Talhah

Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu had a number of wives [at different times], four of them were sisters of the Ummahat al Mu’minin, the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, namely Umm Kulthum bint Abi Bakr―sister of Aisha; Hamnah bint Jahsh―sister of Zainab; Fari’ah bint Abi Sufyan―sister of Umm Habibah; and Ruqayyah bint Abi Umayyah―sister of Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anhunna. Talhah had 11 sons and 4 daughters.

 

  1. Hamnah bint Jahsh

Her mother is Umaymah bint ‘Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn ‘Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy.

She bore him the following children:

i. Muhammad: He is al Sajjad. Talhah’s agnomen is given after him. He was killed with his father on the Day of Jamal.

ii. ‘Imran ibn Talhah

 

  1. Khawlah bint al Qa’qa’ ibn Ma’bad ibn Zurarah ibn ‘Adas ibn Zaid

She was from the Banu Tamim. Al Qa’qa’ was titled Tayyar al Furat (lit. flowing Euphrates) due to his generosity.

Children from her:

i. Musa ibn Talhah.

 

  1. Umm Aban bint ‘Utbah ibn Rabi’ah ibn ‘Abd Shams

Children from her:

i. Yaqub ibn Talhah: He was also big-hearted. He was killed on the Day of Harrah.

ii. Ismail ibn Talhah

iii. Ishaq ibn Talhah

 

  1. Umm Kulthum bint Abi Bakr al Siddiq

Children from her:

i. Zakariyya

ii. Yusuf

iii. Aisha

 

  1. Su’da bint Auf ibn Kharijah

Children from her:

i. ‘Isa

ii. Yahya

 

  1. Al Jarba’, Umm al Harith bint Qasamah bint Hanzalah ibn Wahb from Tayy

Children from her:

i. Umm Ishaq bint Talhah: Sayyidina Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhuma married her and she bore three children for him amongst whom was a son named Talhah. After her husband’s demise, Sayyidina Hussain ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma married her and she gave birth to his daughter, Fatimah.

 

Other Children:

  1. Su’bah bint Talhah: Her mother is an Umm Walad*.
  2. Maryam bint Talhah: Her mother is also an Umm Walad*.
  3. Salih ibn Talhah: He passed away in infancy. His mother is Far’ah bint ‘Ali Subayyah from the Banu Taghlib (an Umm Walad*).[7]

*Umm Walad is a slave who bears children for her master, as a result she cannot be sold and will be automatically set free on the death of the master.

His Islam

Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu recognised the truth of Islam in the very beginning and entered the faith early on right after the invitation of Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This invitation came after Sayyidina Talhah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu journey to Basrah where he met a rabbi who gave him the glad tidings of the arrival of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu speaks about this journey, in the report of al Bayhaqi, saying:

 

حضرت سوق بصرى فإذا راهب في صومعته يقول سلوا أهل هذا الموسم أفيهم أحد من أهل الحرم قال طلحة قلت نعم أنا فقال هل ظهر أحمد بعد قلت و من أحمد قال ابن عبد الله بن عبد المطلب هذا شهر الذي يخرج فيه و هو آخر الأنبياء مخرجه من الحرم و مهاجره إلى نخل و حرة و سباخ فإياك أن تسبق إليه قال طلحة فوقع في قلبي ما قال فخرجت سريعا حتى قدمت مكة فقلت هل كان من حديث قالوا نعم محمد بن عبد الله الأمين تنبأ و قد تبعه ابن أبي قحافة قال فخرجت حتى قدمت على أبي بكر فقلت اتبعت هذا الرجل قال نعم فانطلق إليه فادخل عليه فاتبعه فإنه يدعو إلى الحق فأخبره طلحة بما قال الراهب فخرج أبو بكر بطلحة فدخل به على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فأسلم طلحة و أخبر رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بما قال الراهب فسر رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بذلك

I attended the market of Basrah, when suddenly I heard a rabbi in his hermitage yelling, “Ask the attendees of this fair: is there anyone among them from the inhabitants of the haram?”

I said, “Yes, me.”

He asked, “Has Ahmed appeared yet?”

“Who is Ahmed?” I enquired.

He explained, “The son of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib. This is the month he ought to emerge in. He is the last of the Messengers. He will emerge from the Haram and immigrate to date-palms, rocky tracks, and salt marsh. Beware of being beaten to him!”

Talhah continues: His words affected my heart so I made all haste back (to Makkah). As soon as I reached Makkah, I asked, “Has something new transpired?”

“Yes,” they replied, “Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah, the trustworthy, has claimed Prophethood and Ibn Abi Quhafah has followed him.”

I went up to Abu Bakr and said, “Have you followed this man?”

“Yes,” he replied, “so proceed to him and enter his presence and follow him for indeed he invites to the truth.”

Talhah informed him of what the rabbi said. So Abu Bakr took Talhah and entered the presence of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Talhah embraced Islam and informed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam of what the rabbi had said. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was pleased with the information.[8]

 

Muhammad ibn Ishaq narrates:

 

إنه لما أسلم أبو بكر و أظهر إسلامه دعا إلى الله عز و جل فجعل يدعو إلى الإسلام من وثق به من قومه ممن يغشاه و يجلس إليه فأسلم على يديه فيما بلغني الزبير بن العوام و عثمان بن عفان و طلحة بن عبيد الله و سعد بن أبي وقاص و عبد الرحمن بن عوف رضي الله عنهم فانطلقوا إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و معهم أبو بكر فعرض عليهم الإسلام و قرأ عليهم القرآن و أنبأهم بحق الإسلام فآمنوا و كان هؤلاء النفر الثمانية الذين سبقوا الناس في الإسلام صدقوا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و آمنوا بما جاء من عند الله تعالى

When Abu Bakr accepted Islam and announced the same, he began calling towards Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. He began inviting those people whom he trusted from his clan whom he frequently met and sat with. What has reached me is that Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, Talhah ibn Ubaidullah, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, and ‘Abdul Rahman ibn Auf radiya Llahu ‘anhum accepted Islam at his hands. They proceeded to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with Abu Bakr. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam presented Islam to them and recited the Qur’an in front of them and informed them of the truth of Islam, hearing which they believed. These eight individuals were the very ones to beat everyone else to Islam. They had faith in Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and believed in whatever has come from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.[9]

 

Ibn ‘Asakir reports via his chain from Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr from Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha who states:

 

خرج أبو بكر يريد رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و كان له صديقا في الجاهلية فلقيه فقال يا أبا القاسم فقدت من مجالس وحل[10] و اتهموك بالعيب لآبائها و أديانها فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أدعو إلى الله فلما فرغ رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أسلم أبو بكر عند رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و ما بين الأخشبين أحد أكثر منه سرورا بإسلام أبي بكر و مضى أبو بكر فراح بعثمان و طلحة بن عبيد الله و الزبير بن العوام و سعد بن أبي وقاص فأسلموا و جاء من الغد بعثمان بن مظعون و أبي عبيدة بن الجراح و عبد الرحمن بن عوف و أبي سلمة بن عبد الأسد و الأرقم بن أبي الأرقم فأسلموا

Abu Bakr left in search for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He was his bosom friend during the period of ignorance. He met him and asked, “O Abu al Qasim, you are missing from the gatherings of your people? They have accused you of criticising their forefathers and religions.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “I call towards Allah.” As soon as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam completed his address, Abu Bakr accepted Islam at the hands of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. There was none between the mountains of Makkah more joyful than he owing to the Islam of Abu Bakr.

Abu Bakr then left and returned in the evening with ‘Uthman, Talhah ibn Ubaidullah, Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam, and Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas who all embraced Islam. The next day he brought ‘Uthman bin Maz’un, Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah, ‘Abdul Rahman ibn Auf, Abu Salamah ibn ‘Abdul Asad, and Arqam ibn Abi al Arqam; who all entered the faith.[11]

 

Here we discover that Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was in the front ranks of the Muslims who believed in Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and made their religion sincerely for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.

After the invitation of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu could not control his desire to meet Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. His yearning to meet Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and pledge allegiance to him was faster that his heartbeat. Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu accompanied him to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam where he entered the faith and reserved his place in the blessed caravan. We learn from the above that Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was from the early Muslims.

 

Perseverance in the face of Trials

Notwithstanding the position Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu held among his people―being an affluent and prominent person―he had his fair share of persecution and maltreatment from the polytheists. The Quraysh appointed one of the haughtiest of their chiefs to cause him distress; none other than the notorious Naufal ibn Khuwaylid, who was titled the lion of Quraysh.

Al Bayhaqi reports in al Dala’il:

 

لما أسلم أبو بكر و طلحة أخذهما نوفل بن خويلد بن العدوية فشدهما في حبل واحد و لم يمنعهما بنو تيم و كان نوفل بن خويلد يدعى أسد قريش فلذلك سمي أبو بكر و طلحة القرينين

After Abu Bakr and Talhah accepted Islam, Naufal ibn Khuwaylid ibn al ‘Adawiyyah grabbed them and tied them with one rope. The Banu Taym did not defend them. Naufal ibn Khuwaylid was called the lion of Quraysh. Due to tying them up together, Abu Bakr and Talhah were known as The Two Tied together.[12]

 

Despite the rank he held among his people, it did not prevent them from ill-treating and harming him. Due to his position, they appointed a man infamous for his sternness and harshness, Ibn al ‘Adawiyyah, to harm him. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sought Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala protection from the evil of this wicked man. Al Bayhaqi reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicated:

 

اللهم اكفنا شر ابن العدوية

O Allah, protect us from the maliciousness of Ibn al ‘Adawiyyah.[13]

 

This tells us of the extent of the persecution and maltreatment this renowned Sahabi Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu had to undergo. Ibn ‘Asakir narrates to us some of the details of this torture. He quotes from Mas’ud ibn Kharash who relates:

 

بينا أنا أطوف بين الصفا و المروة فإذا أناس كثير يتبعون أناسا قال فنظرت فإذا فتى شاب موثق يداه إلى عنقه فقلت ما شأن هؤلاء فقالوا طلحة بن عبيد الله قد صبأ و إن وراءه و قال بعضهم و إذا وراءه امرأة تذمره و تسبه قلت من هذه المرأة قالوا هذه أمه الصعبة بنت الحضرمي قال طلحة فأخبرني عيسى بن طلحة و غيره أن عثمان بن عبيد الله أخا طلحة قرن طلحة مع أبي بكر ليمنعه عن الصلاة و يرده عن دينه و خرز يده و يد أبي بكر في قد فلم يرعهم إلا و هو يصلي مع أبي بكر

As I was circumambulating between Safa and Marwah, I suddenly spotted a large crowd following some persons. When I looked properly, I saw that it was a youngster whose hands had been tied to his neck. I asked, “What is the matter with these people?”

They replied, “Talhah ibn Ubaidullah has turned renegade.”

Behind him was a woman who was grumbling at him and verbally abusing him. “Who is this woman?” I asked.

“This is his mother al Sa’bah bint al Hadrami,” they replied.

The narrator says: ‘Isa ibn Talhah and others informed me that ‘Uthman ibn Ubaidullah―the brother of Talhah―tied Talhah with Abu Bakr to prevent him from salah and to turn him away from his religion. He tied his hand and Abu Bakr’s hand in a leather belt[14]. Nothing alarmed them except the sight of him praying with Abu Bakr.[15]

 

It is noteworthy to mention here that Sayyidina Talhah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu mother who was furious and enraged with his Islam later entered the religion of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and passed away a Muslim.[16]

Al Tabarani and al Hakim narrate from Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

أسلمت أم أبي بكر الصديق و أم عثمان و أم طلحة و أم عمار بن ياسر و أم عبد الرحمن بن عوف و أم الزبير و أسلم سعد و أمه في الحياة

Abu Bakr al Siddiq’s mother, ‘Uthman’s mother, Talhah’s mother, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir’s mother, ‘Abdul Rahman ibn Auf’s mother, and Zubair’s mother accepted Islam. Sa’d and his mother accepted Islam during his lifetime.[17]

 

Glimpses at the Virtues and Excellences of Talhah

Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu is one of the most prominent Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He is one of the Ten Promised Jannat by the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam through divine revelation, one of the first eight individuals to enter the faith, one of the five who embraced Islam at the hands of Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu, one of the six-men consultative committee, and one of those who stood with steadfastness at the side of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the Day of Uhud. He fought on that day like an entire army. He protected Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with his back, and his hand was paralysed in this battle. Forthcoming are some highlights of his merits.

Abu Nuaim discusses Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Hilyat al Auliya’ and says:

 

و من الأعلام الشاهرة صاحب الأحوال الزاهرة الجواد بنفسه الفياض بماله طلحة بن عبيد الله قضى نحبه و أقرض ربه كان في الشدة و القلة لنفسه بذولا و في الرخاء و السعة بماله وصولا

From among the famous distinguished luminaries is the man of bright conditions, big-heartedness, magnanimous with his wealth; Talhah ibn Ubaidullah. He fulfilled his vow and gave loans to his Rabb. In times of constraint and adversity, he sacrificed himself and it times of liberty and prosperity, he spent his wealth liberally.[18]

 

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam testifies to Talhah’s Martyrdom and Guarantees him Jannat

Hopefully, no one will contest me when I declare: Indeed, the greatest and most grandeur merit of the distinguished Sahabi Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu is that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam guaranteed him a place in Jannat. No glad tiding greater than this is desired by the followers of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Their hearts leap with joy, aspiring nothing else but this fortune Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam conferred upon Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Al Tirmidhi reports with his chain from Sayyidina ‘Abdul Rahman ibn Auf radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أبو بكر في الجنة و عمر في الجنة و عثمان في الجنة و علي في الجنة و طلحة في الجنة و الزبير في الجنة و عبد الرحمن بن عوف في الجنة و سعد في الجنة و سعيد في الجنة و أبو عبيدة بن الجراح في الجنة

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated: “Abu Bakr is in Jannat. ‘Umar is in Jannat. ‘Uthman is in Jannat. ‘Ali is in Jannat. Talhah is in Jannat. Zubair is in Jannat. ‘Abdul Rahman ibn Auf is in Jannat. Sa’d is in Jannat. Sa’id is in Jannat. Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah is in Jannat.”[19]

 

Ibn Majah reports through his chain from Sayyidina Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan radiya Llahu ‘anhuma who relates:

 

نظر النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم إلى طلحة فقال هذا ممن قضى نحبه

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gazed at Talhah and remarked, “He is from those who fulfilled their vow.”[20]

 

The meaning of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam statement is that he is from those who made death incumbent upon themselves and fulfilled their vow and determination to die in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. The meaning of qada nahbahu is to die. As if death is a vow on his neck.[21]

Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports:

 

كان على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يوم أحد درعان فنهض إلى صخرة فلم يستطع فأقعد تحته طلحة فصعد النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم حتى استوى على الصخرة فقال سمعت النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول أوجب طلحة و معنى أوجب أي عمل عملا أوجب الجنة

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wore two coats of armour on the Day of Uhud. He tried to climb a boulder but was unable to. So Talhah sat under him. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, used him as a support, and climbed till he got firmly onto the boulder.

Zubair continues: I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declaring, “Talhah has made Jannat incumbent.”[22] i.e. he performed such an action that made Jannat incumbent for him.

 

Ibn Majah narrates via his sanad from Sayyidina Jabir radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

إن طلحة مر على النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال شهيد يمشي على وجه الأرض

Talhah passed by the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who exclaimed, “A martyr walking on the face of the earth.”[23]

 

The narration of al Tirmidhi has the following wording:

 

عن جابر بن عبد الله سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول من سره أن ينظر إلى شهيد يمشي على وجه الأرض فلينظر إلى طلحة بن عبيد الله

Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah reports that he heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declaring:

Whoever desires to see a martyr walking on the face of the earth should look at Talhah ibn Ubaidullah.[24]

 

All these reports, coupled with others, bring us to the same conclusion, i.e. Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu is among those promised the Gardens of Bliss. Congratulations to Talhah for this glad tiding! He is thus content with his ending and journey of life. He will live and die, while he is one of those who were true to the covenant they made with Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. No fitnah will afflict him and no tiredness will seize him.

 

Talhah the Humble

Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was a living example of humility for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and submission to his Creator. Pride could not find an entrance to his heart. Not once did he avert his face away from people or turn his cheek away from them. Instead, he attended their gatherings and mixed with the laymen and observed patience. In fact, he was reckoned as one of the tolerant men of Quraysh. It is reported that he stated:

 

إن أقل العيب على الرجل جلوسه في داره

The least defect of a person is to sit at home (and not mix with people).[25]

 

Al Tabarani and Ibn ‘Asakir report via their respective chains from Musa ibn Talhah ibn Ubaidullah:

 

دخلت مع أبي طلحة بن عبيد الله بعض المجالس فأوسعوا له من كل ناحية فجلس أدناها ثم قال سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول إن من التواضع لله تبارك و تعالى الرضا بالدون من شرف المجالس

I entered with my father, Talhah ibn Ubaidullah, one of the gatherings. The people made space for him on every side yet he sat in the most inferior spot. He then said that he heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, “Part of humbleness before Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala is to be pleased with the inferior, rather than the elevated place of gatherings.”[26]

 

The Art of Sacrifice and Surrender

Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu embraced Islam in the early stages and bore difficulties in the path of his Islam. As conditions became very hostile for the Muslims, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam allowed them to immigrate, and Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was in the ranks of the Muhajirin. After emigrating to Madinah, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam contracted brotherhood between Sayyidina Talhah and Sayyidina Abu Ayub al Ansari radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.[27]

The hijrah was the beginning of a new chapter of events with the polytheists. Many battles took place and Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu participated in them all. He was present at all major campaigns alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam besides Badr. At the time, he was in Sham since Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had sent him along with Sayyidina Sa’id ibn Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhu to gather information on the caravan of Quraysh. He only returned after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came back from Badr. Nonetheless, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam awarded him a share of the booty and promised him the reward of Badr.[28]

After this, he never missed a single campaign. His valour and chivalry coupled with his intense love for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was displayed in many battles. Probably, the most significant of them is the Battle of Uhud; the day he presented his neck to protect Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam life and used his own back as a shield to stop the arrows and spears from harming Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He endured great trials on the Day of Uhud. He defended Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with his own body and shielded the arrows from him with his hand, until his hand was paralysed and he sustained a major blow on his head. He also carried Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on his back until he climbed the boulder.

In the forthcoming lines, we will shed some light on the role of Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu in the Battle of Uhud to realise the extent of his love for his religion and his Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This is a fact which everyone acknowledged to the extent that senior Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum when discussing Uhud, would speak in glowing terms about Talhah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu contribution on that day. The sacrifices he made have become proverbial and legendary. Take for instance Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. When he would talk about Uhud, he would weep and acknowledge:

ذاك كله يوم طلحة

That entire day was for Talhah.[29]

 

Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu would say when talking about Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

يرحمه الله إنه كان أعظمنا غناء عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يوم أحد قيل كيف يا أبا إسحاق قال لزم النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم و كنا نتفرق عنه ثم نثوب إليه لقد رأيته يدور حول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يترس بنفسه

May Allah have mercy on him. Undoubtedly, he was the most useful to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the Day of Uhud from us all. He was asked, “How, O Abu Ishaq?” He explained, “He stayed permanently at the side of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam while on the other hand we dispersed away from him and then returned quickly to him. I saw him circling Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, presenting himself as a shield.”[30]

 

During the battle, when confusion broke out in the ranks of the Muslims after the mistake of the archers and the mushrikin gathered around Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, each of them desired to kill him and each of them pointed his sword, spear, and arrow in his direction for he knew well that the strength of the Muslims is hidden in Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam existence among them. Suddenly, Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu the brave hero looks towards the direction of the battlefield where Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is stationed only to find that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has become a target of the forces of polytheist and idolatry and that blood is oozing out of his cheek. He goes into a frenzy and loses his senses, and his blood boils in his veins. He instantaneously rushes to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, cleaving through the ranks of the polytheists and subduing a path which is the longest despite its shortness, with death hovering above his head over every inch he traverses and tens of flaring swords are being swung at him. Finally, he reaches Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and presents himself as a shield to protect Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and as a barrier from the arrows and spears of the polytheists. He stood like a boisterous army striking with his sharp sword right and left and attacking as if he alone was an entire army.

Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu tells us of Talhah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu accomplishments on the Day of Uhud. Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha narrates from her father who said:

 

كنت أول من فاء يوم أحد فرأيت رجلا يقاتل مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم دونه و أراه قال يحميه قال فقلت كن طلحة حيث فاتني ما فاتني فقلت يكون رجلا من قومي أحب إلي و بيني و بين المشرق رجل لا أعرفه و أنا أقرب إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم منه و هو يخطف المشي خطفا لا أخطفه فإذا هو أبو عبيدة بن الجراح فانتهينا إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و قد كسرت رباعيته و شج في وجهه و قد دخل في وجنته حلقتان من حلق المغفر … فأصلحنا من شأن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم ثم أتينا طلحة في بعض تلك الجفار فإذا به بضع و سبعون أو أقل أو أكثر بين طعنة و رمية و ضربة و إذا قد قطعت إصبعه فأصلحنا من شأنه

I was the first to return on the Day of Uhud. I saw a warrior fighting alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to protect him. So I prayed, “May it be Talhah,” after I already lost the opportunity. I said, “It will be a man from my tribe who is the most beloved to me.” Between me and the East is a man, who I could not recognise and I am closer to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam than him. However, he is moving at an express speed, which I am unable to do. It turns out to be Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah. We both reach Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. His tooth had been broken, he was injured in the face, and two links from the helmet had pierced into his cheek. We took care of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Thereafter, we came to Talhah who lay in a pit[31] only to find approximately over 70 stabs[32], cuts[33], and strikes[34] on him. And his finger was cut off. We then took care of him.[35]

 

Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu gives us an account of what he did on that fateful day:

 

لقد رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم حيث انهزم أصحابه و كثر المشركون فأحدقوا بالنبي صلى الله عليه و سلم من كل ناحية فما أدري أقوم من بين يديه أو من ورائه أو عن يمينه أو عن شماله فأذب بالسيف من بين يديه مرة و أخرى من ورائه حتى انكشفوا فجعل رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول يومئذ لطلحة قد أنحب

I saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when his Companions dispersed and the mushrikin increased in number and surrounded the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from every side. I was perplexed as to whether I should stand in front of him or behind him or at his right or at his left. So I started to scatter them with the sword sometimes from before him and sometimes from behind him, until they dispersed. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam began saying about Talhah on that day, “He has certainly fulfilled his vow.”[36]

 

Al Nasa’i narrates from Sayyidina Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

لما كان يوم أحد و ولى الناس كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في ناحية في اثني عشر رجل من الأنصار و فيهم طلحة بن عبيد الله فأدركهم المشركون فالتفت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و قال من للقوم فقال طلحة أنا قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كما أنت فقال رجل من الأنصار أنا يا رسول الله فقال أنت فقاتل حتى قتل ثم التفت فإذا المشركون فقال من للقوم فقال طلحة أنا قال كما أنت فقال رجل من الأنصار أنا فقال أنت فقاتل حتى قتل ثم لم يزل يقول ذلك و يخرج إليهم رجل من الأنصار فيقاتل قتال من قبله حتى يقتل حتى بقي رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و طلحة بن عبيد الله فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من للقوم فقال طلحة أنا فقاتل طلحة قتال الأحد عشر حتى ضربت يده فقطعت أصابعه فقال حس فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لو قلت بسم الله لرفعتك الملائكة و الناس ينظرون ثم رد الله المشركين

People were routed on the Day of Uhud. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was at one side (of the battlefield) with 12 men from the Ansar and Talhah ibn Ubaidullah was one of the 12. The mushrikin caught up with them. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam turned and cried, “Who will take care of them?”

“I will,” shouted Talhah.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Stay at your place.”

One of the Ansar said, “I will, O Messenger of Allah.”

“You go,” ordered Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. So he fought until he was martyred.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam turned and suddenly saw some polytheists attacking so he asked, “Who will disperse them?”

“I will,” shouted Talhah.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Stay at your place.”

One of the Ansar said, “I will, O Messenger of Allah.”

“You go,” instructed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Accordingly, he fought until he was martyred.

This continued and each time an Ansari would go and fight just like those before him until he was killed. Finally, only Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Talhah ibn Ubaidullah were left. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then asked, “Who will ward them off?”

“I will,” shouted Talhah. Talhah then fought like 11 men until his hand was struck and his fingers were cut. “Ouch,” he screamed.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Had you said in the name of Allah, the angels would have lifted you while the people looked on.” Thereafter, Allah dispersed the polytheists.[37]

 

The intrepidity and fearlessness of Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was manifested in Uhud. He also killed Jallas ibn Talhah, the flag-bearer of the Mushrikin. Every time a man from the polytheists held up the flag, a Muslim would kill him. The flag bearer in the beginning was Talhah ibn Abi Talhah. Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu faced him and killed him. Then ‘Uthman ibn Abi Talhah picked up the flag and was subsequently felled by Sayyidina Hamzah ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Then Abu Sa’d ibn Abi Talhah took the flag and was shot by Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu in his throat, which caused his tongue to hang out like a dog. Sa’d then finished him off. Thereafter, Musafi’ ibn Talhah ibn Abi Talhah took the flag and he was shot dead by Sayyidina ‘Asim ibn Thabit ibn Abi al Alqah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Then Harith ibn Talhah ibn Abi Talhah took the flag and again Sayyidina ‘Asim ibn Thabit radiya Llahu ‘anhu was responsible for killing him. Then Kilab ibn Talhah ibn Abi Talhah picked it up who was killed by Sayyidina Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Subsequent to this, Jallas ibn Talhah ibn Abi Talhah took hold of it and he was felled by Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Finally, Arta’ah ibn Shurahbil took it and Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu exterminated him.[38]

 

What a Noble Support and Sublime Individual supported

Another great achievement of Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was obtained in Uhud, which shows the extent of his love for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam intended to climb a boulder in the mountains. He was unable to get onto it due to his weakness, after he lost plenty of blood from his blessed head and face, and coupled with that, he was wearing two coats of armour. So Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu sat down under him and lifted him up, supporting him onto the boulder. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then exclaimed: “Talhah has made Jannat incumbent.”

It is said that Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu would not walk straight due to some lameness in his leg. When he lifted Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he took great pains to walk straight so that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is not put through any struggle. Owing to this, his lameness disappeared, never to return again.[39]

Al Tirmidhi reports from Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

كان على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يوم أحد درعان فنهض إلى صخرة فلم يستطع فأقعد تحته طلحة فصعد النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم حتى استوى على الصخرة فقال سمعت النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول أوجب طلحة

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was wearing two coats of armour on the Day of Uhud. He tried to climb a boulder but was unable to, so Talhah sat under him. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, used him as a support, and climbed till he got firmly onto the boulder.

Zubair continues: I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declaring, “Talhah has made Jannat incumbent.”[40]

The Battle of Uhud left permanent scars on Sayyidina Talhah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu body, which is equivalent to badges of honour that remained with him throughout his life until he met Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. His hand with which he protected Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from the arrows was paralysed for life.

Al Bukhari narrates from Qais:

رأيت يد طلحة شلاء وقى بها النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يوم أحد

I saw that the hand of Talhah was paralysed. He shielded the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the Day of Uhud with it.[41]

 

He sustained many scars, scabs, and wounds from Uhud, in sacrifice for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Sa’id ibn Mansur reports in his Sunan as well as Ibn Sa’d from Aisha and Umm Ishaq, the daughters of Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

جرح أبونا يوم أحد أربعا و عشرين جراحة وقع منها في رأسه شجة مربعة و قطع ناسه يعني عرق النسا و شلت أصبعه و سائر الجراح في سائر جسده و قد غلبه الغشي و رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم مكسورة رباعيتاه مشجوج في وجهه قد علاه الغشي و طلحة محتمله يرجع به القهقرى كلما أدركه أحد من المشركين قاتل دونه حتى أسنده إلى الشعب

Our father sustained 24 injuries on the Day of Uhud; a fourfold gash on his head, his sciatic nerve was severed, his hand was paralysed, there were scars all over his body, and he was almost unconscious. At the same time, Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam teeth were broken, his face was wounded, and he had fell unconscious. Talhah carried him walking backwards. Every time any of the polytheists caught up with him, he fought him in defence of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam until he made him lean against the mountain.[42]

 

Abu Nuaim documents in Ma’rifat al Sahabah:

 

أصيبت يده يوم أحد ثبت مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فلم يثبت معه أحد فكانت فيه خمس و سبعون طعنة و ضربة و رمية حتى قطع نساه و شلت أصبعه

His hand was struck on the Day of Uhud. He remained steadfast by the side of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and no one else was with him. He sustained 75 stabs with a lance, strikes of a sword, and pierces of an arrow. His sciatic nerve was severed and his hand was paralysed.[43]

 

A Man of Justice

One who studies the life of Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu will find him to be a man who deserves honour and admiration. Despite his position and early Islam, whenever someone would question him about another person, he would extol the virtues and mention the rank of that individual even though the person accepted Islam later than him and was less affluent than him.

It is reported from Malik ibn Abi ‘Amir:

 

كنت عند طلحة بن عبيد الله فدخل عليه رجل فقال يا أبا محمد والله ما ندري هذا اليماني أعلم برسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أم أنتم تقول على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ما لم يقل يعني أبا هريرة فقال طلحة والله ما يشك أنه سمع من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ما لم نسمع و علم ما لم نعلم إنا كنا قوما أغنياء لنا بيوت و أهلون كنا نأتي نبي الله صلى الله عليه و سلم طرفي النهار ثم نرجع و كان أبو هريرة رضي الله عنه مسكينا لا مال له و لا أهل و لا ولد إنما كانت يده مع يد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم و كان يدور معه حيث ما دار و لا يشك أنه قد علم ما لم نعلم و سمع ما لم نسمع و لم يتهمه أحد منا أنه تقول على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ما لم يقل

I was sitting by Talhah ibn Ubaidullah when a man entered and submitted, “O Abu Muhammad! By Allah, we do not know whether this Yemeni is more knowledgeable about Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam or you. He attributes to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam what he did not say,”―referring to Abu Hurairah.

Talhah responded by saying, “By Allah, there is no doubt that he heard from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam what we never and he learnt what we did not. We were affluent people with homes and families. We would attend Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the morning and evening and return home. Abu Hurairah, on the other hand, was a poor person with no money, no wife, and no children. His hand was perpetually with Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and he went around with him wherever Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would go. Undoubtedly, he learnt what we did not and heard what we did not. None of us accused him of attributing to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam what he did not say.”[44]

 

Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu understood the worth of others and paid everyone his right of respect and honour. This is something we find evident in the previous hadith about Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his praise for him and for him being in the perpetual attendance of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This indicates Sayyidina Talhah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu lofty character, clean heart, and purity of soul. May Allah be pleased with him and make him happy.

Yahya ibn Talhah reports about his father:

 

رأى عمر طلحة بن عبيد الله ثقيلا فقال مالك يا أبا فلان لعلك ساءتك إمرة ابن عمك يا أبا فلان قال لا إلا أني سمعت من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حديثا ما منعني أن أسأله عنه إلا القدرة عليه حتى مات سمعته يقول إني لأعلم كلمة لا يقولها عبد عند موته إلا أشرق لها لونه و نفس الله عنه كربته قال فقال عمر رضي الله عنه إني لأعلم ما هي قال و ما هي قال تعلم كلمة أعظم من كلمة أمر بها عمه عند الموت لا إله إلا الله قال طلحة صدقت هي والله هي

‘Umar saw Talhah ibn Ubaidullah depressed so he asked, “What is the matter, O Abu Muhammad? Probably, you are troubled by the influence of your cousin?”

“No,” he replied, “rather I heard a hadith from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, but never had the opportunity to ask him about it prior to him passing away. I heard him saying, ‘Certainly, I know a statement that when a servant says it at the time of his death, his complexion lights up and Allah removes his difficulty from him.’”

‘Umar said, “I know what it is.”

“What is it,” Talhah asked impatiently.

“You know a statement greater than the one Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commanded his uncle at the time of death? La ilaha illa Allah (there is no deity save Allah).”

Talhah said, “You are right. By Allah, it is definitely this.”[45]

 

An Ocean of Benevolence and a River flowing with Generosity and Magnanimity

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala had bestowed Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu with an abundance of wealth and vast affluence. As a matter of fact, he was one of the most affluent Muslims. Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu spent all his wealth in the service of din, the din which he and the honourable Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum bore.

You would notice him in the time of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam spending without calculating and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala would increase it for him without count. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had given him the titles: Talhah al Khayr (the excellent); Talhah al Jud (the generous); and Talhah al Fayyad (the magnanimous), in commendation of his bigheartedness. This quality seems to be the most prominent feature to the personality of Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Ibn ‘Asakir reports from Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn al Harith al Taymi who said:

 

مر رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في غزوة ذات قرد على ماء يقال له بيسان فسأل عنه فقيل اسمه يا رسول الله بيسان و هو مالح فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لا بل هو نعمان و هو طيب فغير رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم الاسم و غير الله الماء فاشتراه طلحة بن عبيد الله ثم تصدق به و جاء إلى النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فأخبره فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ما أنت يا طلحة إلا فياض فلذلك سمي طلحة الفياض

During the battle of Dhat Qirad, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed by a well called Baysan. He asked about it and was told that its name was Baysan and that it was salty. “No,” declared Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, “rather it is No’man and it is sweet.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam changed the name and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala changed the water.

Subsequent to this, Talhah ibn Ubaidullah bought it and gave it in charity and then came to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and informed him about it. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated, “You are nothing, O Talhah, but fayyad (magnanimous).” This is how Talhah was named al Fayyad (the magnanimous).[46]

 

Al Tabarani narrates from Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

سماني رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يوم أحد طلحة الخير و في عزوة ذي العشيرة طلحة الفياض و يوم حنين طلحة الجود

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam called me on the Day of Uhud Talhah al Khayr (the excellent); during the battle of Dhu al ‘Ashirah Talhah al Fayyad (the magnanimous), and on the Day of Hunayn Talhah al Jud (the generous).[47]

 

Qabisah ibn Jabir notifies us:

صحبت طلحة بن عبيد الله فما رأيت أعطى لجزيل مال عن غير مسألة منه

I accompanied Talhah ibn Ubaidullah and never saw someone more generous in giving wealth, without being asked, than him.[48]

 

Sa’ib ibn Yazid says:

صحبت طلحة بن عبيد الله في السفر و الحضر فلم أخبر أحدا أعم سخاء على الدرهم و الثوب و الطعام من طلحة

I attended Talhah ibn Ubaidullah on journey and at home and never knew anyone more generous in giving silver coins, clothes, and food than Talhah.[49]

 

It appears in Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ from Musa ibn Talhah, from his father:

 

إنه أتاه مال من حضرموت سبع مئة ألف فبات ليلته يتململ فقالت لو زوجته مالك قال تفكرت منذ الليلة فقلت ما ظن رجل بربه يبيت و هذا المال في بيته قالت فأين أنت عن بعض أخلائك فإذا أصحبت فادع بجفان و قصاع فقسمه فقال لها رحمك الله إنك موفقة بنت موفق و هي أم كلثوم بنت الصديق فلما أصبح دعا بجفان فقسمها بين المهاجرين و الأنصار فبعث إلى علي منها بجفنة فقال له زوجته أبا محمد أما كان لنا في هذا المال من نصيب قال فأين كنت منذ اليوم فشأنك بما بقي قالت فكانت صرة فيها نحو ألف درهم

Wealth from Hadramawt amounting to 700 000 arrived by him. He passed the night, tossing and turning. His wife asked him, “What is the matter?”

He replied, “I was pondering since last night. What belief does a man have in his Rabb if he sleeps while this wealth is in his house?”

She said “Why do you not give it to some of your friends? In the morning, call for some bowls and distribute the money.”

“May Allah have mercy on you,” he prayed, “you are indeed fortunate, daughter of the fortunate.”

She is Umm Kulthum bint al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

In the morning, he called for some bowls and distributed the wealth among the Muhajirin and Ansar. He sent a bowl to ‘Ali as well.

At the end, his wife asked him, “Abu Muhammad, do we not get a share in this wealth?”

He said, “Where were you the whole day? Take what remains.”

She explains, “A bag remained with almost a thousand dirhams.”[50]

 

Ibn ‘Asakir narrates from ‘Ali ibn Zaid:

 

جاء أعرابي إلى طلحة فسأله و تقرب إليه برحم فقال إن هذا الرحم ما سألني بها أحد قبلك إن لي أرضا قد أعطاني فيها عثمان ثلاثمائة ألف فإن شئت فاغد فاقبضها و إن شئت بعتها من عثمان و دفعتها إليه أي الثمن

A bedouin came to Talhah. He begged him and touched his sentiments by mentioning family ties. Talhah said, “No one before you has asked using family ties. I have a land which ‘Uthman had gifted me, worth 300 000. If you desire, go and take possession of it and if you like, I will sell it to ‘Uthman and give you the money.”[51]

 

Ibn Sa’d narrates in al Tabaqat from Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah:

 

كانت غلة طلحة بن عبيد الله ألفا وافيا و عن سعدى بنت عوف المرية قالت دخلت على طلحة ذات يوم فقلت ما لي أراك أرابك شيء من أهلك فنعتب قال نعم حليلة المرء أنت و لكن عندي مال قد أهمني أو غمني قالت اقسمه فدعا جاريته فقال ادخلي على قومي فأخذ يقسمه فسألتها كم كان المال فقالت أربعمائة ألف

The produce of Talhah ibn Ubaidullah was a complete thousand.

Su’da bint Auf al Mariyyah says: I entered the presence of Talhah one day and said, “Why do I see you in this condition? Has something of your wife troubled you, that we deserve scolding?”

He said, “You are an excellent wife indeed. I have some wealth which is worrying and disturbing me.”

She said, “Then give it away.”

Accordingly, he called his female servant and said to her, “Go out to your people, and he began distributing it.”

The narrator says: I asked her the amount of wealth to which she replied, “400 000.”[52]

 

و روي أن طلحة بن عبيد الله باع أرضا له من عثمان بن عفان بسبعمائة ألف فحملها إليه فلما جاء بها قال إن رجلا تبيت هذه عنده في بيته لا يدري ما يطرقه من أمر الله لغرير بالله فبات و رسله يفرقونها و يختلفون بها في سكك المدينة حتى أصبح و ما عنده منها درهم

It is reported that Talhah ibn Ubaidullah sold a land of his to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan for 700 000 which the latter brought to him. When he arrived, Talhah said, “A man by whom this wealth passes the night in his home and he is totally unaware of what command of Allah might suddenly befall him is definitely deceived with regards to Allah.” So he went to sleep and his messengers were handing out the wealth in the streets of Madinah the whole night. By morning, not a single silver coin remained by him.[53]

 

و روي أن طلحة بن عبيد الله كان يغل بالعراق ما بين أربعمائة ألف إلى خمسمائة ألف و يغل بالسراة عشرة آلاف دينار أو أقل أو أكثر و بالأعراض له غلات و كان لا يدع أحدا من بني تيم عائلا إلا كفاه مؤونته و مؤونة عياله و زوج أياماهم و أخدم عائلهم و قضى دين غارمهم و لقد كان يرسل إلى عائشة إذا جاءت غلته كل سنة بعشرة آلاف و لقد قضى عن صبيحة التيمي ثلاثين ألف درهم

It is narrated that Talhah ibn Ubaidullah had returns in Iraq worth between 400 000 and 500 000, revenue in Sarat worth approximately 10 000 gold coins, and he had crops in A’rad. He would take care of the personal and family expenses of every needy person of the Banu Taym, get their widows married, provide the family with servants, and settle the debts of their debtors. When his revenue would arrive, he would send 10 000 to Aisha every year. He also settled the debt of 30 000 silver coins on behalf of Sabihah al Taymi.[54]

 

Hasan al Basri says:

أن طلحة بن عبيد الله باع أرضا له بسبع مئة ألف فبات أرقا من مخافة ذلك المال حتى أصبح ففرقه

Talhah bin Ubaidullah sold a land of his for 700 000. He had a sleepless night out of fear of this wealth. In the morning, he gave away everything.[55]

 

Look at these anecdotes. I have gone overboard in narrating incidents which highlight the value of Sayyidina Talhah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu bigheartedness and which leave no chance to doubt that generosity was his intrinsic quality and part of his nature to the extent that it turns out to be the key to his personality and a token to his disposition, just next to his sacrifice.

This is how Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed his entire life, with generosity, magnanimity, and bravery. Despite his affluence, he did not let it affect his heart. Rather, he was quicker to spend it in avenues attaining the pleasure of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.

Ibn Sa’d narrates from Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

عاش أي طلحة حميدا سخيا شريفا و قتل فقيرا رحمه الله

Talhah lived praiseworthy, generous, and noble and was killed a pauper. May Allah have mercy on him.[56]

 

Probably the meaning here is that despite his affluence, he chose to live like the poor. Besides, Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu left behind a rich legacy at his death.

Ibn Sa’d reports from Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Talhah:

 

كانت قيمة ما ترك طلحة بن عبيد الله من العقار و الأموال و ما ترك من الناض ثلاثين ألف ألف درهم ترك من العين ألفي ألف و مائتي ألف درهم و مائتي ألف دينار و الباقي عروض

The value of the estate of Talhah ibn Ubaidullah including his properties, belongings, and cash[57] amounted to 30 000 000 silver coins. The cash he left behind totalled 2 200 000 silver coins and 200 000 gold coins. The rest were assets.[58]

 

Ishaq ibn Yahya reports from his grandmother Su’da bint Auf al Mariyyah, the mother of Yahya ibn Talhah:

 

قتل طلحة بن عبيد الله يرحمه الله و في يد خازنه ألفا ألف درهم و مائتا ألف درهم و قومت أصوله و عقاره ثلاثين ألف ألف درهم

Talhah ibn Ubaidullah―may Allah shower mercy upon him―was killed and in the possession of his treasurer was 2 200 000 silver coins. His assets and properties were valued at 30 000 000 silver coins.[59]

 

Talhah in the Caravan of Martyrs

Sayyidah Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed away after the fitnah overcame the Muslims. Harken, it is the rebellion of the rebels against Sayyidah ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, besieging his home, and assassinating him. Thereafter, Sayyidina Talhah, Zubair, and Sayyidah Umm al Mu’minin Aisha bint al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhum left at the head of an army seeking revenge from the killers of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This happened in the year 36 A.H. Their army met with the army of Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Both the armies had absolutely no intention to go to war or fight. Rather, their goal was one and the same: take vengeance from the killers of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. After the discussion between Sayyidina ‘Ali, Talhah, and Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhum ended in them reconciling and agreeing that Talhah and Zubair’s army will return from where they came, the Saba’iyyah and conspirators of the fitnah infiltrated both the armies and lit the fire of war between them. Each faction thought that the other had deceived them. This was the fitnah like a tornado. Sayyidina Talhah and Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma refrained from participating in this battle. However, they gave their lives as the price for their withdrawal. But they met their Rabb, pleased with what they had decided. With regards to Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu, a man whose name was ‘Amr ibn Jurmuz followed him and deceitfully killed him while he was praying. Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu on the other hand was shot with an arrow which claimed his life.

Al Hakim narrates in his al Mustadrak from ‘Alqamah ibn Waqqas al Laythi who said:

 

لما خرج طلحة والزبير وعائشة للطلب بدم عثمان عرجوا عند منصرفهم بذات عرق، قال: ورأيت طلحة- وأحب المجالس إليه أخلاها، وهو ضارب بلحيته على زوره. فقلت: يا أبا محمد: إني أراك وأحب المجالس إليك أخلاها، إن كنت تكره هذا الأمر فدعه. فقال: يا علقمة لا تلمني، كنا أمس يدا واحدة على من سوانا فأصبحنا اليوم جبلين من حديد يزحف أحدنا إلى صاحبه، ولكنه كان مني شيء في أمر عثمان مما لا أرى كفارته إلا أن يسفك دمي في طلب دمه.

When Talhah, Zubair, and Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhum marched out to seek retribution for the blood of ‘Uthman, they stopped on their way at Dhat al ‘Irq.

I saw Talhah and noticed that seclusion was most beloved to him and that he was hitting his beard to his chest. So I said, “O Abu Muhammad, I see that the gatherings in which there is most seclusion are most beloved to you. If you dislike this matter then leave it.”

He replied, “Do not blame me, O ‘Alqamah. Yesterday we were one unit against those besides us and today we have transitioned into two mountains of iron drawing closer to one another. But there was something from me in the matter of ‘Uthman and I do not see the expiation thereof but in my blood being shed in seeking retribution for his.”[60]

 

Al Bukhari narrates in al Tarikh al Saghir with his chain from ‘Amr ibn Jawan who says:

 

التقى القوم يوم الجمل فقام كعب بن سور الأزدي معه المصحف ينشره بين الفريقين و ينشدهم الله و الإسلام في دمائهم فما زال بذلك المنزل حتى قتل فكان طلحة من أول قتيل و ذهب الزبير يريد أن يلحق بيته فقتل

The two armies met on the Day of Jamal. Ka’b ibn Sur al Azdi stood up holding a mushaf hoisting it between the two armies and pleading with them in the name of Allah and Islam to spare their blood. He continued doing this until he was martyred. Talhah was one of the first martyrs. Zubair on the other hand intended to go home, and he was killed en route.[61]

 

It is reported that al Sha’bi said:

 

رأى علي طلحة في واد ملقى فنزل فمسح التراب عن وجهه و قال عزيز علي أبا محمد بأن أراك مجدلا في الأودية تحت نجوم السماء إلى الله أشكو عجري و بجري قال الأصمعي معناه سرائري و أحزاني التي تموج في جوفي

‘Ali spotted Talhah thrown in a valley. So he descended into the valley and wiped the dust off his face and commented, “It is burdensome for me, O Abu Muhammad, to see you felled in the valleys under the stars of the sky. To Allah alone do I complain of my emotional secrets and grieves[62].”

Al Isma’i explains: Its meaning is secrets and grievances which are burning in my inside.[63]

 

He was martyred on Thursday the 10th of Jumada al Akhirah 36 A.H and was buried adjacent to the pasture. He was over 60 at the time.[64] May Allah be pleased with him and make him happy.

 

The Miracles of the Martyrs

After the death of Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, a miracle happens which is testimony to his virtue. His daughter Aisha bint Talhah ibn Ubaidullah saw her father in a dream. He told her, “O my daughter, transport me from this place because the dampness has harmed me.” She removed him from his grave after about 30 years and took him away from that seepage[65]. His body was fresh, without any change whatsoever. He was subsequently buried in Hijratayn in Basrah. ‘Abdul Rahman ibn Salamah al Taymi was responsible for exhuming his body.[66]

Another report says that someone saw him in a dream and informed his daughter about his dream. Ibn ‘Asakir reports from al Muthanna ibn Sa’id:

 

لما قدمت عائشة بنت طلحة البصرة أتاها رجل فقال أنت عائشة ابنة طلحة قالت نعم قال إني رأيت طلحة بن عبيد الله في المنام فقال قل لعائشة حتى تحولني من هذا المكان فإن الندى قد أذاني فركبت في مواكبها و حشمها فضربوا عليه بناء و استثاروه فلم يتغير منه إلا شعرات في إحدى شقي لحيته أو قال رأسه حتى حول إلى موضعه هذا و كان بينهما بضع و ثلاثون سنة

When I arrived in Basrah by Aisha bint Talhah, a man came to her asking, “Are you Aisha bint Talhah?”

She replied in the affirmative.

He continued, “I saw Talhah ibn Ubaidullah in my dream who said that I should tell Aisha to remove him from that place (where he is buried), since the moistness has harmed him.”

Immediately, she mounted among her entourage and escorts. They erected a structure over him and exhumed his body, but nothing of him had changed except some strands of hair on one side of his beard or head. He was then brought to this place. 30 odd years had passed since his demise to his exhumation.[67]

 

This brings us to the end of our trip through the life of the prominent Sahabi, Sayyidina Talhah ibn Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. It has become apparent to us leaving no scope of doubt that Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was among the truthful and obedient who fulfilled his oath and honoured his vow, just as it was clear to us that he loved Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam dearly and was ready to sacrifice his life to protect the life of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at many places. His soul desired martyrdom and he yearned for it with sincerity, so Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala bestowed it upon him. Thus, he was killed a martyr with glad tidings of Jannat.

 

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[1] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 23.

[2] Al Isti’ab, vol. 2 pg. 764; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 214.

[3] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 214; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 23.

[4] Al Isti’ab, vol. 2 pg. 764; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 59.

[5] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 219.

[6] Al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 1 pg. 111; al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pg. 417; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 147 who comments, “Al Tabarani narrated it. ‘Abdul ‘Aziz ibn ‘Imran is present in the sanad and he is da’if.”

[7] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 214; Nasab Quraysh, vol. 1 pg. 91 – 92.

[8] Dala’il al Nubuwwah, vol. 2 pg. 37, Hadith: 472; al Bidayah wa l-Nihayah, vol. 3 pg. 39, 40; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 214 from al Waqidi.

[9] Sirat Ibn Ishaq, vol. 1 pg. 120; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 18 pg. 348.

[10] It appears like this in the source. Ibn ‘Asakir narrates it at another juncture with the wording:

فقدت من مجالس قومك

You are absent from the gatherings of your people.(Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 30 pg. 51.)

[11] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 30 pg. 46.

[12] Dala’il al Nubuwwah, vol. 2 pg. 37, Hadith: 472; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 215; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 65; al Bidayah wa l-Nihayah, vol. 3 pg. 40.

[13] Dala’il al Nubuwwah, vol. 2 pg. 37, Hadith: 472.

[14] Al Qidd: untanned leather belt. (Al Nihayah, vol. 4 pg. 21.)

[15] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 65; Tahdhib al Kamal, vol. 13 pg. 415.

[16] Ma’rifat al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 389.

[17] Al Mujam al Kabir, Hadith: 188; Al Mustadrak, book on recognition of the Sahabah, chapter on the virtues of Talhah, Hadith: 5584.

[18] Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 87.

[19] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, the virtues of ‘Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Auf, Hadith: 3747.

[20] Sunan Ibn Majah, virtue of Talhah ibn Ubaidullah, vol. 1 pg. 46, Hadith: 126, graded Hasan by al Albani.

[21] Muqaddamat Fath al Bari, pg. 188.

[22] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, the virtues of Talhah, Hadith: 3737 and commented, “This is a hasan Sahih gharib hadith.” Al Albani classified it hasan; Musnad Abi Ya’la, vol. 2 pg. 23, Hadith: 670.

[23] Sunan Ibn Majah, vol. 1 pg. 46, Hadith: 125, al Albani classified it sahih.

[24] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, the virtues of Talhah, Hadith: 3739, al Albani labelled it sahih.

[25] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 221.

[26] Al Mujam al Kabir, regarding Talhah ibn Ubaidullah, Hadith: 205; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 5 pg. 26, 27; Ma’rifat al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 430, Hadith: 382; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 8 pg. 59. Al Haythami says, “Al Tabarani narrated it. Ayub ibn Sulaiman ibn ‘Abdullah is present in the sanad. I do not know him, nor his father. The rest of the narrators are reliable.”

[27] Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 59.

[28] Ibid.

[29] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 75; Musnad al Tayalisi, vol. 1 pg. 3; Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 87; Dala’il al Nubuwwah, vol. 3 pg. 297.

[30] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 76; Ibn Abi al Hadid: Sharh Nahj al Balaghah, vol. 14 pg. 253.

[31] Al Jufar: The plural of jufrah, a pit. (Al Nihayah, vol. 1 pg. 278.)

[32] Of a lance.

[33] Of an arrow.

[34] Of a sword.

[35] Musnad al Tayalisi, vol. 1 pg. 3, Hadith: 6; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 75; Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 87.

[36] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 76, from the chain of al Waqidi; al Maghazi, vol. 1 pg. 254.

[37] Sunan al Nasa’i, book on jihad, chapter on what a person who is struck by the enemy should say, Hadith: 3149; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 27. Al Albani says, “The part from his fingers were cut is hasan. The portion before it could be hasan. It is according to the standards of Muslim.”

[38] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 20 pg. 40, 41.

[39] Al Sirah al Halabiyyah, vol. 2 pg. 518.

[40] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, the virtues of Talhah, Hadith: 3737 and commented, “This is a hasan sahih gharib hadith.” Al Albani classified it hasan.

[41] Sahih al Bukhari, book on expeditions, chapter: when two factions among you almost lost heart, Hadith: 3836.

[42] Sunan Sa’id ibn Mansur, vol. 2 pg. 305, Hadith: 2849; Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 218.

[43] Ma’rifat al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 396.

[44] Al Mustadrak, book on recognition of the Sahabah, chapter on Abu Hurairah, Hadith: 6172. Al Hakim says, “This is a sahih hadith which meets the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim, although they have not narrated it.” Al Dhahabi notes in al Talkhis, “According to the standard of Muslim.” Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, the merits of Abu Hurairah, Hadith: 3737. Abu ‘Isa says, “This is a hasan gharib hadith. We do not know it except from Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Yunus ibn Bukayr and others reported it from him.” Al Albani classified the isnad da’if.

[45] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 1 pg. 161, musnad of Talhah ibn Ubaidullah, Hadith: 1384. Shu’ayb al Arna’ut says, “Its isnad is sahih and the narrators and reliable, the narrators of al Bukhari and Muslim, besides Yahya ibn Talhah who is one of the narrators of the authors of al Sunan.” Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 38. Al Dhahabi classified the isnad sahih.

[46] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 93; al Isti’ab, vol. 2 pg. 764, Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 59.

[47] Al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 1 pg. 112, Hadith: 198; al Mustadrak, book on recognition of Sahabah, chapter on the virtues of Talhah, Hadith: 5605; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 59.

[48] Ma’rifat al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 404; Hadith: 358; Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 88; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 221.

[49] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 222, al Waqidi is present therein.

[50] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 99; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 31.

[51] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 99.

[52] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 220.

[53] Ansab al Ashraf, pg. 260; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 220; Sharh Nahj al Balaghah, vol. 10 pg. 5.

[54] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 221.

[55] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 33.

[56] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 222; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 103; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 33.

[57] Al nadd: cash and silver coins.

[58] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 222.

[59] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 222.

[60] Al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pg. 419, Hadith: 5595. Al Dhahabi classified its sanad as jayyid (good) in al Talkhis.

[61] Al Tarikh al Saghir, vol. 1 pg. 75; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 108; Tahdhib al Kamal, vol. 13 pg. 420; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 35.

[62] The origin of al ‘ujarah is a swelling in the back. When this swelling is in the navel, then it is called al bujarah. (Al Nihayah, vol. 1 pg. 97.)

[63] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 115; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 36; al Bidayah wa l-Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 276; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 61.

[64] Al Bidayah wa l-Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 276.

[65] Al Nazz: Water that seeps into the earth. (Al Sihah of al Jawhari, vol. 3 pg. 899.)

[66] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 123 – 124.

[67] Ibid.

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