Chapter One – Early Shi’ism and the first Shia

Introduction
July 25, 2022
Chapter Two – Shi’ism and the Saba’iyyah
July 29, 2022

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Chapter One

Early Shi’ism and the first Shia

 

The word shia is generally used for the followers and helpers of a person. It is said:

 

فلان من شيعة فلان

So and so is from the shia of so and so.

 

Meaning, he is amongst those whose views corresponds with another. As Imam al Zubaidi[1] says:

 

كل قوم اجتمعوا على أمر فهم الشيعة، و كل من عاون إنسانا و تحزب له فهو شيعة له، و أصله من المشايعة و هي المطاوعة و المتابعة

All those who mutually agree upon a matter are referred to as shia. Whoever helps a person or forms a league for him will be referred to as his shia (group). The origin of this word is al mushaya’ah, which means obedience and following.[2]

 

In the first era of Islam, this word was only used in its literal and original meaning, just as it was only used to refer to political groups and parties that opposed one another in certain matters that are related to law and politics. It became widely used during the disagreement that took place between Sayyidina Muawiyah and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma after the martyrdom of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The helpers and supporters of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu were called Shi’at ‘Ali. They were those who considered Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu the fourth Rightly Guided Khalifah and the one who was more rightful to the Caliphate than Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu or anyone besides him. This group supported and aided him during battles against Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Similarly, the group of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu perceived the matter in the opposite manner, as, according to what they thought, the murderers of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had sought refuge in the army of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu under his protection. This group remained upon this belief. They neither believed in the Caliphate being established for Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu nor that he was more rightful to it. Had the murderers been killed and punished using the sword, this group would have returned to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, accepted his rule and submitted to his command, as historians mention.

 

أن معاوية رضي الله عنه قال لمن بعث إليه من قبل علي رضي الله عنه من عدي بن حاتم و يزيد بن قيس الأرحبي و شبيث بن ربعى و زياد بن حفصة يدعونه إلى الجماعة و الطاعة أما بعد فإنكم دعوتموني إلى الجماعة و الطاعة فأما الجماعة فمعنا هي و أما الطاعة فكيف أطيع رجلا أعان على قتل عثمان و هو يزعم انه لم يقتله؟ و نحن لا نرد ذلك عليه ولا نتهمه به ولكنه آوى قتلة عثمان فيدفعهم إلينا حتى نقتلهم ثم نحن نجيبكم إلى الطاعة والجماعة

They narrate that Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu said to those who were sent from the party of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, namely ‘Adi ibn Hatim, Yazid ibn Qais al Arhabi, Shabith ibn Rib’i, and Ziyad ibn Hafsah, when they came to him calling him to join their congregation and obey, “Indeed, you called me towards the congregation and obedience. As for the congregation, they are with us; and as for obedience, then how can I obey a man who is accused of being an accomplice in the murder of ‘Uthman, while he believes that he did not kill him? We do not reject his claim nor do we accuse him of it either[3], however he gave refuge to the murderers of ‘Uthman, so he should hand them over to us so that we can kill them, then we will reply to you about the congregation and obedience.”[4]

 

He also said something similar to this to Sayyidina Abu al Dardaʾ and Sayyidina Abu Umamah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma when they were sent by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He said:

 

اذهبا إليه فقولا له فليقدنا من قتلة عثمان ثم أنا اول من بايعه من أهل الشام

Go to him and tell him to hand over the killers of ‘Uthman to us then I will be the first one to pledge allegiance to him from the people of Syria.[5]

 

Before that, when Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent Sayyidina Jarir ibn ‘Abdullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu to Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu calling him to pledge allegiance to him:

 

طلب معاوية عمرو بن العاص و رؤوس أهل الشام فاستشارهم فأبوا أن يبايعوا حتى يقتل قتلة عثمان أو أن يسلم إليهم قتلة عثمان

Muawiyah called ‘Amr ibn al ‘Ᾱs and the leaders of Syria and sought their opinion. They refused to pledge allegiance until the murderers of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu were either killed or handed over to them.[6]

 

Historians mention:

 

أن أبا الدرداء و أبا أمامة عندما رجعا إلى علي قالا له ذلك فقال هؤلاء الذين تريان فخرج خلق كثير فقالوا كلنا قتلة عثمان، فمن شاء فلير منا

When Sayyidina Abu al  Dardaʾ and Sayyidina Abu Umamah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma returned to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu they informed him of what transpired. He said, “These are the ones that you seek.” A large group of people came out and said, “We are the killers of ‘Uthman. Whoever wants may attack us.”[7]

 

This is what happened. However, at the moment our purpose is not to explain the cause of the wars that took place between Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and others. Rather, we would like to make it clear that two great parties of the Believers each took a side, as the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mentioned when he was praising Sayyidina al Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. They each followed and supported whomsoever they considered to be upon the truth. Both groups were given specific names; the group of Sayyidina ‘Ali and the group of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. The dispute between them was only a political difference of opinion. One group considered Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu the Rightful Khalifah, as his Caliphate was established by the agreement of the senior Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[8] The other group considered Sayyidina Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan radiya Llahu ‘anhuma in the right, as he wanted to avenge the blood of the Leader who was martyred unjustly, the son-in-law of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and Khalifah of the Muslims. The one for whom the famous pledge was taken to avenge him on the day of Hudaybiyah, which was later known as Bay’at al Ridwan, when Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala sent down His pleasure upon whoever pledged allegiance for His sake.[9]

Similarly, the word “shia” was used for the political parties that supported the Banu ‘Ali and the Banu ‘Abbas in contrast to the shia of the Banu Umayyah. This word was not used except to present a political view of who had a greater right to the leadership. This has been mentioned explicitly by a famous Shia who narrates from Sijistani’s Kitab al Zinah:

 

ثم بعد مقتل عثمان و قيام معاوية و اتباعه في وجه علي بن ابي طالب و اظهاره الطلب بدم عثمان و استمالته عددا عظيما من المسلمين الى ذلك صار اتباعه يعرفون بالعثمانية و صار اتباع علي يعرفون بالعلوية مع بقاء اطلاق اسم الشيعة عليهم و استمر ذلك مدة ملك بني امية

After the martyrdom of ‘Uthman and the rising of Muawiyah and his supporters in opposition of ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib, the expression of the desire to compensate the blood of ‘Uthman and the inclination of a great number of Believers towards that, the supporters of Muawiyah became known as the ‘Uthmaniyyah and the supporters of ‘Ali were known as the ‘Alawiyyah and the word shia continued to be used for them. This continued throughout the rule of the Banu Umayyah.[10]

 

He has also narrated from the chief of the Shia in Halb:

 

كل قوم أمرهم واحد يتبع بعضهم رأي بعض فهم شيعة. و شيعة الرجل أتباعه و أنصاره ،و يقال شايعه كما يقال والاه من الولي و المشايعة و كأن الشيعة لما اتبعوا هؤلاء القوم و اعتقدوا فيهم ما اعتقدوا سموا بهذاالاسم لأنهم صاروا أعوانا لهم و أنصارا و أتباعا فأما من قبل حين أفضت الخلافة من بني هاشم إلى بني أمية و تسلمها معاوية بن صخر من الحسن بن علي و تلقفها من بني أمية رجل فرجل نفر كثير من المسلمين من المهاجرين و الأنصار عن بني أمية و مالوا إلى بني هاشم و كان بنو علي و بنو عباس يومئذ في هذا شرع، فلما انضموا إليهم و اعتقدوا أنهم أحق بالخلافة من بني أمية و بذلوا لهم النصرة و الموالاة و المشايعة سموا شيعة آل محمد و لم يكن إذ ذاك بين بني علي و بني العباس افتراق في رأي و لا مذهب فلما ملك بنو العباس و تسلمها سفاحهم من بني أمية نزع الشيطان بينهم و بين بني علي فبدا منهم في حق بني علي ما بدا فنفر منهم فرقة من الشيعة

All those people who agree upon a matter, some of them following the opinion of others, they are referred to as Shia. The term Shi’at al Rajul refers to one’s followers and supporters. The usage of the word shaya’a (to support) is like that of the word wala (to assist) these words come from the root words al waly and al mushaya’ah. When the Shia supported these people and believed about them whatever they believed, they were given this name, because they became his helpers, supporters, and followers. Before the Caliphate transferred from Banu Hashim to Banu Umayyah and before Sayyidina Muawiyah ibn Sakhr accepted it from Hassan ibn ‘Ali, and before men from Banu Umayyah took over it one after the other, a great group of Believers; Ansar as well as Muhajirin, turned away from Banu Umayyah and were inclined towards Banu Hashim instead. Banu ‘Ali and Banu ‘Abbas were together in this matter at that time. When they united with them and believed that they were more rightful to the Caliphate than Banu Umayyah and they offered their help, support, and aid to them, they were named Shi’at Ᾱl Muhammad (the supporters of the Family of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). At this point the Banu ‘Ali and Banu ‘Abbas did not differ in opinion, rather it was when the Banu ‘Abbas came into power and the bloodshedder (Saffah) amongst them seized control from the Banu Umayyah that the devil caused enmity between them and the Banu ‘Ali. Thus, they felt about Banu ‘Ali what they felt, so a group of the Shia turned away from them.[11]

 

We have repeated the word ‘political’ many times in order to emphasise the fact that this was not a religious conflict as Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu himself proves in this speech when he addressed his army about Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his followers:

 

اوصيكم عباد الله تقوى الله فإنها خير ما تواصى به العباد به و خير عواقب الامور عند الله و قد فتح باب الحرب بينكم و بين اهل القبلة

I advise you, O servants of Allah, to fear Allah, for indeed this is the best advice that can be given to the servants of Allah. Surely the best outcomes of matters are in the hands of Allah. Indeed, a door of war has been opened between you and the people of the Qiblah.[12]

 

This is one instance. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu further explains the matter in a letter that he wrote to the people of al Amsar. In it he relates what transpired between him and the people of Siffin and explains in it the ruling of those who degraded him and fought him, and his viewpoint about them:

 

و كان بدء أمرنا أنا التقينا و القوم من اهل الشام و الظاهر أن ربنا واحد و نبينا واحد و دعوتنا فى الإسلام واحدة و لا نستزيدهم فى الإ يمان بالله والتصديق برسوله ولا يستزيدوننا الأمر واحد إلا ما اختلفنا فيه من دم عثمان ونحن منه براء

We met the people of Syria in battle whilst it is apparent that our Lord is one, our Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is one, and our claim of Islam is one. Neither do we claim to surpass them in belief in Allah and His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, nor do they claim to surpass us. Our matter is the same, except what we had disagreed with regards to the murder of ‘Uthman, which we are absolved from.[13]

 

It is for this reason that he prevented his companions from insulting and reviling the people of Syria and the supporters of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu during the Battle of Siffin:

 

إنى أكره لكم أن تكونوا سبابين ولكنكم لو وصفتم أعمالهم وذكرتم حالهم كان أصوب فى القول وأبلغ فى العذر وقلتم مكان سبكم إياهم اللهم احقن دماءنا ودماءهم وأصلح ذات بيننا وبينهم

I dislike that you be cursers. If you were instead to praise their deeds and remember their condition, that would be a better speech and a greater excuse (made on their behalf). Instead of cursing them you should say, “O Allah, spare our blood and their blood, and reconcile between us and them.”[14]

 

This is aided by a famous shia narration that al Kulayni mentions in his al Kafi on the authority of Jafar ibn Muhammad al Baqir, the sixth infallible Imam according to the Shia, that he said:

 

ينادي مناد من السماء أول النهار ألا إن عليا صلوات الله عليه و شيعته هم الفائزون قال و ينادى مناد آخر النهار ألا إن عثمان و شيعته هم الفائزون

A caller will call out from the heavens at the beginning of the day, “Lo, indeed, ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam and his shia will be successful,” and a caller will call out at the end of the day, “Lo, indeed, ‘Uthman and his shia will be successful.”[15]

 

An odd narration that he mentions is that Abu al ‘Ᾱliyah—a famous Tabi’i who met the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his youth, however, he did not accept Islam until after the demise of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the time of Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu—said as reported by Abu Khaldah:

 

لما كان زمان علي و معاوية و اني لشاب القتال أحب إليّ من الطعام الطيب فجهزت بجهاز حسن حتى أتيتهم فإذا صفان ما يرى طرفاهما إذا كبّر هؤلاء كبّر هؤلاء و إذا هلل هؤلاء هلل هؤلاء فراجعت نفسي فقلت أي الفريقين انزّله كافرا و من أكرهني على هذا قال فما أمسيت جتى رجعت و تركتهم

At the time of ‘Ali and Muawiyah, I was a young man. Battle was more beloved to me than pure food, so I prepared well until I reached them. There were two rows, the sides of which could not be seen. When one group would recite takbir, the other would too and when one would recite tahlil, the other would as well. I thought the matter over and said, “Which group should I deem the disbelievers? Who has forced me to do this?” I then returned and left them before evening.[16]

 

We will not deny that there were people there who were influenced by the Jewish plots and thoughts, who diverted from the straight path and painted this dispute as a religious matter, like the Sabaʾiyyin and others besides them who fell into the traps of the Jews that despise Islam. They were the ones who rekindled the fire of war each time its flames extinguished. We will explain this later, Allah willing; however, most people were distant from it.

This is how the “shia” was first used. It was later used specifically for anyone that supported Sayyidina ‘Ali and his progeny radiya Llahu ‘anhum and believed in the beliefs that were derived from the plots of ‘Abdullah ibn Sabaʾ and others besides him that wanted to destroy the religion of Islam and its essence, and wished to distort its teachings. As Ibn al Athir says in his al Nihayah:

 

و اصل الشيعة الفرقة من الناس و تقع على الواحد و الاثنين و الجمع المذكر و المؤنث بلفظ واحد و معنى واحد و قد غلب هذا الاسم على كل من يزعم أنه يتولى عليا رضي الله عنه و أهل بيته حتى صار لهم اسما خاصا فإذا قيل فلان من الشيعة عرف أنه منهم و في مذهب الشيعة كذا اي عندهم و تجمع الشيعة على شيع و أصلها من المشايعة و هي المتابعة و المطاوعة

The word shia literally refers to a group of people. This word can apply to one, two, or many males or females. This noun later became more commonly used for those who claimed to support Sayyidina ‘Ali and his family radiya Llahu ‘anhum until it became exclusively used for them. Now whenever one says so-and-so is from his shia, it is known that he is from the Shia. If one says that it is like this in the school of thought of the Shia it means that it is like that cording to their beliefs. The Shia sect is made up of many subsects. The word shia originates from the al mushaya’ah which means following and obedience.[17]

 

As for those who claim that this word was widely used in the time of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, as Shi’ism and the Shia were present in his time, they have no proof or evidence to support their claims. Muhammad al Hussain says in Asl al Shia wa Usuluha:

 

إن أول من وضع بذرة التشيع في حقل الإسلام هو نفس صاحب الشريعة يعني أن بذرة التشيع وضعت مع بذرة الإسلام جنبا إلى جنب و سواء بسواء و لميزل غارسها يتعاهدها بالسقي و العناية حتى نمت و ازدهرت في حياته ثم أثمرت بعد وفاته

The first person to plant the seed of Shi’ism in the field of Islam was the Legislator salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself, meaning the seed of Shi’ism and the seed of Islam were placed simultaneously with equal importance. Its planter continued to care for it by watering it and nurturing it until it blossomed and bloomed during the lifetime of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam [18], however it only bore fruit after his demise.[19]

 

A similar statement has been stated by another:

 

ان التشيع ظهر في ايام نبي الإسلام الأقدس الذي كان يغذي بأقواله عقيدة التشيع لعلي عليه السلام و أهل بيته و يمكنها في أذهان المسلمين و يأمر بها في مواطن كثيرة

Verily Shi’ism became apparent at the time of the Holy Prophet of Islam. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used to further the ideology of Shi’ism with his words to ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam and his family. He would instil it into the minds of the Believers and command [that it be adhered to] in many places.[20]

 

Al Muzaffari, the Shia, did not consider this enough, so he goes on to say:

 

ان الدعوة الى التشيع ابتدأت من اليوم الذي هتف فيه المنقذ الأعظم محمد صلوات الله عليه صارخا بكلمة لا إله إلا الله في شعاب مكة و جبالها…فكانت الدعوة للتشيع لأبي الحسن عليه السلام من صاحب الرسالة تمشي منه جنبا لجنب مع الدعوة للشهادتين

Verily the invitation towards Shi’ism started the day the great Emancipator Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam proclaimed it, shouting out the kalimah la Ilaha illa Allah in the valleys and mountains of Makkah… The invitation towards the sect of Abu Hassan ‘alayh al Salam came from the Bearer of Prophethood himself. It started from him calling to testify to both side by side.[21]

 

The ambiguity in speech and exaggeration in this cannot go unnoticed as according to this the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam neither called to Islam nor the oneness of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala or his own prophethood and obedience or towards unity, harmony, compassion, affection, and love. Instead, he used to apparently call towards segregation, separation, and bias to only Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and no one else besides him. According to the claims of al Muzaffari, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu as a partner in his prophethood, whereas the clear Speech of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, the noble Qur’an—which is void of all falsity and that al Rahman Himself sent down and took the responsibility of the protection of—does not contain any of this.[22] In fact, the Noble Qur’an is replete with invitations towards the obedience of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, the obedience due to His Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, firmly grasping the Rope of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, adhering to the Qur’an and Sunnah, and staying away from anything besides them. The Qur’an, in fact, commanded the Believers to have unity and harmony, and to identify as Muslims. Similarly, many authentic narrations that link back to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam[23] only speak of the same and nothing besides that.

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا أَطِيْعُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُوْلَهُ وَلَا تَوَلَّوْا عَنْهُ وَأَنتُمْ تَسْمَعُوْنَ

O Believers! Obey Allah and His Messenger and do not turn away from him while you hear [his call].[24]

أَطِيْعُوا الرَّسُوْلَ وَلَا تُبْطِلُوا أَعْمَالَكُمْ

Obey the Messenger, and do not let your deeds be in vain.[25]

وَأَطِيْعُوا اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُوْلَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُوْنَ

Obey Allah and the Messenger, so you may be shown mercy.[26]

مَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُوْلُ فَخُذُوْهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوْا

Whatever the Messenger gives you, take it. And whatever he forbids you from, leave it.[27]

مَن يُشَاقِقِ الرَّسُوْلَ مِنْۢ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ الْهُدَىٰ وَيَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيْلِ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ نُوَلِّهِ مَا تَوَلَّىٰ وَنُصْلِهِ جَهَنَّمَ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيْرًا

Whoever defies the Messenger after guidance has become clear to them and follows a path other than that of the Believers, We will let them pursue what they have chosen, then burn them in Hell—what an evil end![28]

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُوْلُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُوْنَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ

It is not for a believing man or woman—when Allah and His Messenger decree a matter—to have any other choice in that matter.[29]

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُوْنَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوْكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوْا فِيْ أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ

But no! By your Lord, they will never be [true] Believers until they accept you [O Prophet] as the judge in their disputes, and find no resistance within themselves against your decision.[30]

وَاعْتَصِمُوْا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيْعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوْا وَاذْكُرُوْا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنتُمْ أَعْدَاءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَانًا

And hold firmly to the rope of Allah and do not be divided. Remember Allah’s favour upon you when you were enemies, then He united your hearts, so you—by His grace—became brothers.[31]

وَلَا تَنَازَعُوْا فَتَفْشَلُوْا وَتَذْهَبَ رِيْحُكُمْ

And do not dispute with one another, or you would be discouraged and weakened.[32]

إِنَّ هٰذِهِ أُمَّتُكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَأَنَا رَبُّكُمْ فَاتَّقُوْنِ

Surely this religion of yours is [only] one, and I am your Lord, so fear Me.[33]

وَ لَا تَكُوْنُوْا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِيْنَ مِنَ الَّذِيْنَ فَرَّقُوْا دِيْنَهُمْ وَكَانُوْا شِيَعًا

And do not be polytheists— [like] those who have divided their faith and split into sects.[34]

إِنَّ الدِّيْنَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ الْإِسْلَامُ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ الَّذِيْنَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا مِنْۢ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَهُمُ الْعِلْمُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ وَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيْعُ الْحِسَابِ

Certainly, Allah’s only Way is Islam. Those who were given the Scripture did not dispute [among themselves] out of mutual envy until knowledge came to them. Whoever denies Allah’s signs, then surely Allah is swift in reckoning.[35]

وَمَنْ يَّبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الْإِسْلَامِ دِيْنًا فَلَنْ يُّقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِيْنَ

Whoever seeks a way other than Islam, it will never be accepted from them, and in the Hereafter, they will be among the losers.[36]

 

Lastly, I would like to inform the world and its inhabitants that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala did not send His Messenger and Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the Seal of all Prophets, except with the same message that all the previous Prophets were sent with. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala commanded the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as follows:

 

قُلْ مَا كُنْتُ بِدْعًا مِّنَ الرُّسُلِ وَمَا أَدْرِي مَا يُفْعَلُ بِيْ وَلَا بِكُمْ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوْحَىٰ إِلَيَّ وَمَا أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيْرٌ مُّبِيْنٌ

Say, “I am not the first Messenger ever sent, nor do I know what will happen to me or you. I only follow what is revealed to me. And I am only sent with a clear warning.”[37]

 

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala also says:

 

شَرَعَ لَكُم مِّنَ الدِّيْنِ مَا وَصَّىٰ بِهِ نُوْحًا وَالَّذِيْ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ وَمَا وَصَّيْنَا بِهِ إِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَمُوْسَىٰ وَعِيْسَىٰ أَنْ أَقِيْمُوا الدِّيْنَ وَلَا تَتَفَرَّقُوْا فِيْهِ كَبُرَ عَلَى الْمُشْرِكِيْنَ مَا تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَيْهِ اللَّهُ يَجْتَبِيْ إِلَيْهِ مَنْ يَّشَاءُ وَيَهْدِيْ إِلَيْهِ مَنْ يُّنِيْبُ

He has ordained for you [Believers] the Way which He decreed for Nuh, and what We have revealed to you [O Prophet] and what We decreed for Ibrahim, Musa, and ‘Ῑsa, [commanding:] “Uphold the faith, and make no divisions in it.” What you call the polytheists to is unbearable for them. Allah chooses for Himself whoever He wills, and guides to Himself whoever turns [to Him].[38]

 

In some places Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala mentions briefly what message each Prophet was sent with:

 

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُوْلٍ إِلَّا نُوْحِيْ إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُوْنِ

We never sent a Messenger before you [O Prophet] without revealing to him, “There is no god [worthy of worship] except Me, so worship Me [alone].”[39]

 

In many other places in the Noble Qur’an, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala mentions in detail each Prophet and his prophethood. Many sound, authentic narrations have also been narrated about the same.

As for the beliefs of the Shia, they are contrary to what our Lord, Most High, and His Great Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam have explained, as they claim that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala only sent His Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to propagate Shi’ism, promote division, ascription of partners with Allah in His being and qualities, inclusion of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his children in prophethood and considering it incumbent to obey them. Then in support of their claims they relate narrations that are all baseless and fabricated, narrations which are incorrect in word and in meaning; in words because their narrators are a group of misguided, lying fabricators whose narrations have not been reported in authentic, reliable books, and in meaning because their claims contradict the Noble Qur’an and its text, just as they contradict logic and intellect. The reason being that logic demands that religions are not based on calling towards the love and support of specific people in such a way that one who supports them will enter Paradise and be safeguarded from Hell. This notion is completely negated in multiple Qur’anic verses to such an extent that no love, not even love for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala Himself, is enough to attain success and salvation in the Hereafter. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:

 

قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُوْنِيْ يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوْبَكُمْ

Say, [O Prophet,] “If you [sincerely] love Allah, then follow me; Allah will love you and forgive your sins.[40]

 

Following the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam entails believing in Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, performing righteous deeds in accordance to the commands of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and refraining from that which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prohibited. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:

 

إِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ يَهْدِيْهِمْ رَبُّهُم بِإِيْمَانِهِمْ تَجْرِيْ مِنْ تَحْتِهِمُ الْأَنْهَارُ فِيْ جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيْمِ

Surely those who believe and do good, their Lord will guide them [to Paradise] through their faith, rivers will flow under their feet in the Gardens of Bliss.[41]

 

إِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٌ تَجْرِيْ مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ذٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْكَبِيْرُ

Surely those who believe and do good will have Gardens under which rivers flow. That is the greatest triumph.[42]

 

The opinions of the Shia contradict them with regards to the inception of the ideology of Shi’ism and its formation. In fact, al Nawbakhti, an expert in Shia sects, says that it only came about after the demise of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He writes:

 

قبض رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله في شهر ربيع الأول سنة عشر من الهجرة و هو ابن ثلاث و ستين سنة و كانت نبوته عليه السلام ثلاثا و عشرين سنة و أمه آمنة بنت وهب بن عبد مناف بن زهرة بن كلاب بن مرة بن كعب بن لؤي بن غالب فافترقت الأمة ثلاث فرق (فرقة منها) سميت الشيعة و هم شيعة علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام و منهم افترقت صنوف الشيعة كلها  (و فرقة منهم) ادعت الأمرة و السلطان و هم الأنصار و دعوا إلى عقد الأمر لسعد بن عبادة الخزرجي و (فرقة) مالت إلى بيعة أبي بكر بن أبي قحافة و تأولت فيه أن النبي صلى الله عليه و آله لم ينص على خليفة بعينه و أنه جعل الأمر إلى الأمة تختار لأنفسها من رضيته و اعتل قوم منهم برواية ذكروها أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله أمره في ليلته التي توفي فيها بالصلاة بأصحابه فجعلوا ذلك الدليل على استحقاقه إياه و قالوا رضيه النبي صلى الله عليه و آله لأمر ديننا و رضيناه لأمر دنيانا و أوجبوا له الخلافة بذلك فاختصمت هذه الفرقة و فرقة الأنصار و صاروا إلى سقيفة بني ساعدة و معهم أبو بكر و عمر و أبو عبيدة بن الجراح و المغيرة بن شعبة الثقفي و قد دعت الأنصار إلى العقد لسعد بن عبادة الخزرجي و الاستحقاق للأمر و السلطان فتنازعوا هم و الأنصار في ذلك حتى قالوا منا أمير و منكم أمير فاحتجت هذه الفرقة عليهم بأن النبي عليه السلام قال الأئمة من قريش و قال بعضهم أنه قال الإمامة لا تصلح إلا في قريش فرجعت فرقة الأنصار و من تابعهم إلى أمر أبي بكر غير نفر يسير مع سعد بن عبادة و من اتبعه من أهل بيته فإنه لم يدخل في بيعته حتى خرج إلى الشام مراغمًا لأبي بكر و عمر فقتل هناك بحوران قتله الروم و قال آخرون قتلته الجن فاحتجوا بالشعر المعروف و في روايتهم أن الجن قالت

قد قتلنا سيد الخزرج سعد بن عبادة                     و رميناه بسهمين فلم نخطي فؤاده

و هذا قول فيه بعض النظر لأنه ليس في التعارف أن الجن ترمي بني آدم بالسهام فتقتلهم فصار مع أبي بكر السواد الأعظم و الجمهور الأكثر فلبثوا معه و مع عمر مجتمعين عليهما راضين بهما

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away in the tenth year after the migration during the month of Rabi’ al Awwal at the age of sixty-three. His Prophethood was twenty-three years long. His mother was Aminah bint Wahb ibn ‘Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ibn Ka’b ibn Lu’ay ibn Ghalib. The Ummah divided into three groups. One of them is called the Shia. They are the group of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib ‘alayh al Salam; many different sects of the Shia came from this group. Another group amongst them known as the Ansar is those who claimed command and authority. They wanted the matter to be appointed to Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah al Khazraji. The third group are those who were inclined to pledging allegiance to Abu Bakr ibn Abi Quhafah. They believed that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not appoint a successor explicitly, instead he left the matter in the hands of the Ummah to choose whomsoever they pleased. One party finds evidence in a narration which they mention that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commanded him to lead the Companions in prayer on the night of his demise. They take this as a proof of him being more rightful [to leadership]. They say, “The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was pleased [to appoint him] in our religious matter therefore we are glad [to appoint him] in our worldly matter.” Based on this they considered it necessary for him to take leadership. This group disputed with the Ansar, so they went to Saqifah Bani Sa’idah accompanied by Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, Abu ‘Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah, and al Mughirah ibn Shu’bah al Thaqafi. The Ansar desired that Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah al Khazraji be appointed and believed that he was more rightful to command and authority. They disputed with the Ansar to such an extent that the Ansar suggested that a leader be elected from each group. This group presented as evidence against them with the words of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, “The leaders are from Quraysh.” Some say that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Leadership only befits Quraysh.” Due to this the Ansar retreated to the

the leadership of Abu Bakr; however, a small group and those who followed him from his family remained with Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah al Khazraji. He did not pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr until he was compelled to go to Syria because of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. He was later murdered there in the city of Hawran by the Romans. Others say that the jinn killed him and they take the following poem as proof. According to them the jinn said:

Indeed, we killed the leader of Khazraj, Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah,

We struck him with two spears without missing his heart

(This opinion is controversial, as it is not a known fact that the jinn shoot spears at Banu Ᾱdam and kill them.)

Majority of the people remained with Abu Bakr and they all collectively supported Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, and were pleased with them both.[43]

 

Ibn al Nadim al Shia[44] opines that the inception of Shi’ism took place only on the day of the Battle of Jamal. He says:

 

و لما خالف طلحة و الزبير على عليّ رضي الله عنه و أبيا إلا الطلب بدم عثمان و قصدهما علي عليه السلام ليقاتلهما حتى يفيئا إلى أمر الله تسمى من اتبعه على ذلك باسم الشيعة

When Talhah and al Zubair differed with ‘Ali and were adamant on seeking revenge for the blood of ‘Uthman, and ‘Ali expressed the desire to fight them until they retreated to the command of Allah, those who followed him were called the Shia.[45]

 

Others say:

 

اشتهر اسم الشيعة يوم صفين

The word shia became well-known on the day of Siffin.[46]

 

Ibn Hamzah, Abu Hatim, and other Shia scholars have offered similar statements. This supports our opinion. Amongst previous scholars, Ibn Hazm has made a similar statement in al Fasl[47], and Ahmed Amin[48] along with many other more recent scholars have done so as well.

A Shia of the same time says:

 

إن استقلال الاصطلاح الدالّ على التشيع إنما كان بعد مقتل الحسين حيث أن التشيع أصبح كيانا مميّزا له طابع خاص

The independent term that refers to Shi’ism only came about after the martyrdom of Hussain in such a way that Shi’ism became a distinguished practice which had its own specific way.[49]

 

Due to this Muhsin al Amin was compelled to say:

 

سواء كان اطلاق هذا الاسم في حياة الرسول أو بعد الجمل فالقول بتفضيل علي عليه السلام و موالاته الذي هو معنى التشيع كان موجودا في عهد الرسول و استمر بعده ألى اليوم

Whether the usage of this word became common during the life of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam or after the Battle of Jamal, the opinion of the virtue of ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam and loyalty to him, which is the essence of Shi’ism, was present during the era of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and has remained till date.[50]

 

It has also compelled al Muzaffari to say:

 

فكان التجاهر بالتشيعع أيام عثمان

The promotion of Shi’ism took place during the time of ‘Uthman.[51]

 

This is correct, as things are not named before they come into existence just as segregation does not come to be before the existence of contradictions. Once a contradiction is found, those who support an opinion will form a group, therefore leading to multiple independent groups and parties. That is when different groups with different names are found. Neither before the martyrdom of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the Possessor of two Lights, nor before the consequences of his murder, nor after Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu took leadership over the matter of the Believers, was there such a contradiction between the Believers and or such groups. It was only then that the dispute came about. There were, thus, some people who shared the opinion of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his followers and others who firstly supported the opinion of Sayyidina Talhah and Sayyidina al Zubair then later the opinion of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and his followers. It was at this point that the Believers were divided into two great political parties; the group of Sayyidina ‘Ali and the group of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Each group considered their opinion to be correct with regards to leadership and course of action; however, their religion and beliefs were one, as we have already explained.

Yes, there was a difference of opinion before the martyrdom of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu which eventually led to his murder; however, it was only between the leaders of the Jews, those who were tricked into falling into the traps of the evil Jews and the Believers and their leader. This will be explained in its own chapter. Such little, minor disputes did take place; however, they were short-lived. They only lasted until the other party turned back to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, complying to the saying of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala:

 

فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِيْ شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُوْلِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُؤْمِنُوْنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ذٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيْلً

Should you disagree on anything, then refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you [truly] believe in Allah and the Last Day. This is the best and fairest resolution.[52]

 

This occurrence is similar to the difference of opinion that took place between the Ansar and Muhajirin on the day of the Saqifah when the Ansar retracted to the opinion of the Muhajirin and pledged allegiance at the hands of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu in unity and harmony. There was neither a third party as the Shia claim, nor was the name of a third person suggested to rule besides Sayyidina Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah and Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Also, this neither became a point of dispute, nor were there chiefs and leaders of these opinions and sects, as Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu himself testified when ‘Amr ibn al Hamiq, Hujr ibn ‘Adi, Habbah al ‘Urani, al Harith al A’war, and ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’ came to him after the Conquest of Egypt. When they entered, they found him looking sorrowful. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Jundub narrates from his father that they said to him:

 

بين لنا ما قولك في أبي بكر و عمر؟ فقال لهم علي عليه السلام و هل فرغتم لهذا؟ و هذه مصر قد افتتحت و شيعتي بها قد قتلت أنا مخرج إليكم كتابًا أخبركم فيه عما سألتم و أسألكم أن تحفظوا من حقّي ما ضيعتم فاقرؤوه على شيعتي و كونوا على الحق أعوانًا و هذه نسخة الكتاب:

من عبد الله علي أمير المؤمنين إلى من قرأ كتابي هذا من المؤمنين و المسلمين السلام عليكم فاني احمد إليكم الله الذي لا إله إلا هو أما بعد فإن الله بعث محمدًا صلى الله عليه و آله نذيرا للعالمين و أمينا على التنزيل و شهيدا على هذه الأمة و أنتم يا معشر العرب يومئذ على شر دينٍ و في شر دارٍ منيخون على حجارة خشن و حيات صمٍّ و شوكٍ مبثوثٍ في البلاد تشربون الماء الخبيث و تأكلون الطعام الجشيب و تسفكون دماءكم و تقتلون أولادكم و تقطعون أرحامكم و تأكلون أموالكم [بينكم] بالباطل سبلكم خائفة و الأصنام فيكم منصوبة [و الآثام بكم معصوبة] و لا يؤمن أكثرهم بالله الا و هم مشركون فمن الله عليكم بمحمد صلى الله عليه و آله فبعثه إليكم رسولًا من أنفسكم و قال فيما أنزله من كتابه هو الذي بعث في الأميين رسولًا منهم يتلو عليهم آياته و يزكيهم و يعلمهم الكتاب و الحكمة و إن كانوا من قبل لفي ضلال مبين و قال لقد جاءكم رسول من أنفسكم عزيز عليه ما عنتم حريص عليكم بالمؤمنين رؤف رحيم و قال لقد من الله على المؤمنين إذ بعث فيهم رسولًا من أنفسهم و قال ذلك فضل الله يؤتيه من يشاء و الله ذو الفضل العظيم فكان الرسول إليكم من أنفسكم بلسانكم و كنتم أول المؤمنين تعرفون وجهه و شيعته و عمارته فعلمكم الكتاب و الحكمة و الفرائض و السنة و أمركم بصلة أرحامكم و حقن دماءكم و صلاح ذات البين و أن تؤدوا الأمانات إلى أهلها و أن توفوا بالعهد و لا تنقضوا الإيمان بعد توكيدها و أمركم أن تعاطفوا و تباروا و تباذلوا و تراحموا و نهاكم عن التناهب و التظالم و التحاسد و التقاذف و التباغى و عن شرب الخمر و بخس المكيال و نقص الميزان و تقدم إليكم فيما أنزل عليكم ألا تزنوا و لا تربوا و لا تأكلوا أموال اليتامى ظلمًاو أن تؤدوا الأمانات إلى أهلها و لا تعثوا في الأرض مفسدين و لا تعتدوا إن الله لا يحب المعتدين و كل خير يدنى إلى الجنة و يباعد من النار أمركم به و كل شر يباعد من الجنة و يدنى من النار نهاكم عنه

فلما مضى لسبيله صلى الله عليه و آله تنازع المسلمون الأمر بعده فو الله ما كان يلقى في روعى و لا يخطر على بالى أن العرب تعدل هذا الأمر بعد محمد صلى الله عليه و آله عن أهل بيته و لا أنهم منحوه عنى من بعدى، فما راعنى إلا انثيال الناس على أبي بكر و إجفالهم إليه ليبايعوه فأمسكت يدي و رأيت أني أحق بمقام رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله في الناس ممن تولى الأمر من بعده فلبثت بذاك ما شاء الله حتى رأيت راجعة من الناس رجعت عن الإسلام يدعون إلى محق دين الله و ملة محمدٍ صلى الله عليه و آله و إبراهيم عليه السلام فخشيت إن لم أنصر الإسلام و أهله أن أرى فيه ثلمًا و هدمًا يكون مصيبته أعظم عليّ من فوات ولاية أموركم التي إنما هي متاع أيام قلائل ثم يزول ما كان منها كما يزول السراب و كما يتقشع السحاب فمشيت عند ذلك إلى أبي بكر فبايعته و نهضت في تلك الأحداث حتى زاغ الباطل و زهق و كانت (كلمة الله هي العليا) و لو كره الكافرون

فتولى أبو بكر تلك الأمور فيسّر و سدّد و قارب و اقتصد فصحبته مناصحا و أطعته فيما أطاع الله جاهدا

“Tell us, what is your opinion about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar?”

‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam told them, “You freed yourself for this whilst Egypt has been conquered and my people have been killed in the process?! I will show you a letter that will inform you [of the answer] of what you ask, and I ask that you protect that of my right which you have forsaken. Read it to my people and assist in the matters of truth.”

This is the text of the letter:

From the servant of Allah, ‘Ali, the Leader of the Believers, to whichever Believer reads this letter of mine.

May peace be upon you. Indeed, I praise before you that Allah besides whom there is no other deity. After greetings and the praise of Allah, I say: Indeed, Allah sent Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as a Warner to the universe, as a Trustee of the Revelation and a Witness over this Ummah. [When he was sent] You, O Arabs, were living in the worst manner in the worst place. You were gnawing on rough stones, deaf snakes and thorns that were scattered around different lands. You would drink filthy water and eat dry food. There was bloodshed amongst you. You would kill your own children, sever ties of kinship, eat one another’s wealth unlawfully, and your routes were dangerous [to take]. Idols were erected in your midst, sins surrounded you and many of you did not believe in Allah without ascribing partners to Him. Allah bestowed His favour upon you through Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Thus, he was sent to you as a Prophet from amongst yourselves. Allah mentions this in His Book:

He is the One Who raised for the illiterate [people] a Messenger from among themselves—reciting to them His revelations, purifying them, and teaching them the Book and wisdom, for indeed they had previously been clearly astray.

There certainly has come to you a Messenger from amongst yourselves. He is concerned by your suffering, anxious for your well-being, and gracious and merciful to the Believers.

Indeed, Allah has done the believers a [great] favour by raising a Messenger from amongst them.

This is the favour of Allah. He grants it to whoever He wills. And Allah is the Lord of infinite bounty.

The Messenger that came to you from amongst you spoke your language, and you were the first Believers. You knew his face, group, and territory. He taught you the Book, the Wisdom, the obligatory, and the Sunnah acts. He commanded you to join ties of kinship, spare your blood, reconcile amongst yourselves, deliver trusts to those entitled to them, fulfil promises, and not to break oaths after making them firm. He commanded you to be kind, beneficial, giving, and merciful to each other. He prohibited you from looting and oppressing one another, from harbouring jealousy, abusing and transgressing against one another. [He forbade you] to drink wine, decrease the measure and curtail the weight. He conveyed to you that which was revealed to you, that you should neither fornicate, nor deal in interest, nor consume the wealth of the orphans unjustly, and that you deliver trusts to those entitled to them. [He commanded] you not to spread corruption in the land and not to transgress, for indeed Allah dislikes those who transgress. He commanded you to do every good deed that will draw you closer to Paradise and away from Hell, and prohibited you from every evil deed that draws you away from Paradise and closer to Hell. Once the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away, the Believers began to dispute. By Allah, it would neither worry me or cross my mind that the Arabs would snatch this matter after [the demise of] Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from his family Members, nor that they will snatch it from me after me. Nothing besides the swarming of people around Abu Bakr and their hastening towards him compelled me to pledge allegiance at his hands, so I [initially] held my hand back and I considered myself more rightful than others to take up the position of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam after his demise. I remained like that for as long as Allah willed, until I eventually saw a group of people turning away from Islam, calling to the annihilation of the Religion of Allah and the way of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Ibrahim ‘alayh al Salam. I feared that if I did not help Islam and its people, I would see cracks and destruction in it and it would be a greater calamity to me than the loss of leadership over your matter, which is merely the enjoyment of a few days then it will fade as a mirage fades and as a cloud disappears. This compelled me to go to Abu Bakr and pledge allegiance to him. I took a stand during those incidents until falsehood became weak and [eventually] perished, and the Word of Allah was the highest even if the disbelievers disliked it. Thus, Abu Bakr took over these matters and created ease, acted correctly, remained close, and exercised moderation. I stayed in his company as an advisor and I strove to obey him in those matters in which he obeyed Allah.[53]

 

A similar incident has been mentioned in al Ash’ari’s Maqalat al Islamiyyin:

 

و أول ما حدث من الاختلاف بين المسلمين بعد نبيهم ﷺ اختلافهم في الإمامة و ذلك أن رسول الله ﷺ لما قبضه الله عز و جل و نقله الى جنته و دار كرامته اجتمعت الأنصار فى سقيفة بنى ساعدة بمدينة الرسول ﷺ و أرادوا عقد الإمامة لسعد بن عبادة و بلغ ذلك أبا بكر و عمر رضوان الله عليهم [ف]قصدا نحو مجتمع الأنصار فى رجال من المهاجرين فأعلمهم أبو بكر أن الإمامة لا تكون إلا فى قريش و احتج بقول النبي ﷺ الإمامة فى قريش فأذعنوا لذلك منقادين، و رجعوا إلى الحق طائعين، بعد أن قالت الأنصار منّا أمير و منكم أمير و بعد أن جرد الحُباب بن المنذر سيفه و قال أنا جذيلها المحكك و عذيقها المرجب من يبنارزنى  بعد أن قام قيس بن سعد بنصرة أبيه سعد بن عبادة حتى قال عمر بن الخطاب فى شأنه ما قال، ثم بايعوا أبا بكر رضوان الله عليه و اجتمعوا على إمامته و اتفقوا على خلافته و انقادوا لطاعته فقاتل أهل الردة على ارتدادهم كما قاتلهم رسول الله ﷺ على كفرهم فأظهره الله عز و جل عليهم أجمعين، و أوضح الله به الحق المبين، و كان الاختلاف بعد الرسول ﷺ فى الإمامة  و لم يحدث خلاف غيره فى حياة أبى بكر رضوان الله عليه و أيام عمر إلى أن ولى عثمان بن عفان رضوان الله عليه و أنكر قوم عليه فى آخر أيامه أفعالًا   كانوا فيما نقموا عليه من ذلك مخطئين، و عن سنن المحجة الخارجين، فصار ما أنكروه عليه اختلافًا إلى اليوم، ثم قتل رضوان الله عليه و كانوا في قتله مختلفين، فأما أهل السنة و الاستقامة فإنهم قالوا: كان رضوان الله عليه مصيبًا فى أفعاله قتله قاتلوه ظلمًا و عدوانًا، و قال قائلون بخلاف ذلك، و هذا اختلاف بين الناس، إلى اليوم.

ثم بويع علي بن أبى طالب رضوان الله عليه فاختلف الناس فى أمره فمن بين منكر لإمامته و من بين قاعد عنه و من بين قائل بإمامته معتقدد لخلافته، ، و هذا اختلاف بين الناس إلى اليوم.

ثم حدث الاختلاف فى أيام عليّ فى أمر طلحة و الزبير رضوان الله عليهم و حربهما إياه و فى قتال معاوية أياه و صار علي و معاوية إلى صفين.

The first difference of opinion to take place between the Believers was with regards to leadership. When Allah seized the soul of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and transferred him to His Paradise and His house of honour, the Ansar gathered in Saqifat Bani Sa’idah, in the City of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, intending to transfer the leadership to Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah. This reached Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma so they went with a group of Muhajirin to the gathering of the Ansar. Abu Bakr then informed them that leadership will only remain in Quraysh and he sought proof from the words of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, “Leadership will remain in Quraysh.”

Thus, they complied to that in full submission and obediently adhered to the truth, after the Ansar having first suggested that there be a leader from each party and after al Hubab ibn al Mundhir unsheathed his sword, and said, “I am the one whose opinion is weightiest, who will compete with me?” and after Qais ibn Sa’d canvassed in support of his father, Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah, and ‘Umar ibn Khattab said about him what he said. They then pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, reaching a consensus upon his leadership and Caliphate, and wholeheartedly submitting to his obedience. He fought the apostates due to their apostacy just as the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam fought them due to their disbelief. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala made him successfully overpower all of them and helped him against the apostates causing all of them to revert back to Islam making the truth apparent through him. After the demise of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam a dispute occurred in the matter of leadership and this was the only dispute that occurred during the lifetime of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and during the rule of ‘Umar until the reign of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. A group of people opposed some of his actions towards the end of his life. They wrongfully took revenge for that and diverted from the clear path. Their objections to his ways turned into a dispute that is present till date. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was then martyred and people disagreed in the matter of his demise. The people of Sunnah and upright faith said that he was correct in his actions and was killed unjustly by his murderers out of enmity. Some people had other opinions. This difference of opinion stands till today.

Thereafter, allegiance was pledged to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu and people soon began to differ about him. Some rejected his leadership, others did not involve themselves in the matter, others supported his leadership and believed that he was the rightful Khalifah. This dispute continues till today.

Then, during the rule of ‘Ali, came the dispute with regards to the matter of Talhah and Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma and the war that he fought against them, and his battle against Muawiyah, and ‘Ali and Muawiyah heading out for the Battle of Siffin.[54]

 

Like other disputes, for instance the one that took place about the burial of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, or with regards to rising up against those who refused to pay zakat, etc., these disputes would not have been solved had the people not adhered to the Book of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and the Sunnah of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

However, the difference which was not solved and the dispute which did not end was that which hindered the unity of the Believers and divided them into two big groups. The leader of one party was Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the leader of the other was Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. We repeat our statement that this difference of opinion did not cause any of them to formulate a new religion or embrace new beliefs, neither did it cause them to reject the rulings established by the Book of Allah or the Sunnah of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, nor turning away from the straight path set by the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and those who came after him, namely; Sayyidina Abu Bakr, Sayyidina ‘Umar, and Sayyidina ‘Uthman, and the righteous, rightly guided Khulafa that came afterwards. There was no hatred for the previous Muhajirin and Ansar that had already passed away and fulfilled their vow, unlike the innovations of the Shia today. There was no inclination towards previous hatred that was based on ancestry and lineage. The supporters of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, especially the devout amongst them, did not have the beliefs that the Shia today have. These beliefs which breed ill feelings for the pious predecessors, especially Sayyidina Abu Bakr, Sayyidina ‘Umar, Sayyidina ‘Uthman, and the Blessed Wives of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the Mothers of the Believers radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Their beliefs are based on the rejection of the Noble Qur’an which is present in the hands of the people today. They are contrary to the Sunnah of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and have instead been taken from ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’ and inherited from the Jews. We will later explain this point, if Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala wills. These [two parties that came about] were in fact ardent lovers of the Companions of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the leaders of whom were Sayyidina Abu Bakr, Sayyidina ‘Umar, Sayyidina ‘Uthman, the Blessed Wives of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and whoever follows in their footsteps and adheres to their ways radiya Llahu ‘anhum. One of their leaders was also Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the Leader of the Believers, the fourth trustworthy, rightly guided Khalifah of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who deeply loved all of the Companions and used to express his support towards them. After they passed on from this temporary world to the loftiest company, he used to follow their ways, oppose all those who opposed them and punish those who spoke against them, just as he would fight those who used to spread Saba’i and Jewish notions amongst his followers and supporters, and he would abandon all those who thought that he gave rise to these false beliefs.

 

فلقد ذكر الشيعة أنفسهم بأن عليا رضى الله عنه سمى أبناءه بأسماء الخلفاء الراشدين السابقين الثلاثة، بأبي بكر و عمر و عثمان

The Shia themselves mention that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would name his children after the first three rightly guided Khulafa; Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[55]

 

و ابنه الحسن كذلك سمى أبناءه بأبي بكر و عمر.

His son, Hassan named his sons Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.[56]

 

و الحسين كذلك سمى أبناءه بأبي بكر و عمر

Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu also named his sons Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.[57]

 

و كذلك الآخرون من أبناء علي و أبناء الحسين سمو أبناءهم بأسماء هؤلاء الأخيار البررة تحببا إليهم و تبركا بهم

Similarly, the other sons of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the sons of Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu named their sons after these esteemed, righteous people out of love for them and with the desire of attaining blessings [through their names].[58]

 

As for the matter of following and supporting them, we have already mentioned that in detail in our book, al Shia wa Ahlul Bayt, and we do not wish to repeat what we have already mentioned, therefore please refer back to it if need be. Over here we wish to discuss a statement of the most quarrelsome enemy of the Sunnah, the greatest insulter and taunter amongst the Shia, Mulla Baqir al Majlisi al Shia al Ῑrani, who has been given the title of ‘Seal of the Muhaddithin’ and has composed the greatest compilation of hadith for the Shia titled Bihar al Anwar. He writes in his book, Jila’ al ‘Uyun fi Hayat wa Masa’ib Arba’ah ‘Ashr Ma’suma:

 

أن حسن بن علي بن أبي طالب صالح معاوية بن أبي سفيان على أنه يعمل بين الناس بكتاب الله و سنة رسوله و سيرة الخلفاء الراشدين و أن لا يعيّن أحدا بعده و أن يؤمن الناس أينما كانوا في الشام و العراق و الحجاز و اليمن و أن يؤمن شيعة علي بن أبي طالب و أصحابه في أنفسهم و أموالهم و أزواجهم و أولادهم و أخذ على هذه الشروط العهود المغلظة باليمين.

Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib reconciled with Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan upon the condition that he will deal with the people in accordance to the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of His Messenger, and the way of the rightly guided Khulafa[59]. And with the condition that he would not appoint a successor and that the people would be safe whether they were in Syria, Iraq, Hijaz or Yemen, and that the party of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib and his companions would be safe with regards to their lives, wealth, wives, and children. Based on these conditions, he took up the tough responsibilities with an oath.[60]

 

Sayyidina Hassan ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, the second Imam (according to the Shia), set a condition when reconciling with Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he must adhere to the ways of the rightly guided Khulafa’, who were none other than Sayyidina Abu Bakr, Sayyidina ‘Umar, Sayyidina ‘Uthman, and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum. He would not have made it a condition to follow their ways unless he thought well of them, believed there to be goodness in them, and attested to their piety, purity, as well as their sincere sound belief.

This is but one narration, there are, however, many others like this for those who follow the narrations of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his progeny.[61]

We would like to add to this that the difference of opinion that took place between Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma did not lead to the disbelief or deviation of any party, nor did it lead to severing ties forever, or an everlasting enmity and cutting off one another, as the people of previous times depicted it or as fabricated in stories and tales. In fact, both parties considered the other to be firm in iman and Islam and both parties wished to reconcile with the other and work towards unity and harmony. It is due to this that Sayyidina Hassan ibn ‘Ali reconciled with Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and pledged allegiance to him. Had he considered him a disbelieving apostate he would neither have agreed with him, nor reconciled with him, nor pledged allegiance to him, nor commanded his brother, Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and the commander of his army, Qais ibn Sa’d, to pledge allegiance to him. However, all of this is mentioned even in the books of the Shia. The following are the words of al Kashshi:

 

جبرئيل بن أحمد و أبو اسحاق حمدويه و إبراهيم ابنا نصير قالوا حدثنا محمد بن عبد الحميد العطار الكوفى عن يونس بن يعقوب عن فضل غلام محمد بن راشد قال سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول إن معاوية كتب إلى الحسن بن علي صلوات الله عليهما أن أقدم أنت و الحسين و أصحاب علي، فخرج معهم قيس بن سعد بن عبادة الأنصارى و قدموا الشام فأذن لهم معاوية و أعد لهم الخطباء فقال يا قيس قم فبايع فالتفت إلى الحسين عليه السلام ينظر ما يأمره فقال يا قيس انه إمامي يعنى الحسن عليه السلام

Jibril ibn Ahmed and Abu Ishaq Hamdawayh and Ibrahim—the two sons of Nasir—narrate — Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul Hamid al ‘Attar al Kufi narrated to us — from Yunus ibn Yaqub — from Fadl Ghulam Muhammad ibn Rashid that he said:

I heard Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam saying, “Muawiyah wrote a letter to Hassan ibn ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam that he should come with Hussain and the companions of ‘Ali. Qais ibn Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah al Ansari also left with them. When they reached Syria, Muawiyah allowed them to enter and prepared preachers for them. He said, ‘O Qais, stand up and pledge allegiance.’ He, thus, turned to Hussain ‘alayh al Salam looking to him for an order. He said, ‘O Qais, verily he is my leader,’ meaning Hassan ‘alayh al Salam.”[62]

 

Before that his father, Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who is the first infallible Imam according to the Shia, addressed Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu with a statement that he made in a letter that he sent to him as a reply (according to some) as follows:

 

لم يمنعنا قديم عزنا و عادى طولنا على قومنا أن خلطناكم بأنفسنا فنكحنا و أنكحنا فعل الأكفاء.

Neither did our long-lived pride nor the control that we had over our people stop us from associating ourselves with you, therefore we married and married away those who were compatible.[63]

 

Had it been a matter of disbelief and hypocrisy, Ramlah bint ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib would not have married Muawiyah ibn Marwan ibn al Hakam.[64]

 

أم الحسن ‏و رملة (بنتا علي) أمهما أم سعيد بنت عروة بن مسعود الثقفي

Umm al Hassan and Ramlah (daughters of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu) there mother was Umm Sa’id bint ‘Urwah ibn Mas’ud al Thaqafi.[65]

 

Also, his second daughter, Khadijah, was married to ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Ᾱmir al Umawi.[66] He was the governor of Basrah before the reign of Muawiyah (during the Caliphate of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu), and had taken part in the Battle of Jamal with Talhah and Zubair. It is mentioned that Khadijah bint ‘Ali was an Umm Walad as al Tabarsi mentions in his al A’lam[67] and as al Mufid mentions in his al Irshad.[68]

Similarly, one of his daughters married ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan, the Umayyad Khalifah.[69]

The daughters of Hassan and Hussain were married to the Umayyads, whose daughters were also married to the sons of the Hashimiyyin, especially the sons of ‘Ali. We have mentioned the marital relationships between the Banu Umayyah and the Banu Hashim in our book al Shia wa Ahlul Bayt. Whoever would like to know the details, should refer to it; however, over here we would like to mention [the example] of one of the daughters of Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and one of the daughters of Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Sukaynah bint Hussain, the granddaughter of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, married the grandson of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, Zaid ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman:

 

وزيد بن عمرو بن عثمان هذا هو الذي كانت عنده سكينة بنت الحسين فهلك عنها فورثت عنه

Zaid ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman was married to Sukaynah bint Hussain, he then passed away causing her to inherit from him.[70]

 

There was also Nafisah bint Zaid ibn Hassan ibn ‘Ali who was married to the Umayyad Khalifah Walid ibn ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan. A famous Shia has also mentioned these relationships in his book; however, his version is highly inappropriate:

 

‏وكان لزيد بن حسن بن علي ابنة اسمها نفيسة خرجت إلى الوليد ابن عبد الملك ابن مروان فولدت له من هو وماتت في مصر… وكان زيد يفد إلى الوليد بن عبد الملك و يقعده على سريره و يكرمه لمكان ابنته ودفع له ثلاثين الف دينار دفعة واحدة

Zaid ibn Hassan ibn ‘Ali had a daughter named Nafisah who went to Walid ibn ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan, had a child from him and passed away in Egypt. Zaid would visit Walid ibn ‘Abdul Malik and sit on his bed, who would honour him due to his relationship with his daughter. He once gave him 30 000 gold coins in a single gathering.[71]

 

It is noteworthy that Zaid ibn Hassan was amongst those who were present at Karbala’ with his paternal uncle, Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Similarly, the granddaughter of Hassan ibn ‘Ali, Zainab bint Hassan ibn al Muthanna, was also married to Walid ibn ‘Abdul Malik al Umawi.[72]

Her father, Hassan al Muthanna was also present at Karbala’ with his paternal uncle and father-in-law, Hussain, and was severely wounded. It is noteworthy that six granddaughters from different sons of Hassan were married to the leaders and chiefs of the Umayyads. Experts of genealogy mention more than twenty other relations between them that were established after the dispute between ‘Ali and Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma took place; after the battles of Jamal and Siffin.[73]

Similarly, many of the Banu Hashim married females from the Banu Umayyah. In fact, they married members of the governing family itself. They would also exchange gifts and visit one another; this was especially common amongst the twelve Imams and their families. None of them would partake in war against the Umayyads, not even to claim authority, except Sayyidina Hussain ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. The war that took place between his esteemed father, Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, and Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma is as famous and well known as his elder brother’s reconcile with Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma is well known and cannot be denied by anyone. As for that which has been related about the son of Sayyidina Hussain, ‘Ali Zayn al ‘Ᾱbidin—whose book is considered like a ‘Bukhari’ to the Shia—al Kulayni, who mentions in his al Kafi, which the Muhaddith of the Shia, al Nuri al Tabrasi said about:

 

هو أحد الكتب الأربعة التي عليها تدور رحى الفرقة الإمامية…و كتاب الكافى بينها كالشمس بين نجوم السماء… و إذا تأمل فيها المنصف يستغنى عن ملاحظة حال آحاد رجال سند الأحاديث المودعة فيه و تورثه الوثوق و يحصل له الاطمئنان بصدورها و ثبوتها و صحتها

It is one of the four fundamental books upon which the Imamiyyah sect is based… In comparison to them, the book al Kafi is like the sun when compared to the stars…  When a just man ponders over it, he will have no need to observe the condition of the narrators in the chain of transmission; he recognize its reliability and will be contented with its authenticity and accuracy.[74]

 

Indeed, ‘Ali ibn Hussain said to Yazid ibn Muawiyah:

 

أنا عبد مكره فإن شئت فأمسك وإن شئت فبع

I am a helpless, compelled servant. If you wish [to keep me], you may keep me and if you wish [to sell me], you may sell me.[75]

 

This was the condition of the others who were present in the time of Umayyad rule as well. Those who were present in the time of the Abbasid rule also followed in their footsteps. However, luck was not on the side of those who challenged the authority. These people were attacked and killed by those who they waged war against. Similarly, the Shia, especially the Ithna ‘Ashariyyah, did not treat their Imams well; they rejected them and denied them; thus, they were killed in war [by their enemies] and were denied and rejected [by their supporters], due to their claim:

 

من ادعى الإمامة وليس من أهلها فهو كافر

Whoever claims Imamah (leadership) whilst he is not rightful to it is a disbeliever.[76]

 

Hussain ibn Mukhtar said:

 

قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: جعلت فداك: ويوم ترى الذين كذبوا على الله؟ ‏قال: كل من زعم أنه إمام وليس بإمام، قلت: وإن كان فاطميا علويا؟ قال: و إن كان فاطميا علويا

I said to Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam, “May I be your ransom! [What is the meaning of the verse:] ‘And on the Day of Resurrection you will see those who lied about Allah’?”

He said, “Whoever claims that he is an Imam when in actual fact he is not.”

I said, “[Is this the matter] even if he is a Fatimi[77] or ‘Alawi[78]?”

He said, “Even if he is a Fatimi or ‘Alawi.”[79]

 

The conclusion of this discussion is that the first Shia did not have specific beliefs or ideologies. It was merely a political party that supported the opinion of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu over the opinion of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu during the time of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. After he was martyred and the abdication of Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu from the position of Caliphate, they began to support Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and pledge allegiance to him as their leader, Sayyidina Hassan, his brother—Sayyidina Hussain—and the commander of their army—Sayyidina Qais ibn Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhum—did. There was neither a religious disagreement, nor a deep-rooted dispute, or issue due to nepotism between them. They used to visit the leaders and perform salah behind them. Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma would visit Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, despite being the sons of Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma and the grandsons of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

فلما استقر الخلافة إلى معاوية كان الحسين ويرده إليه مع اخيك الحسن ويقر مهما معاوية أجرام من زائدا ويقول لهم مرحبا وأهلين ويعطيه ما أعطي جزيلا وقد أطلق له ما في يوم مائتى الف وقال خذها خذها وأنا ابن هند والله لا يعطيك لا يرضيك معها احد قبلي ولا بعدي بقول لحسين والله لن تعطى أنت ولا أحد من قبلك ولا بعدك رجلا أفضل منه ولما توفي الحسن وكان الحسين يفضي إلى معاوية في كل عام فيعطيه و يكرمه

When the Caliphate was established for Muawiyah, Hussain used to visit him with his brother Hassan, and Muawiyah used to generously honour them, and would say to them, “Welcome, welcome!” He would also shower them with abundant gifts. At one occasion, Muawiyah gave them two hundred thousand in one day and said, “Take them. I am the son of Hind, by Allah, none before me has ever, nor will anyone after me ever give you this.” Thus, Hussain said, “Neither you, nor anyone before you or after you will ever give this to more virtuous men than us.” After the demise of Hassan, Hussain would visit Muawiyah every year and he would honour him and give him gifts.[80]

 

Al Majlisi narrates from Imam Jafar ibn al Baqir, the sixth Imam according to the Shia:

 

‏قال الإمام الحسن يوما للإمام الحسين وعبد الله بن جعفر أن هدايا معاوية ستصل في أول يوم من الشهر القادم ولم يأت هذا اليوم إلا وقد وصلت الاموال من معاوية وكان الإمام الحسن بن علي مديونا كثيرا فأدى ديونه وقسم الباقي بين أهله وشيعة، واما الإمام الحسين فبعد أداء الديون قسم ماله الى ثلاث حصص، قسما لشيعته وخاصته و قسمين لأهله وعياله وكذلك عبد الله بن جعفر

One day Imam Hassan said to Imam Hussain and ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar, “The gifts of Muawiyah will surely reach on the first day of the upcoming month.” When that day came, wealth from Muawiyah reached them. Imam Hassan ibn ‘Ali had a great debt to pay, so he paid it using that money and divided the rest of it between his family and supporters. After paying off his debts, Imam Hussain divided his share of the wealth into three shares; one share was for his supporters and followers and the other two were for his family and dependents. ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar also did the same.[81]

 

Similarly, al Kulayni mentions that Marwan ibn al Hakam stipulated a stipend for ‘Ali ibn Hussain as he stipulated for other youth of Madinah:

 

‏استعمل معاوية مروان بن الحكم على المدينة وأمره أن يفرض لشباب قريش، ففرض لهم فقال علي بن الحسين عليهما السلام: فأتيته، فقال: ما اسمك؟ فقلت: علي بن الحسين، ففرض لى.

Muawiyah appointed Marwan ibn al Hakam as the governor of Madinah and ordered him to stipulate shares for the young men of Quraysh, thus he did so.

‘Ali ibn Hussain said, “He said to me, ‘What is your name?’ I replied, ‘‘Ali ibn Hussain,’ so he stipulated a share for me.”[82]

 

Similarly, the paternal uncle of Sayyidina Hussain, the elder brother of Sayyidina ‘Ali, Sayyidina ‘Aqil ibn Abi Talib used to visit Sayyidina Muawiyah and take gifts and presents from him. On one occasion:

 

أعطاه مائة ألف درهم

He gave him 100,000 silver coins.[83]

 

The Ibn Abi al Hadid al Shia, also attests to this. He writes:

 

‏ومعاوية أول رجل في الأرض وهب ألف ألف و ابنه يزيد أول من ضاعفه كان يجيز الحسن والحسين بن علي في كل عام لكل واحد منهما بألف ألف درهم وكذلك كان يجيز عبد الله بن عباس وعبد الله بن جعفر

Muawiyah was the first person on earth to gift one million, and his son, Yazid, was the first one to give more than that. He used to give both Hassan and Hussain a million silver coins each, yearly. He would give ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas and ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar the same.[84]

 

Abu Mikhnaf says:

 

‏وكان معاوية يبعث إليه (الحسين) في كل سنة ألف ألف دينار سوى الهدايا من كل صنف

Aside from an array of gifts, Muawiyah would send one million silver coins to him (Hussain), yearly.[85]

 

The two brothers used to perform salah behind the governors and leaders that Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed. Jafar ibn Muhammad al Baqir mentions from his father, from ‘Ali Zayn al ‘Ᾱbidin:

 

‏أن الحسن والحسين وكانا يصليان خلف مروان ولا يعيدانها و يعتدان بها

Hassan and Hussain used to perform salah behind Marwan and would not repeat it, in fact they used to consider it valid.[86]

 

Marwan was the governor of Madinah at that time.

Similarly, Aban ibn ‘Uthman was the governor for ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan al Umawi over Madinah, he performed the Janazah Salah for Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, famously known as Muhammad ibn al Hanafiyyah. When he went forward to perform the salah Abu Hashim ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali said to him, “We know that the leader has more right to lead the salah. If it were not for that, we would not have allowed you to step forward.” He then went forward and performed the salah.[87]

Similarly, he also performed the Janazah Salah of the paternal nephew of ‘Ali, ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar al Tayyar.[88]

Similarly, his father—Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu—performed the Janazah Salah of their grandfather, the paternal uncle of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Sayyidina ‘Ali, ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.

 

توفي العباس في يوم الجمعة لثنتى عشرة ليلة خلت من رجب و قيل من رمضان سنة ثنتين و ثلاثين سنة عن ثمان و ثمانين سنة، ‏وصلى عليه عثمان بن عفان ودفن بالبقيع

‘Abbas passed away on Friday, 12th Rajab 23 A.H. Another opinion is that he passed away during Ramadan at the age of eighty eight. ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan performed his Janazah Salah and he was buried in al Baqi’.[89]

 

These are but a few examples. Many more examples can be given.

After this era, Shi’ism evolved and the Shia changed. They were influenced by the ideologies of the Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians, as well as by beliefs that were invented, which were—in reality—a means of seeking revenge from the governors. They were tricked by the fabrications of the Jews and plots of the Zoroastrians, which were influenced by those who outwardly showed faith whilst hiding their filthy conspiracies and destructive plans. This happened due to mixing with the Persians, the Babylonians, and the people of the surrounding areas who were enemies to the Arabs that gained power over them and conquered their lands, and took hold of the reigns of their matters. The one who had a major hand in all of this was ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’, the secret weapon of the Jews that hid behind the name of Islam and kindled the fire of corruption and instigated the people against the Leader of the Believers, their Khalifah collectively elected, the Companion of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the husband of two of his daughters, the son of his paternal aunt, the generous, the noble, the giving, the Possessor of Two Lights, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This will be discussed in the upcoming chapter in detail with proofs and evidences, Allah willing.

Undoubtedly, many of his—’Abdullah ibn Saba’’s—followers; the Saba’iyyin, the Zoroastrians, the Jews, and the hypocrites must have joined the troops of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu pretending to be part of it, as some of them joined the troops of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu; however, they did not actually support either party. In fact, they were an independent body and a transgressing group that had its own thoughts, beliefs, goals, and purposes. They used to try to spread corruption and they rekindled the fire of war each time both parties tried to reconcile and unite. From these people came the fitnah of the Khawarij, those that claimed that Sayyidina ‘Ali, Sayyidina ‘Uthman, and Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were all disbelievers. They did not desire the downfall of the Caliphate of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, nor did they wish to instigate people against him. They simply wanted to rule the entire Muslim empire and close the doors of their conquests and battles. For this reason, when they were successful in causing friction between the Believers and pitting them against the third rightly guided Khalifah of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and dividing the Believers, they blamed it on Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu as they blamed it on Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu previously. These are facts which cannot be denied except by one who is arrogant or one who disputes without a right, knowledge, and foresight.

It is a fact that the first, sincere Shias were not involved in this. Their Imam and leader would express that he was not associated with them and would reject and kill them. This is true; however, the Shia, as in the group of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, were overcome by negligence, laziness, and cowardice. They lacked steadfastness, willpower, bravery, perseverance and virility, unlike the group of Sayyidina ‘Uthman or Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. They were also overcome by lack of loyalty, sincerity, trust, and honesty unlike those who belonged to the opposite party. For this reason, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would complain about them and would face difficulty and fatigue despite his unique courage, well known bravery, and his renowned boldness and his superiority over others of his time. For this reason, he used to say to them:

 

يا اشباه الرجال و لا رجال حلوم الأطفال و عقول ربات الحجال لوددت أني لم أركم و لم أعرفكم معرفة و الله جرت ندما و أعقبت سدما، قاتلكم الله لقد ملأتم قلبي قيحا و شحنتم صدري غيظا و جرعتموني نغب التهام أنفاسا و أفسدتم عليّ رأيي بالعصيان و الخذلان حتى قالت قريش إن ابن أبي طالب لا علم له بالحرب لله أبوهم و هل أحد منهم أشد لها مراسا و أقدم فيها مقاما منى لقد نهضت فيها و ما بلغت العشرين و هاأنا ذا قد ذرفت على الستين و لكن لا رأي لمن لا يطاع

O you who resemble men, but are not men, you who dream like children and possess brains like ladies of bridal chambers, how I wish I neither saw you nor recognized you at all. By Allah, I am full of regret and grief. May Allah destroy you! You have surely filled my heart with pus, and my chest with rage. You have devoured me very quickly in one gulp [within the span of a few] breaths and you have ruined my thinking through disobedience and cowardice, to such an extent that Quraysh said, “Indeed the son of Abu Talib possesses no knowledge of war. May their father be sacrificed for Allah. Is there anyone amongst them who shows more bravery for it, or advances towards it more boldly than I? I had surely partaken in it before reaching the age of twenty, and I am now nearing sixty; however, the opinion of the one who is not obeyed is not considered.[90]

 

He also says whilst comparing them with the group of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

أما و الذي نفسي بيده ليظهرن هؤلاء القوم عليكم ليس لأنهم أولى بالحق منكم و لكن لإسراعهم إلى باطل صاحبهم و ابطائهم عن حقي و قد أصبحت الأمم تخاف ظلم رعاتها و أصبحت أخاف ظلم رعيتى استنفرتكم للجهاد فلن تنفروا و أسمعتكم فلن تسمعوا و دعوتكم سرا و جهرا فلم تستجيبوا و نصحت لكم فلم تقبلوا أ شهود كغياب و عبيد كأرباب أتلو عليكم الحكم فتنفرون منها و أعظكم بالموعظة البالغة فتتفرقون عنها و أحثكم على جهاد أهل البغى فما آتى على آخر قولى حتى أراكم متفرقين أيادى سبا ترجعون إلى مجالسكم و تتخاعدون عن مواعظكم أقومكم غدوة و ترجعون إليّ عشية كظهر الحنين عجز المقوم و أعضل المقوم

أيها القوم الشاهدة بأبدانهم الغائبة عنهم عقولهم المختلفة أهواؤهم المبتلى بهم أمراؤهم صاحبكم يطيع الله و أنتم تعصونه و صاحب أهل الشام يعصى الله و هم يطيعونه لوددت و الله أن معاوية صارفنى بكم صرف الدينار بالدرهم فأخذ منى عشرة منكم و أعطانى رجلا منهم

يا أهل الكوفة منيت منكم بثلاث و إثنتين صم ذوو أسماع و بكم ذوو كلام و عمى ذوو أبصار لا أحرار صدق عند اللقاء و لا إخوان ثقة عند البلاء تربت أيديكم يا أشباه الابل غاب عنها رعاتها كلما جمعت من جانب تفرقت من آخر و الله لكأنى بكم فيما أخالكم أن لو حمس الوغى و حمي الضراب قد انفرجتم عن ابن أبي طالب انفراج المرأة عن قلبها

By the One in Whose hand lies my soul, these people will surely overpower you. This will not happen due to them adhering to the truth more than you, rather it will be due to their hastening towards the falsehood of their companion and their delaying of my right. Nations have begun to fear the oppression of their leaders, and I too have begun to fear the oppression of my people. I called you to take part in war and you did not do so. I called out to you, but you did not listen. I invited you both secretively as well as openly, but you did not respond, and I advised you, but you did not accept. Can there be any witnesses like those who are absent and can there be any slaves like those who are masters? I recite words of wisdom to you, yet you run away from them. I admonish you with the eloquent advice, yet you diverge from it. I incite you to partake in war against the rebels, but I do not come to the end of my speech and I see you separating like the tribes of Yemen. You return to your gatherings and you oppose the advices given to you. I correct you in the morning and you return to me in the evening like failures. The one disciplining has failed and the ones being corrected are stubborner than ever.

O you people, who are physically present but mentally absent, whose desires differ, who are a means of distress to their leaders, this companion of yours obeys Allah yet you disobey him, whereas the companion of the people of Syria disobeys Allah yet they still obey him. By Allah, I desire that Muawiyah exchanges with me as a gold coin is exchanged with a silver coin; meaning, he takes ten of you and gives me one of his men. O people of Kufah, I have been tested with thirty-two of you; those who are deaf despite having ears, those who are mute despite having the ability to speak and those who are blind despite having eyes. They are neither genuinely noble when they meet, nor can they be relied on during a time of distress. May your hands be covered in dust, O those who resemble camels, whose shepherds have abandoned them [causing such lack of order that] whenever one half of the camels gather, the other half disperses. By Allah, it is as though I have no say in your matters that I govern to such an extent that if war were promoted and the attacker warded off, you would have turned away from the son of Abu Talib as a woman turns away from her heart.[91]

 

The greatest proof that the Shia have deserted Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is [their claim] that his biological brother, his main supporter, his father’s son, Sayyidina ‘Aqil ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, abandoned him and joined forces with Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and fought under his flag against his opponent, as a great Shia historian states:

 

إن عقيلا فارق أخاه عليا فى أيام خلافته و هرب إلى معاوية و شهد صفين معه.

‘Aqil separated from his brother ‘Ali during the days of his Caliphate, escaped to Muawiyah and participated in the Battle of Siffin with him.[92]

 

As for what they did firstly with Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and thereafter with Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu, these are topics in History which cannot be concealed. If we were to indulge in all of that, the discussion would become lengthy.

As for the lack of their trustworthiness, honesty and genuineness, Jafar ibn al Baqir, who is called al Sadiq, has also testified to this. One of his students once mentioned ‘Abdullah ibn Ya’fur in front of him, so he said:

 

قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام إنى أخالط الناس فيكثر عجبى من أقوام لا يتولونكم و يتولون فلانا و فلانا لهم أمانة و صدق و وفاء و أقوام يتولونكم ليس لهم تلك الأمانة و لا الوفاء و لا الصدق قال فاستوى أبو عبد الله عليه السلام جالسا فأقبل علىّ كالغضبان ثم قال لا دين لمن دان الله بولاية إمام ليس من الله و لا عتب على من دان بولاية إمام من الله

I said to Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam, “I mingle with people and I am amazed to see people that possess trustworthiness, honesty, and loyalty yet do not support you, but instead, support so-and-so, and [I see] people who support you, but lack that trustworthiness, loyalty, and honesty.”

He mentions that Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam sat upright, turned towards me in anger and said, “There is no religion for the one who tries to submit to Allah by supporting an Imam that is not from Allah, and there is no reproach for the one who submits by supporting the Imam that Allah has appointed.[93]

 

This is what we wished to prove in this chapter. As for the tittles of the letters, we will place them in the second chapter, if Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala wills.

 

NEXT⇒ Chapter Two – Shi’ism and the Saba’iyyah


[1] He is Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ‘Abdur Razzaq al Hussaini al Zubaidi, Abu al Fayd, who was given the title Murtada. He was born in Balgram, India. He possessed great knowledge of language, Hadith, transmitter biographies, and genealogy. He was amongst the greatest authors and wrote many books amongst which is Taj al ‘Arus fi Sharh al Qamus which comprised of ten volumes. During a plague in Egypt, in the year 1205 AH he passed away. (Al Zirkili: al A’lam, 7/298.).

[2] Al Zubaidi: Taj al ‘Arus, 5/405.

[3] Look at the just statement of the one who the Shia malign, disparage, shower hostility and hatred upon, claiming that he said repugnant things about Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Look at how clearly he states that we do not claim that he killed ‘Uthman, in fact, we verify that he is free from being responsible for his death, and we accuse him of that which he denies.

[4] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/257, Beirut; Al Tabri, 5/6; Al Kamil, 3/290.

[5] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/259.

[6] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/253.

[7] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/259.

[8] As attested to by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

انما الشورى للمهاجرين و الأنصار فإن اجتمعوا على رجل و سموه إماما كان ذلك لله رضى، فإن خرج منهم خارج بطعن أو بدعة ردّوه الى ما خرج منه فإن أبى قاتلوه على اتباعه غير سبيل المؤمنين و ولاه الله ما تولى

Consultation is the right of the Muhajirin and Ansar. Hence, if they unanimously agree on a man and appoint him the Imam, this is a sign of Allah’s pleasure Thereafter, if anyone rebels due to criticism or bid’ah, they will return him from where he exited (i.e. the jama’ah of the Muslims). If he refuses, they will fight him for him following a path other than that of the Muslims and Allah will punish him for his aversion. Nahj al Balaghah, pg. 367.

[9] In the light of the verse:

لَّقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ

Indeed, Allah was pleased with the Believers when they pledged allegiance to you under the tree.

[10] Muhsin al Amin: Ayan al Shia, Chapter 1, Discussion 1, pg. 12.

[11] Sayed Taj al Din ibn Hamzah al Hussaini; the leader of Halb: Ghayat al Ikhtisar fi Akhbar Buyutat al ‘Alawiyyah al Mahfuzah min al Ghubar, pg. 13.

[12] Nahj al Balaghah, pg. 367, Beirut.

[13] Ibid., pg. 448.

[14] Ibid., pg. 323.

[15] Furu’ al Kafi, 8/209.

[16] Al Dhahabi: Siyar Alam al Nubala, 4/210; Tabaqat Ibn Sad, 7/114.

[17] Ibn al Athir: al Nihayah, 2/244.

[18]He tries to prove that using spurious fabricated narrations that are utter falsities attributed to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Not a single one of them authentically states that ‘Ali and his Shia are the successful ones.

Based on this, Ibn al Hadid al Shia said:

ان أصل الأكاذيب في أحاديث الفضائل كان من جهة الشيعة فانهم وضعوا في بدأ الأمر أحاديث مختلفة في فضائل أئمتهم حملهم على وضعها عداوة خصومهم

Indeed, the Shia are the source of fabricated narrations that speak of virtues. At the beginning of their era, they fabricated different narrations about the virtues of their Imams. The opposition of their interlocutors compelled them to come up with such narrations. (Sharh Nahj al Balaghah, 1/783.)

The strangest thing is that in this man still lies without any shame and does not feel shy to attribute a completely false, fabricated narration—referring to the Hadith of the bird—to the Sahihayn, whereas it is not present in either of them.

Similarly, those who consider a large number of the Companions of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to be the Shia of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. For example: Muhsin al Amin, Muhammad Hussain al Zayn, Al Kashif al Ghitaʾ, etc. We do not know what response to give to the many narrations that have been related in their authentic books which claim that the Companions of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were apostates except Salman, Abu Dharr, and al Miqdad (the details of this can be found in our book al Shia wa al Sunnah). Were these people disbelievers as well as members of the Shia of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu?! Also, how did Sayyidina Salman radiya Llahu ‘anhu accept governorship offered to him by Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu? (Al Majlisi: Hayat al Qulub, 2/780.) He was one of the leaders that Sayyidina al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent to conquer al Madaʾin (Ibn Kathir, 7/67.).

[19] Asl al Shia wa Usuluha, pg. 29.

[20] Muhammad Hussain al Zayn: Al Shia fi al Tarikh, pg. 29.

[21] Muhammad Hussain al Muzaffari: Tarikh al Shia, pg. 908, Qum.

[22] This is perhaps the greatest reason for the Shia refuting the Qur’an and believing that it was changed, as they do not find it to support them. In fact, its contents entirely contradict Shi’ism and the original and eventual beliefs of the Shia. It contradicts their claims and disproves their views and opinions. For further explanation of this point, please refer to our books, al Shia wa al Sunnah and al Shia wa al Qur’an.

[23] The strangest thing is that the very Shia who reject narrations that have an authentic chain leading back to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam due to its narrators being the Companions of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam because, Allah forbid, they were apostates according to them, are the ones who consider the narrations of the likes of these to be reliable! How do those Shia latch on to false, fabricated narrations that have been falsely attributed to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? It is because these narrations were either invented by some men amongst them, or fabricated by their narrators and those who invite others towards their falsities and misguidance. You will rarely find the Shia adhering to or believing in authentic narrations. Their provisions are all fabricated narrations or stories and tales.

[24] Surah al Anfal: 20.

[25] Surah Muhammad: 33.

[26] Surah Ᾱl ‘Imran: 132.

[27] Surah al Hashr: 7.

[28] Surah al Nisa’: 115.

[29] Surah al Ahzab: 36.

[30] Surah al Nisa’: 65.

[31] Surah Ᾱl ‘Imran: 103.

[32] Surah al Anfal: 46.

[33] Surah al Mu’minun: 52.

[34] Surah al Rum: 31-32.

[35] Surah Ᾱl ‘Imran: 19.

[36] Surah Ᾱl ‘Imran: 85.

[37] Surah al Ahqaf: 9.

[38] Surah al Shura: 13.

[39] Surah al Ambiya’: 25.

[40] Surah Ᾱl ‘Imran: 31.

[41] Surah Yunus: 9.

[42] Surah al Buruj: 11.

[43] Al Nawbakhti: Firaq al Shia, pg. 23-24.

[44] He is Ibn al Farj Muhammad ibn Ishaq al Nadim, the famous, skilled, Shia, Imami author, the author of Kitab al Fihrist. He was born in the year 297 and passed away in the year 385. (Al Qummi: al Kunna wa al Alqab, 1/425-426)

[45] Ibn al Nadim: al Fihrist, pg. 249.

[46] Al Khuwanasari: Rawdat al Jannat, pg. 88.

[47] Al Fasl fi al Milal wa al Ahwa’ wa al Nahl, 4/79.

[48] Fajr al Islam, pg. 266, 8th edition.

[49] Kamil Mustafa al Shaybi: al Silah bayn al Tasawwuf wa al Tashayyu, pg. 23.

[50] Ayan al Shia, first category, 1/13.

[51] Muhammad Hussain al Muzaffari: Tarikh al Shia, pg. 15.

[52] Surah al Nisa’: 59.

[53] Al Thaqafi: al Gharat, 1/302-307. A similar narration is also mentioned in Ibn al Hadid al Shia and Maytham al Bahrani al Shia’s Nahj al Balaghah; in Nasikh al Tawarikh; in Al Majlisi’s Majma’ al Bihar and in other books besides these. Whoever would like the details of this should refer to our book, al Shia wa Ahlul Bayt.

[54] Al Ash’ari: Maqalat al Islamiyyin, 1/39.

[55] Al Tabarsi: Ilam al Wara, pg. 203; Al Mufid: al Irshad, pg. 186; Tarikh al Yaqubi, 2/213; Al Asfahani: Maqatil al Talibiyin, pg. 142; Al Irbili: Kashf al Ghammah, 2/64; Al Majlisi: Jila’ al Uyun, pg. 582.

[56] Ilam al Wara, pg. 213; Tarikh al Yaqubi, 2/228; Maqatil al Talibiyin, pg. 78 and pg. 119; Muntaha al mal, 1/240.

[57] Al Mas’udi al Shia: al Tanbih wa al Ashraf, pg. 263; Al Majlisi: Jila’ al Uyun, pg. 582.

[58] Refer to our book, al Shia wa Ahlul Bayt.

[59] Please notice the words ‘rightly guided Khulafa’, as those whom Allah has made blind do not shy away from making ridiculous, baseless interpretations whenever a proof or evidence is presented before them which is mentioned in their books and is related from their reputed people.

[60] Jila’ al Uyun 1/393, Tehran, 1398 A.H.; Al Fusul al Muhimmah fi Marifat Ahwal al A’immah, pg. 163, Tehran; Al ‘Abbas al Qummi: Muntaha al mal, pg. 314.

[61] The non-summarized version can be found in our book, al Shia wa Ahlul Bayt. Whoever would like to read about it should refer to our book.

[62] Rijal al Kashshi, pg. 102; Muntaha al mal, pg. 316; Al Majlisi: Jila al Uyun, 1/395.

[63] Nahj al Balaghah with the research of Subhi Salih, pg. 386-387, Beirut.

[64] Nasab Quraysh, pg. 45; Jamharat Ansab al Arab, pg. 87.

[65] Al Mufid: al Irshad, pg. 186; Al Tabrasi: Ilam al Wara, pg. 203.

[66] Ibn Hazm: Jamharat Ansab al Arab, pg. 68.

[67] Pg. 203.

[68] Pg. 186.

[69] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 9/69, Beirut.

[70] Al Zubairi: Nasab Quraysh, 4/120; Ibn Qutaybah: Al Ma’arif, pg. 94; Jamharat Ansab al Arab, 1/86; Tabaqat Ibn Sad, 6/349.

[71] Umdat al Talib fi Ansab Abi Talib, pg. 70; Tabaqat Ibn Sad, 5/234.

[72] Jamharat Ansab al Arab.

[73] We do not know where the Shia got their notion that this was a war on the basis of disbelief and that the one who took part in it against Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was a disbeliever. His own children and family reject these opinions and refute these claims.

[74] Al Tabarsi: Mustadrak al Wasa’il, 3/546.

[75] Al Kafi, Kitab al Rawdah, 8/235.

[76] Al Kafi fi al Usul, 1/373.

[77] Belonging to the progeny of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha

[78] Belonging to the progeny of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[79] Al Kafi fi al Usul, 1/373.

[80] Ibn Kathir: al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 8/150-151.

[81] Al Majlisi: Jila’ al Uyun, pg. 376.

[82] Al Kafi fi al Furu’, the Book about ‘Aqiqah, chapter with regards to names and titles, 6/19.

[83] Al Tusi: al mali, 2/334, Najaf.

[84] Sharh Ibn Abi al Hadid, 2/823.

[85] Maqtal Abi Mikhnaf, pg. 7.

[86] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 8/258.

[87] Tabaqat Ibn Sad, 5/86.

[88] Ibn ‘Abdul Burj: Al Isti’ab, 2/267; Ibn Hajar: Al Isabah, 2/281; Ibn al Athir: Usd al Ghabah, 3/135.

[89] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/162; Al Isti’ab, 3/100.

[90] Nahj al Balaghah, pg. 67.

[91] Umdat al Talib Fi Ansab l Abi Talib, pg. 15, India.

[92] Al Usul Min al Kafi, 1/237.

[93] Al Usul Min al Kafi, 1/237.

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