Discussion 3 – Relationship between Abu Dharr al Ghifari and the remaining Sahabah

Discussion 2 – Merits of Abu Dharr al Ghifari according to the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah
February 29, 2024
Section 2 – Discussion 1: The Rafidah’s stance on the Sahabah briefly
March 1, 2024

BACK⇒ Return to Table of contents

 

Discussion 3

Relationship between Abu Dharr al Ghifari and the remaining Sahabah

 

Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu was ascetic towards the world, sacrificed his self and wealth in Allah’s path, spoke the truth openly without fearing the critic’s criticism for Allah, and is among the senior scholars and mujtahids of the Sahabah. He would apply ijtihad in some issues and adhere to the strict matters, not the concessions. The Sahabah respected his views and ijtihad, despite their disagreement at times—and he is rewarded for his ijtihad. These views should not be explained as his opposition to other Sahabah, as the conspirators and deviants think. Rather, one who studies the biography of this illustrious Sahabi will find that these disagreements between Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the majority of the Sahabah are disagreements in Shar’i issues only. The ijtihad of Abu Dharr and the majority of the Sahabah had reasons and explanations. Among them are the following:

 

  1. Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu would hear a hadith from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The matter was later relaxed but Abu Dharr did not hear of it. He would thus adhere to what he heard initially from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Shaddad ibn Aws radiya Llahu ‘anhu points this out saying:

 

كان أبو ذر رضي الله عنه يسمع الحديث من رسول الله الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فيه الشدة ثم يخرج إلى قومه يسلم عليهم يشدد عليهم ثم إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يرخص فيه بعد فلم يسمعه أبو ذر فيتعلق أبو ذر بالأمر الشديد

Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu would hear a hadith from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in which there was strictness. He would come out to his people, greet them, and be strict with them. Thereafter, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would grant concession in the matter but Abu Dharr would not hear about it, hence he would adhere to the strict ruling.[1]

 

Some issues would thus miss him when he would be absent. This was owing to him going to Rabadhah often. He loved isolation as reported by Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

كان أبو ذر يختلف من الربذة إلى المدينة مخافة الأعرابية وكان يحب الوحدة

Abu Dharr would frequent Madinah from Rabadhah fearing the Bedouin lifestyle. He loved isolation.[2]

 

One of these issues which he missed was the ruling of Tayammum when water is unavailable. ‘Amr ibn Bujdan[3] reports about Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

أنه اجتمعت غنيمة عند الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال يا أبا ذر ابد فيها فبدوت إلى الربذة فكانت تصيبني الجنابة فأمكث الخمس والست فأتيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال أبو ذر فسكت فقال ثكلتك أمك يا أبا ذر لأمك الويل فدعا لي بجارية سوداء فجاءت بعس فيه ماء فسترني بثوب واستترت بالراحلة واغتسلت فكأني ألقيت عني جبلا فقال الصعيد الطيب وضوء المسلم ولو إلى عشر سنين فإذا وجدت الماء فأمسه جلدك فإن ذلك خير

A few sheep collected by the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who said, “O Abu Dharr, go into the fields with them.” I went to Rabadhah. I would fall into major impurity and remain for five or six (days) [without taking a shower]. I then came to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who enquired, “Abu Dharr?”

I remained silent.

He commented, “May your mother bereaved you. O Abu Dharr! Destruction to your mother.”

He called an African slave girl who brought a large pot[4] with water for me. He screened me with a cloth and I hid behind the conveyance and showered. It was as if a mountain was thrown off me. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam explained, “Pure earth is a Muslim’s wudu’ even for ten years. Then when you find water, pour it over your body as this is best.”[5]

 

  1. Abu Dharr al Ghifari’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu vehemence and force in what he believed to be true and right. Owing to this, the Messenger of Allahsalla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prevented him saying:

 

يا أبا ذر إني أراك ضعيفا وإني أحب لك ما أحب لنفسي لا تأمرن على اثنين ولا تولين مال اليتيم

Abu Dharr, I find that you are weak; and I like for you what I like for myself. Do not rule over (even) two persons and do not manage the property of an orphan.[6]

 

Imam al Dhahabi rahimahu Llah writes in the commentary of this hadith:

 

فهذا محمول على ضعف الرأي فإنه لو ولي مال يتيم لأنفقه كله في سبيل الخير ولترك اليتيم فقيرا فقد ذكرنا أنه لا يستجيز ادخار النقدين والذي يتأمر على الناس يريد أن يكون فيه حلم ومداراة وأبو ذر كانت فيه حدة كما ذكرناه فنصحه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم

This is referring to his weak view, for if he manages the orphan’s wealth, he will spend all in good avenues and leave the orphan penniless. We mentioned that he did not allow storing gold and silver. The one who rules over people needs to have tolerance and sociability, whereas Abu Dharr had vehemence in him as mentioned before, hence the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advised him.[7]

 

Probably al Dhahabi is referring to the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advice to him in his statement:

 

إنك امرؤ فيك جاهلية

You are a person who still has in him remnants of the Ignorance.[8]

 

Or the advice in his statement:

 

قال فكيف أنت إذا أخرجوك منه الثانية قال إذن آخذ سيفي فأقاتل عني حتى أموت قال فكشر إليه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فأثبته بيده قال أدلك على خير من ذلك قال بلى بأبي أنت وأمي يا نبي الله قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم تنقاد لهم حيث قادوك وتنساق لهم حيث ساقوك حتى تلقاني وأنت على ذلك

“And what will you do when you are expelled a second time?”

“Then, I will take my sword and defend myself until I die.”

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam grinned at him and held him with his hand before suggesting, “Let me direct you to something better?”

“Definitely, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you, O Prophet of Allah.”

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed him, “Yield to wherever they direct you and tread as they instruct you until you meet me while you maintain this.”[9]

 

He stated at another time:

 

وكان رأسا في الزهد والصدق والعلم قوالا بالحق لا تأخذه في الله لومة لائم على حدة فيه

He was a leader in asceticism, truthfulness, and knowledge, a frequent speaker of the truth, and one whom the critic’s criticism did not affect for Allah, with vehemence in him.[10]

 

One example of his vehemence is his dispute with the Sahabah in the matter of the treasure which will be elucidated on in the upcoming issue.

  1. Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu stands in isolation against the majority of the Sahabah to hold the view of the impermissibility of storing unrestrictedly and regarding it a treasure, the doer of which is condemned.[11] There are many reports of him particularly on this matter. One of them is:

He entered ‘Uthman’s presence while he was distributing. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf was in front of him and Ka’b[12] was by him. ‘Uthman addressed Ka’b asking, “O Abu Ishaq, what do you say about one who stores this wealth, gives charity from it, and maintains family ties?”

Ka’b replied, “I have hope for him.”

Abu Dharr became angry and lifted his staff on him shouting, “O son of the Jewess! The owner of this wealth will certainly wish the scorpions of this world would sting the blackness from his heart.”[13]

 

أن الأحنف بن قيس حدثهم قال جلست إلى ملإ من قريش فجاء رجل خشن الشعر والثياب والهيئة حتى قام عليهم فسلم ثم قال بشر الكانزين برضف يحمى عليه في نار جهنم ثم يوضع على حلمة ثدى أحدهم حتى يخرج من نغض كتفه ويوضع على نغض كتفه حتى يخرج من حلمة ثديه يتزلزل ثم ولى فجلس إلى سارية وتبعته وجلست إليه وأنا لا أدري من هو فقلت له لا أرى القوم إلا قد كرهوا الذي قلت‏‏ قال إنهم لا يعقلون شيئا‏‏ قال لي خليلي قال قلت من خليلك قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم‏ يا أبا ذر أتبصر أحدا قال فنظرت إلى الشمس ما بقي من النهار وأنا أرى أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يرسلني في حاجة له قلت نعم‏ قال ‏‏ ما أحب أن لي مثل أحد ذهبا أنفقه كله إلا ثلاثة دنانير ‏‏‏ وإن هؤلاء لا يعقلون إنما يجمعون الدنيا‏‏ لا والله لا أسألهم دنيا ولا أستفتيهم عن دين حتى ألقى الله‏‏

Al Ahnaf ibn Qais reports: I was sitting with some Qurashi men when a man with very rough hair, clothes, and appearance came and stood in front of us, greeted us and said, “Inform those who hoard wealth, that a stone[14] will be heated in the Hellfire and will be put on the nipples of their breasts till it comes out from their shoulder bones[15] and then placed on their shoulder bones till it comes through the nipples of their breasts; the stone will be moving and striking.”

After saying that, the person went away and sat by the side of the pillar. I followed him and sat beside him, and I did not know who he was. I said to him, “I think the people disliked what you said.”

He remarked, “These people do not understand anything.”[16]

In another narration, he affirmed, “My friend told me.”

I asked, “Who is your friend?”

He said, “The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said (to me), ‘O Abu Dharr! Do you see Mount Uhud?’ On that I (Abu Dharr) started looking towards the sun to judge how much remained of the day as I thought that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wanted to send me to do something for him.

I said, ‘Yes!’

He said, ‘I do not love to have gold equal to the Mount Uhud unless I spend it all (in Allah’s cause) except three gold coins.’ These people do not understand and collect worldly wealth. No, by Allah, neither do I ask them for worldly benefits nor am I in need of their religious advice till I meet Allah.”[17]

 

Zaid ibn Wahb reports:

 

مررت بالربذة فإذا أنا بأبي ذر فقلت له ما أنزلك منزلك هذا قال كنت بالشام فاختلفت أنا ومعاوية في وَالَّذِيْنَ يَكْنِزُوْنَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ وَلَا يُنْفِقُوْنَهَا فِيْ سَبِيْلِ اللهِ فَبَشِّرْهُمْ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيْمٍ قال معاوية نزلت في أهل الكتاب فقلت نزلت فينا وفيهم فكان بيني وبينه في ذلك وكتب إلى عثمان رضي الله عنه يشكوني فكتب إلي عثمان أن اقدم المدينة فقدمتها فكثر علي الناس حتى كأنهم لم يروني قبل ذلك فذكر ذلك لعثمان فقال لي إن شئت تنحيت فكنت قريبا فذاك الذي أنزلني هذا المنزل ولو أمروا علي حبشيا لسمعت وأطعت

I passed by Rabadhah and met Abu Dharr. I asked him, “What brought you to this place?”

He answered, “I was in Greater Syria. I disputed with Muawiyah over: As for those who store gold and silver as a treasure and they do not spend it in the path of Allah, give them glad tidings of a painful punishment.[18] Muawiyah suggested, ‘It was revealed about the people of the book,’ whereas I affirmed, ‘It was revealed about us and them.’ We thus had an altercation over this. He wrote to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu complaining of me. ‘Uthman thus wrote to me to come to Madinah and I complied. People increased upon me until it seemed that they had never seen me before that. This was mentioned to ‘Uthman who suggested to me, “If you like, you move away, yet are still close.” This is what made me take up residence here. Had they appointed over me an Abyssinian, I would have listened and obeyed.”[19]

 

Imam Ahmed reports from ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

أنه كان مع أبي ذر فخرج عطاؤه ومعه جارية له فجعلت تقضي حوائجه قال ففضل معها سبع قال فأمرها أن تشتري به فلوسا قال قلت له لو ادخرته للحاجة تنوبك أو للضيف ينزل بك قال إن خليلي عهد إلي أن أيما ذهب أو فضة أوكي عليه فهو جمر على صاحبه حتى يفرغها في سبيل الله

He was with Abu Dharr. His stipend came and with him was his slave girl. She began fulfilling his needs. Seven (coins) remained with her. He commanded her to buy fels[20] with them. I said to him, “Why do you not store them for a need that might arise or a guest that might alight by you.”

He explained, “My friend told me that any gold or silver kept as a treasure will be a burning coal on the owner until he spends it all in Allah’s path.”[21]

 

The scholars have clarified the reality of the dispute between Abu Dharr al Ghifari and the majority of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Ibn Taymiyyah writes:

 

وكان أبو ذر يريد أن يوجب على الناس ما لم يوجبه الله عليهم ويذمهم على ما لم يذمهم الله عليه مع أنه مجتهد في ذلك مثاب على طاعته كسائر المجتهدين من أمثاله

Abu Dharr desired to impose upon people what Allah did not impose on them and condemn them for that which Allah did not condemn them. Nevertheless, he is a mujtahid in this, rewarded for his obedience like all similar mujtahids.[22]

 

Ibn Hajar rahimahu Llah writes:

 

قال ابن عبد البر وردت عن أبي ذر آثار كثيرة تدل على أنه كان يذهب إلى أن كل مال مجموع يفضل عن القوت وسداد العيش فهو كنز يذم فاعله وأن آية الوعيد نزلت في ذلك وخالفه جمهور الصحابة ومن بعدهم وحملوا الوعيد على مانعي الزكاة وأصح ما تمسكوا به حديث طلحة وغيره من قصة الأعرابي حين قال هل علي غيرها يقصد الزكاة قال لا إلا أن تطوع

Ibn ‘Abdul Barr explains: Plenty reports come from Abu Dharr indicating that he viewed that all gathered wealth, over and above daily sustenance and appropriate livelihood, is a treasure for which the doer is condemned and the verse of warning was revealed regarding this. The majority of the Sahabah and those after them opposed him and applied the warning to those who refused to pay Zakat. The most authentic evidence they rely upon is the hadith of Talhah and others of the incident of the Bedouin who asked, “Is there anything else—i.e. besides Zakat—binding upon me?” and the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam answered, “No, except if you give optional charity.”[23]

 

Hafiz Ibn Hajar rahimahu Llah also writes:

 

وكان أبو ذر يحمل الحديث على إطلاقه فلا يرى بادخار شيء أصلا

Abu Dharr applied the hadith on its common meaning, hence he did not view storing anything at all [as permissible].[24]

 

‘Allamah al Qurtubi rahimahu Llah writes:

 

وقيل الكنز ما فضل عن الحاجة روي ذلك عن أبي ذر وهو ما نقل من مذهبه وهو من شدائده ومما تفرد به

It is said that treasure refers to everything over and above the need. This is reported from Abu Dharr and is transmitted of his school of thought. It is part of his strict views and isolated opinions.[25]

 

Hafiz Ibn Kathir rahimahu Llah explains:

 

كان مذهب أبي ذر تحريم ادخار ما زاد على نفقة العيال وكان يفتي بذلك ويحثهم عليه ويأمرهم به ويغلظ في خلافه فنهاه معاوية فلم ينته فخشي أن يضر بالناس في هذا فكتب يشكوه إلى أمير المؤمنين عثمان وأن يأخذه إليه فاستقدمه عثمان إلى المدينة وأنزله بالربذة وحده وبها مات في خلافة عثمان

Abu Dharr’s view was the impermissibility of storing anything beyond the expenses of the family. He would pass this verdict, encourage them to adhere to it, command them such, and display harshness towards opposing it. Muawiyah prevented him but he did not desist. Muawiyah feared that people will be harmed due to this, so he wrote to Amir al Mu’minin ‘Uthman complaining about Abu Dharr, requesting him to call him there. ‘Uthman requested him to come to Madinah and settled him in Rabadhah alone. It is here where he passed away during ‘Uthman’s Caliphate.[26]

 

Ibn Taymiyyah writes:

 

إن أبا ذر سكن الربذة ومات بها لسبب ما كان يقع بينه وبين الناس فإن أبا ذر كان رجلا صالحا زاهدا وكان من مذهبه أن الزهد واجب وأن ما أمسكه الإنسان فاضلا عن حاجته فهو كنز يكوى به في النار … وأما الخلفاء الراشدون وجماهير الصحابة والتابعين فعلى خلاف هذا القول

Abu Dharr lived in Rabadhah and passed away there due to the disputes between him and people. Abu Dharr was a righteous ascetic man. One of his views is that asceticism is obligatory and whatever man holds back beyond his needs is a treasure with which he will be branded in the Fire. The Rightly Guided Khalifas and overwhelming Sahabah and Tabi’in opposed this view.[27]

 

This ijtihad which caused a dispute between Abu Dharr al Ghifari and the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum coupled with his vehemence in some instances coerced many of those who study his biography to regard them as hostile stances between him and the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Companions, and that he rebelled against the leaders and governors, or they consider him out of the Jama’ah. They do not have any supporting evidence besides what they transmit from the books of the innovators and deviants, especially the books of the Rafidah which portrayed the dispute between Abu Dharr and the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum as doctrinal or political. A thorough explanation on this will soon come, Allah willing, when dealing with the misconceptions of the Rafidah about Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Relying on unreliable books, fabricated reports, and weak chains leads to demolishing the realities we discuss and blundering in understanding events and laws and not seeing clearly. This matter was not obscure to the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah. They removed from Allah’s religion the distortions of the extremists, the undue assumptions of the deviants, and the interpretations of the ignorant.

By referring to the authentic books on the Sunnah and reliable sources, the reader will find the strong relationship which bound Abu Dharr al Ghifari and the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. The affair is not as assumed or supposed by the innovators. Some of these evidences are listed hereunder:

  1. Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu entertaining him, which appears in the hadith of ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

فقال أبو بكر يا رسول الله ائذن لي في طعامه الليلة فانطلق رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأبو بكر وانطلقت معهما ففتح أبو بكر بابا فجعل يقبض لنا من زبيب الطائف وكان ذلك أول طعام أكلته بها

Thereupon Abu Bakr said, “O Messenger of Allah, let me host him for tonight.” The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam proceeded forth and so did Abu Bakr and I went along with them. Abu Bakr opened the door and then brought for us the raisins of Ta’if and that was the first food I ate there.[28]

 

  1. Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was concerned of Abu Dharr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu welfare and that he should not be harmed by the polytheists. He informed him that when he sees anything of harm, he will act like he is passing water and when the fear is gone, he will continue on his path; meanwhile Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu could follow him but face no harm. It appears in Ibn ‘Abbas’s report:

 

فعرف أنه غريب‏‏ فلما رآه تبعه فلم يسأل واحد منهما صاحبه عن شىء حتى أصبح ثم احتمل قربته وزاده إلى المسجد وظل ذلك اليوم ولا يراه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حتى أمسى فعاد إلى مضجعه فمر به علي فقال أما نال للرجل أن يعلم منزله فأقامه فذهب به معه لا يسأل واحد منهما صاحبه عن شىء حتى إذا كان يوم الثالث فعاد علي مثل ذلك فأقام معه ثم قال ألا تحدثني ما الذي أقدمك قال إن أعطيتني عهدا وميثاقا لترشدنني فعلت ففعل فأخبره‏‏ قال فإنه حق وهو رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فإذا أصبحت فاتبعني فإني إن رأيت شيئا أخاف عليك قمت كأني أريق الماء فإن مضيت فاتبعني حتى تدخل مدخلي‏‏ ففعل فانطلق يقفوه حتى دخل على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ودخل معه فسمع من قوله وأسلم مكانه

Ali saw him and knew that he was a stranger. When Abu Dharr saw ‘Ali, he followed him and none of them asked his companion about anything. At dawn, Abu Dharr took his provisions and his water-skin to the Masjid and stayed there all day long without being perceived by the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. When it was evening, he came back to his resting place. ‘Ali passed by him and said [to himself], “Has the man not arrived at his dwelling place yet?” ‘Ali awakened him and took him with him and none of them spoke to the other about anything. On the third day. ‘Ali did the same and Abu Dharr stayed with him.

Then ‘Ali said “Will you tell me what brought you here?”

Abu Dharr said, “If you give me a firm promise that you will guide me, then I will tell you.”

Ali promised him, and he informed ‘Ali about the matter.

Ali said, “It is true and he is the Messenger of Allah. Next morning when you get up, accompany me. If I see any danger for you, I will stop as if to pass water, but if I go on, follow me and enter the place I enter.”

Abu Dharr complied and followed ‘Ali till he entered the place of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Abu Dharr went in with him. Abu Dharr listened to some of his [the Messenger of Allah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam] talks and embraced Islam on the spot.[29]

 

  1. ‘Abbas defending Abu Dharr when the Qurashi disbelievers beat him, as appears in the hadith of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

‏‏ ثم قام القوم فضربوه حتى أضجعوه وأتى العباس فأكب عليه قال ويلكم ألستم تعلمون أنه من غفار وأن طريق تجاركم إلى الشأم فأنقذه منهم ثم عاد من الغد لمثلها فضربوه وثاروا إليه فأكب العباس عليه‏‏

The people got up and beat him painfully. ‘Abbas came and knelt over him and shouted, “Woe to you! Don’t you know that this man belongs to the tribe of Ghifar and your trade to Greater Syria is through their way?” So, he rescued him from them. Abu Dharr did the same the next day. They beat him and took vengeance on him and again ‘Abbas knelt over him (to protect him).[30]

 

  1. An indication of the strong relationship between ‘Uthman and Abu Dharr is the report of Malik ibn Aws[31]:

 

كنت في المسجد فدخل أبو ذر المسجد فصلى ركعتين عند سارية فقال له عثمان كيف أنت قال بخير كيف أنت ثم ولى واستفتح ألهيكم التكاثر كان رجلا صلب الصوت فرفع صوته فارتج المسجد ثم أقبل على الناس

I was in the Masjid when Abu Dharr entered and prayed two rak’at by the pillar.

Uthman asked him, “How are you doing?”

“I am well,” he answered. “And how are you?”

He then left and began reciting Surah al Takathur. He had a deep voice and raised his voice which caused the Masjid to echo. He then turned towards the people.[32]

 

  1. Zaid ibn Khalid al Juhani reports:

 

كنت عند عثمان إذ جاء أبو ذر فلما رآه عثمان قال مرحبا وأهلا بأخي فقال أبو ذر مرحبا وأهلا بأخي لقد أغلظت علينا في العزيمة والله لو عزمت علي أن أحبو لحبوت ما استطعت … فقال عثمان وخفت عليك جهال الناس

I was by ‘Uthman when Abu Dharr came. When ‘Uthman saw him, he said, “Welcome to my brother.”

Abu Dharr replied, “Welcome to my brother. You have been stern upon us in the decision. By Allah, had you determined upon me to crawl, I would crawl as much as I could.”

Uthman commented, “The ignorant people have become silent upon you.”[33]

 

  1. Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the most vehement in disapproving rebellion. He did not consider rebellion against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu When he intended to leave to Rabadhah, he sought the latter’s permission. Humaid ibn Hilal[34] reports that ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit informed him:

 

دخلت مع أبي ذر في رهط من غفار على عثمان من باب لا يدخل عليه منه أحد قال وتخوفنا عثمان عليه فانتهى إليه فسلم ثم ما بدأه بشيء إلا أن قال أحسبتني منهم يا أمير المؤمنين والله ما أنا منهم ولا أدركهم ثم استأذنه إلى الربذة

I entered ‘Uthman’s presence alongside Abu Dharr with a group from the Ghifar from a door from which no one entered upon him. We feared ‘Uthman against him. When he reached, he greeted with salam. The first thing he said to him was, “Do you consider me from them [the Khawarij], O Amir al Mu’minin? By Allah, I am not from them nor ever met them.” He then sought his permission to settle in Rabadhah.[35]

 

Another report from ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit reads:

 

دخلت مع أبي ذر على عثمان قال وعلى أبي ذر عمامة فرفع العمامة عن رأسه وقال إني والله يا أمير المؤمنين ما أنا منهم قال ابن شوذب يعني من الخوارج ولو أمرتني أن أعض على عرقوبي قتب لعضضت عليهما حتى يأتيني الموت وأنا عاض عليهما قال صدقت يا أبا ذر إنما أرسلنا إليك لتجاورنا في المدينة قال لا حاجة لي في ذلك ائذن لي في الربذة

I, alongside Abu Dharr, entered ‘Uthman’s presence. Abu Dharr had on a turban. He lifted the turban off his head[36] saying, “By Allah, O Amir al Mu’minin, I am certainly not from them (Ibn Shawdhab[37] clarifies that it refers to the Khawarij). Had you instructed me to bite my shanks, I would bite them until death visited me while I am biting them.”

Uthman responded, “You have spoken the truth, O Abu Dharr. I only sent to you so that you be our neighbour in Madinah.”

“I do not desire this. Allow me to go to Rabadhah,” he submitted.[38]

 

  1. ‘Abdullah ibn Saydan al Sulami[39] reports:

 

تناجى أبو ذر وعثمان حتى ارتفعت أصواتهما ثم انصرف أبو ذر متبسما فقالوا ما لك ولأمير المؤمنين قال سامع ومطيع ولو أمرني أن آتي صنعاء أو عدنا ثم استطعت أن أفعل لفعلت وأمره أن يخرج إلى الربذة

Abu Dharr and ‘Uthman spoke in private until they raised their voices. Abu Dharr then left smiling. People asked, “What happened with you and Amir al Mu’minin?”

He explained, “I listen and obey. Had he commanded me to go to San’a’ or ‘Adn and I had the capability, I would have gone.”

He instructed him to leave to Rabadhah.[40]

 

Further discussion will appear on this matter, Allah willing, when speaking on the Rafidah’s misconceptions about Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

 

  1. He would issue verdicts during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Moreover, a group of Sahabah narrated from him including Ibn ‘Abbas, Anas ibn Malik, Ibn ‘Umar, ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit, Ahnaf ibn Qais, and Hudhayfah ibn Usayd al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[41]
  2. He imparted advices in the gathering of Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Greater Syria. These advices were respected and honoured by Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. One indication of this is that he announced while in Muawiyah’s gathering, “We certainly recognise the best of you from the worst of you and we are more cognisant of you than are veterinarians of horses.”

A person interjected, “O Abu Dharr, do you know the unseen?”

Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu responded, “Leave the Sheikh for the Sheikh is more knowledgeable than you. Who are the best of us, O Abu Dharr?”

He replied:

 

خياركم أزهدكم في الدنيا وأرغبكم في الآخرة وشراركم أرغبكم في الدنيا وأزهدكم في الآخرة

The best of you are those most abstinent of the world and most desirous of the Hereafter while the worst of you are those most desirous of the world and most abstinent of the Hereafter.[42]

 

  1. Ibn Ishaq[43] reports from Ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

لما نفى عثمان أبا ذر إلى الربذة وأصابه بها قدره لم يكن معه إلا امرأته وغلامه فأوصاهما أن اغسلاني وكفناني وضعاني على قارعة الطريق فأول ركب يمر بكم قولوا هذا أبو ذر فأعينونا عليه فوضعاه وأقبل ابن مسعود في رهط من العراق عمارا فلم يرعهم إلا به فقد كادت الإبل أن تطأه فقام الغلام فقال هذا أبو ذر صاحب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فاستهل عبد الله يبكي ويقول صدق رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم تمشي وحدك وتموت وحدك وتبعث وحدك ثم نزلوا فواروه ثم حدثهم عبد الله حديثه وما قاله رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في مسيره وحده إلى تبوك

Uthman sent Abu Dharr to Rabadhah. Finally, his fate caught up with him. None were with him besides his wife and slave. He bequeathed to them, “Wash me, shroud me, and place me on the roadway. Tell the first caravan to pass you: ‘This is Abu Dharr so help us with him.’”

Accordingly, they placed him [on the roadway]. Ibn Mas’ud among a group from Iraq advanced after performing ‘Umrah. Nothing alarmed them but him, whom the camels almost tramped. The slave shouted, “This is Abu Dharr, Companion of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

‘Abdullah began to cry and remarked, “The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam spoke the truth, ‘You will walk alone, will die alone, and will be resurrected alone.’”

They then alighted and buried him. ‘Abdullah thereafter narrated to them his story and what the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said about him in his travelling all alone to Tabuk.[44]

 

  1. Abu al Darda’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu would praise him extensively. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Ghanm[45] reports:

 

كنت عند أبي الدرداء إذ دخل عليه رجل من أهل المدينة فسأله فقال أين تركت أبا ذر قال بالربذة فقال أبو الدرداء إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون لو أن أبا ذر قطع مني عضوا عضوا لما هجته مما سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول فيه

I was by Abu al Darda’ when a man from Madinah came to him.

He asked, “Where did you leave Abu Dharr?”

“Rabadhah,” replied the man.

Abu al Darda’ commented, “To Allah do we belong and to Him is our return. Had Abu Dharr severed my limbs one after the other, I would not be furious with him owing to what I heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying about him.”[46]

 

Ibrahim ibn Hisham[47] says that his father narrated to him from his grandfather:

 

خرج أبو الدرداء إلى السوق يشتري قميصا فلقي أبا ذر فقال أين تريد يا أبا الدرداء قال أريد أن أشتري قميصا قال وبكم قال بعشرة دراهم قال فوضع يده على رأسه ثم قال ألا إن أبا الدرداء من المسرفين ألا إن أبا الدرداء من المسرفين قال فالتمست مكانا أتوارى فيه فلم أقدر فقلت يا أبا ذر لا تفعل مر معي فاكسني أنت قال وتقبل قلت نعم فأتى السوق فاشترى قميصا بأربعة دراهم قال فانصرفت حتى إذا كنت بين منزلي والسوق لقيت رجلا لا يكاد يواري سوأته فقلت له اتق الله ووار سوأتك فقال والله ما أجد ما أواري به سوأتي فألقيت إليه الثوب ثم انصرفت إلى السوق فاشتريت قميصا بأربعة دراهم ثم انصرفت إلى منزلي فإذا خادمة على الطريق تبكي قد اندق إناؤها فقلت ما يبكيك فقالت اندق إنائي وأبطأت على أهلي فذهبت معها إلى السوق فاشتريت لها سمنا بدرهم فقالت يا شيخ أما إذا فعلت ما فعلت فامش معي إلى أهلي فإني قد أبطأت وأنا أخاف أن يضربوني قال فمشيت معها إلى مواليها فدعوت فخرج إلي مولاها فقال ما عناك يا أبا الدرداء فقلت خادمتك أبطأت عنكم وأشفقت أن تضربوها فسألتني أن آتيكم لتكفوا عنها قال فأنا أشهد أنها حرة لوجه الله لممشاك معها قال قلت أبو ذر أرشد مني حين كساني قميصا وكسا مسكينا قميصا وأعتق رقبة بعشرة دراهم

Abu al Darda’ left to the market to purchase a throbe. He met Abu Dharr who asked, “Where are you off to, O Abu al Darda’?”

“I intend purchasing a throbe,” he replied.

“For how much?”

“Ten silver coins.”

Abu Dharr placed his hand on his head and sighed, “Harken! Abu al Darda’ is from the extravagant. Harken! Abu al Darda’ is from the extravagant.”

Abu al Darda’ said, “I tried looking for a place to hide but could not find one. I then submitted, ‘O Abu Dharr, do not do this. Come with me and you choose for me.’”

“Will you accept?” Abu Dharr asked.

“Yes,” replied Abu al Darda’.

He came to the market and purchased a throbe for four silver coins. I left. When I was between my house and the market, I met a person who had barely covered his private area. I told him, “Fear Allah and cover your private area.”

“By Allah,” he replied, “I do not have anything to cover my private area.”

I threw the throbe at him and went back to the market and purchased another throbe for four silver coins.

On my way back to my house, I found a slave girl crying, whose utensil had broken. I asked her why she was crying. She explained, “My utensil broke and I have delayed in returning home.” I went with her to the market and bought for her butter for a silver coin. She pleaded, “O Sheikh, now that you have done so much for me, come with me to my family for I have delayed and fear they might beat me.”

I walked with her to her masters and called out to them. Her master came out to me and submitted, “What is bothering you, O Abu al Darda’?”

I explained, “Your slave girl delayed in returning to you and she fears that you might beat her, so she asked me to come to you so that you desist from harming her.”

He announced, “I testify that she is free for the pleasure of Allah, due to your walking with her.”

I remarked, “Abu Dharr was more guided than me. He clothed me with the throbe, clothed a beggar with a throbe, and freed a slave—all within ten silver coins.”[48]

 

  1. Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu highlighted the angle of Abu Dharr al Ghifari’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu bravery and strength in telling the truth affirming:

 

لم يبق أحد يبالي في الله لومة لائم غير أبي ذر ولا نفسي

No one remains, who does not care of the critic’s criticism for Allah’s sake, except Abu Dharr and myself. He then patted his hand on his chest.[49]

 

When requested to narrate from Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he said:

 

علم ثم أوكى فربط عليه رباطا شديدا

He learnt. Then it was tied and fastened tightly.[50]

 

  1. Ibn Buraydah[51] reports:

 

When Abu Musa al Ash’ari arrived, he met Abu Dharr. Abu Musa embraced him. Al Ash’ari was a man with a little flesh and Abu Dharr had black hair. Al Ash’ari began embracing him while Abu Dharr shouted, “Get away from me.”

Al Ash’ari said, “Welcome to my brother,” while Abu Dharr shoved him saying, “I am not your brother. I was your brother before you were appointed governor.”

He then met Abu Hurairah who embraced him saying, “Welcome brother.”

Abu Dharr said, “Get away from me. Did you work for these people?”

“Yes,” he answered.

He asked, “Did you build high buildings or make a plantation or have animals?”

“No,” Abu Hurairah replied.

“Then you are my brother, you are my brother,” commented Abu Dharr.[52]

 

NEXT⇒ Section 2 – Discussion 1: The Rafidah’s stance on the Sahabah briefly


[1] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 4 pg. 125; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 199; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’. The isnad contains Ibn Lahi’ah who has a weak memory, although the remaining narrators are reliable. (Arna’ut’s footnotes on Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 70.)

[2] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 198; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 68.

[3] He is ‘Amr ibn Bujdan al ‘Amiri. He reports from Abu Dharr al Ghifari and Abu Zaid al Ansari. Al ‘Ijli comments, “Basri, Tabi’i, reliable.” Ibn Hibban lists him among the reliable narrators while Imam Ahmed and Ibn al Qattan list him among the unknown narrators, as did al Dhahabi in al Mizan. (Mizan al I’tidal, vol. 3 pg. 247; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 4 pg. 322.)

[4] Al ‘iss: A large pot. (Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 4 pg. 2942.)

[5] Sunan Abi Dawood, vol. 1 pg. 143-144, book on purity, chapter on the one in major impurity performing Tayammum, Hadith: 332; Sunan al Tirmidhi, vol. 1 pg. 212, book on purity, Hadith: 124; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 5 pg. 146, 147, 180; Sunan al Nasa’i, vol. 1 pg. 187, book on prayer, chapter on many prayers with one tayammum, Hadith: 321; Musnad al Bazzar, vol. 9 pg. 387, Hadith: 3973. Al Tirmidhi labels it hassan, sahih and al Albani authenticates it in Sahih al Jami’, vol. 1 pg. 342, Hadith: 1666 and Sahih Abi Dawood, vol. 1 pg. 98-99, Hadith: 332.

[6] Sahih Muslim, vol. 12 pg. 290, book on leadership, chapter on the reprehensibility of leadership without need, Hadith: 1826.

[7] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 75.

[8] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 166; Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 30. The wording is Muslim’s.

[9] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 457; al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 2 pg. 148, Hadith: 1623 (first part). The researcher of al Musnad remarks, vol. 45 pg. 569, “Its isnad is da’if due to the weakness of Shahr ibn Hawshab. The remaining narrators are reliable.” (Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 2 pg. 519.)

[10] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 47.

[11] Al Jami’ li Ahkam al Qur’an, vol. 10 pg. 182-183.

[12] He is Ka’b ibn Mati’ al Himyari al Yamani, Abu Ishaq, the erudite learned man. He was a Jew and embraced Islam after the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam demise. He arrived in Madinah from Yemen during the days of ‘Umar and sat in the company of Muhammad’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Companions. He was excellent in Islam, firm in religion, and among the sublime scholars. He narrates from Abu Hurairah, Muawiyah, and Ibn ‘Abbas. He was knowledgeable of the books of the Jews. He passed away in Hims in 32 AH at the age of 120. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 3 pg. 489-494; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 4 pg. 595-596.)

[13] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 232; Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 16. Al Arna’ut labelled the isnad sahih in his footnotes on al Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 68.

[14] Al radf: A stone heated in fire. (Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, pg. 361; Sharh al Nawawi li Muslim, vol. 7 pg. 108.)

[15] Al naghd: It is the thin bone at the edge of the shoulder, or the top of the shoulder. (Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, pg. 929; Sharh al Nawawi li Muslim, vol. 7 pg. 108.)

[16] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 3 pg. 319, book on Zakat, chapter on the wealth from which Zakat is paid is not a treasure, Hadith: 1407; Sahih Muslim, vol. 7 pg. 107, book on Zakat, chapter on those who hoard wealth and sternness towards them, Hadith: 992.

[17] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1408.

[18] Surah al Tawbah: 34.

[19] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 3 pg. 319, book on Zakat, chapter on the wealth from which Zakat is paid is not a treasure, Hadith: 1406; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 212; Tafsir al Tabari, vol. 6 pg. 361; al Jami’ li Ahkam al Qur’an, vol. 10 pg. 183.

[20] Aflas al rajul: (The man is bankrupt) when no wealth remains with him, i.e. his silver coins have become fels. (Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, pg. 717.)

[21] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 5 pg. 175-176; al Zuhd, pg. 274; Musnad al Bazzar, vol. 9 pg. 359, Hadith: 3926. Al Haythami comments in Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 10 pg. 240, “Ahmed narrated it and his narrators are the narrators of Sahih al Bukhari.” Al Arna’ut, in his footnotes on al Musnad, Hadith: 21568, comments, “The isnad is sahih on Muslim’s standard.”

[22] Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 6 pg. 27.

[23] Fath al Bari, vol. 3 pg. 321; al Qasimi: Mahasin al Ta’wil, vol. 5 pg. 403; Muhammad Rashid al Hussaini: Tafsir al Manar, vol. 10 pg. 351; al Shanqiti: Adwa’ al Bayan, vol. 2 pg. 117; Muhammad ibn Ahmed known as Abu Zuhrah: Zuhrat al Tafasir, vol. 6 pg. 3292; al Mubarakfuri: Mirqat al Mafatih Sharh Mishkat al Masabih. The hadith he mentioned appears in Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 1 pg. 130-131, book on faith, chapter on Salah which is one of the pillars of Islam, Hadith: 8, 9.

[24] Fath al Bari, vol. 3 pg. 321.

[25] Al Jami’ li Ahkam al Qur’an, vol. 10 pg. 185.

[26] Tafsir al Qur’an al ‘Azim, vol. 2 pg. 388.

[27] Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 6 pg. 272.

[28] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2473.

[29] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3861; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2474.

[30] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3861; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2474.

[31] He is Malik ibn Aws ibn al Hadathan ibn Sa’d ibn Yarbu’ al Basri, Abu Sa’id al Madani, the Faqih, Imam, and authority. There is a dispute regarding his companionship. He was alive during the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lifetime and reports indirectly from him. It is said that he saw Abu Bakr. He reports from ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, ‘Abbas, Abu Dharr al Ghifari, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Talhah, and Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhum. He passed away in 92 AH. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 4 pg. 171-172; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 5 pg. 353-354.)

[32] Musnad al Bazzar, vol. 9 pg. 340, the wording is his; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 195-196; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 66.

[33] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 200; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 70-71.

[34] He is Humaid ibn Hilal ibn Suwaid ibn Hubayrah, the Imam, the Hafiz, the Faqih, Abu Nasr al ‘Adawi al Basri. He narrates from Anas ibn Malik and ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit. Ibn Ma’in and al Nasa’i authenticated him and Ibn Hibban lists him among the reliable narrators. He passed away during the rule of Khalid ibn ‘Abdullah over Iraq around 120 AH. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 5 pg. 309 onwards; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 2 pg. 33.)

[35] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 232; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 60.

[36] The reason for Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu taking his turban off his head is to make it clear to ‘Uthman that he is not from the Khawarij as one of their signs was shaving all the hair off.

[37] He is ‘Abdullah ibn Shawdhab al Khurasani, Abu ‘Abdur Rahman al Balkhi. He lived in Basrah and then Bayt al Maqdis. Ibn Hibban and al ‘Ijli list him among the reliable narrators. He passed away in 56 AH or 57 AH. (Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 167.)

[38] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah, pg. 1036-1037; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 197.

[39] He is ‘Abdullah ibn Saydan al Raqi, the freed slave of the Banu Sulaim. It is said that he settled in Rabadhah. He narrates from Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, and ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud. Ibn Hibban lists him in al Thiqat among the Tabi’in. Al Bukhari comments, “His hadith are not corroborated.” (Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 2 pg. 68; Lisan al Mizan, vol. 4 pg. 498.)

[40] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 201; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 71.

[41] Usd al Ghabah, vol. 1 pg. 562; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 68; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 6 pg. 350-351; al Isabah, vol. 7 pg. 108.

[42] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 196.

[43] He is Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar ibn Khiyar, Abu Bakr or Abu ‘Abdullah al Muttalibi, the learned scholar, Hafiz, Historian. He was born in 80 AH. He saw Anas ibn Malik and Sa’id ibn al Musayyab. Muslim narrates from him for corroboration, al Bukhari cited him as evidence/witness, and the authors of the Sunan document his narrations. He passed away in 152 AH or 153 AH. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 7 pg. 33-55; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 5 pg. 28-32; Tarikh Khalifah ibn Khayyat, vol. 1 pg. 326.)

[44] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 234; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 77-78; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 216; al Waqidi: al Maghazi, vol. 3 pg. 101; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 159; Tarikh al Tabari, vol. 4 pg. 308.

[45] He is ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Ghanm al Ash’ari, the Faqih and Imam, Sheikh of the Palestinians. He was born in the Messenger’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lifetime and there is a dispute over his companionship. He narrates from Muaz ibn Jabal, ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Abu Dharr al Ghifari, Abu Malik al Ash’ari, Abu Musa al Ash’ari, Abu al Darda’, Abu Hurairah, and other leading Sahabah. He passed away in 78 AH. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 4 pg. 45-46; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 407-408.)

[46] Al Isti’ab, vol. 1 pg. 175; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 202.

[47] He is Ibrahim ibn Hisham ibn Yahya ibn al Ghassani. He is the narrator of Abu Dharr’s lengthy hadith which he solely reports from his father from his grandfather. Al Tabarani reports, “No one reports this from Yahya besides his son, and they are reliable.” Ibn Hibban lists him in al Thiqat and documents his hadith in al Anwa’. He passed away in 238 AH. (Mizan al I’tidal, vol. 1 pg. 72-73; Lisan al Mizan, vol. 1 pg. 381-382.)

[48] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 210.

[49] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 231; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 194.

[50] Ma’rifat al Sahabah, vol. 2 pg. 563; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 188; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 60.

[51] He is ‘Abdullah ibn Buraydah ibn al Hasib al Aslami, Abu Sahl al Mirwazi, the Hafiz and Imam, Sheikh and Judge of Marw. He was born in 15 AH. He reports from his father, Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, Ibn Mas’ud, Abu Musa al Ash’ari, Abu Hurairah, Aisha, Samurah ibn Jundub, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr, Muawiyah, Mughirah ibn Shu’bah, ‘Imran ibn Hussain, and other illustrious Companions. He passed away in 115 AH at the age of 100. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 5 pg. 50-52; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 105-106.)

[52] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 230; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 211; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 74.

BACK⇒ Return to Table of contents

 

Discussion 3

Relationship between Abu Dharr al Ghifari and the remaining Sahabah

 

Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu was ascetic towards the world, sacrificed his self and wealth in Allah’s path, spoke the truth openly without fearing the critic’s criticism for Allah, and is among the senior scholars and mujtahids of the Sahabah. He would apply ijtihad in some issues and adhere to the strict matters, not the concessions. The Sahabah respected his views and ijtihad, despite their disagreement at times—and he is rewarded for his ijtihad. These views should not be explained as his opposition to other Sahabah, as the conspirators and deviants think. Rather, one who studies the biography of this illustrious Sahabi will find that these disagreements between Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the majority of the Sahabah are disagreements in Shar’i issues only. The ijtihad of Abu Dharr and the majority of the Sahabah had reasons and explanations. Among them are the following:

 

  1. Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu would hear a hadith from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The matter was later relaxed but Abu Dharr did not hear of it. He would thus adhere to what he heard initially from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Shaddad ibn Aws radiya Llahu ‘anhu points this out saying:

 

كان أبو ذر رضي الله عنه يسمع الحديث من رسول الله الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فيه الشدة ثم يخرج إلى قومه يسلم عليهم يشدد عليهم ثم إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يرخص فيه بعد فلم يسمعه أبو ذر فيتعلق أبو ذر بالأمر الشديد

Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu would hear a hadith from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in which there was strictness. He would come out to his people, greet them, and be strict with them. Thereafter, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would grant concession in the matter but Abu Dharr would not hear about it, hence he would adhere to the strict ruling.[1]

 

Some issues would thus miss him when he would be absent. This was owing to him going to Rabadhah often. He loved isolation as reported by Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

كان أبو ذر يختلف من الربذة إلى المدينة مخافة الأعرابية وكان يحب الوحدة

Abu Dharr would frequent Madinah from Rabadhah fearing the Bedouin lifestyle. He loved isolation.[2]

 

One of these issues which he missed was the ruling of Tayammum when water is unavailable. ‘Amr ibn Bujdan[3] reports about Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

أنه اجتمعت غنيمة عند الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال يا أبا ذر ابد فيها فبدوت إلى الربذة فكانت تصيبني الجنابة فأمكث الخمس والست فأتيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال أبو ذر فسكت فقال ثكلتك أمك يا أبا ذر لأمك الويل فدعا لي بجارية سوداء فجاءت بعس فيه ماء فسترني بثوب واستترت بالراحلة واغتسلت فكأني ألقيت عني جبلا فقال الصعيد الطيب وضوء المسلم ولو إلى عشر سنين فإذا وجدت الماء فأمسه جلدك فإن ذلك خير

A few sheep collected by the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who said, “O Abu Dharr, go into the fields with them.” I went to Rabadhah. I would fall into major impurity and remain for five or six (days) [without taking a shower]. I then came to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who enquired, “Abu Dharr?”

I remained silent.

He commented, “May your mother bereaved you. O Abu Dharr! Destruction to your mother.”

He called an African slave girl who brought a large pot[4] with water for me. He screened me with a cloth and I hid behind the conveyance and showered. It was as if a mountain was thrown off me. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam explained, “Pure earth is a Muslim’s wudu’ even for ten years. Then when you find water, pour it over your body as this is best.”[5]

 

  1. Abu Dharr al Ghifari’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu vehemence and force in what he believed to be true and right. Owing to this, the Messenger of Allahsalla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prevented him saying:

 

يا أبا ذر إني أراك ضعيفا وإني أحب لك ما أحب لنفسي لا تأمرن على اثنين ولا تولين مال اليتيم

Abu Dharr, I find that you are weak; and I like for you what I like for myself. Do not rule over (even) two persons and do not manage the property of an orphan.[6]

 

Imam al Dhahabi rahimahu Llah writes in the commentary of this hadith:

 

فهذا محمول على ضعف الرأي فإنه لو ولي مال يتيم لأنفقه كله في سبيل الخير ولترك اليتيم فقيرا فقد ذكرنا أنه لا يستجيز ادخار النقدين والذي يتأمر على الناس يريد أن يكون فيه حلم ومداراة وأبو ذر كانت فيه حدة كما ذكرناه فنصحه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم

This is referring to his weak view, for if he manages the orphan’s wealth, he will spend all in good avenues and leave the orphan penniless. We mentioned that he did not allow storing gold and silver. The one who rules over people needs to have tolerance and sociability, whereas Abu Dharr had vehemence in him as mentioned before, hence the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advised him.[7]

 

Probably al Dhahabi is referring to the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advice to him in his statement:

 

إنك امرؤ فيك جاهلية

You are a person who still has in him remnants of the Ignorance.[8]

 

Or the advice in his statement:

 

قال فكيف أنت إذا أخرجوك منه الثانية قال إذن آخذ سيفي فأقاتل عني حتى أموت قال فكشر إليه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فأثبته بيده قال أدلك على خير من ذلك قال بلى بأبي أنت وأمي يا نبي الله قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم تنقاد لهم حيث قادوك وتنساق لهم حيث ساقوك حتى تلقاني وأنت على ذلك

“And what will you do when you are expelled a second time?”

“Then, I will take my sword and defend myself until I die.”

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam grinned at him and held him with his hand before suggesting, “Let me direct you to something better?”

“Definitely, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you, O Prophet of Allah.”

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed him, “Yield to wherever they direct you and tread as they instruct you until you meet me while you maintain this.”[9]

 

He stated at another time:

 

وكان رأسا في الزهد والصدق والعلم قوالا بالحق لا تأخذه في الله لومة لائم على حدة فيه

He was a leader in asceticism, truthfulness, and knowledge, a frequent speaker of the truth, and one whom the critic’s criticism did not affect for Allah, with vehemence in him.[10]

 

One example of his vehemence is his dispute with the Sahabah in the matter of the treasure which will be elucidated on in the upcoming issue.

  1. Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu stands in isolation against the majority of the Sahabah to hold the view of the impermissibility of storing unrestrictedly and regarding it a treasure, the doer of which is condemned.[11] There are many reports of him particularly on this matter. One of them is:

He entered ‘Uthman’s presence while he was distributing. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf was in front of him and Ka’b[12] was by him. ‘Uthman addressed Ka’b asking, “O Abu Ishaq, what do you say about one who stores this wealth, gives charity from it, and maintains family ties?”

Ka’b replied, “I have hope for him.”

Abu Dharr became angry and lifted his staff on him shouting, “O son of the Jewess! The owner of this wealth will certainly wish the scorpions of this world would sting the blackness from his heart.”[13]

 

أن الأحنف بن قيس حدثهم قال جلست إلى ملإ من قريش فجاء رجل خشن الشعر والثياب والهيئة حتى قام عليهم فسلم ثم قال بشر الكانزين برضف يحمى عليه في نار جهنم ثم يوضع على حلمة ثدى أحدهم حتى يخرج من نغض كتفه ويوضع على نغض كتفه حتى يخرج من حلمة ثديه يتزلزل ثم ولى فجلس إلى سارية وتبعته وجلست إليه وأنا لا أدري من هو فقلت له لا أرى القوم إلا قد كرهوا الذي قلت‏‏ قال إنهم لا يعقلون شيئا‏‏ قال لي خليلي قال قلت من خليلك قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم‏ يا أبا ذر أتبصر أحدا قال فنظرت إلى الشمس ما بقي من النهار وأنا أرى أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يرسلني في حاجة له قلت نعم‏ قال ‏‏ ما أحب أن لي مثل أحد ذهبا أنفقه كله إلا ثلاثة دنانير ‏‏‏ وإن هؤلاء لا يعقلون إنما يجمعون الدنيا‏‏ لا والله لا أسألهم دنيا ولا أستفتيهم عن دين حتى ألقى الله‏‏

Al Ahnaf ibn Qais reports: I was sitting with some Qurashi men when a man with very rough hair, clothes, and appearance came and stood in front of us, greeted us and said, “Inform those who hoard wealth, that a stone[14] will be heated in the Hellfire and will be put on the nipples of their breasts till it comes out from their shoulder bones[15] and then placed on their shoulder bones till it comes through the nipples of their breasts; the stone will be moving and striking.”

After saying that, the person went away and sat by the side of the pillar. I followed him and sat beside him, and I did not know who he was. I said to him, “I think the people disliked what you said.”

He remarked, “These people do not understand anything.”[16]

In another narration, he affirmed, “My friend told me.”

I asked, “Who is your friend?”

He said, “The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said (to me), ‘O Abu Dharr! Do you see Mount Uhud?’ On that I (Abu Dharr) started looking towards the sun to judge how much remained of the day as I thought that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wanted to send me to do something for him.

I said, ‘Yes!’

He said, ‘I do not love to have gold equal to the Mount Uhud unless I spend it all (in Allah’s cause) except three gold coins.’ These people do not understand and collect worldly wealth. No, by Allah, neither do I ask them for worldly benefits nor am I in need of their religious advice till I meet Allah.”[17]

 

Zaid ibn Wahb reports:

 

مررت بالربذة فإذا أنا بأبي ذر فقلت له ما أنزلك منزلك هذا قال كنت بالشام فاختلفت أنا ومعاوية في وَالَّذِيْنَ يَكْنِزُوْنَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ وَلَا يُنْفِقُوْنَهَا فِيْ سَبِيْلِ اللهِ فَبَشِّرْهُمْ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيْمٍ قال معاوية نزلت في أهل الكتاب فقلت نزلت فينا وفيهم فكان بيني وبينه في ذلك وكتب إلى عثمان رضي الله عنه يشكوني فكتب إلي عثمان أن اقدم المدينة فقدمتها فكثر علي الناس حتى كأنهم لم يروني قبل ذلك فذكر ذلك لعثمان فقال لي إن شئت تنحيت فكنت قريبا فذاك الذي أنزلني هذا المنزل ولو أمروا علي حبشيا لسمعت وأطعت

I passed by Rabadhah and met Abu Dharr. I asked him, “What brought you to this place?”

He answered, “I was in Greater Syria. I disputed with Muawiyah over: As for those who store gold and silver as a treasure and they do not spend it in the path of Allah, give them glad tidings of a painful punishment.[18] Muawiyah suggested, ‘It was revealed about the people of the book,’ whereas I affirmed, ‘It was revealed about us and them.’ We thus had an altercation over this. He wrote to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu complaining of me. ‘Uthman thus wrote to me to come to Madinah and I complied. People increased upon me until it seemed that they had never seen me before that. This was mentioned to ‘Uthman who suggested to me, “If you like, you move away, yet are still close.” This is what made me take up residence here. Had they appointed over me an Abyssinian, I would have listened and obeyed.”[19]

 

Imam Ahmed reports from ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

أنه كان مع أبي ذر فخرج عطاؤه ومعه جارية له فجعلت تقضي حوائجه قال ففضل معها سبع قال فأمرها أن تشتري به فلوسا قال قلت له لو ادخرته للحاجة تنوبك أو للضيف ينزل بك قال إن خليلي عهد إلي أن أيما ذهب أو فضة أوكي عليه فهو جمر على صاحبه حتى يفرغها في سبيل الله

He was with Abu Dharr. His stipend came and with him was his slave girl. She began fulfilling his needs. Seven (coins) remained with her. He commanded her to buy fels[20] with them. I said to him, “Why do you not store them for a need that might arise or a guest that might alight by you.”

He explained, “My friend told me that any gold or silver kept as a treasure will be a burning coal on the owner until he spends it all in Allah’s path.”[21]

 

The scholars have clarified the reality of the dispute between Abu Dharr al Ghifari and the majority of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Ibn Taymiyyah writes:

 

وكان أبو ذر يريد أن يوجب على الناس ما لم يوجبه الله عليهم ويذمهم على ما لم يذمهم الله عليه مع أنه مجتهد في ذلك مثاب على طاعته كسائر المجتهدين من أمثاله

Abu Dharr desired to impose upon people what Allah did not impose on them and condemn them for that which Allah did not condemn them. Nevertheless, he is a mujtahid in this, rewarded for his obedience like all similar mujtahids.[22]

 

Ibn Hajar rahimahu Llah writes:

 

قال ابن عبد البر وردت عن أبي ذر آثار كثيرة تدل على أنه كان يذهب إلى أن كل مال مجموع يفضل عن القوت وسداد العيش فهو كنز يذم فاعله وأن آية الوعيد نزلت في ذلك وخالفه جمهور الصحابة ومن بعدهم وحملوا الوعيد على مانعي الزكاة وأصح ما تمسكوا به حديث طلحة وغيره من قصة الأعرابي حين قال هل علي غيرها يقصد الزكاة قال لا إلا أن تطوع

Ibn ‘Abdul Barr explains: Plenty reports come from Abu Dharr indicating that he viewed that all gathered wealth, over and above daily sustenance and appropriate livelihood, is a treasure for which the doer is condemned and the verse of warning was revealed regarding this. The majority of the Sahabah and those after them opposed him and applied the warning to those who refused to pay Zakat. The most authentic evidence they rely upon is the hadith of Talhah and others of the incident of the Bedouin who asked, “Is there anything else—i.e. besides Zakat—binding upon me?” and the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam answered, “No, except if you give optional charity.”[23]

 

Hafiz Ibn Hajar rahimahu Llah also writes:

 

وكان أبو ذر يحمل الحديث على إطلاقه فلا يرى بادخار شيء أصلا

Abu Dharr applied the hadith on its common meaning, hence he did not view storing anything at all [as permissible].[24]

 

‘Allamah al Qurtubi rahimahu Llah writes:

 

وقيل الكنز ما فضل عن الحاجة روي ذلك عن أبي ذر وهو ما نقل من مذهبه وهو من شدائده ومما تفرد به

It is said that treasure refers to everything over and above the need. This is reported from Abu Dharr and is transmitted of his school of thought. It is part of his strict views and isolated opinions.[25]

 

Hafiz Ibn Kathir rahimahu Llah explains:

 

كان مذهب أبي ذر تحريم ادخار ما زاد على نفقة العيال وكان يفتي بذلك ويحثهم عليه ويأمرهم به ويغلظ في خلافه فنهاه معاوية فلم ينته فخشي أن يضر بالناس في هذا فكتب يشكوه إلى أمير المؤمنين عثمان وأن يأخذه إليه فاستقدمه عثمان إلى المدينة وأنزله بالربذة وحده وبها مات في خلافة عثمان

Abu Dharr’s view was the impermissibility of storing anything beyond the expenses of the family. He would pass this verdict, encourage them to adhere to it, command them such, and display harshness towards opposing it. Muawiyah prevented him but he did not desist. Muawiyah feared that people will be harmed due to this, so he wrote to Amir al Mu’minin ‘Uthman complaining about Abu Dharr, requesting him to call him there. ‘Uthman requested him to come to Madinah and settled him in Rabadhah alone. It is here where he passed away during ‘Uthman’s Caliphate.[26]

 

Ibn Taymiyyah writes:

 

إن أبا ذر سكن الربذة ومات بها لسبب ما كان يقع بينه وبين الناس فإن أبا ذر كان رجلا صالحا زاهدا وكان من مذهبه أن الزهد واجب وأن ما أمسكه الإنسان فاضلا عن حاجته فهو كنز يكوى به في النار … وأما الخلفاء الراشدون وجماهير الصحابة والتابعين فعلى خلاف هذا القول

Abu Dharr lived in Rabadhah and passed away there due to the disputes between him and people. Abu Dharr was a righteous ascetic man. One of his views is that asceticism is obligatory and whatever man holds back beyond his needs is a treasure with which he will be branded in the Fire. The Rightly Guided Khalifas and overwhelming Sahabah and Tabi’in opposed this view.[27]

 

This ijtihad which caused a dispute between Abu Dharr al Ghifari and the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum coupled with his vehemence in some instances coerced many of those who study his biography to regard them as hostile stances between him and the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Companions, and that he rebelled against the leaders and governors, or they consider him out of the Jama’ah. They do not have any supporting evidence besides what they transmit from the books of the innovators and deviants, especially the books of the Rafidah which portrayed the dispute between Abu Dharr and the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum as doctrinal or political. A thorough explanation on this will soon come, Allah willing, when dealing with the misconceptions of the Rafidah about Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Relying on unreliable books, fabricated reports, and weak chains leads to demolishing the realities we discuss and blundering in understanding events and laws and not seeing clearly. This matter was not obscure to the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah. They removed from Allah’s religion the distortions of the extremists, the undue assumptions of the deviants, and the interpretations of the ignorant.

By referring to the authentic books on the Sunnah and reliable sources, the reader will find the strong relationship which bound Abu Dharr al Ghifari and the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. The affair is not as assumed or supposed by the innovators. Some of these evidences are listed hereunder:

  1. Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu entertaining him, which appears in the hadith of ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

فقال أبو بكر يا رسول الله ائذن لي في طعامه الليلة فانطلق رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأبو بكر وانطلقت معهما ففتح أبو بكر بابا فجعل يقبض لنا من زبيب الطائف وكان ذلك أول طعام أكلته بها

Thereupon Abu Bakr said, “O Messenger of Allah, let me host him for tonight.” The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam proceeded forth and so did Abu Bakr and I went along with them. Abu Bakr opened the door and then brought for us the raisins of Ta’if and that was the first food I ate there.[28]

 

  1. Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was concerned of Abu Dharr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu welfare and that he should not be harmed by the polytheists. He informed him that when he sees anything of harm, he will act like he is passing water and when the fear is gone, he will continue on his path; meanwhile Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu could follow him but face no harm. It appears in Ibn ‘Abbas’s report:

 

فعرف أنه غريب‏‏ فلما رآه تبعه فلم يسأل واحد منهما صاحبه عن شىء حتى أصبح ثم احتمل قربته وزاده إلى المسجد وظل ذلك اليوم ولا يراه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حتى أمسى فعاد إلى مضجعه فمر به علي فقال أما نال للرجل أن يعلم منزله فأقامه فذهب به معه لا يسأل واحد منهما صاحبه عن شىء حتى إذا كان يوم الثالث فعاد علي مثل ذلك فأقام معه ثم قال ألا تحدثني ما الذي أقدمك قال إن أعطيتني عهدا وميثاقا لترشدنني فعلت ففعل فأخبره‏‏ قال فإنه حق وهو رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فإذا أصبحت فاتبعني فإني إن رأيت شيئا أخاف عليك قمت كأني أريق الماء فإن مضيت فاتبعني حتى تدخل مدخلي‏‏ ففعل فانطلق يقفوه حتى دخل على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ودخل معه فسمع من قوله وأسلم مكانه

Ali saw him and knew that he was a stranger. When Abu Dharr saw ‘Ali, he followed him and none of them asked his companion about anything. At dawn, Abu Dharr took his provisions and his water-skin to the Masjid and stayed there all day long without being perceived by the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. When it was evening, he came back to his resting place. ‘Ali passed by him and said [to himself], “Has the man not arrived at his dwelling place yet?” ‘Ali awakened him and took him with him and none of them spoke to the other about anything. On the third day. ‘Ali did the same and Abu Dharr stayed with him.

Then ‘Ali said “Will you tell me what brought you here?”

Abu Dharr said, “If you give me a firm promise that you will guide me, then I will tell you.”

Ali promised him, and he informed ‘Ali about the matter.

Ali said, “It is true and he is the Messenger of Allah. Next morning when you get up, accompany me. If I see any danger for you, I will stop as if to pass water, but if I go on, follow me and enter the place I enter.”

Abu Dharr complied and followed ‘Ali till he entered the place of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Abu Dharr went in with him. Abu Dharr listened to some of his [the Messenger of Allah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam] talks and embraced Islam on the spot.[29]

 

  1. ‘Abbas defending Abu Dharr when the Qurashi disbelievers beat him, as appears in the hadith of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

‏‏ ثم قام القوم فضربوه حتى أضجعوه وأتى العباس فأكب عليه قال ويلكم ألستم تعلمون أنه من غفار وأن طريق تجاركم إلى الشأم فأنقذه منهم ثم عاد من الغد لمثلها فضربوه وثاروا إليه فأكب العباس عليه‏‏

The people got up and beat him painfully. ‘Abbas came and knelt over him and shouted, “Woe to you! Don’t you know that this man belongs to the tribe of Ghifar and your trade to Greater Syria is through their way?” So, he rescued him from them. Abu Dharr did the same the next day. They beat him and took vengeance on him and again ‘Abbas knelt over him (to protect him).[30]

 

  1. An indication of the strong relationship between ‘Uthman and Abu Dharr is the report of Malik ibn Aws[31]:

 

كنت في المسجد فدخل أبو ذر المسجد فصلى ركعتين عند سارية فقال له عثمان كيف أنت قال بخير كيف أنت ثم ولى واستفتح ألهيكم التكاثر كان رجلا صلب الصوت فرفع صوته فارتج المسجد ثم أقبل على الناس

I was in the Masjid when Abu Dharr entered and prayed two rak’at by the pillar.

Uthman asked him, “How are you doing?”

“I am well,” he answered. “And how are you?”

He then left and began reciting Surah al Takathur. He had a deep voice and raised his voice which caused the Masjid to echo. He then turned towards the people.[32]

 

  1. Zaid ibn Khalid al Juhani reports:

 

كنت عند عثمان إذ جاء أبو ذر فلما رآه عثمان قال مرحبا وأهلا بأخي فقال أبو ذر مرحبا وأهلا بأخي لقد أغلظت علينا في العزيمة والله لو عزمت علي أن أحبو لحبوت ما استطعت … فقال عثمان وخفت عليك جهال الناس

I was by ‘Uthman when Abu Dharr came. When ‘Uthman saw him, he said, “Welcome to my brother.”

Abu Dharr replied, “Welcome to my brother. You have been stern upon us in the decision. By Allah, had you determined upon me to crawl, I would crawl as much as I could.”

Uthman commented, “The ignorant people have become silent upon you.”[33]

 

  1. Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the most vehement in disapproving rebellion. He did not consider rebellion against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu When he intended to leave to Rabadhah, he sought the latter’s permission. Humaid ibn Hilal[34] reports that ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit informed him:

 

دخلت مع أبي ذر في رهط من غفار على عثمان من باب لا يدخل عليه منه أحد قال وتخوفنا عثمان عليه فانتهى إليه فسلم ثم ما بدأه بشيء إلا أن قال أحسبتني منهم يا أمير المؤمنين والله ما أنا منهم ولا أدركهم ثم استأذنه إلى الربذة

I entered ‘Uthman’s presence alongside Abu Dharr with a group from the Ghifar from a door from which no one entered upon him. We feared ‘Uthman against him. When he reached, he greeted with salam. The first thing he said to him was, “Do you consider me from them [the Khawarij], O Amir al Mu’minin? By Allah, I am not from them nor ever met them.” He then sought his permission to settle in Rabadhah.[35]

 

Another report from ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit reads:

 

دخلت مع أبي ذر على عثمان قال وعلى أبي ذر عمامة فرفع العمامة عن رأسه وقال إني والله يا أمير المؤمنين ما أنا منهم قال ابن شوذب يعني من الخوارج ولو أمرتني أن أعض على عرقوبي قتب لعضضت عليهما حتى يأتيني الموت وأنا عاض عليهما قال صدقت يا أبا ذر إنما أرسلنا إليك لتجاورنا في المدينة قال لا حاجة لي في ذلك ائذن لي في الربذة

I, alongside Abu Dharr, entered ‘Uthman’s presence. Abu Dharr had on a turban. He lifted the turban off his head[36] saying, “By Allah, O Amir al Mu’minin, I am certainly not from them (Ibn Shawdhab[37] clarifies that it refers to the Khawarij). Had you instructed me to bite my shanks, I would bite them until death visited me while I am biting them.”

Uthman responded, “You have spoken the truth, O Abu Dharr. I only sent to you so that you be our neighbour in Madinah.”

“I do not desire this. Allow me to go to Rabadhah,” he submitted.[38]

 

  1. ‘Abdullah ibn Saydan al Sulami[39] reports:

 

تناجى أبو ذر وعثمان حتى ارتفعت أصواتهما ثم انصرف أبو ذر متبسما فقالوا ما لك ولأمير المؤمنين قال سامع ومطيع ولو أمرني أن آتي صنعاء أو عدنا ثم استطعت أن أفعل لفعلت وأمره أن يخرج إلى الربذة

Abu Dharr and ‘Uthman spoke in private until they raised their voices. Abu Dharr then left smiling. People asked, “What happened with you and Amir al Mu’minin?”

He explained, “I listen and obey. Had he commanded me to go to San’a’ or ‘Adn and I had the capability, I would have gone.”

He instructed him to leave to Rabadhah.[40]

 

Further discussion will appear on this matter, Allah willing, when speaking on the Rafidah’s misconceptions about Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

 

  1. He would issue verdicts during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Moreover, a group of Sahabah narrated from him including Ibn ‘Abbas, Anas ibn Malik, Ibn ‘Umar, ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit, Ahnaf ibn Qais, and Hudhayfah ibn Usayd al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[41]
  2. He imparted advices in the gathering of Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Greater Syria. These advices were respected and honoured by Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. One indication of this is that he announced while in Muawiyah’s gathering, “We certainly recognise the best of you from the worst of you and we are more cognisant of you than are veterinarians of horses.”

A person interjected, “O Abu Dharr, do you know the unseen?”

Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu responded, “Leave the Sheikh for the Sheikh is more knowledgeable than you. Who are the best of us, O Abu Dharr?”

He replied:

 

خياركم أزهدكم في الدنيا وأرغبكم في الآخرة وشراركم أرغبكم في الدنيا وأزهدكم في الآخرة

The best of you are those most abstinent of the world and most desirous of the Hereafter while the worst of you are those most desirous of the world and most abstinent of the Hereafter.[42]

 

  1. Ibn Ishaq[43] reports from Ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

لما نفى عثمان أبا ذر إلى الربذة وأصابه بها قدره لم يكن معه إلا امرأته وغلامه فأوصاهما أن اغسلاني وكفناني وضعاني على قارعة الطريق فأول ركب يمر بكم قولوا هذا أبو ذر فأعينونا عليه فوضعاه وأقبل ابن مسعود في رهط من العراق عمارا فلم يرعهم إلا به فقد كادت الإبل أن تطأه فقام الغلام فقال هذا أبو ذر صاحب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فاستهل عبد الله يبكي ويقول صدق رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم تمشي وحدك وتموت وحدك وتبعث وحدك ثم نزلوا فواروه ثم حدثهم عبد الله حديثه وما قاله رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في مسيره وحده إلى تبوك

Uthman sent Abu Dharr to Rabadhah. Finally, his fate caught up with him. None were with him besides his wife and slave. He bequeathed to them, “Wash me, shroud me, and place me on the roadway. Tell the first caravan to pass you: ‘This is Abu Dharr so help us with him.’”

Accordingly, they placed him [on the roadway]. Ibn Mas’ud among a group from Iraq advanced after performing ‘Umrah. Nothing alarmed them but him, whom the camels almost tramped. The slave shouted, “This is Abu Dharr, Companion of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

‘Abdullah began to cry and remarked, “The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam spoke the truth, ‘You will walk alone, will die alone, and will be resurrected alone.’”

They then alighted and buried him. ‘Abdullah thereafter narrated to them his story and what the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said about him in his travelling all alone to Tabuk.[44]

 

  1. Abu al Darda’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu would praise him extensively. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Ghanm[45] reports:

 

كنت عند أبي الدرداء إذ دخل عليه رجل من أهل المدينة فسأله فقال أين تركت أبا ذر قال بالربذة فقال أبو الدرداء إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون لو أن أبا ذر قطع مني عضوا عضوا لما هجته مما سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول فيه

I was by Abu al Darda’ when a man from Madinah came to him.

He asked, “Where did you leave Abu Dharr?”

“Rabadhah,” replied the man.

Abu al Darda’ commented, “To Allah do we belong and to Him is our return. Had Abu Dharr severed my limbs one after the other, I would not be furious with him owing to what I heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying about him.”[46]

 

Ibrahim ibn Hisham[47] says that his father narrated to him from his grandfather:

 

خرج أبو الدرداء إلى السوق يشتري قميصا فلقي أبا ذر فقال أين تريد يا أبا الدرداء قال أريد أن أشتري قميصا قال وبكم قال بعشرة دراهم قال فوضع يده على رأسه ثم قال ألا إن أبا الدرداء من المسرفين ألا إن أبا الدرداء من المسرفين قال فالتمست مكانا أتوارى فيه فلم أقدر فقلت يا أبا ذر لا تفعل مر معي فاكسني أنت قال وتقبل قلت نعم فأتى السوق فاشترى قميصا بأربعة دراهم قال فانصرفت حتى إذا كنت بين منزلي والسوق لقيت رجلا لا يكاد يواري سوأته فقلت له اتق الله ووار سوأتك فقال والله ما أجد ما أواري به سوأتي فألقيت إليه الثوب ثم انصرفت إلى السوق فاشتريت قميصا بأربعة دراهم ثم انصرفت إلى منزلي فإذا خادمة على الطريق تبكي قد اندق إناؤها فقلت ما يبكيك فقالت اندق إنائي وأبطأت على أهلي فذهبت معها إلى السوق فاشتريت لها سمنا بدرهم فقالت يا شيخ أما إذا فعلت ما فعلت فامش معي إلى أهلي فإني قد أبطأت وأنا أخاف أن يضربوني قال فمشيت معها إلى مواليها فدعوت فخرج إلي مولاها فقال ما عناك يا أبا الدرداء فقلت خادمتك أبطأت عنكم وأشفقت أن تضربوها فسألتني أن آتيكم لتكفوا عنها قال فأنا أشهد أنها حرة لوجه الله لممشاك معها قال قلت أبو ذر أرشد مني حين كساني قميصا وكسا مسكينا قميصا وأعتق رقبة بعشرة دراهم

Abu al Darda’ left to the market to purchase a throbe. He met Abu Dharr who asked, “Where are you off to, O Abu al Darda’?”

“I intend purchasing a throbe,” he replied.

“For how much?”

“Ten silver coins.”

Abu Dharr placed his hand on his head and sighed, “Harken! Abu al Darda’ is from the extravagant. Harken! Abu al Darda’ is from the extravagant.”

Abu al Darda’ said, “I tried looking for a place to hide but could not find one. I then submitted, ‘O Abu Dharr, do not do this. Come with me and you choose for me.’”

“Will you accept?” Abu Dharr asked.

“Yes,” replied Abu al Darda’.

He came to the market and purchased a throbe for four silver coins. I left. When I was between my house and the market, I met a person who had barely covered his private area. I told him, “Fear Allah and cover your private area.”

“By Allah,” he replied, “I do not have anything to cover my private area.”

I threw the throbe at him and went back to the market and purchased another throbe for four silver coins.

On my way back to my house, I found a slave girl crying, whose utensil had broken. I asked her why she was crying. She explained, “My utensil broke and I have delayed in returning home.” I went with her to the market and bought for her butter for a silver coin. She pleaded, “O Sheikh, now that you have done so much for me, come with me to my family for I have delayed and fear they might beat me.”

I walked with her to her masters and called out to them. Her master came out to me and submitted, “What is bothering you, O Abu al Darda’?”

I explained, “Your slave girl delayed in returning to you and she fears that you might beat her, so she asked me to come to you so that you desist from harming her.”

He announced, “I testify that she is free for the pleasure of Allah, due to your walking with her.”

I remarked, “Abu Dharr was more guided than me. He clothed me with the throbe, clothed a beggar with a throbe, and freed a slave—all within ten silver coins.”[48]

 

  1. Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu highlighted the angle of Abu Dharr al Ghifari’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu bravery and strength in telling the truth affirming:

 

لم يبق أحد يبالي في الله لومة لائم غير أبي ذر ولا نفسي

No one remains, who does not care of the critic’s criticism for Allah’s sake, except Abu Dharr and myself. He then patted his hand on his chest.[49]

 

When requested to narrate from Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he said:

 

علم ثم أوكى فربط عليه رباطا شديدا

He learnt. Then it was tied and fastened tightly.[50]

 

  1. Ibn Buraydah[51] reports:

 

When Abu Musa al Ash’ari arrived, he met Abu Dharr. Abu Musa embraced him. Al Ash’ari was a man with a little flesh and Abu Dharr had black hair. Al Ash’ari began embracing him while Abu Dharr shouted, “Get away from me.”

Al Ash’ari said, “Welcome to my brother,” while Abu Dharr shoved him saying, “I am not your brother. I was your brother before you were appointed governor.”

He then met Abu Hurairah who embraced him saying, “Welcome brother.”

Abu Dharr said, “Get away from me. Did you work for these people?”

“Yes,” he answered.

He asked, “Did you build high buildings or make a plantation or have animals?”

“No,” Abu Hurairah replied.

“Then you are my brother, you are my brother,” commented Abu Dharr.[52]

 

NEXT⇒ Section 2 – Discussion 1: The Rafidah’s stance on the Sahabah briefly


[1] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 4 pg. 125; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 199; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’. The isnad contains Ibn Lahi’ah who has a weak memory, although the remaining narrators are reliable. (Arna’ut’s footnotes on Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 70.)

[2] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 198; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 68.

[3] He is ‘Amr ibn Bujdan al ‘Amiri. He reports from Abu Dharr al Ghifari and Abu Zaid al Ansari. Al ‘Ijli comments, “Basri, Tabi’i, reliable.” Ibn Hibban lists him among the reliable narrators while Imam Ahmed and Ibn al Qattan list him among the unknown narrators, as did al Dhahabi in al Mizan. (Mizan al I’tidal, vol. 3 pg. 247; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 4 pg. 322.)

[4] Al ‘iss: A large pot. (Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 4 pg. 2942.)

[5] Sunan Abi Dawood, vol. 1 pg. 143-144, book on purity, chapter on the one in major impurity performing Tayammum, Hadith: 332; Sunan al Tirmidhi, vol. 1 pg. 212, book on purity, Hadith: 124; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 5 pg. 146, 147, 180; Sunan al Nasa’i, vol. 1 pg. 187, book on prayer, chapter on many prayers with one tayammum, Hadith: 321; Musnad al Bazzar, vol. 9 pg. 387, Hadith: 3973. Al Tirmidhi labels it hassan, sahih and al Albani authenticates it in Sahih al Jami’, vol. 1 pg. 342, Hadith: 1666 and Sahih Abi Dawood, vol. 1 pg. 98-99, Hadith: 332.

[6] Sahih Muslim, vol. 12 pg. 290, book on leadership, chapter on the reprehensibility of leadership without need, Hadith: 1826.

[7] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 75.

[8] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 166; Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 30. The wording is Muslim’s.

[9] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 457; al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 2 pg. 148, Hadith: 1623 (first part). The researcher of al Musnad remarks, vol. 45 pg. 569, “Its isnad is da’if due to the weakness of Shahr ibn Hawshab. The remaining narrators are reliable.” (Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 2 pg. 519.)

[10] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 47.

[11] Al Jami’ li Ahkam al Qur’an, vol. 10 pg. 182-183.

[12] He is Ka’b ibn Mati’ al Himyari al Yamani, Abu Ishaq, the erudite learned man. He was a Jew and embraced Islam after the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam demise. He arrived in Madinah from Yemen during the days of ‘Umar and sat in the company of Muhammad’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Companions. He was excellent in Islam, firm in religion, and among the sublime scholars. He narrates from Abu Hurairah, Muawiyah, and Ibn ‘Abbas. He was knowledgeable of the books of the Jews. He passed away in Hims in 32 AH at the age of 120. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 3 pg. 489-494; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 4 pg. 595-596.)

[13] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 232; Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 16. Al Arna’ut labelled the isnad sahih in his footnotes on al Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 68.

[14] Al radf: A stone heated in fire. (Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, pg. 361; Sharh al Nawawi li Muslim, vol. 7 pg. 108.)

[15] Al naghd: It is the thin bone at the edge of the shoulder, or the top of the shoulder. (Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, pg. 929; Sharh al Nawawi li Muslim, vol. 7 pg. 108.)

[16] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 3 pg. 319, book on Zakat, chapter on the wealth from which Zakat is paid is not a treasure, Hadith: 1407; Sahih Muslim, vol. 7 pg. 107, book on Zakat, chapter on those who hoard wealth and sternness towards them, Hadith: 992.

[17] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1408.

[18] Surah al Tawbah: 34.

[19] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 3 pg. 319, book on Zakat, chapter on the wealth from which Zakat is paid is not a treasure, Hadith: 1406; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 212; Tafsir al Tabari, vol. 6 pg. 361; al Jami’ li Ahkam al Qur’an, vol. 10 pg. 183.

[20] Aflas al rajul: (The man is bankrupt) when no wealth remains with him, i.e. his silver coins have become fels. (Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, pg. 717.)

[21] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 5 pg. 175-176; al Zuhd, pg. 274; Musnad al Bazzar, vol. 9 pg. 359, Hadith: 3926. Al Haythami comments in Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 10 pg. 240, “Ahmed narrated it and his narrators are the narrators of Sahih al Bukhari.” Al Arna’ut, in his footnotes on al Musnad, Hadith: 21568, comments, “The isnad is sahih on Muslim’s standard.”

[22] Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 6 pg. 27.

[23] Fath al Bari, vol. 3 pg. 321; al Qasimi: Mahasin al Ta’wil, vol. 5 pg. 403; Muhammad Rashid al Hussaini: Tafsir al Manar, vol. 10 pg. 351; al Shanqiti: Adwa’ al Bayan, vol. 2 pg. 117; Muhammad ibn Ahmed known as Abu Zuhrah: Zuhrat al Tafasir, vol. 6 pg. 3292; al Mubarakfuri: Mirqat al Mafatih Sharh Mishkat al Masabih. The hadith he mentioned appears in Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 1 pg. 130-131, book on faith, chapter on Salah which is one of the pillars of Islam, Hadith: 8, 9.

[24] Fath al Bari, vol. 3 pg. 321.

[25] Al Jami’ li Ahkam al Qur’an, vol. 10 pg. 185.

[26] Tafsir al Qur’an al ‘Azim, vol. 2 pg. 388.

[27] Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 6 pg. 272.

[28] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2473.

[29] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3861; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2474.

[30] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3861; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2474.

[31] He is Malik ibn Aws ibn al Hadathan ibn Sa’d ibn Yarbu’ al Basri, Abu Sa’id al Madani, the Faqih, Imam, and authority. There is a dispute regarding his companionship. He was alive during the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lifetime and reports indirectly from him. It is said that he saw Abu Bakr. He reports from ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, ‘Abbas, Abu Dharr al Ghifari, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Talhah, and Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhum. He passed away in 92 AH. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 4 pg. 171-172; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 5 pg. 353-354.)

[32] Musnad al Bazzar, vol. 9 pg. 340, the wording is his; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 195-196; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 66.

[33] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 200; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 70-71.

[34] He is Humaid ibn Hilal ibn Suwaid ibn Hubayrah, the Imam, the Hafiz, the Faqih, Abu Nasr al ‘Adawi al Basri. He narrates from Anas ibn Malik and ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit. Ibn Ma’in and al Nasa’i authenticated him and Ibn Hibban lists him among the reliable narrators. He passed away during the rule of Khalid ibn ‘Abdullah over Iraq around 120 AH. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 5 pg. 309 onwards; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 2 pg. 33.)

[35] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 232; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 60.

[36] The reason for Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu taking his turban off his head is to make it clear to ‘Uthman that he is not from the Khawarij as one of their signs was shaving all the hair off.

[37] He is ‘Abdullah ibn Shawdhab al Khurasani, Abu ‘Abdur Rahman al Balkhi. He lived in Basrah and then Bayt al Maqdis. Ibn Hibban and al ‘Ijli list him among the reliable narrators. He passed away in 56 AH or 57 AH. (Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 167.)

[38] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah, pg. 1036-1037; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 197.

[39] He is ‘Abdullah ibn Saydan al Raqi, the freed slave of the Banu Sulaim. It is said that he settled in Rabadhah. He narrates from Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, and ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud. Ibn Hibban lists him in al Thiqat among the Tabi’in. Al Bukhari comments, “His hadith are not corroborated.” (Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 2 pg. 68; Lisan al Mizan, vol. 4 pg. 498.)

[40] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 201; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 71.

[41] Usd al Ghabah, vol. 1 pg. 562; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 68; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 6 pg. 350-351; al Isabah, vol. 7 pg. 108.

[42] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 196.

[43] He is Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar ibn Khiyar, Abu Bakr or Abu ‘Abdullah al Muttalibi, the learned scholar, Hafiz, Historian. He was born in 80 AH. He saw Anas ibn Malik and Sa’id ibn al Musayyab. Muslim narrates from him for corroboration, al Bukhari cited him as evidence/witness, and the authors of the Sunan document his narrations. He passed away in 152 AH or 153 AH. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 7 pg. 33-55; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 5 pg. 28-32; Tarikh Khalifah ibn Khayyat, vol. 1 pg. 326.)

[44] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 234; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 77-78; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 216; al Waqidi: al Maghazi, vol. 3 pg. 101; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 159; Tarikh al Tabari, vol. 4 pg. 308.

[45] He is ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Ghanm al Ash’ari, the Faqih and Imam, Sheikh of the Palestinians. He was born in the Messenger’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lifetime and there is a dispute over his companionship. He narrates from Muaz ibn Jabal, ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Abu Dharr al Ghifari, Abu Malik al Ash’ari, Abu Musa al Ash’ari, Abu al Darda’, Abu Hurairah, and other leading Sahabah. He passed away in 78 AH. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 4 pg. 45-46; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 407-408.)

[46] Al Isti’ab, vol. 1 pg. 175; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 202.

[47] He is Ibrahim ibn Hisham ibn Yahya ibn al Ghassani. He is the narrator of Abu Dharr’s lengthy hadith which he solely reports from his father from his grandfather. Al Tabarani reports, “No one reports this from Yahya besides his son, and they are reliable.” Ibn Hibban lists him in al Thiqat and documents his hadith in al Anwa’. He passed away in 238 AH. (Mizan al I’tidal, vol. 1 pg. 72-73; Lisan al Mizan, vol. 1 pg. 381-382.)

[48] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 210.

[49] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 231; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 194.

[50] Ma’rifat al Sahabah, vol. 2 pg. 563; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 188; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 60.

[51] He is ‘Abdullah ibn Buraydah ibn al Hasib al Aslami, Abu Sahl al Mirwazi, the Hafiz and Imam, Sheikh and Judge of Marw. He was born in 15 AH. He reports from his father, Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, Ibn Mas’ud, Abu Musa al Ash’ari, Abu Hurairah, Aisha, Samurah ibn Jundub, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr, Muawiyah, Mughirah ibn Shu’bah, ‘Imran ibn Hussain, and other illustrious Companions. He passed away in 115 AH at the age of 100. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 5 pg. 50-52; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 105-106.)

[52] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 230; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 66 pg. 211; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 74.