The Ahl al-Bayt and the Khulafa’

Members of the Ahl al-Bayt Who Held Identical Names as the Sahabah
October 23, 2015
Examples From the Khulafa’ of Love and Veneration for the Ahl al-Bayt
October 23, 2015

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The Ahlul Bayt and the Khulafa’

 

Imam al Hassan ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma narrates that Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

إن أبا بكر مني بمنزلة السمع

The position of Abu Bakr to me is like the ears (on a body).[1]

 

Muhammad ibn Hatib said:

 

One day, ‘Uthman’s name was mentioned in the presence of Hassan and Hussain. They replied: “‘Ali himself is coming (now) and he will inform you about him.” Soon thereafter, ‘Ali appeared and said (about ‘Uthman): “He was from those who fear Allah Ta’ala and believe and do righteous deeds, and then fear Allah Ta’ala and believe, and then fear Allah Ta’ala and do good; and Allah Ta’ala loves the doers of good.”

 

Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu used to hold both Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma in the highest regard; to such an extent that when he abdicated his khilafah and pledged allegiance to Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, one of the conditions he imposed upon Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was that he should deal and judge both according to the tenets of the Qur’an, Sunnah, and the normative practices of the previous rightly-guided and pious khulafa’.[2]

In al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah fi al Radd ‘ala Ahl al Bida’ wa al Zandaqah of ibn Hajar al Haythami the following incident is narrated by Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

When Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was on his last, he called for his daughter Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha and said: “O Aisha! Please have a look at all of the things we used since we were put in charge of the Muslims’ affairs: the clothes we used to wear, the camels we used to drink from, the cooking utensils, etc. These were things that we used to take benefit from; be sure to return them all to ‘Umar.”

When Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed away, Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha carried out her father’s bequest and returned all of the goods they used to use to ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Immediately upon receiving the goods ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu exclaimed: “May Allah have mercy on you Abu Bakr! You left an indelible legacy behind you!”[3]

 

Imam al Daraqutni rahimahu Llah narrates from Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah, from him father Muhammad al Baqir rahimahu Llah that one day; a man came to his father (i.e. Zayn al ‘Abidin rahimahu Llah) and asked him: “What do you think about Abu Bakr?” Zayn al ‘Abidin replied: “Are you asking about al Siddiq (the truthful one)?” Astonished, the man remarked: “Do you (also) refer to him as al Siddiq?” Zayn al ‘Abidin replied: “Woe unto you! The Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the Muhajirin, and the Ansar all referred to him as al Siddiq! Whosoever does not consider Abu Bakr to be al Siddiq then Allah will attach no credibility to him in this world and the next.” The man said: “After that, I left and there remained no more rancour and hatred in my heart for both Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.”[4]

 

Hafiz ‘Umar ibn Shabbah narrates from Kathir:

One day I (Kathir) asked Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn ‘Ali: “Did Abu Bakr and ‘Umar ever usurp any of your rights?” Astonished, he replied: “Of course not! Not even the amount equal to a mustard seed!” I then asked: “May Allah sacrifice me for your sake! Should I then entrust them (i.e. with my affairs)?” He replied: “Entrust them with your affairs of this world and the next.”[5]

 

In another narration (also with the same chain of transmission from al Daraqutni rahimahu Llah) Zayn al ‘Abidin rahimahu Llah is reported to have reprimanded a group of people who were speaking ill of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum. He asked them:

Are you of those Muhajirin described by the verse:

لِلْفُقَرَآءِ الْمُهٰجِرِيْنَ الَّذِيْنَ أُخْرِجُوْا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَأَمْوَالِهِمْ يَبْتَغُوْنَ فَضْلاً مِّنَ اللّٰهِ وَرِضْوَاناً وَيَنصُرُوْنَ اللّٰهَ وَرَسُوْلَهؕ أُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُوْنَ

“For the poor emigrants who were expelled from their homes and their properties, seeking bounty from Allah and (His) approval and supporting Allah and His Rasul. Those are the truthful.”?[6]

 

They replied: “No, we are not.’’ Then are you perhaps from those Ansar who were described by the verse:

 

وَالَّذِيْنَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالْإِيْمَانَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ يُحِبُّوْنَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَا يَجِدُوْنَ فِيْ صُدُوْرِهِمْ حَاجَةً مِّمَّا أُوْتُوْا وَيُؤْثِرُوْنَ عَلٰى أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌؕ وَمَنْ يُّوقَ شُحَّ نَفْسِهٖ فَأُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُوْنَ

“And those who were settled in al Madinah and (adopted) the faith before them. They love those who emigrated to them and find not any want in their breasts of what the emigrants were given but give (them) preference over themselves, even though they are in privation. And whoever is protected from the stinginess of his soul – it is those who will be the successful.”?[7]

 

You disassociated yourselves from being one of these two groups and I bear witness that you are not those (of the third group) mentioned in the verse:

 

وَالَّذِيْنَ جَآءُوْا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُوْلُوْنَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِيْنَ سَبَقُوْنَا بِالْإِيْمَانِ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ فِيْ قُلُوْبِنَا غِلًّا لِّلَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا رَبَّنَآ إِنَّكَ رَءُوْفٌ رَّحِيْمٌ

“Our Rabb, forgive us, and our brethren who came before us into the faith, and leave not, in our hearts, rancour against those who have believed. Our Rabb, Thou art indeed Most Kind, Most Merciful.”[8][9]

 

Imam al Daraqutni rahimahu Llah also reports with his chain of transmission from Abu Jafar Muhammad al Baqir rahimahu Llah:

Someone narrated to me (Muhammad al Baqir) that Zayn al ‘Abidin (his father) said that the verse:

 

وَنَزَعْنَا مَا فِىْ صُدُوْرِهِمْ مِّنْ غِلٍّ إِخْوَانًا عَلٰى سُرُرٍ مُّتَقٰبِلِينَ

And We will remove whatever is in their breasts of resentment, (so they will be) brothers, on thrones facing each other.[10]

referred to Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Ali (enquiring whether this interpretation is correct or not).

Al Baqir replied:

By Allah, it refers to them!

The questioner enquired:

What ‘malice’ was within their breast?

He answered:

The malice of Jahiliyyah; before Islam, Banu Tamim, Banu ‘Adi, and Banu Hashim[11] held certain sectarian differences between each other. Once they embraced Islam, all ill-will and malice disappeared and they had nothing but love and affection for one-another.[12]

 

Ibn Hajar al Haythami rahimahu Llah writes in al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah fi al Radd ‘ala Ahl al Bida’ wa al Zandaqah:

 

Imam al Daraqutni rahimahu Llah narrates (with his chain of transmission) from Salim ibn Abi Hafsah who said: “I asked Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn ‘Ali and Jafar ibn Muhammad about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. He said: ‘Entrust them with your affairs and rid yourself of any ill-will or enmity towards them; for they are true epitomes of guidance.’”[13]

 

Abu ‘Abdullah al Ju’fi narrates from ‘Urwah ibn ‘Abdullah:

 

Imam Muhammad al Baqir was once asked whether it was permissible to ornament a sword with jewellery (i.e. gold, silver, etc.). He replied: “There is no problem in doing so. In fact, Abu Bakr al Siddiq used to also decorate his sword with jewellery.” The questioner asked: “Do you (too) call him al Siddiq?” Astonished by the question, Muhammad al Baqir shot up, faced the qiblah and proclaimed: “Yes of course, he is al Siddiq! Whosoever does not refer to him with the title al Siddiq then Allah Ta’ala will offer no credibility to such a person; not in this world, nor the next.”[14]

 

The reason why he referred to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu as “al Siddiq” is quite clear; his grandfather, the Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also used to refer to him as “al Siddiq”. And, it goes without saying that Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used to only speak with wahi (divine revelation). In actual fact, Imam al Bahrani, the famous Shia commentator on the Qur’an, narrates in his al Burhan, on the authority of ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim; who reported that Imam Jafar said:

 

لما كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلّم في الغار قال لأبي بكر: كأني أنظر إلى سفينة جعفر وأصحابه تعوم في البحر ، وأنظر إلى الأنصار محبتين (مخبتين خ) في أفنيتهم ، فقال أبو بكر: وتراهم يا رسول الله ؟ قال: نعم! قال: فأرنيهم ، فمسح على عينيه فرآهم ، فقال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلّم: أنت الصديق

 

When Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was in the cave (of Thowr), he said to Abu Bakr: “It is as if I can see Jafar and his Sahabah sailing in the sea; and it is as if the Ansar are waiting in their homes.” Abu Bakr said: “Can you really see them, O Nabi of Allah?” He replied: “Yes!” Abu Bakr said: “Show me!” Thereafter, Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (gently) wiped over his eyes; and, as a result, he was also able to see them. Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam remarked: “You (truly) are al Siddiq!”[15]

 

Al Tabarsi narrates that Imam al Baqir rahimahu Llah once said:

Neither do I deny the virtue of Abu Bakr nor ‘Umar, but what I do say is that Abu Bakr is more virtuous than ‘Umar.[16]

 

Zaid ibn ‘Ali was once asked about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. He replied:

 

I have nothing but good to say about them, just as the members of my family — the Ahlul Bayt — had nothing but good to say about them. Neither did they oppress us nor anybody else. They acted according to the (teachings) of the Qur’an and the Sunnah of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

When the Shia heard this, they completely rejected and discarded it. On hearing about this, Zaid ibn ‘Ali rahimahu Llah proclaimed:

They have indeed rejected us today.

and it is for this reason that they are known as the Rafidah (the Defectors).[17]

Zaid ibn ‘Ali rahimahu Llah is also reported to have said:

Disavowing Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman is disavowing ‘Ali, and disavowing ‘Ali is disavowing Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman.[18]

 

Al Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah was once asked:

O son, (i.e. family) of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam! What is your opinion about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar?

He replied:

They were just and righteous leaders who lived and died following the truth. Allah’s Ta’ala mercy will embrace them on the Day of Judgement.[19]

 

Imam al Daraqutni rahimahu Llah narrates that Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah said:

In as much as I have hope in the intercession of ‘Ali (on the Day of Judgement) I have just as much hope in the intercession of Abu Bakr. My relationship with him (i.e. Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu) is twofold.[20]

 

Imam al Daraqutni rahimahu Llah also narrates that Ja’far al Sadiq rahimahu Llah said:

Some of the envious zealots of Iraq claim that we speak ill of both Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. How can that ever be, they are my fathers![21]

 

Sayed al Murtada narrates in his book, al Shafi, that Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah would associate himself with both Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. He would visit the grave (of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and with his greetings to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he would also greet the two of them. In another narration it is mentioned that he would encourage others to do the same as well.[22]

Al Daraqutni rahimahu Llah narrates from ‘Abdullah al Mahd[23] who was once asked: “Do you make mash (wipe) on your Khuffayn (leather socks, for wudu’)?” He replied: “Yes. (Because) ‘Umar would make mash.” The questioner reiterated his question and said: “I am asking whether you make mash (not ‘Umar).” He responded to the questioner by saying: “I am telling you ‘Umar would do it and you still have the audacity to ask about my personal practice! ‘Umar is not only better than me, he is better than a whole world full of the likes of me!” The man asked: “Is this Taqiyyah[24]?” ‘Abdullah al Mahd exclaimed: “We are currently sitting between the grave and mimbar (of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). O Allah! This is what I believe in secrecy and in open. Do not listen to anyone (wrongfully) attributing anything to me after my demise. Who has the audacity to claim that ‘Ali was coerced into something he did not want to do (i.e. pledge allegiance to the other khulafa’) and that Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered him to do something which he did not execute?! That, in actual fact, only shows his weakness and nothing else.”[25]

 

The hijrah is described in the following way in Tafsir al ‘Askari:

After Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed ‘Ali to sleep in his place on his bed, he salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to Abu Bakr:

 

أرضيت أن تكون معي يا أبا بكر تطلب كما أطلب ، وتعرف بأنك أنت الذي تحملني على ما أدعيه فتحمل عني أنواع العذاب ؟

Are you pleased (with the fact) that you will be sought after and wanted like me? After all, it was you who believed in me and carried me through; therefore, will you not be prepared to face the consequences and help defend me?

 

Abu Bakr exclaimed: “O Nabi of Allah! If I lived an entire life having to undergo constant punishment and suffering, and experiencing no pleasure, all for your sake, this would be more beloved to me than possessing the entire world and disobeying you (in that)! My life, wealth, and possessions; are they not but for you?!” Upon hearing this, Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

لا جرم إن اطلع الله على قلبك ، ووجد موافقا لما جرى على لسانك جعلك مني بمنزلة السمع والبصر ، والرأس من الجسد ، والروح من البدن

Allah Ta’ala certainly knows that whatever is on your tongue is in accordance to what is in your heart! He has made your position (with me) like the ears, eyes, head, and soul of a body.[26]

 

NEXT⇒ Members of the Ahlul Bayt Who Held Identical Names as the Sahabah



[1]  Ibn Babuwayh al Qummi: ‘Uyun al Akhbar 1/313

[2]  ‘Abbas al Qummi: Muntaha al Ᾱmal 2/212

[3] Al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah fi al Radd ‘Ala Ahl al Bid’ah wa al Zandaqah p. 248; also see al Tabaqat, al Mu’jam al Kabir, Tarikh al Khulafa’.

[4]Tarikh Dimashq, Siyar ‘Alam al Nubala’, al Hujjah

[5]Tabaqat ibn Sa’d 5/321, Mizan al ‘Itidal 4/161

[6]  Surah al Hashr: 8

[7]  Surah al Hashr: 9

[8]  Surah al Hashr: 10

[9]Kashf al Ghummah fi Ma’rifat al A’immah p. 78

[10]  Surah al Hijr: 47

[11]  These were three of the most notable Makkan tribes in Nabi s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam time.

[12]Tarikh al Khulafa’, al Durr al Manthur, the same narration also gives an example of the type of love and affection they held with one-another. For example, one day, Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was holding his hip in agony (due to some pain). Seeing this, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu began rubbing his hands together and placing them on Abu Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu hip, trying to relieve him of his pain.

[13]Al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah fi al Radd ‘ala Ahl al Bid’ah wa al Zandaqah p. 158

[14]Kashf al Ghummah 2/148; Hilyat al Auliya’; Al Hujjah

[15]  Al Bahrani: Al Burhan 2/125

[16]Al Ihtijaj p. 230

[17]  Mirza Muhammad Taqiyy Siphr: Nasikh al Tawarikh 2/590

[18]  See al Asbahani’s al Hujjah

[19]  Al Shostari: Ihqaq al Haqq 1/16

[20]  Jafar al Sadiq’s rahimahu Llah mother was Farwah bint al Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and Farwah’s mother was Asma’ bint ‘Abdul Rahman. In other words, Jafar al Sadiq is related to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu through both his mother and maternal grandmother.

[21]  Al Lalika’i: Sharh al Sunnah

[22]  Sayed al Murtada: Al Shafi p. 238

[23]  He is ‘Abdullah (al Kamil) ibn Hassan (al Muthanna) ibn Hassan ibn ‘Ali, the grandson of Imam Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

[24]  The term Taqiyyah among the Shia refers to the practice of dissimulation in which the individual intentionally avoids answering a question posed to him or he answers the question in such a manner that pleases the questioner, but he himself does not actually believe it to be true. The rationale behind Taqiyyah — according to the Shia — is to make inroads with any non-Shia in the most covert and unassuming way possible. [translator’s note]

[25]Tarikh Dimashq

[26]Tafsir al Hassan al ‘Askari p. 164, 165

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