Section Two: The Stance of the Sahabah regarding the Fitnah

Sayyiduna `Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu `anhu – Fostered in the Home of Nubuwwah; Husband of the Pure Queen
April 29, 2020
Section Three: The Stance of the Tabi’in and Those who Followed them Regarding the Fitnah
May 8, 2020

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Section Two: The Stance of the Sahabah regarding the Fitnah

 

A person who studies the events of the Fitnah in the history of al Tabari and the other books of history through the narrations of Abu Mikhnaf, Waqidi, Ibn A’tham, among others, will get the impression that the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were actually the ones instigating the Fitnah. Hence Abu Mikhnaf, a historian with strong Shia leanings, does not hesitate in accusing ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu of flaws and misadministration due to which he was deserving of what befell him.[1] He also depicts Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu in one of his narrations as a rebel who revolted against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and incited the people against him.[2]

Similarly, the narrations of Waqidi are no different than the narrations of Abu Mikhnaf. He depicts ‘Amr ibn al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu as one who came to Madinah to impugn ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and states that when he received the news of his murder he said:

 

أنا أبو عبد الله، إذا حككت قرحة نكأتها، وإن كنت لأحرض عليه، حتى إني لاحرض عليه الراعي في غنمه في رأس الجبل

I am Abu ‘Abdullah, when I scratch a blister I burst it. I was campaigning against him, to the extent that I would instigate a shepherd in in his flock at the top of a mountain.[3]

 

As for Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, according to him, he was the instigator of the rebels.[4] And ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is depicted as a person who played a role in the fate of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He alleges that the Umayyads would make mention of that to him and would warn him of the dreadful consequences of the world coming to him:

يا علي أهلكتنا، وصنعت هذا الصنيع بأمير المؤمنين. أما والله لئن بلغت الذي تريد لتمرن عليك الدنيا

O ‘Ali you destroyed us and you done this reprehensible action to Amir al Mu’minin. By Allah, if you accomplish what you intend the world will pass by you.[5]

 

Instead there are more narrations, which al Tabari states he purposely ignored due to their reprehensible content and his abhorrence for them.[6]

Likewise he has attributed a narration to al Zuhri which states that the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, more specifically the Muhajirin, were the killers of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Hence in the address of al ‘Abdi[7] it appears that he pointed toward one of the Muhajirin and said:

 

ثم إنكم أنكرتم من ذلك الرجل شيئا فقتلتموه عن غير مشورة منا

Then you condemned something of this man and subsequently killed him without consulting us.[8]

 

In the transmission of this narration there is a person by the name Yunus ibn Yazid ibn Abi al Najad al Ayli. Abu Zur’ah said regarding him:

 

سمعت أحمد بن حنبل يقول: في حديث يونس عن الزهري منكرات، وسئل أحمد: من أثبت من الزهري؟ قال معمر، قيل فيونس؟ قال: روى أحاديث منكرة

I heard Ahmed ibn Hanbal mention regarding the narration of Yunus from al Zuhri that he narrates reprehensible narrations from him.

And Ahmed was asked, “Who is more proficient in the narrations of al Zuhri?”

He said, “Ma’mar.”

He was asked, “What about Yunus?”

He replied, “He has narrated some reprehensible narrations.”[9]

 

As for the narration which is attributed to Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu, it depicts the besiegers as people of truth who are only pleased and infuriated for Allah. On the other hand it depicts ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu as the criminal who is required to openly repent for his crime.[10] In fact it sketches him as a deceiver who sought help from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to mediate between him and his detractors so that they may give him some respite to return to them their rights, but thereafter he prepares for war with weapons in the period of respite.[11]

Can it possibly be perceived that this is really the narration of Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and that this was his actual stance regarding the ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu? Whereas he is the one who asked ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu for permission on the day of the house to defend him with the Bani ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf. He also reassured him that he did not change and go against his pledge.[12]

Also, in addition to its irreconcilable variations and their anomalous nature, the chain of transmission itself is not free from criticism. Hence in it there is a narrator by the name ‘Umar ibn Hammad. Abu Dawood has said regarding him:

 

كان من الرافضة، ذكر عثمان بشيء، فطلبه السلطان فهرب

He was from the Rafidah. He made a remark about ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu because of which the ruler summoned him and so he fled.[13]

 

And al Saji[14] said regarding him:

يتهم في عثمان عنده مناكير

He is dubious when it comes to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and he has narrated reprehensible narrations.[15]

 

Likewise the narration attributed to Sa’id ibn al Musayyab contains that the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in general despised ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, especially Abu Dhar, Ibn Mas’ud and ‘Ammar ibn Yasir radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[16]

However, the problem with this narration is that such Tadlis[17] has occurred in it which is unacceptable, for a narrator who is suspected of lying has been omitted therefrom,[18] Ismail ibn Yahya ibn ‘Ubaidullah.[19] It is for this reason scholars of hadith have deemed this narration weak under the biography of Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn Sumay’[20] the narrator from Abi Dhi’b.[21] Al Bukhari said regarding Ibn Sumay’:

 

يقال إنه لم يسمع من أبي ذئب هذا الحديث يعني حديثه عن الزهري في مقتل عثمان

It is said that he did not hear from Abi Dhi’b this narration, i.e. his narration from al Zuhri regarding the murder of ‘Uthman.[22]

 

And Ibn Hibban said:

إن ابن سميع لم يسمع حديثه من أبي ذئب، وإنما سمعه من إسماعيل بن يحيى فدلس عنه

Ibn Sumay’ did not hear the narration from Abi Dhi’b. He actually heard it from Ismail ibn Yahya and thereafter practiced Tadlis.[23]

 

And al Hakim said:

أبو محمد- يعني ابن سميع- روى عن أبي ذئب حديثا منكرا، وهو حديث مقتل عثمان، ويقال: كان في كتابه عن إسماعيل بن يحيى بن أبي ذئب فأسقطه، وإسماعيل ذاهب الحديث.

Abu Muhammad, i.e. Ibn Sumay’, narrated a reprehensible narration from Abi Dhi’b, the narration regarding the murder of ‘Uthman. It is said, “In his book it was actually from Ismail ibn Yahya ibn Abi Dhi’b and therefore he dropped him. And Ismail is useless in hadith.[24]

 

Al Hakim is known to have Shia leanings, thus this statement of his is particularly noteworthy.

From the aforementioned, the impression one gets is that the people who were instigating the Fitnah and took part in fuelling it against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu were the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum who were around ‘Uthman, like ‘Ali, Talhah, Zubair, ‘Amr ibn al ‘As, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir, Abu Dhar al Ghifari, ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, and Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhum, amongst others.

Can an intelligent person perceive that Talhah, Zubair, Aisha, and ‘Amr radiya Llahu ‘anhum were part of the fitnah and fuelling its fire when they were the same people who marched to Basrah in order to seek revenge for the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu; they criticised ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu for delaying in executing the punishment upon the murderers of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu? Did not the people who were in the army of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu know that Talhah, Zubair, ‘Amr ibn al ‘As, and Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhum were instrumental in the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu? Why did they not raise their voices, mock them, and silence them with definitive evidence?

Contrary to the narrations cited above, which are examples of the narrations cited by those historians who had no scruples and thus portrayed the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum as conspirators and instigators who were responsible for the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the books of the hadith scholars have preserved for us authentic narrations in which the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum are portrayed as the helpers of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, his defenders, and the seekers of revenge for his blood. They deem the prospect that they were instrumental in the fitnah impossible.

Al Tabari and Ibn ‘Asakir cite that when ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu received the news of the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu he said:

 

رحم الله عثمان وخلف علينا بخير، وقيل ندم القوم، فقرأ:  كَمَثَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِذْ قَالَ لِلْإِنسَانِ اكْفُرْ  إلى آخر الآية.

May Allah have mercy on ‘Uthman and may he grant us a good substitute. He was told that the people have regretted (what they did), He thus read: Like the example of Satan when he says to man, “Disbelieve,”[25] till the end of the verse.[26]

 

And Ahmed narrates in Fada’il al Sahabah from ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Layla:[27]

 

رأيت عليا رافعا حضنيه يقول اللهم إني أبرأ إليك من دم عثمان

I saw ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu raising his arms and saying, “O Allah I declare my innocence before you from the blood of ‘Uthman.”[28]

 

And ‘Amirah ibn Sa’d[29] narrates:

 

كنا مع علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه على شاطئ الفرات، فمرت سفينة مرفوع شراعها، فقال علي: يقول الله :   وَلَهُ الْجَوَارِ الْمُنْشَآتُ فِي الْبَحْرِ كَالأعْلامِ والذي أنشأها في بحر من بحاره ما قتلت عثمان ولا مالأت على قتله

We were with ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu at the bank of the Euphrates River. A ship passed with a high deck. So ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said, “Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says, ‘And to him belong the ships elevated in the oceans like mountains.’[30] By the one who created it in an ocean from his oceans I did not kill ‘Uthman nor did I help in his murder.”[31]

 

And Ibn ‘Asakir narrates in his Tarikh from Salim ibn Abi al Ja’d:[32]

 

كنا مع ابن الحنفية في الشعب فسمع رجلا ينتقص عثمان وعنده ابن عباس، فقال: يا أبا عباس، هل سمعت أمير المؤمنين عشية سمع الضجة من قبل المربد فبعث فلان بن فلان فقال: اذهب فانظر ما هذا الصوت؟ فجاء فقال: هذه عائشة تلعن قتلة عثمان والناس يؤمنون فقال علي” وأنا ألعن قتلة عثمان في السهل والجبل، اللهم العن قتلة عثمان، اللهم العن قتلة عثمان في السهل والجبل، ثم أقبل ابن الحنفية عليه وعلينا، فقال: أما في وفي ابن عباس شاهدا عدل؟ قلنا بلى، قال: قد كان هذا.

We were with Ibn al Hanafiyyah in the valley.[33] He heard a person denigrating ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu was by him.

He thus said, “O Abu ‘Abbas! Did you hear what Amir al Mu’minin said when he heard a noise coming from Mirbad? He sent a person and told him, ‘Go and see from where that sound is.’ He returned and said, ‘It is Aisha cursing the killers of ‘Uthman and the people are saying Amin.’ He thus said, ‘I also curse the killers of ‘Uthman whether they be in the flatlands or in the mountains, O Allah curse the killers of ‘Uthman, O Allah curse the killers of ‘Uthman in the flatlands and the mountains.’”

Then Ibn al Hanafiyyah turned to us and to him and said, “Am I and Ibn ‘Abbas not two upright witnesses?”

We said, “Surely.”

Ibn ‘Abbas thus said, “This did indeed happen.”[34]

 

Likewise Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates the following in his Musannaf from the concubine of Zaid ibn Arqam:

 

جاء علي يعود زيد بن أرقم-له صحبة- وعنده القوم، فقال للقوم: أنصتوا واسكتوا، فوالله لا تسألوني اليوم عن شيء إلا أخبركم به، فقل له زيد، أنشدك الله؟ أنت قتلت عثمان؟ فأطرق ساعة ثم قال: والذي فلق الحبة وبرأ النسمة ما قتلته ولا أمرت بقتله وما سرني.

‘Ali came to visit Zaid ibn Arqam radiya Llahu ‘anhu, a Sahabi, and there were people by him. He said to the people, “Keep quiet and remain silent, for by Allah whatever you will ask me today I will inform you about it.”

Hence Zaid said to him, “I plea to you in the name of Allah, did you murder ‘Uthman?”

He lowered his head for a while and then said, “By the one who split apart the seed and created the soul, I did not kill him, nor did I order his killing, and nor was I happy.”[35]

 

And Ibn Sa’d narrates the following in his Tabaqat from Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

سمعت عليا يقول حين قبل عثمان: والله ما قتلت ولا أمرت بقتله، ولكن غلبت- يقول ذلك ثلاث مرات.

I heard ‘Ali saying when ‘Uthman was murdered, “By Allah I did not kill, nor did I order that he be killed, but I was overpowered.” He said that three times.[36]

 

And the following appears from Muslim ibn Yasar[37] in Ansab al Ashraf:

 

سألت ابن عمر هل شرك علي في دم عثمان؟ فقال: لا والله ما علمت ذلك في سر ولا علانية، ولكن كان رأسا يفزع إليه، فألحق به ما لم يكن

I asked Ibn ‘Umar, “Did ‘Ali take part in the murder of ‘Uthman?”

He replied, “Never by Allah, I do not know of that happening, not in secrecy and not publically. But because he was a leader to who people resorted such things were attached to him which had not actually happened.”[38]

 

And Ibn Sirin said:

لقد قتل عثمان يوم قتل وما أحد يتهم عليا في قتله

The day when ‘Uthman was killed no one blamed ‘Ali of being complicit in his murder.[39]

 

And Ibn Shabbah narrates in Tarikh al Madinah from Rashid ibn Kaysan[40] the following statement of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

اللهم لم آمر ولم أرض

O Allah I did not command and was not happy.[41]

 

And the Sahabi Shaddad ibn Aws radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates:

 

لما اشتد الحصار بعثمان يوم الدار أشرف على الناس، فقال: يا عباد الله! قال: فرأيت علي بن أبي طالب خارجا من منزله معتما بعمامة رسول الله صلى الهه عليه وسلم متقلدا سيفه، أمامه الحسن وعبد الله بن عمر في نفرمن المهاجرين والأنصار؛ حتى حملوا على الناس وفرقوهم ثم دخلوا على عثمان، فقال له علي: السلام عليك يا أمير المومنين. إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يلحق هذا الأمرحتى ضرب بالمقبل والمدبر، وإني والله لا أرى القوم إلا قاتلوك، فمرنا فلنقاتل، فقال عثمان: أنشد الله رجلا رأى الله حقا وأقرأن لي عليه حقا أن يهريق في سبيلي ملئ محجمة من دم أو يهريق دمه في، فأعاد علي عليه القول، فأجابه بمثيل ما أحابه، قال: فرأيت عليا خارجا من الباب وهو يقول: اللهم إتك تعلم أنا بذلنا المجهود، ثم دخل المسجد وحضرت الصلاة، فقالوا له: يا أبا الحسن: تقدم فصل بالناس، فقال: لا أصلى بكم والإمام محصور، ولكن أصلى وحدي، فصلى وحده، وانصرف إلى منزله فلحقه ابنه وقال: والله يا أبت قد اقتحموا عليه الدار، قال: إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون. هم والله قاتلوه، قالوا: أين هو يا أبا الحسن؟ قال: في الجنة والله زلفى، قالوا: أين هم يا أبا الحسن؟ قال: في النار والله ثلاثا.

When the siege intensified against ‘Uthman on the day of the house, he came out to the people and said, “O the servants of Allah.”

The narrator says, “I saw ‘Ali coming out of his house wearing the turban of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and hanging his sword, ahead of him were Hassan, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, and a group of the Muhajirin and the Ansar. They attacked the people, scattered them and managed to enter upon ‘Uthman.

‘Ali thus said to him, “Peace be upon you, O Amir al Mu’minin. Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not reach this matter till he was confronted with those who accepted and those who rejected. By Allah, I do not see these people but as determined to kill you, hence order us and we will fight on your behalf.”

‘Uthman replied, “I plea in the name of Allah to any person who sees for Allah a right upon himself and also concedes my right upon him  hat he refrain from shedding blood the amount of a cupping glass of another person or shedding his own blood for me.”

‘Ali repeated his proposal but ‘Uthman’s response was the same.

The narrator says, “I thus saw ‘Ali leaving the door and saying, “O Allah you know that we have tried our best.”

He then entered the masjid and it was time for Salah. The people thus said to him, “O Abu al Hassan, go ahead and perform the Salah with the people.”

“I will not lead you in Salah when the Khalifah is besieged, I will rather perform Salah myself,” he replied.

Hence he performed Salah alone and continued home. His son came thereafter and said, “By Allah, O my father they intruded into his house.”

He said, “To Allah we belong and to him is our return. They are surely going to kill him.”

The people asked, “Where will he be, O Abu al Hassan?”

“In Jannat,” he replied.

They asked, “Where will they be, O Abu al Hassan?”

“In Hell-Fire, by Allah,” he said thrice.[42]

 

And Ibn ‘Asakir narrates with his chain of transmission from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

لقد علمت عائشة أن جيش المروة وأهل النهر(النهروان) ملعونون على لسان محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم

Indeed Aisha knows that the army of Marwah and the people of Nahr are cursed upon the tongue of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

This implies that the narration is Marfu’ (from Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. And Abu Bakr ibn ‘Ayyash said, “The army of Marwah are the killers of ‘Uthman and the people of Nahr are the Khawarij.”[43]

Ibn ‘Asakir has collected all the reports wherein ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu disassociates himself from the killing of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in his Tarikh.[44] ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would take oaths in his sermons and at other occasions emphasising that he did not kill him nor was he happy with his murder. This is established from him in so many different ways that they cumulatively give the benefit of certainty according to many scholars of hadith.[45]

And Ibn Shabbah narrates from Nafi’ ibn Abi Anas[46] from his father[47] the following:

 

سمعت طلحة بن عبيد يقول: إنا قد تحدثنا من حديث ليلة ، إن هذا الأمر-يعني أمر عثمان- فأقام فيه قوم كانوا عند رجل من خيار الناس دينا ورأيا وحلما، فسألوا أمير المؤمنين عثمان أمرا فأعطاهم ما سألوا، فلم ينتظروا بصداقه حتى حقبه الأمر، وغلب سفهاء الناس حلماءهم، فلم يستطيعوا الرحمة

I heard Talhah ibn ‘Ubaidullah saying, we were talking one evening. In this matter, i.e. the matter of ‘Uthman, a group arose who were, in the eyes of certain person, amongst the best of men in religion, discretion and forbearance. What they demanded of Amir al Mu’minin he readily gave. But then they could not wait in goodwill, and he lost control over the situation, imprudence trumped sensibility and mercy was beyond them.[48]

 

And al Daraqutni has narrated in Fada’il al Sahabah that ‘Uthman looked down at the people of the masjid. He spotted Talhah sitting in the east of the masjid.

 

يا طلحة! قال: لبيك! قال نشدتك بالله هل تعلم أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: من يشتري قطعة يزيدها في المسجد، فاشتريتها من مالي، قال طلحة: اللهم نعم، فقال: يا طلحة! قال: يا لبيك! قال: نشدتك بالله هل تعلمني حملت في جيش العسرة على مائة؟ قال طلحة: اللهم نعم، ثم قال طلحة: اللهم لا أعلم عثمان إلا مظلوما

He thus said, “O Talhah!”

He replied, “I am present.”

He said, “I plea to you in the name of Allah, do you know that Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, ‘Who is willing to buy a piece of land to include it to the masjid?’ and I bought it from my wealth?”

He said, “Yes.”

He thereafter said, “O Talhah!”

He replied, “I am present.”

He said, “I plea to you in the name of Allah, do you know that I donated a hundred conveyances to the army of poverty (army of Tabuk)?”

Talhah replied, “Yes.”

And thereafter said, “O Allah I do not know ‘Uthman but as wronged.”[49]

 

And when Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu received the news of the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu he said:

 

يرحم الله عثمان وانتصر له وللإسلام، وقيل له: القوم نادمون، فقال: تبا لهم وقرأ فَلا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ تَوْصِيَةً وَلا إِلَى أَهْلِهِمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

May Allah have mercy on ‘Uthman and take revenge for him and for Islam. He was told that the culprits are regretting he said, “Woe to them.” and then read the following verse, And they will not be able to give any instruction, nor to their people can they return.”[50]

 

And al Tabari and Ibn ‘Asakir narrate that when Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam radiya Llahu ‘anhu received the news of the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu whilst he was out of Madinah he said:

إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون، رحم الله عثمان، وانتصر له. وقيل له إن القوم نادمون، فقال: دبروا، دبروا-وفي رواية: ذئروا، ذئروا وَحِيلَ بَيْنَهُمْ وَبَيْنَ مَا يَشْتَهُونَ ….الآية

“To Allah we belong and to him is our return. May Allah have mercy on ‘Uthman and avenge his murder.”

He was told that the people are regretting and he said, “They planned it, they planned it (and in another narration: they are surely going to be terrified, they are surely going to be terrified). And prevention will be placed between them and what they desire, as was done with their kind before, indeed they were in disquieting doubt.”[51]

 

And Ibn Hajar narrates the following in his Tahdhib from Mu’tamir ibn Sulaiman[52] from Humaid al Tawil:[53]

 

قيل لأنس بن مالك: إن حب علي وعثمان لا يجتمعان في قلب، فقال أنس: كذبوا، لقد اجتمع حبهما في قلوبنا

Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu was told, “The love of ‘Ali and ‘Uthman cannot be in one heart together.”

He said, “They are lying, love for both of them is in our hearts together.”[54]

 

And al Baladhuri narrates from ‘Abdul Majid ibn Suhayl[55] the following:

 

قال سعد بن أبي وقاص حين رأى الأشتر وحكيم بن جبلة وعبد الرحمن بن عديس: إن أمرا هؤلاء أمراؤه لأمر سوء

Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu said when he saw al Ashtar, Hukaym ibn Jabalah, and ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Adis, “A matter which these people spearhead is indeed an evil matter.”[56]

 

And after the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu was sought. He was in his orchard. When he received the news he said:

 

فررنا إلى المدينة بديننا، فصرنا اليوم نفر منها بديننا وقرأ: اولئك الَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعًا اللهم أندمهم ثم خذهم

We fled to Madinah with our Din in order to preserve it, now we have to run away from Madinah in order to preserve it.

He then read, “They are those whose efforts are lost in worldly life, while they think that they are doing well in work.[57] O Allah, make them regret and then take them to task.”[58]

He was a person whose supplications were readily accepted.[59]

 

And Ibn Shabbah narrates from Qais ibn Abi Hazim:[60]

 

سمعت سعيد بن زيد يقول: والله لو أن أحدا انقض فيما فعلتم في ابن عفان كان محقوقا أن ينقض

I heard Sa’id ibn Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhu saying, “If someone has to collapse due to what you have done to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu he would be justified.”[61]

 

And Ibn Shabbah narrates from Rib’i ibn Hirash[62] that he visited Hudhayfah ibn al Yaman radiya Llahu ‘anhu when the people had already revolted against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He thus said to him:

 

يا ربعي، أخبرني عن قومك، هل خرج منهم أحد؟ قال: نعم فسمى له نفرا، فقال: إني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: من خرج من الجماعة مستذلا للإمارة لقي الله يوم القيامة لا وجه له

“O Rib’i, tell me about your people, have any of them revolted?”

He said, “Yes,” and named a few individuals.

He thus said, “I heard Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, ‘Whoever leaves the majority due to considering the leadership to be insignificant will meet Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala on the Day of Judgement without a face.’”[63]

 

And Ibn ‘Asakir narrated from Khalid ibn al Rabi’ al ‘Abasi[64] the following:

 

سمعنا بوجع حذيفة، فركب إليه أبو مسعود الأنصاري رضي الله عنه في نفر أنا فيهم إلى المدائن، قال: ثم ذكر قتل عثمان، فقال: اللهم إني لم أشهد، ولم أقتل، ولم أرض

We learnt of the sickness of Hudhayfah. Hence Abu Mas’ud embarked on a journey to Mada’in with a group of people, including me, to visit him. He made mention of the murder of ‘Uthman and said, “O Allah I was not present, I did not kill, and I was not happy.”[65]

 

And Zaid ibn Wahb narrates from Hudhayfah radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he said:

 

أول الفتن الدار، وآخرها الدجال

The first fitnah is the Dar (the house, i.e. the besieging and murdering of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in his house) and the last fitnah will be Dajjal.[66]

 

And Ibn Sa’d narrates from Maymun ibn Mihran[67] that Hudhayfah radiya Llahu ‘anhu making a circle with his hand said the following when ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was assassinated:

فتق في الإسلام فتق لا يرتقه جبل

Such a hole has been made in Islam that not even a mountain can cover it.[68]

 

And Ahmed ibn Hanbal narrated from Ibn Sirin from Hudhayfah radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he said the following when he learnt of murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

اللهم إنك تعلم برائتي من دم عثمان، فإن كان الذين قتلوه أصابوا فأني بريء منه، وإن كانوا أخطأوا فقد تعلم براءتي من دمه، وستعلم العرب لئن كانت أصابت بقتله لتحتلبن بذلك لبنا، وإن كانت أخطأت بقتله لتحتلبن بذلك دما.

O Allah you know my innocence in the murder of ‘Uthman. If those who murdered him are right than I disassociate from him, and if they are wrong then you know my innocence in his murder. The Arabs will surely come to know; if they are right they will draw milk (they will attract benefits and favourable conditions), and if they are wrong they will draw blood (they will suffer and shed the blood of one another).

Ibn Sirin says that they milked blood and the sword and killing was not raised from them thereafter.[69]

 

And Ibn ‘Asakir narrated from Jundub ibn ‘Abdullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, a Sahabi, that he met Hudhayfah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and mentioned Amir al Mu’minin ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu before him. He thus said:

أما إنهم سيقتلونه! قال قلت: فأين هو؟ قال في الجنة، قلت، فأين قاتلوه؟ قال: في النار.

“They are going to kill him.”

I thus asked, “Where will he be?”

He said, “In Jannat.”

I asked, “And where will his killers be?”

He replied, “In Hell-Fire.”[70]

 

And Ibn Shabbah reports from Ibrahim:[71]

لقد روي عن حذيفة في عثمان رضي الله عنه أحاديث أشهد أن كانت لمقالة كذاب

Such narrations have been narrated from Hudhayfah regarding ‘Uthman that I can testify that they are the forgeries of a liar.[72]

 

And Khalifah has narrated in his Tarikh from Masruq:[73]

 

قالت عائشة: تركتموه كالثوب النقي من الدنس، ثم قربتموه تذبحونه كما يذبح الكبش، قال مسروق: فقلت هذا عملك كتبت إلى الناس تأمرينهم بالخروج عليه، فقالت عائشة، والذي آمن به المؤمنون وكفر به الكافرون ما كتبت إليهم بسواد في بياض حتى جلست مجلسي هذا. قال الأعمش: فكانوا يرون أنه كتب على لسانها

Aisha said, “You left him like a garment which is pure from dirt and then brought him forward in order to slaughter him like how a ram is slaughtered.”

So Masruq said to her, “This was your doings, you wrote to the people instructing them to revolt against him.”

She replied, “By the one in who the believers believe and the disbelievers disbelieve, I did not write to them with any ink on paper till I sat in this gathering.”

Al A’mash says that people thus assumed that those letters were forged against her.[74]

 

And in the narration of Ibn Shabbah Umm al Hajjaj al ‘Awfiyyah[75] is reported to have said:

 

كنت عند عائشة رضي الله عنها فدخل عليها الأشتروعثمان رضي الله عنه محصور، فقال: يا أم المؤمنين ما تقولين في قتل هذا الرجل؟ قالت: أس ام الحجاج فتكلمت امرأة بينة اللسان صينة، فقالت: معاذ الله أن آمر بسفك دماء المسلمين، وقتل أمامهم، واستحلال حرمتهم. فقال الأشتر: كتبتن إلينا حتى إذا قامت الحرب على ساق انسللتن منها! قال أبو وكيع: فسمعت الأعمش يزيد في هذا الحديث أن عائشة رضي الله عنها حلفت يومئذ بيمين ما حلف بها أحد قبلها ولا بعدها قالت: والذي آمن به المؤمنون وكفر به الكافرون ما كتبت إليهم سوداء في بيضاء حتى قعدت مقعدي هذا.

I was by Aisha when Ashtar entered during the time of the incarceration of ‘Uthman.

He said, “O Umm al Mu’minin, what do you say about the murder of this man?”

Umm al Hajjaj said, “A women who was clear in her speech and pure in her conduct (referring to Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhu said, “I seek the refuge of Allah from ordering the bloodshed of Muslims, the killing of their leader, and the violation of their sanctity.”

Ashtar replied, “You people wrote to us, then when the war became intense you sneaked out of it.”

Abu Waki’[76] says, “I heard al A’mash adding to this narration that Aisha took an oath which no one before her or after her had ever taken. She said, ‘By the one in who the believers believe and the disbelievers disbelieve I did not write anything with ink on paper to them till my seating in this place.’”[77]

 

And al Tabari narrates from Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

كان الناس يتجنون على عثمان ويزرون على عماله ويأتوننا فيستشيروننا فيما يخبروننا عنهم، ويرون حسنا من كلامنا في صلاح بينهم، فننظر في ذلك فنجده بريا تقيا وفيا، ونجدهم فجرة كذبة يحاولون غير ما يظهرون، فلما قووا على الكاثرة كاثروه فاقتحموا عليه داره، واستحلوا الدم الحرام والبلد الحرام بلا ترة وعذر

People were offending ‘Uthman and were denigrating his governors. They would come to us and consult with us regarding what they told us about them and would consider those aspects of our speech to be good which benefitted them. We would look into the matter and would find ‘Uthman to be noble, pious, and loyal and we would find them to be offenders and liars trying to accomplish a motive other than what they displayed. Hence, when they were able to overpower him in number they did so and intruded into his house. Thereafter they violated sacred blood and violated the sacred city without any fear of blame or excuse.[78]

 

And al Baladhuri narrates from ‘Urwah from Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha the following:

 

ليتني كنت نسيا منسيا قبل أمر عثمان، فوالله ما احببت له شيئا إلا منيت بمثله، حتى لو أحببت أن يقتل لقتلت

I wish I was a forgotten matter before the issue of ‘Uthman. By Allah whatever I loved for him I desired the same for myself, to the extent that if I loved that he be killed I would have desired to be killed as well.[79]

 

And Ibn Shabbah narrates from Talq ibn Khushshaf the following:

 

قال: قلت لعائشة: فيم قتل أمير المؤمنين عثمان؟ قالت: قتل مظلوما، لعن الله قتلته

I asked Aisha, “For what reason was Amir al Mu’minin ‘Uthman killed?”

She said, “He was killed unjustly, may Allah curse his murderers.”[80]

 

And Umm Sulaim al Ansariyyah radiya Llahu ‘anha said the following when she heard of the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

رحمه الله أما إنه لم يحلبوا بعده إلا دما

May Allah have mercy on him. Behold they have not milked anything after him besides blood.[81]

 

Likewise it is narrated from some of the wives of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that they said the following after the demise of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

هجم البلاء، وانكفأ الإسلام

Calamity has struck and Islam has been overturned.[82]

 

And Abu Maryam[83] narrates:

رأيت أبا هريرة يوم قتل عثمان وله ضفيرتان وهو ممسك بهما وهو يقول: قتل والله عثمان على غير وجه الحق

I saw Abu Hurairah the day ‘Uthman was martyred. He had two braids of platted hair which he held and said, “By Allah ‘Uthman has been unjustly killed.”[84]

 

And Ibn Kathir narrates from Abu Bakrah in al Bidayah wa al Nihayah that he said:

 

لأن أخر من السماء إلى الأرض احب إلي من أن أشرك في قتل عثمان

I would prefer falling from the sky to the earth than having a share in the murder of ‘Uthman.[85]

 

And Abu ‘Uthman al Nahdi[86] narrates from Abu Musa al Ash’ari the following:

 

إن قتل عثمان لو كان هدى احتلبت به الأمة لبنا، ولكنه كان ضلالا فاحتلبت به دما

If the murder of ‘Uthman was based on guidance, the Ummah would have drawn milk because of it, but because it was based on deviance they drew blood because of it.[87]

 

And Ibn ‘Asakir has narrated from Samurah ibn Jundub radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

إن الإسلام كان في حصن حصين، وإنهم ثلموا في الإسلام ثلمة بقتلهم عثمان، وإنهم شرطوا أشرطة، وإنهم لم يسدوا ثلمتهم ولا يسدونها إلى يوم القيامة، وإن أهل المدينة كانت فيهم الخلافة فأخرجوها ولم تعد فيهم

Islam was in a well-secured fortress, but by them killing ‘Uthman they have caused a hole in Islam, surely they have split asunder several things. They have not covered the hole they brought about, or actually will never be able to cover it till the Day of Judgment. The Caliphate was within the people of Madinah, these people removed it from them and thus it never returned to them again.[88]

 

As for the stance of ‘Ammar ibn Yasir radiya Llahu ‘anhu, it is quite clear from what he said when ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent him with his son, Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, to Kufah to motivate the people to march in order to settle the matter of Talhah and Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Hence, it is reported that Abu Musa al Ash’ari radiya Llahu ‘anhu met Hassan ibn ‘Ali and embraced him and then asked ‘Ammar:

 

يا أبا اليقظان أعدوت على أمير المؤمنين عثمان قتلته؟

“O Abu al Yaqzan, did you transgress against Amir al Mu’minin ‘Uthman by siding with his murderers?”

He replied:

لم أفعل

I did not do so.[89]

 

And Ibn Shabbah narrates in Tarikh al Madinah from Muslim ibn Sa’id:[90]

 

ما سمعت ابن مسعود قائلا في عثمان سوءا قط، ولقد سمعته يقول: لئن قتلتموه لا تستخلفون

I have not heard Ibn Mas’ud say anything bad about ‘Uthman. Yes I heard him saying, “If you kill him you will not be able to appoint after him.”[91]

 

And al Riyad al Nadirah the following wording appears:

مهلا فإنكم إن قتلتموه لا تصيبون مثله

Go easy, for if you kill him, you will not find someone like him.[92]

 

And in the version of Ibn Abi Shaybah the following appears:

لئن قتلوا عثمان لا يصيبوا منه خلفا

If they kill ‘Uthman they will not find someone to replace him.[93]

 

And al Haythami narrates in Majma’ al Zawa’id from Kulthum ibn ‘Amir[94] from Ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

ما سرني أن رميت عثمان بسهم ثم أصاب أم أخطأ وأن لي مثل أحد ذهبا

It would not please me that I shoot an arrow at ‘Uthman, which then hits him or misses him, and I am given in lieu of that gold equivalent to mount Uhud in lieu of that.[95]

 

And al Tabari narrates from Sari from Sayf:

 

لما أحيط بعثمان رضي الله عنه خرج عمرو بن العاص من المدينة متوجها نحو الشام، وقال: والله يا أهل المدينة ما يقيم بها أحد فيدركه قتل هذا الرجل إلا ضربه الله عزوجل بذل، من لم يستطع نصره فليهرب، فساروا، وسار معه ابناه عبد الله و محمد

When siege was laid on ‘Uthman, ‘Amr ibn al ‘As left Madinah heading toward Sham. At that time he said, “O people of Madinah, whoever will stay in Madinah and happens to witness the murder of this man, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will afflict him with humiliation. Whoever cannot help him should flea.” Hence they started to move, and he was joined by his two sons, ‘Abdullah and Muhammad.[96]

 

And Abu Nuaim has narrated in Ma’rifat al Sahabah from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

عثمان بن عفان ذو النورين قتل مظلوما، أوتي كفلين من الأجر

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, the bearer of two lights, he was killed unjustly and will be granted double reward.[97]

 

And Ibn Shabbah narrates from Raytah the freed slave of Usamah ibn Zaid:

 

بعثتني أسامة إلى عثمان يقول: فأن أحببت نقبنا لك الدار، وخرجت حتى تلحق بمأمنك يقاتل من أطاعك من عصاك

Usamah sent me to ‘Uthman with the following, “If you want we can make a hole for you in the house wherefrom you can leave and reach your place of safety. Thereafter those who obey you will fight those who disobey you.”[98]

 

And al Bukhari has narrated in his al Tarikh al Saghir that Harithah ibn al Nu’man radiya Llahu ‘anhu, a Sahabi who witnessed Badr, said to ‘Uthman whilst he was under siege:

إن شئت أن نقاتل دونك

If you want we can fight ahead of you.[99]

 

And Ahmed has narrated from ‘Abdullah ibn Salam radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

لا تقتلوا عثمان فإنكم إن فعلتم لم تصلوا جميعا أبدا

Do not kill ‘Uthman, for if you do so you will never perform Salah unitedly again.[100]

 

And Ibn Sa’d has narrated from Abu Salih:[101]

 

سمعت عبد الله بن سلام يوم قتل عثمان يقول: والله لا تهرقون محجما من دم أي من دم عثمان إلا ازددتم به من الله بعدا

I heard ‘Abdullah ibn Salam saying the day ‘Uthman was martyred, “By Allah you will not shed a cup full of blood, i.e. the blood of ‘Uthman, but that you will go further away from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.”[102]

And Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Salam[103] narrates that he came to visit Hajjaj. The doorkeepers denied him entry and did not leave him till ‘Anbasah ibn Sa’id[104] came:

 

فاستأذن له فأمر به أن يدخل عليه، فسلم، فرد عليه السلام، ثم مشى فقبل رأسه، فأمر الحججاج رجلين مما يلي السرير أن يوسعا له، فجلس فقال له الحجاج: لله أبوك؟ هل تعلم حديثا حدثه أبوك عبد الملك أمير المؤمنين عن عبد الله بن سلام جدك؟ قال: أي حديث يرحمك الله؟ قال:حديث عثمان إذ حصره أهل مصر، فقال: نعم، قد علمت ذلك الحديث، فقال: أقبل عبد الله بن سلام، فصرخ الناس له حتى دخل على عثمان، فوجد عثمان وحده في الدار ليس معه أحد قد عزم على الناس أن يخرجوا عنه فخرجوا، فسلم عليه عبد الله بن سلام، فقال: السلام عليك أمير المؤمنين ورحمة الله، فقال أمير المؤمنين: ما جاء بك يا عبد الله بن سلام؟ قال: جئت لأبيت معك حتى يفتح الله لك أو استشهد معك، فإني أعزم عليك بما ولي عليك من الحق لما خرجت إليهم، خير يسوقه الله بك أو شر يدفعه الله بك، فسمع وأطاع، فخرج إلى القوم، فلما رأوه عظموه، وظنوا أنه قد جاءهم ببعض الذي يسرهم، فقام خطيبا، فاجتمعوا إليه فحمد الله وأثنى عليه فقال: إن الله بعث محمد بشيرا ونذيرا، يبشر بالجنة وينذر بالنار، فأظهر الله من اتبعه من المؤمنين على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون، ثم اختار الله له المساكن، فجعل مسكنه المدينة، فجعلها دار الهجرة والإيمان، وجعل بها قبره وقبر أزواجه. ثم قال: إن الله بعث محمدا هدى ورحمة، فمن يهتدي من هذه الأمة فإنما يهتدي بهدى الله، ومن يضل منهم فإنما يضل بعد السنة والحجة، فبلغ محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم الذي أرسل به، ثم قبضه الله إليه، ثم إنه كان من قبلكم من الأمم إذا قتل النبي بين ظهرانيهم كانت ديته سبعين ألف مقاتل كلهم يقتل به، وإذا قتل الخليفة كانت ديته خمسة وثلاثين ألف مقاتل كلهم يقتل به، فلا تعجلوا إلى هذا الشيخ أمير المؤمنين بقتل اليوم، فإني أقسم بالله لقد حضر أجله، نجده في كتاب الله، ثم أقسم لكم بالله الذي نفسي بيده لا يقتله رجل منكم إلا لقي الله يوم القيامة مشلا يده مقطوعة، ثم اعلموا أنه ليس للوالد على ولده حق إلا لهذا الشيخ عليكم مثله، وقد أقسم لكم بالله ما زالت الملائكة بهذه المدينة منذ دخلها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلي اليوم، وما زال سيف الله مغمودا عنكم منذ دخلها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فلا تسلوا سيف الله بعد إذ غمد عنكم، ولا تطردوا جيرانكم من الملائكة، فلما قال ذلك لهم قاموا يسبونه ويقولون: كذب اليهودي، فقال لهم عبد الله: كذبتم وأثمتم ما أنا باليهودي، إني لأحد المؤمنين، يعلم ذلك الله ورسوله والمؤمنون، ولقد أنزل الله عزوجل في قرآنا:     قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِن كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ اللهِ وَكَفَرْتُم بِهِ وَشَهِدَ شَاهِدٌ مِّن بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ عَلَىٰ مِثْلِهِ فَآمَنَ وَاسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ  وأنزل في أية أخرى : قُلْ كَفَىٰ بِاللهِ شَهِيدًا بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ وَمَنْ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ الْكِتَاب. فانصرفوا من عنده دخلوا على عثمان فذبحوه كما تذبح الحملان، فقام عبد الله بن سلام على باب المسجد حين فرغوا منه- وقتلته في المسجد- فقال: يا أهل مصر، يا قتلة عثمان، أقتلتم أمير المؤمنين؟ فوالذي نفيسي بيده لا يزال بعده عهد منكوث ودم مسفوح ومال مقسوم أبدا ما بقيتم.

He sought permission for him and thus was given permission to see him. He greeted him and Hajjaj replied. He thereafter went and kissed his forehead and Hajjaj told the two men seated near his throne to make space for him whereafter he sat. Hajjaj asked, “What a brilliant person your father was. Do you know the hadith which your father narrated from your grandfather, ‘Abdullah ibn Salam, to Amir al Mu’minin ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan?”

He asked, “Which hadith?”

“The hadith regarding ‘Uthman and the people of Egypt besieging him,” he said.

He replied, “Yes, I know that hadith. ‘Abdullah ibn Salam came and the people shouted out for him till he eventually managed to enter upon ‘Uthman. He found ‘Uthman alone in his house, for he had emphasised upon the people to leave due to which they left.

‘Abdullah ibn Salam greeted him saying, ‘Al Salam ‘Alayka Amir al Mu’minin wa Rahmat Allah.’

Amir al Mu’minin asked him, ‘What has brought you, O ‘Abdullah ibn Salam?’

He said, ‘I have come to spend the night with you till Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala makes an opening for you or I am martyred with you, for I don’t see them but as people who will kill you. And if they do kill you that will be good for you and bad for them.’

‘Uthman said, ‘I emphasise upon you because of my right over you that you go out to them, for probably Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will bring about some goodness or repel some evil because of you.’

He thus listened and obeyed and came out to the people. When they saw him, they respected him and assumed that he came to them with some news which would please them. He stood to address them and soon they gathered around him. He praised Allah and thereafter said, ‘Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala sent Muhammad as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner, bearer of the glad tidings of Jannat and a warner from the Hell-Fire. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala gave those who followed him victory over all religions despite the polytheist hating that. Thereafter Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala chose for him an abode and made Madinah his abode. He made it the locus of iman and migration and made his grave and the graves of his wives therein. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala sent Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as a mercy and guidance, hence whoever will attain guidance in this Ummah will only attain it by the guidance of Allah, and whoever goes astray will only go astray after the Sunnah and the evidence has been conveyed. Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam conveyed what he was sent with and was thereafter taken away by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Then know that if a Nabi was killed in the people of the past then in retaliation for his death seventy thousand people would be killed, and if a Khalifah was killed, then in retaliation for his death thirty five thousand people would be killed. So do not hasten by killing the elderly man, Amir al Mu’minin, today, for by Allah his time of departure has indeed arrived, we find this in the Book of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Thereafter I take an oath and say that whoever will kill him today will meet Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala on the Day of Judgement with his hand paralysed. Know that this person has the same right over you as a father has over his son. I take an oath in the name of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and tell you that the angels have constantly been present in Madinah since the coming of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, so do not unsheathe the sword of Allah after he has kept it covered from you and do not chase the angels, your neighbours.’

When he said that to them they stood up swearing him and saying, ‘The Jew has lied.’

He thus retorted, ‘You have lied and earned sin. I am not a Jew, I am one of the believers, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and the believers know that; Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed the Qur’an regarding me, ‘Say, “Have you considered: if it (i.e. the Qur’an) was from Allah, and you disbelieved in it while a witness from the children of Israel has testified to something similar and believed while you were arrogant…’[105] And in another verse he said, ‘Sufficient is Allah as witness between me and you, and the witness of whoever has knowledge of the scripture.’[106]

They left and intruded into the house of ‘Uthman and slaughtered him like how a kid is slaughtered. ‘Abdullah ibn Salam thereafter stood at the door of the masjid, whilst his killers were inside, and said, ‘O Egyptians, O the killers of ‘Uthman, have you really killed Amir al Mu’minin? By the one in whose hand is my soul, after him covenants will always be violated, blood will always be shed, and wealth will always be seized as long as you will live.”[107]

 

And al Khazraji[108] has narrated from him in Khulasah al Tahdhib the following:

 

لقد فتح الناس على أنفسهم بقتل عثمان باب فتنة لا يغلق إلى يوم القيامة

The people have opened upon themselves a door of fitnah which will not be shut till the Day of Judgement by killing ‘Uthman.[109]

 

And the day ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred he cried and said:

اليوم هلكت العرب

Today the Arabs have been destroyed.[110]

 

And Ibn ‘Asakir narrates from Nafi’[111] from Ibn ‘Umar:

 

لقيت ابن عباس وكان خليفة عثمان على الموسم-موسم الحج-عام قتل، فأخبرته بقتله، فعظم أمره وقال: والله إنه لمن الذين يأمرون بالقسط فتمنيت أن أكون قتلت يومئذ

I met Ibn ‘Abbas, he was appointed as the deputy of ‘Uthman in the season of Hajj the year he was killed, and I informed him of his murder. He considered it to be very grave and said, “By Allah, he was from those who enforced justice.” At that time I desired that I was rather killed that day.[112]

 

And Ibn Sa’d narrated in his al Tabaqat from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

لو أجمع الناس على قتل عثمان لرموا بالحجارة كما رمي قوم لوط

If the people concurred upon killing ‘Uthman they would be destroyed with stones like how the people of Lut ‘alayh al Salam were destroyed.[113]

 

And Zahdam al Jarmi[114] said:

خطب ابن عباس فقال: لو لم يطلب الناس بدم عثمان لرموا بالحجارة من السماء

Ibn ‘Abbas delivered a sermon and said, “If the people did not seek retaliation for the blood of ‘Uthman they would be destroyed with stones from the heaven.”[115]

 

And al Baladhuri narrates from Nafi’ from Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

ما زال ابن عباس ينهى عن قتل عثمان ويعظم شأنه، حتى جعلت ألوم نفسي أن لا أكون قلت مثل ما قال

Ibn ‘Abbas continually prohibited from the killing of ‘Uthman and deemed it a grave matter, to the extent that I started reproaching myself for not saying what he was saying.[116]

 

And Ibn Shabbah narrates from Talq ibn Khushshaf:

 

انطلقنا إلى المدينة ومعنا قرط بن خيثمة، فلقينا الحسن بن علي فقال له قرط: فيم قتل أمير المؤمنين عثمان؟ قال: قتل مظلوما

We went to Madinah and with us was Qurt ibn Khaythamah.[117] We met Hassan ibn ‘Ali and thus Qurt ask him, “Why was Amir al Mu’minin ‘Uthman killed?”

He said, “He was killed unjustly.”[118]

And Abu Humaid al Sa’idi, a veteran of Badr, said:

اللهم إن لك علي الا أفعل كذا ولا أفعل كذا ولا أضحك حتى ألقاك

O Allah, I make a pledge to you that will not do this, and I will not do that, and I will not laugh till I meet you.[119]

 

And Yazid ibn Abi ‘Ubaid[120] narrated:

لما قتل عثمان خرج سلمة بن الأكوع-وهو بدري- من المدينة قبل الربذة فلم يزل بها حتى كان قبيل موته

When ‘Uthman was martyred Salamah ibn al Akwa’, who was a veteran of Badr, left Madinah and went to Rabadhah and stayed there till just before his death.[121]

 

And Yasar ibn ‘Abdur Rahman[122] states:

 

أن بكير بن عبد الله سأله: ما فعل خالك؟ قلت لزم البيت. قال: ما مات ناس من أهل بدر حتى لزموا البيوت بعد قتل عثمان، فما خرجوا من بيوتهم إلا في قبورهم

Bukayr ibn ‘Abdullah[123] asked him, “What is your uncle doing?”

I replied, “He is staying at home.”

He said, “After the demise of ‘Uthman many of the veterans of Badr kept to their houses, they did not leave their houses but for their graves.”[124]

 

And al Hakim has narrated from al Sha’bi, “I have not heard an obituary of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu better than that of Ka’b ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

وأيقن أن الله ليس بغافل

فكف يديه ثم أغلق بابه

عفا الله عن كل امرئ لم يقاتل

وقال لأهل الدار لا تقتلوهم

عداوة والبغضاء بعد التواصل

فكيف رأيت الله صب عليهم

عن الناس إدبار الرياح الجوافل

وكيف رأيت الخير أدبر بعده

He withheld his hands and then closed his door. And He knew that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala is not unaware.

And he said to the inmates of the house do not kill them, may Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala forgive every person who does not fight them.

So did you see how Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala poured upon them enmity and hatred after unity?

And did you see how the good retreated after him from the people, like the retreating of winds that carry clouds.[125]

 

And he also said the following in a poem regarding the good mannerisms of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his stance regarding the fitnah:

إمامهم للكمنكرات وللغدر عجبت لقوم أسلموا بعد عزهم
لجادلهم عثمان باليد والنصر فلو أنهم سيموا من الضيم خطة
ولا كان في الأقسام بالضيق الصدر فما كان في دين الإله بخائن
ولا تاركا للحق في النهي والأمر ولا كان نكاثا لعهد محمد
وما بي عنه من عزاء ولا صبر فإن أبكه أعذر لفقديه عدله
لفقد ابن عفان الخليفة من غدر وهل لامرئ يبكي لعظم مصيبة
وأهتك منه للمحارم والستر فلم أر يوما كان أعظم ميتة
ومولاهم في حالة العسر واليسر غداة أصيب المسلومون بخيرهم

I am amazed at a people who surrendered their Imam after their glory to evil and treachery.

Had they devised out of their oppression a plot, ‘Uthman would have combatted them with strength and help.

For he was not treacherous in the Din of Allah and he was not miserly in his distributions.

He was not one who breached the pledge of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, nor was he one who left the truth in his prohibiting and enjoining.

If I cry over him I am to be excused due to me losing his justice. And there is nothing that can console me regarding his loss, nor can I bear that patiently.

Can there be any excuse for a person who cries due to a great calamity, due to the loss of the Khalifah Ibn ‘Affan?

I have not seen a day in which someone greater has passed away, and in which the sacred laws of Allah and his veil were violated.

Than the morning in which the Muslims were struck with the loss of their best and their leader in times of difficulty and ease.[126]

 

And the stance of Hassan ibn Thabit radiya Llahu ‘anhu is also quite clear from his eulogy regarding ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his satire of those who opposed him:

وغزوتمونا عند قبر محمد أتركتم غزو الدروب وراءكم
ولبئس أمر الفاجر المتعمد فلبئس هدي المسلمين هديتم
حول المدينة كل لين مذود إن تقدموا نجعل قرى سرواتكم
ولمثل أمر أميركم لم يرشد أو تدبروا فلبئس ما سافرتم
بدن تنحر عند باب المسجد وكأن أصحاب النبي عشية
أمسى مقيما في بقيع الغرقد أبكي أبا عمرو لحسن بلائه

Did you abandon fighting in the various regions and thereafter come to fight us by the grave of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam?

Indeed an evil way of the Muslims have you treaded, and indeed evil is the matter of the intentional imposter.

If you advance, we will make the welcome treat of your leaders all over Madinah spears which will defend us.

And if you retreat, then indeed wretched was your journey, and for a matter like the matter of your leader he was not guided.

It is as though the Companions of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the evening were like camels being slaughtered at the door of the Masjid.

I cry over the demise of Abu ‘Amr because of his great contribution, he has now become a resident of Baqi’.[127]

 

And he also said:

يد الله في ذاك الأديم المقدد ماذا أردتم من أخي الدين باركت
وحئتم بأمر جائر غير مهتد قتلتم ولي الله في جوف داره
وأوفيتم بالعهد عهد محمد فهلا رعيتم ذمة الله بينكم
وأوفاكم قدما لدى كل مشهد ألم يك فيكم ذا بلاء ومصدق
على قتل عثمان الرشيد فلا ظفرت أيمان قوم تبايعوا

What did you want from the possessor of Din? May Allah bless that lacerated skin.

You killed the friend of Allah in the centre of his house, and you came with an oppressive matter which was bereft of guidance.

Why did you not take into consideration the pact of Allah between you, why did you not fulfil the pledge, the pledge of Muhammad?

Was he not a man of contribution and truth amongst you, and was he not the most loyal at every moment of trial?

May not the agreements of such people ever succeed who pledged to kill ‘Uthman, the rightly guided.[128]

 

And Ayman ibn Khuraym ibn Fatik al Asadi radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

أي قتيل حرام ذبِّحوا ذبحوا تفاقد الذابحو عثمان ضاحية
يخشوا على مطمح الكف الذي طمحوا ضحوا بعثمان في الشهر الحرام ولم
وباب جور على سلطانهم فتحوا فأي سنة جور سن أولهم
من سفح ذاك الدم الزاكي الذي سفحوا ماذا أرادوا أضل الله سعيهم
تمام ظمء كما يستورد النضح فاستوردهم سيوف المسلمين على
لقوا أثاما وخسرانا فما ربحوا إن الذين تولوا قتله سفها

The slaughterers of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu searched openly which sacred blood they were going to slaughter, may they be slaughtered.

They assassinated ‘Uthman in the sacred month without fearing that people will aspire to do with them as they aspired to do with ‘Uthman.

What an evil way their spearheaders laid out for them and what an evil door of oppression did they open upon their leader.

What did they intend, may Allah make their efforts in vein, by shedding his pure blood which they shed?

So the swords of the Muslims brought them to drink, whilst they were thirsty, just as a water camel is brought.

Those who took charge of foolishly killing him, have indeed accrued sin and harm and did not profit in any way.[129]

 

And al Nabighah al Ja’di, a Sahabi radiya Llahu ‘anhu, said the following regarding ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

أهل صفين وأصحاب الجمل ما يظنن بناس قتلوا
ولحوم الإبل لما تنتقل وابن عفان حنيفا مسلما

What can be assumed regarding a people who killed the people of Siffin and the people of Jamal?

And ‘Uthman who was solely dedicated to Allah and was a true Muslim, whilst the meat of the camels have not yet been moved.[130]

 

And al Qasim ibn Umayyah ibn Abi al Salt, a Sahabi radiya Llahu ‘anhu, said:

خلاف رسول الله يوم الأضحى لعمري لبئس الذي ضحيتم به

By my life, very evil indeed is the sacrifice that you have made against Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the day of sacrifice.[131]

 

From all of the aforementioned, it is probably clear that there can be no truth to those reports which depict the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum as role players and conspirators in the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. For each one tried to help him and defend him, they were willing to sacrifice their own lives in order to spare his. However, he ordered them to withdraw and told them that he wanted to meet Allah whilst pure and oppressed.

Also, the innocence of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu has been established just as the innocence of the wolf was established in the killing of Yusuf ‘alayh al Salam. Hassan al Basri who was an eyewitness was asked, “Was anyone of the Muhajirin and the Ansar amongst those who murdered ‘Uthman?” He said:

كانوا أعلاجا من أهل مصر

They were the riffraff of the people of Egypt.[132]

 

And when Hudhayfah radiya Llahu ‘anhu received the news of the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, when he himself was on his deathbed, he said:

 

الحمد لله الذي سبق بي الفتن قادتها وعلوجها

All praise is to Allah who is taking me away from the trials between their leaders and their riffraff.[133]

 

 

NEXT⇒ Section Three: The Stance of the Tabi’in and Those who Followed them Regarding the Fitnah


[1]  Ansab al Ashraf 5/59.

[2] Ansab al Ashraf 5/78.

[3] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul 4/375-379.

[4] Tarikh al Rusul 4/375-379.

[5] Ibid. 4/364-365.

[6] Ibid. 4/356.

[7] I did not come across his biography.

[8] Ibid. 8/470.

[9] Ibn Hajar: Tahdhib, 11/451.

[10] Tarikh al Rusul, 4/369.

[11] Tarikh al Rusul, 4/370.

[12] Ahmed: Fadaʾil al Sahabah 1/511. The annotator has deemed the narration Sahih.

[13] Tahdhib, 8/23.

[14] Zakariyya ibn Yahya ibn ‘Abdur Rahman al Basri, famously known as al Saji, Abu Yahya. He was a jurist and a hadith scholar. Some of his books are: ‘Ilal al Hadith, Usul al Fiqh, Ikhtilaf al Fuqahaʾ. He passed away in 307 A.H/919 A.C. His biography features in: al Shirazi: Tabaqat al Fuqahaʾ, p. 104; al Dhahabi: al Tadhkirah, 2/709; al Asnawi: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, 2/22.

[15] Tahdhib 8/23.

[16] Ansab al Ashraf 1/512…

[17] Deliberate omission of a narrator

[18] In the transmission of the narration of al Baladhuri the following appears: Hisham ibn ‘Ammar narrated to us, he said Muhammad ibn ‘Isa narrated to us, from Sumay’ from Muhammad ibn Abi Dhiʾb from Zuhri from Sa’id ibn al Musayyab who said… See: Ansab al Ashraf, 1/512.

[19] Ismail ibn Yahya ibn ‘Ubaidullah al Tamimi. Al Daraqutni said regarding him, “And abandoned liar.” And Ibn Hibban said, “Weak in hadith.” And al Hakim said, “Completely useless in hadith.” And Salih ibn Muhammad said, “Ismail ibn Yahya forges narrations.” See: Ibn Hibban: al Majruhin, 1/126; al Daraqutni: al Du’afaʾ wa al Matrukun p. 137; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 9/390-392.

[20] Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn al Qasim ibn Sumay’. Ibn Shahin said regarding him, “Reliable.” And Abu Hatim said, “A scholar from Damascus whose hadith can be written but not used as evidence.” And Abu Dawood said, “There is no problem with him but he was suspected of Qadr (denying pre-destiny). Ibn ‘Adi has said that there is no problem with him.” And al Hakim said, “Accurate in hadith.” And Ibn Hajar said, “A truthful narrator who would make mistakes and practice Tadlis.” He passed away in 204 A.H/819 A.C. See: al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 1/1/203; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil 8/38; al Dhahabi: al Kashif 3/87; Ibn Hajar: al Taqrib 2/198.

[21] Muhammad ibn ‘Abdur Rahman ibn al Mughirah ibn al Harith ibn Abi Dhiʾb, Abu al Harith al Madani. He was a scholar who was reliable, a jurist, an ascetic and a devout worshipper. Ibn Hibban said in his al Thiqat, “He was from the jurists of Madinah and their devout worshippers. He proclaimed the truth the most in his era. He once advised al Mahdi who responded by saying, “Surely you are the most truthful of people.” Ibn Ma’in, Ahmed, Ya’qub ibn Shaybah and al Nasaʾi have deemed him reliable. See: Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/525; al Juzajani: Ahwal al Rijal, p. 188; al Darimi: al Tarikh, p. 30; al Dhahabi: al Mizan, 3/620; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 9/303.

[22] Al Tarikh al Kabir 1/1/203.

[23] Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 9/391.

[24] Tahdhib al Tahdhib, 9/392.

[25] Surah Hashr: 16.

[26] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, 4/392; Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 447.

[27] ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Layla al Ansari al Awsi, Abu ‘Isa al Kufi. He has narrated from a group of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, one among them being ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Ishaq ibn Mansur has narrated from Ibn Ma’in, “Reliable.” Ibn Hibban has made mention of him in his al Thiqat. And Ibn Hajar stated that he went missing in the battle of Dayr al Jamajim, and the scholars agree that it transpired in 82 A.H. See: Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/356; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 298; Ibn Hibban: al Thiqat, 5/100; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 6/260.

[28] Ahmed: Fadaʾil al Sahabah, 1/452. The annotator has deemed its chain of transmission Hassan; Ibn Sa’d: Tabaqat, 3/103, all its transmissions are Sahih.

[29] ‘Amirah ibn Sa’d al Hamadani al Yami, Abu al Sakan al Kufi. He has narrated from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and several other Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Ibn Ma’in al Bukhari and Ibn Hibban have deemed him reliable. See: Ibn Sa’d: Tabaqat, 6/299; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir 4/68; al Dhahabi: Mizan al I’tidal 3/298.

[30] Surah al Rahman: 24.

[31] Ahmed: Fadaʾil al Sahabah, 1/458. The annotator has deemed its transmission Hassan; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir 4/1/68.

[32] Salim ibn Abi al Ja’d Rafi’ al Ashja’i, from the reliable scholars of the Tabi’in. Ibn Ma’in, Abu Zur’ah and Nasaʾi have deemed him reliable. Ibn Sa’d said, “He was reliable and narrated hadith in abundance.” And al ‘Ijli said, “A Tabi’i, reliable.” And Ibrahim al Harbi said, “His reliability is unanimously agreed upon.” See: Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/186; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 2/2/107; al ‘Ijli: al Thiqat, p. 173; al Dhahabi:  al Mizan, 2/109.

[33] The valley of Abu Yusuf in Makkah. It was were the houses of the Banu Hashim were. It is the same valley to which Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had resorted when the Quraysh had agreed to ostracise the Banu Hashim. See: Yaqut: Mu’jam al Buldan, 3/347.

[34] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 476; Ahmed: Fadaʾil al Sahabah 1/455, the annotator has deemed it Sahih.

[35] Ibn Abi Shaybah: Musannaf 15/209; al Hakim: al Mustadrak (via the transmission of ‘Abdah ibn Ismail), 3/106.

[36] Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 3/82; ‘Abdur Razzaq: al Musannaf, 11/450.

[37] Muslim ibn Yasar al Juhani. Ibn Sa’d said regarding him, “Muslim was reliable, scholarly, a devout worshipper, and an ascetic.” And al ‘Ijli said regarding him, “A Basri who was a Tabi’i and reliable.” Likewise Ibn Hibban has recorded him in his al Thiqat. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 7/186; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, 429; al Fasawi: al Ma’rifah wa al Tarikh, 2/85; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib 10/142.

[38] Al Baladhuri: Ansab al Ashraf 1/593.

[39] Ibid. 1/593.

[40] Rashid ibn Kaysan al ‘Absi, Abu Fazarah al Kufi. Ibn Ma’in has deemed him reliable and Abu Hatim has deemed satisfactory. Al Daraqutni said, “A reliable and intelligent man. I did not see any criticism of him in the books of the transmitter biographers.” See: al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 2/1/296; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 3/485; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib 3/227; al Khazraji: Khulasah Tadhhib Tahdhib al Kamal, p. 113.

[41] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 4/1222.

[42] Al Muhibb al Tabari: al Riyad al Nadirah 3/68.

[43] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq p. 454.

[44] Tarikh Dimashq p. 460-475.

[45] Ibn Kathir: al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 7/193.

[46] Nafi’ ibn Malik ibn Abi ‘Amir al Asbahi, Abu Sahl al Madani al Tamimi. He was from the Tabi’in. He narrated from his father and from a group of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, some being: Ibn ‘Amr, Anas, and Sahl ibn Sa’d. ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed said, “He is from the reliable narrators.” And Abu Hatim and al Nasaʾi have also deemed him reliable. Ibn Hibban has also mentioned him in his al Thiqat. He passed away in 140 A.H/757 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, p. 316 (under the section regarding the Tabi’in of Madinah); al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir 4/2/86; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 8/453; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 10/410.

[47] Malik ibn Abi ‘Amir al Asbahi, Abu Anas, the grandfather of the famous Imam Malik ibn Anas. He has narrated from a group of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, some being: ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, and Abu Hurairah. Ibn Sa’d has included him in the second Tabaqah (generation of narrators) and has said, “‘Uthman had stipulated a bonus for him. Al ‘Ijli, al Nasaʾi, Ibn Hibban and Ibn Sa’d have deemed him reliable. He passed away in 74 A.H/693 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 5/63; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 4/1/305; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 418; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib 10/19.

[48] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah 4/1204.

[49] Al Muhibb al Tabari: al Riyad al Nadirah, 3/57.

[50] The verse is in Surah Yasin: 50. And the narration appears in: al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul 4/392; Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 447.

[51] The verse is in Surah Sabaʾ: 54. And the narration appears in: al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, 4/392; Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 447.

[52] Mu’tamir ibn Sulaiman ibn Tarkhan al Taymi, Abu Muhammad al Tabari. One of the great scholars and from the senior members of the sixth Tabaqah (generation). Ibn Ma’in, al ‘Ijli and Ibn Sa’d have deemed him reliable. And Abu Hatim said, “Reliable and truthful.” He passed away in 187 A.H/802 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 7/290; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/575; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 433; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 8/402.

[53] Humaid ibn Abi Humaid al Tawil, Abu ‘Ubaidah al Khuza’i. He was from the Tabi’in. He has been deemed reliable by al ‘Ijli, Ibn Ma’in, and al Nasaʾi. And Abu Hatim said, “A reliable narrator with who there is no problem.” And Ibn ‘Adi said, “He has many narrations which are accurate.” He passed away in 142 A.H/759 A.C. See: Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/135; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 1/2/348; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 3/219; al Dhahabi: al Mizan, 1/610.

[54] Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 7/141.

[55] ‘Abdul Majid ibn Suhayl ibn ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf al Zuhri, Abu Muhammad al Madani. Ibn Ma’in, al Nasaʾi, ibn al Barqi, and Ibn Hibban have deemed him reliable. And Abu Hatim has said, “Satisfactory in hadith.” And al Hakim said, “A scholar from the reliable narrators of Madinah, rare narrator of hadith.” He was from the sixth generation. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, p. 236 (in the section regarding the Tabi’in of Madinah); Khalifah: al Tabaqat, p. 261; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 6/64; Ibn Hibban: Mashahir ‘Ulamaʾ al Amsar, p. 128; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 6/380.

[56] Al Baladhuri: Ansab al Ashraf, 1/590; Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 404.

[57] Surah al Kahf: 104.

[58] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, 4/392; Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 447.

[59] Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 3/142.

[60] Qais ibn Abi Hazim, Abu ‘Abdullah al Kufi. A Tabi’i who witnessed the pre-Islamic and the Islamic era. Ibn Ma’in said, “He is more reliable than al Zuhri.” And Ismail ibn Abi Khalid said, “He was accurate.” And al Dhahabi said, “Reliable and an authority. They have agreed upon him being an authority. There is no one in the Tabi’in who has narrated from the ‘Asharah Mubashsharah besides him. He passed away in 98 A.H/716 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 6/67; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/489; Khalifah: al Tabaqat, p. 151; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 4/1/145; al Dhahabi: al Mizan, 3/392.

[61] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 4/1242; Ibn Abi Shaybah: al Musannaf, 15/204.

[62] Rib’i ibn Hirash ibn Jahsh ibn ‘Amr al ‘Absi, Abu Maryam al Kufi. He came to Sham and heard the sermon of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Jabiyah and narrated from a group of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, some being: ‘Umar, ‘Ali, Ibn Mas’ud, etc. Ibn Sa’d said, “He was reliable and has good narrations.” And al ‘Ijli said, “A Kufan Tabi’i who was reliable and from the fine men of the Tabi’in.” Ibn Hibban has made mention of him in his al Thiqat. And al Lalikaʾi said, “His reliability is agreed upon.” He passed away in 100 A.H/718 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 6/127; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/159; Khalifah: al Tabaqat; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 152; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 3/236.

[63] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 3/1144.

[64] Khalid ibn al Rabi’ al ‘Absi al Kufi. Ibn Hibban has made mention of him in his al Thiqat. Ibn Hajar said regarding him, “an accepted narrator from the second generation.” See: al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 2/1/148; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 3/329; Ibn Hajar: al Taqrib, 1/213.

[65] Al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Saghir, 1/80; Ibn Abi Shaybah: al Musannaf, 15/206; Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 458.

[66] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 458.

[67] Maymun ibn Mahran al Jazari, Abu Ayub al Kufi al Raqqi. The jurist and hadith expert. Ibn ‘Arubah has included him in the first generation of the Tabi’in. He was appointed to oversee the taxes of the peninsula and its judicial cases for ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz. ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed said, “I heard my father saying, “Maymun Ibn Mahran was reliable, more reliable than ‘Ikrimah.” And al ‘Ijli said, “A reliable Tabi’i.” And Abu Zur’ah and al Nasaʾi said, “Reliable.” And Ibn Sa’d said, “He was reliable and narrated a few narrations.” And Ibn Khirash said, “A great scholar.” He passed away in 116 A.H/734 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 7/477; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/599; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 4/1/338; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 445; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 10/391.

[68] Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 3/80; Ibn Abi Shaybah: al Musannaf, 15/210-211.

[69] Ahmed: Fadaʾil al Sahabah, 1/493. The annotator has deemed its transmission Hassan.

[70] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 388.

[71] Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas al Zuhri. He narrated from his father. And from him Yunus ibn Abi Ishaq and al Mas’udi narrated. Al Nasaʾi and Ibn Hibban have deemed him reliable. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat: (the section regarding the Tabi’in of Madinah), p.239; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 1/1/319; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 2/129; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 1/153.

[72] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 3/1084.

[73] Masruq ibn al Ajda’ ibn Malik al Hamadani al Wada’i al Kufi, Abu ‘Aʾishah. A devout worshipper, a jurist and a reliable narrator from the Tabi’in. Al Sha’bi said, “I have not seen anyone more zealous for knowledge than him. He is considered amongst the students of Ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu who would teach the people the Sunnah. Al ‘Ijli said, “A Tabi’i from Kufah who was reliable.” And Ibn Sa’d said, “He was reliable and has good narrations.” Ibn Hibban has mentioned him in his al Thiqat. And Waki’ and others state that Masruq did not stay behind from the battles of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He passed away in 63 A.H/682 A.H. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 6/76; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 426; al Fasawi: al Ma’rifah wa al Tarikh, 2/65; al Dhahabi: al Kashif, 3/120; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 10/109.

[74] Khalifah: al Tarikh, p. 176; Ibn Kathir: al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/195 (this transmission to her is Sahih).

[75] I did not come across her biography in the reference I have at my disposal.

[76] Al Jarrah ibn Malih ibn ‘Adi ibn al Harith al—Rawasi al Kufi, Abu Waki’. ‘Uthman al Darimi said, “There is no problem with him. The same is suggested by Ibn Abi Maryam.” And he said in another place, “Reliable.” And Abu al Walid and Abu Dawood have also deemed him reliable.” And al Nasaʾi and al ‘Ijli said, “There is no problem with him.” And Ibn ‘Adi said, “He has good narrations and accurate reports and he is truthful. However, on the other hand, Ibn Ma’in, Ibn Sa’d, Abu Hatim al Razi and Ibn Hibban have deemed him weak. He passed away in 176 A.H/792 A.C. See: Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/78; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 1/2/227; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 95; al Ajurri: al Suʾalat, p. 116; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib.

[77] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 4/1224.

[78] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, 4/1224.

[79] Al Baladhuri: Ansab al Ashraf, 1/596; Ahmed: Fadaʾil al Sahabah, 1/462, the annotator has deemed its transmission Sahih.

[80] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 4/1244.

[81] Ibn Kathir: al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/195.

[82] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 539.

[83] Abu Maryam al Ansari, and some say: al Hadrami al Shami, the freed slave of Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He narrated from Abu Hurairah and from Jabir and was alive during the era of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Ibn Abi Hatim said, “His name was ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Ma’iz.” Al ‘Ijli said, “A Tabi’i from Sham who was reliable.” See: al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir (section of Kuna), 9/69; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 510; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 9/437; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 12/231.

[84] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 493.

[85] Ibid. p. 493.

[86] ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Mull ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Adi, Abu ‘Uthman al Nahdi. A Tabi’i who witness the pre-Islamic and Islamic era. Al Ajurri narrates from Abu Dawood, “The most senior Tabi’i of Kufah.” And Ibn Abi Hatim narrates from his father, “He was reliable.” And Abu Zur’ah, al Nasaʾi, and Ibn Khirash said, “Reliable.” Ibn Hajar said, “Accurate narrator and a devout worshipper.” He passed away in 95 A.H/713 A.C. See: Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/359; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 505; Ibn Abi Hatim, al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 5/283; al Ajurri: al Suʾalat, p. 153; Ibn Hajar: al Taqrib, 1/499.

[87] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 4/1245; Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 490.

[88] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 493.

[89] Ibn Kathir: al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/236.

[90] I did not come across his biography in the references I have at my disposal.

[91] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 7/236.

[92] Al Muhibb al Tabari: al Riyad al Nadirah, 2/195.

[93] Ibn Abi Shaybah: al Musannaf, 15/204-205.

[94] Kulthum ibn ‘Amir ibn al Harith ibn Abi Dirar, also known as Kulthum ibn al Mustaliq. Ibn Hibban has made mention of him in his in the category of the reliable Tabi’in. And al Darimi says from Ibn Ma’in, “Reliable.” See: al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 4/1/226; al Darimi: al Tarikh, p. 195; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 7/163; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 8/444.

[95] Al Haythami: Majma’ al Zawaʾid, 9/93.

[96] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, 4/558.

[97] Abu Nuaim: Ma’rifah al Sahabah, 1/245; al Tabarani: al Mu’jam al Kabir, 1/46.

[98] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 3/1211.

[99] Al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Saghir, 1/76.

[100] Ahmed: Fadaʾil al Sahabah, 1/474. The annotator has deemed its transmission Sahih.

[101] Abu Salih, the freed slave of ‘Uthman. He has narrated from ‘Uthman and Hassan ibn ‘Atiyyah has narrated from him. Al ‘Ijli has said, “Reliable.” See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 5/303; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/710; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 501.

[102] Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 3/81.

[103] Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Salam al Israʾili al Madani. He narrated from his father and ‘Amr ibn Yahya narrated from him. Ibn Hibban has made mention of him in his al Thiqat, and al Dhahabi has deemed him reliable. Ibn Hajar said, “Acceptable narrator from the fourth generation.” See: al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 1/1/262; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 8/118; al Dhahabi: al Kashif, 3/99; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 9/534; al Taqrib, 2/221.

[104] ‘Anbasah ibn Sa’id ibn al ‘As, Abu Ayub al Kufi. A Tabi’i. He has narrated from a group of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum amongst them: Abu Hurairah and Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Ibn Ma’in, Abu Dawood, al Nasaʾi, al Daraqutni, al Darimi, and al Fasawi have deemed him reliable. Ibn Sa’d said, “Reliable and a narrator of Hadith.” See: al Tabaqat, 7/345; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/457; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 4/1/35; al Darimi: al Tarikh, p. 158; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 8/155.

[105] Surah al Ahqaf: 10.

[106] Surah Ra’d: 43.

[107] Al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 1/1/262 (through the transmission of Shu’ayb ibn Safwan); al Tirmidhi: Sunan al Tirmidhi (from ‘Abdul Malik ibn ‘Umair, he has deemed it Hassan), 5/235; al Tabarani has also quoted it, as appears in: al Haythami: Majma’ al Zawaʾid, 9/93 (has deemed its narrators reliable): Ahmed: Fadaʾil al Sahabah, 1/476.

[108] Ahmed ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Abi al Khayr ibn ‘Abdul ‘Alim al Khazraji al Ansari al Sa’idi, Safiyy al Din. He had knowledge regarding hadith and its transmitters. He authored Khulasah Tadhhib Tahdhib al Kamal fi Asmaʾ al Rijal. He passed away in 923 A.H./after 1517 A.H. See: al Zarkali: al A’lam, 1/160; ‘Umar Rida Kahhalah: Mu’jam al Muʾallifin, 1/288; Nasir al Suwaidan: Madakhil al Muʾallifin wa al A’lam al ‘Arab, p. 164.

[109] Al Khazraji: Khulasah Tahdhib al Kamal, p. 261.

[110] Ibn Abi Shaybah: al Musannaf, 15/212.

[111] Nafi’ the freed slave of Ibn ‘Umar, Abu ‘Abdullah al Madani, the jurist. Ibn ‘Umar came to own after one of the campaigns. He was from the senior Tabi’in. Ibn Sa’d said, “Reliable and narrated hadith in abundance.” And al Bukhari said, “The most Sahih transmission is Malik from Nafi’ from Ibn ‘Umar.” Al ‘Ijli and al Nasaʾi also deemed him reliable. Ibn Khirash said, “Reliable and noble.” And al Khalili said, “Nafi’ was the leader of the Tabi’in in Madinah, a leader in knowledge, who undisputedly accepted, accurate in his narrations, he is not known to have made a mistake in a single narration. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat (the section regarding the Tabi’in of Madinah), p. 142; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/602; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 447; al Darimi: al Tarikh, p. 151; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 10/412.

[112] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 212.

[113] Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 3/80; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/295.

[114] Zahdam ibn Mudarrib al Jarmi, Abu Muslim al Basri. A Tabi’i. He has narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas ‘Imran ibn Hussain and others, and Qatadah and Abu al Tayyah have narrated from him. Al ‘Ijli said, “A reliable Tabi’i.” And Ibn Hibban made mention of him in al Thiqat. See: al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 2/1/448; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 166; Ibn Abi Hatim, al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 3/627; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 3/341.

[115] Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 3/80.

[116] Al Baladhuri: Ansab al Ashraf, 1/595.

[117] Did not come across his biography in the books I have at my disposal.

[118] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 4/1245.

[119] Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 3/80.

[120] Yazid ibn Abi ‘Ubaid al Hijazi, Abu Khalid al Aslami, the freed slave of Salamah ibn al Akwa’. A Tabi’i. al Ajurri said narrating from Abu Dawood, “Reliable.” And ibn Ma’in, al ‘Ijli, Abu Hatim, and Ibn Hibban have deemed him reliable. And Ibn Sa’d said, “He was reliable and has a lot of narrations.” He passed away in 147 A.H/764 A.H. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat (the section regarding the Tabi’in of Madinah), p. 359; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/675; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 479; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 9/280; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 11/349.

[121] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 4/1242.

[122] Abu al Walid al Madani al Makki, Yasar ibn ‘Abdur Rahman. A Tabi’i. Ibn Hibban has made mention of him in his al Thiqat. And Ibn Hajar said, “An accepted narrator from the fourth generation.” See: al Dhahabi: al Kashif, 3/343; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 12/274; al Taqrib, 2/487.

[123] Bukayr ibn ‘Abdullah ibn al Ashajj al Qurashi al Madani. Ahmed, Ibn Ma’in, Abu Hatim, al ‘Ijli, and al Nasaʾi have deemed him reliable. And al Bukhari said, “He was from the pious.” And Ahmed ibn Salih al Misri said, “If you see Bukayr narrating from someone then do not ask about him, for he is reliable and there is no doubt about that.” He passed away in the era of Hisham ibn ‘Abdul Malik in 117 A.H/735 A.H. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat (section on the Tabi’in of the Madinah), p. 308; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 1/2/113; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 86; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 2/403.

[124] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 4/403.

[125] Al Hakim: al Mustadrak: chapter of knowing the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum: 3/105.

[126] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 547.

[127] Hassan: Diwan, p. 62.

[128] Ibid.

[129] Al Mubarrid: al Kamil fi al Lughah, 2/39.

[130] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 527.

[131] Khalifah: al Tarikh, p. 177.

[132] Ibid. p. 176.

[133] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 488.

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