Sayyiduna `Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu `anhu – Fostered in the Home of Nubuwwah; Husband of the Pure Queen
April 29, 2020
Section Two: The Stance of the Sahabah regarding the Fitnah
May 8, 2020

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All praise belongs solely to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. With His praise is every book opened and with His remembrance is every address commenced. May the choicest of salutations and perfect peace be upon the noblest of Messengers, our master Muhammad―the Nabi, the guide, the trustworthy―and upon his family and Companions.

When discussing the lives of the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum one can’t but help drifting into other discussions that are gleaned from their lives. After all, these were the very ones the Almighty subhanahu wa ta `ala had selected for the companionship of His Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. They saw the life and times of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, heard his words, and witnessed his qualities and character which drove them to him. They entrusted him with the management of their affairs and plunged into his Sunnah and Sirah to the extent that eyes were dazzled by their sight and all types of distress and turbidity were removed from them. They, thus, gave preference to Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam over themselves, their wealth, their children, and their spouses; and sacrificed in his path the finest of their assets. Through their sacrifices and striving with Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, they set the most marvellous and magnificent example of selflessness and sincerity to Islam.

In the front ranks of the honourable Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum stand the Ten Promised Jannah by the praiseworthy Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam―may the choicest of salutations and most complete peace be upon him―via revelation from Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala.

These ten individuals enjoyed precedence to Islam. Their sacrifice was the greatest and their jihad was the most superior. They were thus deserving of being guaranteed Jannah due to these and other services.

This treatise of ours is only a humble presentation, in an effort to acknowledge their superiority and profess their lofty and high status. We have not covered everything reported about them. A thorough and complete study was not our goal; it is something which the nature of this treatise cannot encompass, as it is above count and measure. It demands many volumes and plenty time, whereas this treatise is but the tip of the iceberg.

This is my humble submission. Moreover, I do not claim perfection in this treatise. It is a humble effort. In fact, I do not consider myself worthy of speaking of these illustrious individuals and I have not fulfilled their right. All I aspire from Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala is for this action to win His acceptance and for Him to include it in the scale of good deeds of the writer, his parents, his wife, his offspring, his siblings, and whoever assisted in preparing it; either by support, proofreading, editing, by encouragement, by pointing out something important, or by supplicating to Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala for help and ability. I beg Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala to reward them all with the best of rewards and to include it in the scale of my good deeds and theirs.

At the end, loyalty and faithfulness demands that I attribute the favour to its rightful recipients and express gratitude to those deserving, practicing on Allah’s subhanahu wa ta `ala declaration:

وَلَا تَنْسَوُا الْفَضْلَ بَيْنَكُمْ

And do not forget graciousness between you.[1]


It is appropriate for me to present the finest vote of thanks and acknowledgement to my colleagues at Mabarrat al-Al wa al-Ashab, the fortunate and blessed. The most renowned among them is the virtuous Shaykh, `Abd al-Muhsin al-Jar Allah al-Kharafi―chairman of Mabarrat al-Al wa al-Ashab Institute and its founding member. He is celebrated for his knowledge, outstanding character, and superiority. A man of great courage, lofty morals, vast knowledge, generosity, expertise, qualifications, and mercy―the likes of which is rare in the present world.

I commend him for his lofty courage and persevering efforts in the course of his religion and for his nation. May Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala reward him abundantly on my behalf and behalf of my brothers who tread the road of knowledge.

I extend my sincere gratitude and appreciation to the respected brothers in the faculty of research at Mabarrat al-Al wa al-Ashab and their chief, the virtuous Shaykh, Muhammad Salim al-Khidr, a man of admirable resolution and pure qualities. He has a flowing pen and a versant tongue; and is author of voluminous books.

The virtuous Shaykh `Ali ibn Hamd al-Tamimi, a man with presence of mind, wittiness, abundant information, and published works; one from whom I have benefitted in many pages of my treatise.

The virtuous Shaykh Badr Muhammad Baqir, a man sound in argument, dignified in nature, and vibrant in debate.

The virtuous Shaykh Sa’id Subhi, who has a neck for persuasive invitation; an exceptional scholar and one who enjoys precedence in proofreading this treatise.

The virtuous Shaykh `Ala’ Muhammad `Abd al-Ghani, the final proof-reader of this treatise. A tourist of history, steadfast in the face of adversity, a man with a pure heart and gentleness.

I should not fail to show appreciation to the virtuous Shaykh Usamah Muhammad Zuhayr, swift in his efforts in the science of hadith. Similarly, the virtuous Shaykh Salah al-`Amiri, who is brimming with knowledge and filled with understanding. Likewise, all my associates at Mabarrat al-Al wa al-Ashab. I appreciate the noble efforts and blessed company of all these individuals.

Finally, if it is binding upon me to gift this treatise to anyone, then I bestow it upon my beloved father, beloved mother, beloved wife, beloved son, and all the brothers at Mabarrat al-Al wa al-Ashab; beseeching Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala to grant us capability and to crown it with acceptance. I also implore Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala to assist me and them to convey His message and deliver His proof. He is the Patron of this, the Master over it, and All-Powerful over it.


Written by one hopeful of the pardon of his Rabb

Shaykh Ahmad Sayyid Ahmad `Ali Ahmad


Definition of Sahabah, their Rank, and our Duty towards them

Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala selected Companions for His Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and made them the most excellent Muslim generation and the head of the believing cavalcade. They received the invitation of Islam and carried the trust of tabligh (conveying the message). They traversed the deserts and wastelands with Islam until they conveyed it to the close and distant. In conveying this massive trust, they abandoned worldly possessions and pleasures. They leaped into a path filled with obstacles and impediments, crammed with thorns and steep inclines, and endured the hazards and perils of the road. Finally, they conveyed din fresh and pure to all the lands, leaving no stone unturned and sparing no thought or effort which could support in disseminating this din. This has made the Muslims unanimously agree to their superiority―we are indebted to them despite the passing of ages and succeeding of generations. [All Muslims agree to their superiority] Except for a few to whom no consideration is given and consensus is not broken because of them. May Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala reward the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum magnificently on behalf of Islam and the Muslims.

In the forthcoming lines, the definition of the technical term Sahabah, lexically and technically, will be discussed; followed by their lofty position and the Ummah’s duty towards them.


Definition of Sahabah

Lexical Definition of Sahabah

Al-Fayruzabadi says:

Istashabahu: he invited him to friendship and committed to him.[2]


Al-Jawhari says:

Al-sahabah with a fathah: Companions. Originally, it is a masdar (root word).

Ashabtuhu al-shay: I made a thing his companion.

Istashabtuhu al-kitab wa gharuhu: I gave him a book etc.

Everything that is agreeable with another, is its companion.[3]


From the above, it becomes apparent that the root of sahiba, lexically, indicates to emulation and attachment.


Technical Definition of Sahabah

There are scores of definitions presented by the scholars for the technical term Sahabah or Sahabi. The most common of these are the following:

Imam al-Bukhari’s rahimahu Llah definition:

من صحب النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أو رآه من المسلمين فهو من أصحابه

Those Muslims who kept the company of the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam or saw him are among his Companions.[4]


`Ali ibn al-Madini says:

من صحب النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أو رآه و لو ساعة من نهار فهو من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم

The person who kept the company of the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam or saw him, even for a moment, is from the Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam.[5]


Sa`id ibn al-Musayyab states:

الصحابة لا نعدهم إلا من أقام مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم سنة أو سنتين و غزا معه غزوة أو غزوتين

We only regard those as Companions who stayed with Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam for one or two years and fought in one or two battles alongside him.[6]


Al-Waqidi follows up on what Ibn al-Musayyab says by asserting:


و رأينا أهل العلم يقولون كل من رأى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و قد أدرك الحلم فأسلم و عقل أمر الدين و رضيه فهو عندنا ممن صحب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و لو ساعة من نهار

We see the scholars stating that all those who, after reaching puberty, saw Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam even for a moment and embraced Islam, understanding what din entails and being pleased with the same, are the Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, according to us.[7]


Hafiz Ibn Hajar supplements the above definition of Sa`id ibn al-Musayyab by declaring:


و العمل على خلاف هذا القول لأنهم اتفقوا على عد جمع جم في الصحابة لم يجتمعوا بالنبي صلى الله عليه و سلم إلا في حجة الوداع

Practice is on something other than this, for they (the scholars) are unanimous upon considering a massive amount of people as Sahabah who never joined the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam except at the Farewell Pilgrimage.[8]


The precise and most accurate definition as affirmed by Hafiz Ibn Hajar is:


و أصح ما وفقت عليه من ذلك أن الصحابي من لقي النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم مؤمنا و مات على الإسلام

The most accurate definition I have come across in this regard is that a Sahabi is one who met the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam as a believer and passed away as an adherent of Islam.[9]


How is a Sahabi recognised?

Differentiating a Sahabi from a non-Sahabi is not an easy matter. Scholars have written scores of works on this subject. One of the most significant of them probably is Kitab al-Isti`ab of Ibn `Abd al-Barr.

The scholars, may Allah have mercy upon them, have laid down methods and regulations to determine a person being a Sahabi or not. The methods may be condensed as follows:

  1. His companionship is established through unequivocal tawatur (mass transmission). A considerable amount of reports establish that he is from the Companions.
  2. Companionship is established for a person through many well-known reports, though falling short of tawa
  3. It is reported from one of the Sahabah, and similarly from one of the Tabi`in, that a certain person enjoyed companionship. This is based upon the acceptance of one person’s pronouncement of someone’s integrity and credibility. And this is the preferred view.
  4. His companionship is established from his own attestation to the same, when his integrity is confirmed as well as him being of the same era.[10]


Hereunder is a list of principles applicable to all Sahabah. It is necessary to stipulate these when speaking about them or attempting to mention them in any way. These principles are:

  • All the Sahabah are credible. It is not permissible to discredit them or to declare any of them unreliable.
  • The Sahabah are like guiding stars, directing the confused and guiding aright the astray.
  • Whenever Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala spoke about the Sahabah in His Book, He praised them and promised them a handsome recompense.[11]


The Status and Rank of the Sahabah

The Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum enjoy an honourable and lofty rank in the heart of every Muslim. The faith of a Muslim is incomplete without loving them and being pleased with them. A person who criticises any one of them is a hypocrite, deprived of iman, and fallen from worthiness and consideration.

Every person who recites the Book of Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala is compelled to attest to the excellence of the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum underscored by the Glorious Qur’an, revealed from the Most Wise and Praiseworthy. Likewise, he is compelled to acknowledge all the virtues authentically established from Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, whether these virtues are general or specific.

Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala has lauded them in his Glorious Book, as a whole, in plenty verses and at many places. Some of these verses are:

1. Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala announces:

كُنْتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُوْنَ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُوْنَ بِاللَّهِ

You are the best nation produced [as an example] for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and believe in Allah.[12]


Ibn al-Jawzi elucidates:

و فيمن أريد بهذه الآية أربعة أقوال أحدها أنهم أهل بدر و الثاني أنهم المهاجرون و الثالث جميع الصحابة و الرابع جميع أمة محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم نقلت هذه الأقوال كلها عن ابن عباس

There are four views regarding who is referred to in this verse.

    1. The participants of Badr.
    2. The Muhajirin.
    3. All the Sahabah.
    4. The entire ummah of Muhammad salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam.

These interpretations have been reported from Ibn `Abbas.[13]


2. Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala states:


وَالسَّابِقُوْنَ الْأَوَّلُوْنَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِيْنَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوْهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ رَّضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوْا عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِيْ تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِيْنَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ذٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيْمُ

And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajirin and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct—Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment.[14]


Ibn Kathir explains:


يخبر تعالى عن رضاه عن السابقين من المهاجرين و الأنصار و التابعين لهم بإحسان و رضاهم عنه بما أعد لهم من جنات النعيم و النعيم المقيم … و قال محمد بن كعب القرظي مر عمر بن الخطاب برجل يقرأ هذه الآية وَالسَّابِقُوْنَ الْأَوَّلُوْنَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِيْنَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ فأخذ عمر بيده فقال من أقرأك هذا فقال أبي بن كعب فقال لا تفارقني حتى أذهب بك إليه فلما جاءه قال عمر أنت أقرأت هذا هذه الآية هكذا قال نعم قال و سمعتها من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال نعم قال لقد كنت أرى أنا رفعنا رفعة لا يبلغها أحد بعدنا فقال أبي تصديق هذه الآية في أول سورة الجمعة وَآخَرِيْنَ مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُوْا بِهِمْ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيْزُ الْحَكِيْمُ فيا ويل من أبغضهم أو سبهم أو أبغض أو سب بعضهم

Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala notifies of His pleasure with the forerunners among the Muhajirin and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct and their happiness with Him owing to the Gardens of Bliss and the everlasting enjoyment which He has prepared for them.

Muhammad ibn Ka`b al-Qurazi reports: `Umar ibn al-Khattab passed by a man who was reciting this verse: And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajirin and the Ansar.

`Umar took him by the hand and asked, “Who taught you to recite this?”

“Ubay ibn Ka`b,” replied the man.

`Umar said, “Do not go away until I take you to him.”

When they arrived at Ubay’s presence, `Umar asked, “Are you responsible for teaching this man to recite this verse in this manner?”

“Yes,” Ubay replied.

“And you heard it from Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam?”


`Umar remarked, “I always believed that we were exalted to such a rank which no one after us can reach.”

Ubay added, “The corroboration for this verse appears in the beginning of Surah al-Jumu`ah: And [to] others of them who have not yet joined them. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.[15]

[Ibn Kathir continues:] Destruction to the one who harbours enmity for them, or curses them, or hates and vilifies any of them.”[16]


3. Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala announces:


مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِيْنَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُوْنَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا سِيْمَاهُمْ فِيْ وُجُوْهِهِمْ مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُوْدِ ذٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنْجِيْلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوىٰ عَلىٰ سُوْقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيْظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُمْ مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيْمًا

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Tawrah. And their description in the Injil is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers – so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward.[17]


Ibn Kathir explains:


فالصحابة رضي الله عنهم خلصت نياتهم و حسنت أعمالهم فكل من نظر إليهم أعجبوه في سمتهم و هديهم و قال مالك رضي الله عنه بلغني أن النصارى كانوا إذا رأوا الصحابة الذين فتحوا الشام يقولون والله لهؤلاء خير من الحواريين فيما بلغنا و صدقوا في ذلك فإن هذه الأمة معظمة في الكتب المتقدمة و أعظمها و أفضلها أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم

The Sahabah had pure intentions and outstanding actions. Whoever looks at them is delighted by their mannerism and guidance.

Malik says, “It has reached me that when the Christians would see the Sahabah who conquered Sham, they would say, ‘By Allah, these men are superior to the Hawariyyin (Companions of `Isa `alayh al-Salam), according to the reports that reached us.’”

They are true in this declaration for this ummah is spoken highly of in the previous scriptures. The most excellent and superior companions are the Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam.[18]


The Sunnah is replete with traditions highlighting the excellence of the Sahabah and praising them. Some narrations are:

Al-Bukhari reports through his chain up to the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam who declared:


خير الناس قرني ثم الذين يلونهم ثم الذين يلونهم

The best people are those of my era, then those who follow them, then those who follow them.[19]


Muslim narrates through his chain from Abu Burdah from his father (Sayyiduna Abu Musa al-Ash`ari radiya Llahu `anhu) who reports:


صلينا المغرب مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ثم قلنا لو جلسنا حتى نصلي معه العشاء قال فجلسنا فخرج علينا فقال ما زلتم ههنا قلنا يا رسول الله صلينا معك المغرب ثم قلنا نجلس حتى نصلي معك العشاء قال أحسنتم أو أصبتم قال فرفع رأسه الى السماء و كان كثيرا مما يرفع رأسه الى السماء فقال النجوم أمنة للسماء فإذا ذهبت النجوم أتى السماء ما توعد و أنا أمنة لأصحابي فإذا ذهبت أتى أصحابي ما يوعدون و أصحابي أمنة لأمتي فإذا ذهب أصحابي أتى أمتي ما يوعدون

We performed Maghrib with Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. We then suggested, “Why don’t we wait and perform `Isha’ with him.” So we sat and waited. Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam came out to us and asked, “Have you been here all this while?”

We explained, “O Messenger of Allah, we prayed Maghrib with you. We then thought we will sit and wait until we pray `Isha’ with you.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said, “You have done well.”

He then raised his gaze towards the sky―and he would often raise his gaze towards the sky―and said, ‘The stars are a protection for the sky. When the stars disappear, what the sky was promised will approach. I am a protection for my Companions. When I leave, what my Companions were promised will come. My Companions are a protection for my ummah. When my Companions leave, what my ummah was promised will come.[20]


Al-Bukhari and Muslim report that Sayyiduna Abu Sa`id al-Khudri radiya Llahu `anhu relates the command of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam:


لا تسبوا أصحابي فوالذي نفسي بيده لو أنفق أحدكم مثل أحد ذهبا ما بلغ مد أحدهم و لا نصيفه

Do not revile my Companions. By the Being in whose Hand lies my soul, if one of you must spend gold equivalent to Mount Uhud, it would not reach their mudd[21] or even half of it.[22]


These texts and narrations testify that the Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam are the cream of this ummah with the purest of hearts. Every virtue this ummah holds exclusively, the Sahabah are the most deserving of that virtue for they are the direct addressees and first recipients. Those who come after them are their followers in this matter.


Duty of the Ummah towards the Sahabah

Our duty towards the Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam may be concisely condensed in the following points.

  • The compulsion to love them, revere them, and praise them.
  • The compulsion of an ingenuous testimony that the generation of Sahabah are the most superior generation of this ummah, in fact the most superior generation of the world.
  • The compulsion to believe that in the understanding of din, with the mindset of the Salaf (pious predecessors) and according to the reports of the Sahabah, lies safety for the ummah from innovations, misguidance, and fitan.
  • To participate according to one’s capability in praising them and enlivening their biographies and life stories.
  • Defending them against those who degrade them or try to harm them or defame any of them.
  • To plant their love in the hearts of the young so the young develop with it. This will ensure that the Sahabah’s rank will never be insignificant in their hearts.

This is simply the tip of the iceberg of our duties towards the Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam―who were sincere to him in their companionship and sacrificed the most valuable of their possessions in the path of Islam. May Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala be pleased with them all.


Centre of Discussion and Study

This study is centred around the ten individuals promised Jannah. Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala had selected the worthiest of men for the companionship of His Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. He endowed them with magnificent excellences. Their ranks and positions of superiority are diverse according to these excellences. The Ten Promised Jannah hold the grandest virtue and rank. Those whose sacrifices are the greatest and who appear at the head of this grand generation are these Ten Promised Jannah. These ten individuals are:

  1. Abu Bakr al-Siddiq radiya Llahu `anhu
  2. `Umar ibn al-Khattab radiya Llahu `anhu
  3. `Uthman ibn `Affan radiya Llahu `anhu
  4. `Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu `anhu
  5. Abu `Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah radiya Llahu `anhu
  6. Talhah ibn `Ubayd Allah radiya Llahu `anhu
  7. Zubayr ibn al-`Awwam radiya Llahu `anhu
  8. `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf radiya Llahu `anhu
  9. Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu `anhu
  10. Sa`id ibn Zayd radiya Llahu `anhu

These ten distinguished individuals illuminated the pages of Islamic history. By their sincerity and jihad alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, they have set the most superb and beautiful record possible for any Muslim desirous of his din and ummah.

The scope of our discussion will not go beyond these ten individuals. We will discuss their biographies, noble lives, the most prominent of their qualities, their specialities, their character, and their virtues. Coupled with this, we will shed some light on the key to each of their personalities and what distinguishes them from others; the aspect which secured glad tidings of the Garden of Bliss from the Grand Sovereign subhanahu wa ta `ala via His honoured Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam.

Furthermore, our treatise will cover the reason they are deserving of being guaranteed Jannah. In this way, we have intended to defend these distinguished individuals from those who defame them, or any one of them. At the same time, we wish to enliven their legacy to encourage those after them to emulate them.


The Hadith of the Ten:

Abu Dawud reports through his chain from `Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Akhnas:


أنه كان في المسجد فذكر رجل عليا عليه السلام فقام سعيد بن زيد فقال أشهد على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أني سمعته و هو يقول عشرة في الجنة النبي في الجنة و أبو بكر في الجنة و عمر في الجنة و عثمان في الجنة و علي في الجنة و طلحة في الجنة و الزبير بن العوام في الجنة و سعد بن مالك المراد به سعد بن أبي وقاص و اسم أبي وقاص مالك في الجنة و عبد الرحمن بن عوف في الجنة و لو شئت لسميت العاشر قال فقالوا من هو فسكت قال فقالوا من هو فقال هو سعيد بن زيد

He was in the Masjid when a person spoke about `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu. Hearing this, Sa`id ibn Zayd stood up and pronounced, “I bear witness that I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam saying: ‘Ten individuals are in Jannah. The Nabi is in Jannah. Abu Bakr is in Jannah. `Umar is in Jannah. `Uthman is in Jannah. `Ali is in Jannah. Talhah is in Jannah. Zubayr ibn al-`Awwam is in Jannah. Sa`d ibn Malik―referring to Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas since Abu Waqqas’s name is Malik―is in Jannah. `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf is in Jannah.’ If I wanted, I would have named the tenth.”

The narrator[23] says: They asked, “Who is it?”

He remained silent.

They asked again, “Who is he?”

He said, “He is Sa`id ibn Zayd.”[24]


Ahmad and al-Tirmidhi report from Sayyiduna `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf radiya Llahu `anhu:


قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أبو بكر في الجنة و عمر في الجنة و عثمان في الجنة و علي في الجنة و طلحة في الجنة و الزبير في الجنة و عبد الرحمن بن عوف في الجنة و سعد في الجنة و سعيد في الجنة و أبو عبيدة بن الجراح في الجنة

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam stated: “Abu Bakr is in Jannah. `Umar is in Jannah. `Uthman is in Jannah. `Ali is in Jannah. Talhah is in Jannah. Zubayr is in Jannah. `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf is in Jannah. Sa`d is in Jannah. Sa`id is in Jannah. And Abu `Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah is in Jannah.”[25]


Narrations make it clear that this glad tiding for the ten was announced above Mount Hira’ in Makkah in the beginning stages of the Da`wah.

Imam Ahmad ibn Hambal documents the following narration through his chain from Sayyiduna Sa`id ibn Zayd ibn `Amr ibn Nufayl radiya Llahu `anhu:


قال أشهد أن عليا رضي الله عنه من أهل الجنة قلت و ما ذاك قال هو في التسعة لو شئت أن أسمي العاشر سميته قال اهتز حراء فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم اثبت حراء فإنه ليس عليك إلا نبي أو صديق أو شهيد قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و أبو بكر و عمر و علي و عثمان و طلحة و الزبير و عبد الرحمن بن عوف و سعد و أنا يعني سعيدا نفسه

Sa`id said: “I testify that `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu is from the inhabitants of Jannah.”

I asked, “How is that?”

He said, “He is among the nine. Had I wanted to name the tenth, I would have.”

He went on to explain, “Hira’ shook so Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam instructed, ‘Remain firm, Hira’, for only a nabi, a siddiq, or a martyr is standing upon you.’

He[26] then listed them: Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Ali, `Uthman, Talhah, Zubayr, `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf, Sa`d and I i.e. Sa`id himself.”[27]


Regarding this testimony, `Abd Allah ibn Ahmad ibn Hambal reports the dialogue between him and his father:


سألت أبي عن الشهادة لأبي بكر و عمر أنهما في الجنة قال فكذلك أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم التسعة و قال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أهل الجنة عشرون و مائة صف ثمانون منها من أمتي فإذا لم يكن أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم منهم فمن يكون

I asked my father about the guarantee in favour of Abu Bakr and `Umar of them being inhabitants of Jannah. He added, “Similarly, the nine Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam (are also in Jannah). The Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam affirmed, ‘The inhabitants of Jannah fill 120 rows, 80 of those are from my ummah.’[28]

He added: When the Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam are not included in these 80 rows, then who will be included?[29]


Others besides Sayyiduna Sa`id ibn Zayd radiya Llahu `anhu have transmitted this guarantee from the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam including `Uthman ibn `Affan[30], `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf[31], `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas[32], `Abd Allah ibn `Umar[33], Abu Hurayrah[34], and Buraydah al-Aslami[35] radiya Llahu `anhum.

They have been assured Jannah since they are from the forerunners, the Muhajirin, and the mujahidin (warriors). They witnessed Badr, Bay`at al-Ridwan, and all other campaigns. They sacrificed the cream of their assets, their lives and souls, their wealth and family, as well as their homelands seeking the countenance of Allah, the Benevolent, making their efforts solely for Allah’s subhanahu wa ta `ala pleasure.

They were guaranteed Jannah owing to their lofty rank in the sight of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. Sa`id ibn Jubayr says:


كان مقام أبي بكر و عمر و عثمان و علي و سعد و سعيد و طلحة و الزبير و عبد الرحمن بن عوف مع النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم واحدا كانوا أمامه في القتال و خلفه في الصلاة في الصف و ليس لأحد من المهاجرين و الأنصار يقوم مقام أحد منهم غاب أم شهد

The rank of Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Uthman, `Ali, Sa`d, Sa`id, Talhah, Zubayr, and `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf with Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was one and the same. They were in front of him on the battlefield and behind him in salah in the Masjid. None of the other Muhajirin and Ansar had the privilege to take their position, whether they were present or absent.[36]


At this point, it is necessary to draw attention to something of utmost importance. The ahadith of the Ten Promised Jannah neither explicitly nor implicitly infer that others besides them will not enter Jannah, since they contain no restriction or limitation.

The ahadith on the Ten do not restrict the entry of Jannah to these ten individuals, to the exclusion of all others. They only indicate that the ten who have been mentioned specifically are from amongst the inhabitants of Jannah. This is an honour for them, a congratulations to their efforts, and a recompense for their sincerity towards Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala and His Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. The above assertion is borne out by the fact that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam has guaranteed others Jannah as well.

Just as Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam guaranteed Jannah for the ten, he promised the same to the participants of Badr. It appears in Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam announced―in the incident of Sayyiduna Hatib ibn Abi Balta`ah radiya Llahu `anhu which is related by Sayyiduna `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu.

إنه قد شهد بدرا و ما يدريك لعل الله أن يكون قد اطلع على أهل بدر فقال اعملوا ما شئتم فقد غفرت لكم

He has indeed witnessed Badr. What do you know? Perhaps Allah glanced at the participants of Badr and proclaimed, “Do as you please, for I have certainly forgiven you!”[37]


Likewise, the participants of Bay`at al-Ridwan were assured Jannah. This is established in a report from Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, the truthful who does not speak of his own desires:

إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوْحىٰ

It is not but a revelation revealed.[38]


It is documented in Sunan Abi Dawud on the authority of Sayyiduna Jabir radiya Llahu `anhu that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam affirmed:


لا يدخل النار أحد ممن بايع تحت الشجرة

None of those who pledged allegiance beneath the tree will enter Hell.[39]


Likewise, glad tidings of Jannah were sounded in favour of Sayyiduna Ja`far, Sayyiduna Hasan, Sayyiduna Husayn, Sayyidah Rumaysa’ the wife of Sayyiduna Abu Talhah, Sayyiduna Bilal, and scores of other Companions radiya Llahu `anhum.

For example, Sayyiduna Hudhayfah radiya Llahu `anhu reports the declaration of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and the narration is documented in Sunan al-Tirmidhi:

الحسن و الحسين سيدا شباب أهل الجنة

Hasan and Husayn are the leader of the youth of Jannah.[40]


Ibn Hibban reports from Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah radiya Llahu `anhu who in turn recalls that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam stated:


أريت جعفرا ملكا يطير بجناحيه في الجنة

I saw in my dream Ja`far as an angel flying with two wings in Jannah.[41]


The report of Sayyiduna Jabir ibn `Abd Allah radiya Llahu `anhu is reproduced in Sahih al-Bukhari in which mention is made that Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam explained:


رأيتني دخلت الجنة فإذا أنا بالرميصاء امرأة أبي طلحة و سمعت خشفة فقلت من هذا فقال هذا بلال و رأيت قصرا بفنائه جارية فقلت لمن هذا فقالوا لعمر فأردت أن أدخله فأنظر إليه فذكرت غيرتك فقال عمر بأبي و أمي يا رسول الله أعليك أغار

I saw myself (in a dream) entering Jannah. Suddenly, I was standing before Rumaysa’[42], the wife of Abu Talhah.

I then heard footsteps[43] so I asked, “Who is it?”

He replied, “This is Bilal.”

Thereafter, I saw a palace, in the courtyard of which was a young girl, so I enquired, “Who does this belong to?”

“`Umar,” they replied.

I wanted to enter and view it, but I recalled your protective jealousy.

`Umar submitted, “May my parents be sacrificed, O Messenger of Allah! Would I display jealousy towards you?”[44]


Most likely, we at Mabarrat al-Al wa al-Ashab will publish a book about those distinguished personalities who have been assured Jannah, besides the ten. Almost certainly, very soon will this come into existence, by the assistance and ability given by Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala.[45]


Then why the Speciality?

From the wisdom of Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala is He conferring distinction upon some of His creation, as Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala Himself declares:


وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيَخْتَارُ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَتَعَالىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُوْنَ

And your Lord creates what He wills and chooses; not for them was the choice. Exalted is Allah and high above what they associate with Him.[46]


This distinction is divided into two types, without a third.[47] A distinction from the side of Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala without any action from the side of the beneficiary. Or a distinction as a reward from Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala owing to an action by the beneficiary. With regards to the first, the entire creation enjoy this; humans, animals, and inanimate objects. For example, the distinction of the angels being the first creation, the superiority of the Ambiya’ over the entire humankind and jinn, the significance of Makkah over all other cities, the worth of Madinah after Makkah over other cities, the virtue of the Masajid over other places on earth, the distinction of the Black Stone over other stones, the excellence of the month of Ramadan over other months, the virtue of the Day of Jumu`ah, the Day of `Arafah, the Day of `Ashura’, and the first ten days of Dhu al-Hijjah over the rest of the days, the superiority of the Night of Qadr over all other nights, the value of Fard Salah over voluntary prayer, the virtue of Salat al-`Asr and Salat al-Fajr over the other prayers, and the importance of some adhkar over others. This is virtue of pure selection, without any action. As regards distinction as a recompense of an action, then it is definitely confined to the living creation, viz. the angels, humans, and jinn. This distinction is of many types.


a. Excellence by quantity: i.e. excessive worship, jihad, abundance of charity, etc. People are diverse in this aspect, as reported about two men who embraced Islam and emigrated during the lifetime of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. One of them was martyred while the other lived on for another year and then passed away on his bed (i.e. not as a martyr). Sayyiduna Talhah ibn `Ubayd Allah radiya Llahu `anhu saw the one who passed away later in a superior place to the martyr. Next morning, Sayyiduna Talhah radiya Llahu `anhu began narrating his dream to people who were amazed by it. News of this reached the ears of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam who remarked, “Why are you amazed at this?”

“O Messenger of Allah,” they explained, “the first man strived harder and was martyred, yet the second entered Jannah before him?”

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam enquired, “Has the second not lived an additional year after the first?”


“He witnessed another Ramadan and fasted and performed countless sajdahs in the year,” Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said.

Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam then affirmed, “Between them is the space wider than the sky and earth.”[48]

In this case, the virtue of the second over the first is owing to the larger quantity of his actions.


b. Excellence by quality: by sincerity and dedication. For example, two men perform actions. One carries out the action fulfilling all its rights and etiquettes, without deficiency or addition; while the other falls short in some of the etiquette and sunan of the action, although he does not omit a single fard. Or one of them steers clear from major sins while the other is involved in some sins. The first will enjoy superiority over the second due to the quality of his action.


c. Excellence by time: as stated by Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala


لَا يَسْتَوِيْ مِنْكُمْ مَّنْ أَنْفَقَ مِنْ قَبْلِ الْفَتْحِ وَقَاتَلَ أُولٰئِكَ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً مِّنَ الَّذِيْنَ أَنفَقُوْا مِنْ بَعْدُ وَقَاتَلُوْا وَكُلًّا وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْحُسْنىٰ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُوْنَ خَبِيْرٌ

Not equal among you are those who spent before the conquest [of Makkah] and fought [and those who did so after it]. Those are greater in degree than they who spent afterwards and fought. But to all Allah has promised the best [reward]. And Allah, with what you do, is Acquainted.[49]


Sayyiduna Anas radiya Llahu `anhu reports:


كان بين خالد بن الوليد و بين عبد الرحمن بن عوف كلام فقال خالد لعبد الرحمن تستطيلون علينا بأيام سبقتمونا بها فبلغنا أن ذلك ذكر للنبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال دعوا لي أصحابي فوالذي نفسي بيده لو أنفقتم مثل أحد أو مثل الجبال ذهبا ما بلغتم أعمالهم

Khalid ibn al-Walid and `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf had an argument. Khalid submitted in front of `Abd al-Rahman, “You display superiority to us owing to a couple of days you surpassed us by.”

It reached us that this was mentioned to the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam who commented, “Spare my Companions! By the Being in whose Hand lies my life, had you spent gold equal to Mount Uhud or equal to mountains, you will not reach their actions.”[50]


d. Excellence by Place

Example: Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam announced:


صلاة في مسجدي هذا خير من ألف صلاة في غيره من المساجد إلا المسجد الحرام

A salah in this Masjid of mine is superior to 1000 salahs in other Masajid besides al-Masjid al-Haram.[51]


e. Excellence by Attribution

Examples: Salah behind Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, jihad with him, and da`wah in his presence. Those who joined in these affairs with sincere iman are undoubtedly superior to others. Keeping this in mind, when `Abd Allah ibn al-Mubarak rahimahu Llah was asked whether Sayyiduna Mu`awiyah radiya Llahu `anhu or `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz was superior in his sight, he answered:


لتراب في منخري معاوية مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم خير أو أفضل من عمر بن عبد العزيز

The dust in the nose of Mu`awiyah alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam is better and greater than `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz.


A person posed the same question to Mu`afa ibn `Imran[52] who became furious at the question and declared:


يوم من معاوية أفضل من عمر بن عبد العزيز

A single day of Mu`awiyah’s is greater than `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz.


He then turned to the man and said:

تجعل رجلا من أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم مثل رجل من التابعين

You are equating a Companion of Muhammad salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam with a man from the Tabi`in?[53]


The Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam gathered all these excellences, excellence by quantity, quality, time, place, and attribution. And the Ten Promised Jannah radiya Llahu `anhum collected all of these to the next level. They are the forerunners to Islam; they are the first Emigrants; they are the Heroes and Conquerors. They are the practicing scholars, the sincere and devoted, the spiritual leaders. They adopted the company of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and were genuine in their companionship. Their biographies serve as models for those after them. They piloted the multitudes of Muslims in knowledge, action, and spirituality. Their era was the most glorious era of Islam. In fact, Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam guaranteeing the Ten Jannah is among the evidences of his Nubuwwah. This is because they remained upon Islam; none of them apostatised after Rasulullah’s salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam demise. They were the leaders after him for the rest of the Sahabah; leave alone ordinary people of the same era and subsequent eras. They are the cream of the Quraysh, the best of the early Muhajirin, the most superior of the participants of Badr, the greatest of the men [who pledge allegiance] beneath the tree, and the chiefs of this ummah in this world and the Hereafter.


Abu Bakr ibn Abi Dawud[54] composed the following couplets:

وزيراه قدما ثم عثمان الأرجح و قل إن خير الناس بعد محمد
علي حليف الخير بالخير منجح و رابعهم خير البرية بعدهم
على نجب الفردوس في الخلد تسرح و إنهم الرهط لا ريب فيهم
و عامر فهر و الزبير الممدح سعيد و سعد و ابن عوف و طلحة

Declare that the greatest people after Muhammad,

Are his two viziers, who enjoy precedence. Then `Uthman the favourite.

The fourth of them, the best of creation after them is

`Ali, the ally of goodness, with graciousness was he successful.

They are the group, undoubtedly,

Proceeding without restraint in the excellent Firdaws till eternity.

As well as Sa`id, Sa`d, Ibn `Awf, Talhah

`Amir Fihr, and Zubayr the praised.[55]


Al-Rayashi recited for a man of Quraysh:

صادفت ذا العلم و الخبره أيا سائلي عن خيار العباد
و خير قريش ذوو الهجره خيار العباد جميعا قريش
ثمانية وحده نصره و خير ذوي الهجرة السابقون
و طلحة و اثنان من زهره علي و عثمان ثم الزبير
و جاور قبرهما قبره و بران قد جاورا أحمدا
فلا يذكرن بعدهم فخره فمن كان بعدهم فاخرا

O questioner about the elite bondsmen!

You have run into one, knowledgeable and well-informed.

The elite bondsmen are the Quraysh.

And the cream of Quraysh are the Emigrants.

The best of the Emigrants are the forerunners.

Eight individuals who helped him independently.

`Ali, `Uthman, then Zubayr,

Talhah and two persons from the (Banu) Zuhrah.

Finally, two righteous men who were neighbours of Ahmad.

And their graves are adjacent to his.

If anyone wishes to boast hereafter,

Should never boast over them[56]


There you have it, a brief introduction to our topic of discussion. In the forthcoming pages, we will present the biographies and accounts of the Ten Promised Jannah. They were men with pure hearts, purified souls, and lofty ranks. They sacrificed their invaluable lives and the best of their wealth so the Word of Allah spreads across the length and breadth of the earth and the near and distant hear the call. To the extent that they gave life to dead hearts, they opened blind eyes, and made deaf ears hear. May Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala be pleased with them all.

We begin our treatise on the Ten Promised Jannah with the first of them, the most superior individual, and the closest to the heart of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam: hearken! It is Abu Bakr al-Siddiq radiya Llahu `anhu.


NEXT⇒ Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq – The Companion in the Cave and the Comrade on Journeys

[1] Surah al-Baqarah: 237.

[2] Al-Fayruzabadi: al-Qamus al-Muhit, vol. 8 pg. 11.

[3] Al-Jawhari: al-Sihah, vol. 1 pg. 161.

[4] Ibn Hajar: Fath al-Bari, vol. 7 pg. 4, Dar al-Ma`rifah, Beirut, second print.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibn al-Athir: Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 1 pg. 12.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Fath al-Bari, vol. 7 pg. 3.

[9] Ibn Hajar: al-Isabah fi Tamyiz al-Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 158, Dar al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyyah, Beirut, second edition, 1415 A.H.

[10] Muqaddamat Ibn al-Salah, pg. 145, 146, published by Maktabat al-Mutanabbi, Cairo.

[11] Al-Mawsu`ah al-Islamiyyah al-`Ammah, prepared by the highest council of Islamic affairs, pg. 845.

[12] Surah Al `Imran: 110.

[13] Ibn al-Jawzi: Zad al-Masir fi `Ilm al-Tafsir, vol. 2 pg. 16, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, first edition, 1407 A.H.

[14] Surah al-Tawbah: 100.

[15] Surah al-Jumu`ah: 3.

[16] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 2 pg. 398, Dar al-Ma`rifah, Beirut, 1412 A.H.

[17] Surah al-Fath: 29

[18] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 4 pg. 219.

[19] Sahih al-Bukhari, book on heart-softening reports, chapter on caution of worldly glamour, Hadith: 6065.

[20] Sahih Muslim, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on mention that the survival of the Nabi is protection for his Companions, Hadith: 2531.

[21] A measurement of volume equivalent to approximately 750ml.

[22] Sahih al-Bukhari, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on the Nabi’s statement: had I taken a bosom friend, Hadith: 3470; Sahih Muslim, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on the prohibition of reviling the Sahabah, Hadith: 2541.

[23] The narrator of the hadith from Sa`id ibn Zayd who is `Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Akhnas.

[24] Sunan Abi Dawud, book on Sunnah, chapter on the Khulafa’, Hadith: 4649. Al-Albani classified it as sahih. (Al-Sahihah, vol. 3 pg. 419.) Jami` al-Tirmidhi, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf, Hadith: 3748; Sunan Ibn Majah, virtues of the ten, Hadith: 133; al-Nasa’i: al-Sunan al-Kubra, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of Abu `Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah, Hadith: 8195; Sahih Ibn Hibban, his informing of the virtues of the Sahabah, Hadith: 7002.

[25] Musnad Ahmad, Hadith: 1675. Shu`ayb comments, “Its isnad is strong according to the standards of Muslim.” Jami` al-Tirmidhi, book on virtues, the virtues of `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf, Hadith: 3747. Al-Albani classified it sahih. Al-Nasa’i: al-Sunan al-Kubra, Hadith: 8194; Sahih Ibn Hibban, book on his informing of the virtues of the Sahabah, Hadith: 7002.

[26] The individual who makes this statement is Sa`id ibn Zayd, with indication of his statement thereafter, “And I.” In one narration, the narrator who reports from him, `Abd Allah ibn Zalim, asked him, “Who are they?”

[27] Musnad Ahmad, Musnad of the ten promised Jannah, Musnad Sa`id ibn Zayd, Hadith: 1645.

[28] Musnad Ahmad, the remainder of the Musnads of the Ansar, Musnad Buraydah al-Aslami, Hadith: 23328.

[29] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 23 pg. 58, Hadith: 4887, the letter sin, Sa`id ibn Zayd ibn `Amr ibn Nufayl.

[30] Sunan al-Tirmidhi, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of `Uthman ibn `Affan, Hadith: 3699.

[31] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 23 pg. 56, Hadith: 4883.

[32] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 23 pg. 56, Hadith: 4884.

[33] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 23 pg. 56, Hadith: 4885.

[34] Sahih Muslim, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on the merits of Talhah and Zubayr, Hadith: 2417.

[35] Musnad Ahmad, Musnad of the Ansar, hadith of Buraydah al-Aslami, Hadith: 23324.

[36] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 23 pg. 59, the letter sin, Sa`id ibn Zayd ibn `Amr ibn Nufayl; Usd al-Ghabah, pg. 445, Biography: 2076.

[37] Sahih al-Bukhari, book on jihad and expeditions, book on the spy, Hadith: 3007, 3081, 3983, 4274, 6259, 6939; Sahih Muslim, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on the virtues of Hatib ibn Abi Balta`ah and the participants of Badr, Hadith: 2494.

[38] Surah al-Najm: 4.

[39] Sunan Abi Dawud, book on Sunnah, chapter on the Khulafa’, Hadith: 4653; Sunan al-Tirmidhi, book on merits, chapter on the virtue of one who pledged beneath the tree, Hadith: 3860. Al-Tirmidhi commented, “Hadith is hasan sahih.” Al-Albani labelled it sahih.

[40] Sunan al-Tirmidhi, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of Hasan and Husayn, Hadith: 3781.

[41] Sahih Ibn Hibban, his telling of the virtues of the Sahabah, male and female, Hadith: 7047. Shaykh Shu`ayb graded it as sahih.

[42] It is said: al-Ghumaysa’. Umm Sulaym bint Milhan, the mother of Anas ibn Malik al-Ansariyyah. (Al-Isabah, pg. 1809, Biography: 12734, agnomens of women, the letter sin, Umm Sulaym bint Milhan.)

[43] Al-khashaf: sound and movement. (Lisan al-`Arab, vol. 9 pg. 71.)

[44] Sahih al-Bukhari, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, the merits of `Umar ibn al-Khattab, Hadith: 3476.

[45] By the grace of Allah, this book was completed and also translated into English. It can be found on with the title Those Promised Jannah.

[46] Surah al-Qasas: 68.

[47] Ibn Hazam: al-Fisal fi al-Milal wa al-Ahwa’ wa al-Nihal, vol. 4 pg. 91, discussion on the reasons of virtue and degrees of excellence among the Sahabah.

[48] Sunan Ibn Majah, book on dreams, chapter on interpretation of dreams, Hadith: 3925.

[49] Surah al-Hadid: 10.

[50] Musnad Ahmad, Musnad Anas ibn Malik, Hadith: 13848.

[51] Sahih Muslim, book on Hajj, chapter on the virtue of salah in the Masjids of Makkah and Madinah, Hadith: 1394; Sahih al-Bukhari, chapter on voluntary actions, the virtue of salah in the Masjid of Makkah and Madinah, Hadith: 1133. The wording is Muslim’s.

[52] Mu`afa ibn `Imran ibn Nufayl ibn Jabir ibn Jabalah: the Imam, the Shaykh of Islam, the sapphire of the scholars, Abu Mas`ud al-Azdi al-Mawsili. (d. 185, 186, or 184 A.H.) (Al-Siyar, vol. 9 pg. 80, Biography: 23.)

[53] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 62 pg. 142 – 143, Hadith: 13536; al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, the letter mim, Mu`awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan.

[54] Abu Bakr `Abd Allah ibn Sulayman ibn al-Ash`ath: the muhaddith of Baghdad, son of Imam Abu Dawud al-Sijistani. (d. 310 A.H.) (Al-Siyar, vol. 13 pg. 221, Biography: 118.)

[55] Hafiz al-Dhahabi: Kitab al-`Uluw li al-`Ali al-Ghaffar, vol. 1 pg. 210. He reproduced the poem through his chain till Ibn Abi Dawud. In the second couplet, the word mumannah (favoured) appears instead of munajjah (successful) and bi al-nur (with light) appears instead of fi al-khuld (for eternity) in the third couplet.

[56] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 107.