Section Three: The Stance of the Tabi’in and Those who Followed them Regarding the Fitnah

Section Two: The Stance of the Sahabah regarding the Fitnah
May 8, 2020
Khomeini Between Extremism And Moderation – NEW UPLOAD!!!
May 12, 2020

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Section Three: The Stance of the Tabi’in and Those who Followed them Regarding the Fitnah

 

The stance of the Tabi’in has been no different than that of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in defending ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, respecting his sacred position, clearly stating that he was unjustly killed, deeming his murder to be a very grave matter, pleaing there innocence in his murder, and condemning his murderers. For their primary objective was to upkeep the Sunnah and eradicate innovation without bias and personal tendencies. Therefore we find that many of their narrations regarding the First Fitnah portray ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu as a clean heart who was free from what all his opponents had attributed to him and accused him of.

It is narrated from Ka’b al Ahbar[1] that he said:

 

لا تقتلوا عثمان، فوالله لئن قتلتموه ليستحلن القتل ما بين دروب الروم إلى الصنعاء، ولتكونن فتن وضغائن

Do not kill ‘Uthman. For by Allah, if you kill him, murder will be made admissible between the regions of Rome and San’a’, and surely there will be trials and hatred.[2]

 

And Zaid ibn Suhan,[3] one of those who witnessed the incarceration of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, said the day ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was murdered:

 

اليوم نفرت القلوب منافرها، والذي نفسي بيده لا تتألف إلى يوم القيامة

Today the hearts have started to hate, by the one in whose control is my soul they will never unite till the Day of Judgement.[4]

 

And Sa’id ibn Hani’[5] narrates that some men came from Madinah and passed by Abu Muslim al Khawlani[6] whilst he was with Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Damascus. He asked them:

 

هل مررتم بآخوانكم من أهل الحجر؟ فقالوا: نعم، فقال: كيف رأيتم صنيع الله بهم؟ قالوا: بذنوبهم، قال: فإني أشهد أنكم عند الله مثلهم، قال- أي الراوي-: فدخلوا على معاوية، فقالوا: ما لقينا من هذا الشيخ الذي خرج من عندك؟ فبعث إليه فجاءه فقال له: يا أبا مسلم ما لك ولبني أخي؟ قال: قلت لهم: مررتم على أهل الحجر؟ قالوا: نعم، قلت: كيف: كيف رأيتم صنيع الله بهم؟ قالوا: صنع الله ذلك بهم بذنوبهم، فقلت: أشهد أنكم عند الله مثلهم، فقال: وكيف يا أبا مسلم؟ قال: قتلوا ناقة الله، وقتلتم خليفة الله، وأشهد على ربي لخليفته أكرم عليه من ناقته

“Did you pass by your brothers, the people of Hijr?”[7]

They said, “Yes.”

He then asked them, “How do you think Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala treated them?”

They replied, “He punished them because of their sins.”

He retorted, “I testify that you are just like them by Allah.”

The narrator says that they entered upon Muawiyah and complained, “What did we encounter from this man who left from you just now?”

He thus sent for him and when he came asked him, “O Abu Muslim, what is the matter between you and my cousins?”

He replied, “I asked them if they passed by the people of Hijr and they said, ‘Yes.’ Thereafter I asked them of how they thought Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala treated them and they said that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala punished them because of their sins. So I said, “I testify that you are just like them by Allah.”

Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu asked, “How is that, O Abu Muslim?”

He replied, “They killed the camel of Allah, and you [the group who came from Madinah] killed the Khalifah of Allah. I testify regarding Allah that his Khalifah is dearer to him than his camel.”[8]

 

And al Sha’bi said:

لقي مسروق الأشتر، فقال مسروق للأشتر: قتلتم عثمان؟ قال: نعم، قال: أما والله لقد قتلته صواما قواما

Masruq met Ashtar and asked him, “Did you all kill ‘Uthman?”

He replied, “Yes.”

He replied, “By Allah you killed him whereas he was one who fasted and offered nocturnal prayer abundantly.”[9]

 

And al Bukhari has narrated in his al Tarikh al Saghir from Muhammad ibn al Muntashir[10] that a group of the supporters of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu met Masruq and said:

 

مسروق غضبان أن قتل عثمان، فخلف الأشتر في أعقابهم، فقال يا أبا عائشة، ما رأيت مثل شيء صنعناه، ولا يوم عجل بني إسرائيل

“Masruq is upset because ‘Uthman was killed.”

So Ashtar stayed behind them following their heels.

Masruq said, “O Abu Aisha, I have not seen anything like what we have did, not even the day the Banu Isra’il worshipped the calf.”[11]

 

And Ibn Abi Shaybah and Hakim narrate from ‘Umair ibn Sa’id al Nakha’i[12] the following:

 

لما رجع علي من الجمل وتهيأ لصفين اجتمعت النخع، فدخلوا على الأشتر، فقال: هل في البيت إلا نخعي؟ فقالوا: لا، فقال: إن هذه الأمة عمدت إلى خيرها فقتلته، وسرنا إلى أهل البصرة قوم لنا علهيهم بيعة فنصرنا عليهم بنكثهم، وإنكم تسيرون غدا إلى أهل الشام قوم ليس لكم عليهم بيعة، فلينظر امرؤ منكم أين يضع سيفه.

When ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu returned from Jamal and started to prepare for Siffin the people of Nakha’ got together and went to Ashtar.

He asked, “Are there only Nakha’i people in the house?”

They said, “No.”

He thus said, “This Ummah targeted its best and killed him. Thereafter, they encountered the people of Basrah, a people upon who allegiance was binding, and we were given victory against them because of their violation. Tomorrow you will be heading to the people of Sham, a people upon who no pledge is binding, so every person should see where he strikes his sword.”[13]

 

And al Zuhri narrates:

كان سعيد بن المسيب يسمي العام الذي قتل فيه عثمان عام الحزن

Sa’id ibn al Musayyab would call the year in which ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred the year of grief.[14]

 

And Yahya ibn Ma’in narrates:

قال رجل لطاؤوس: ما رأيت أحدا أجرأ على الله من فلان، قال: لم تر قاتل عثمان

A person said to Ta’us,[15] “I have not seen anyone so bold against Allah than so and so.”

He replied, “That is because you did not see the killer of ‘Uthman.”[16]

 

And Ibn Abi al Hudhayl[17] said:

والله لقد جار هؤلاء-أي قتلة عثمان- عن القصد حتى أن بينهم وبينه وعورة، ما يهتدون له وما يعرفونه

By Allah, these people, i.e. the murderers of ‘Uthman, have strayed from the straight path, to the extent that there is a very rugged patch because of which they cannot be guided to it and cannot know it.[18]

 

And Mubarak ibn Fudalah[19] said:

سمعت الحسن البصري يقول: ما علمت أحدا أشرك في دم عثمان ولا أعان عليه

I heard al Hassan al Basri saying, “(Fortunately) I do not know anyone who was made part of the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, nor anyone who help in his murder.”[20]

 

And in another narration:

لم يدع الله الفسقة- قتلة عثمان- حتى قتلهم بكل أرض

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala did not leave the imposters, the murderers of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, till he got them killed in every land.[21]

 

And Yunus ibn ‘Ubaid[22] also narrates from him:

لو كان قتل عثمان هدى لاحتلبت به الأمة لبنا، ولكنه كان ضلالا فاحتلبت به الأمة دما

If the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was righteous the Ummah would have drawn because of it milk, but because it was deviant it drew because of it blood.[23]

 

And Ibn ‘Awn[24] narrates from Muhammad ibn Sirin:

 

لم تفقد الخيل البلق في المغازي الجيوش-يقصد قتال الملائكة مع المسلمين- حتى قتل عثمان

The horses with black and white were always present in the battles, referring to the angels fighting alongside the Muslims, till ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was murdered.[25]

 

And it is also narrated from him:

لم تختلف في الأهلة حتى قتل عثمان

No disputes took place regarding moon sightings till ‘Uthman was murdered.[26]

 

And Qurrah ibn Khalid[27] narrates from him:

لو حل القتال في أهل القبلة حل يوم قتل عثمان

If it were permissible to fight the people of the Qiblah, it would have been permissible the day ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred.[28]

 

And Jasr ibn Abi Jafar[29] narrates:

 

عدنا أبا رجاء العطاردي في مرضه الذي مات فيه، فتحامل فجلس إلينا فقال: حياكم الله بالإسلام، أحلنا وإياكم دار السلام، اتقوا الله تعالى، ولا تسبوا عليا، وأبغضوا من يسبه، واتقوا الله، ولا تسبوا عثمان، وأبغضوا من يسبه

We went to visit Abu Raja’ al ‘Utaridi[30] in his fatal illness. He brought himself to sit up and thereafter said, “May Allah keep you alive with Islam, and may Allah make our abode the abode of peace (Jannat). Fear Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and do not revile ‘Ali but despise the one who reviles him. Fear Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and do not revile ‘Uthman but hate the one who reviles him.”[31]

 

And Musa al Juhani[32] narrates from Talhah ibn Musarrif:[33]

أكثرتم في عثمان فيأبى قلبي إلا حبه

You have criticised ‘Uthman a lot, but my heart denies but to love him.[34]

 

And Ibn ‘Asakir narrates in his Tarikh from Maymun ibn Mahran:

 

قبض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فبايع أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كلهم أبابكر ورضوا به من غير قهر ولا اضطهاد، ثم إن أبابكر استخلف عمر، فاستأمر المسلمين في ذلك، فبايعه أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أجمعون ورضوا به من غير قهر ولا اضطهاد، فلما حضر عمر الموت جعل الأمر شورى إلى ستة نفر من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأصحابه الحواريين، ولم يأل النصيحة لله ولرسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم وللمؤمنين جهده، وكره عمر أن يولي منهم رجلا، فلا نكون إساءة إلا لحقت عمر في قبره، فاختار أهل الشورى عثمان بن عفان، فبايعه أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أجمعون والتابعون لهم بإحسان، ورضوا به من غير قهر ولا اضطهاد، فلم يزل أمر الناس على عهد أبي بكر وعمر مستقيما، كلمتهم واحدة ودعواهم جماعة؛ حتى قتل عثمان جاؤوا بما هو أنكر منه، أنكروا عليه أمرا هم فيه كذبة، فأعتبهم وأرضاهم، وعزل من كرهوا واستعمل من أرادوا، ثم إن فساقا من أهل مصر، وسفهاء من أهل المدينة دعاهم أشقاهم إلى قتل عثمان، فدخلوا عليه منزله وهو جالس مع مصحف يتلو فيه كتاب الله، ومعهم السلاح فقتلوه صابرا محتسبا رضي الله عنه.

Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away. So the Sahabah of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam pledged their allegiance to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and were happy with him without any coercion and force. Thereafter Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu and sought the council of the Muslims in doing so. The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam pledged their allegiance to him and were happy with his rule without any coercion and force. When ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu death dawned upon him he left the matter to a council of six Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and his supportive Companions. He did not fall short in his well-wishing for Allah and his Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the believers. He disliked appointing one individual specifically because if anything wrong happened it would reach ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu in his grave. The council elected ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and thus the Sahabah of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam pledged their allegiance to him and were happy with him without any coercion or force. The matter of the people remained straight and smooth during the era of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma; they were united till ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred.

He was asked, “What were their reservations against ‘Uthman?”

He replied, “Those who objected at certain things of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu ended up doing something more despicable than all of that; they objected in matters wherein they were liars, but he pleased them and satisfied them; he thus dismissed whom they despised and appointed whom they wanted. Thereafter some imposters of Egypt and foolish people of Madinah instigated the most wretched amongst them to kill him. Hence they invaded his house, whilst he was seated reading the Book of Allah, with weapons. They murdered him whilst he was patient and hopeful of reward radiya Llahu ‘anhu.”[35]

 

And Sulaiman ibn al Mughirah[36] narrates from Abu Jafar al Baqir:[37]

قتل عثمان على غير وجه الحق

‘Uthman was killed unjustly.[38]

 

And Abu Jafar al Qari’[39] said whilst talking about the rebels who had besieged ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, after mentioning their leaders and how many they were:

 

وضوت إليه حثالة من الناس قد مرجت أماناتهم وسفهت أحلامهم

And a group of the scum of the people advanced toward him, whose trusts were breached and whose minds were foolish.[40]

 

And Harmalah narrates from Yazid ibn Abi Habib:

 

أعظم ما أتت هذه الأمة بعد نبيها ثلاث خلال: قتل عثمان بن عفان، وتحريقهم الكعبة، وأخذهم الجزية من المسلمين

The three gravest things to afflict the Ummah after its Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are: The murder of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, the burning of the Ka’bah, and collecting of taxes from the Muslims.[41]

 

It is also narrated from him:

إن عامة الركب الذين خرجوا إلى عثمان جنوا، قال ابن المبارك، أيسره، وفي رواية: الجنون لهم قليل

Most of those who revolted against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu later became mentally impaired, Ibn Mubarak said, “This was a light punishment.”

And in another narration: “Insanity was a light punishment for them.”[42]

 

And Hammad ibn Salamah narrates from Ayub al Sakhtiyani the following:

 

من أحب أبا بكر فقد أقام الدين، ومن أحب عمر فقد أوضح السبيل، ومن أحب عثمان فقد استنار بنور الله، ومن أحب عليا فقد استمسك بالعروة الوثقى لا انفصام لها، قال حماد: فقلت لأيوب: أتحفظ هذا؟ قال نعم، فاحفظوه وعلموه أبناءكم، وليعلمه أبناؤكم أبناءهم

Whoever loves Abu Bakr has established the Din, whoever loves ‘Umar has made the path clear, whoever loves ‘Uthman has attained light from the light of Allah, and whoever loves ‘Ali has held onto a very firm and reliable handhold.

Hammad said, “Did you memorise this (from someone).”

He said, “Yes, so memorise it, teach it to your children and let your children teach it to their children.”[43]

 

And ‘Aththam ibn ‘Ali[44] says that he heard Sufyan al Thawri say the following:

 

لا يجتمع حب علي وعثمان إلا في قلوب نبلاء الرجال

The love of ‘Ali and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma cannot be together but in the hearts of noble men.[45]

 

And Mughirah al Dabbi[46] reports:

قلت لأبراهيم النخغي، إن كان قتل عثمان، فقال: مه، والله إن أردت أن أقول إلا أنه كان عظيما، قال: أجل

I said to Ibrahim al Nakha’i,[47] “‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu has been martyred.”

He said, “Stop.”

I said, “I was just wanting to say that he was a great person.”

He said, “Yes.”[48]

 

And Mus’ab ibn ‘Abdullah al Zubairi narrates that ‘Abdullah ibn Mus’ab[49] informed him that al Rashid, the Abbasid khalifah, said to him:

 

ما تقول في الذين طعنوا على عثمان؟ قال: قلت: يا أمير المؤمنين طعن عليه ناس، وكان معه ناس، فأما الذين طعنوا عليه فتفرقوا عنه، فهم أنواع الشيع وأهل البدع وأنواع الخوارج، وأما الذين كانوا معه فهم أهل الجماعة إلى اليوم، فقال لي: ما أحتاج أن أسأل بعد اليوم عن هذا.

“What do you say about those who condemned ‘Uthman?”

I said, “O Amir al Mu’minin, some people condemned him and others supported him. As for those who condemned him they all scattered thereafter, they went on to become the various types of Shia, innovators and Khawarij. And as for those who stood by him, they have remained the people of the Jama’ah (unity) till today.”

He replied, “I do not have to ask about this again after today.”[50]

 

And Farazdaq made mention of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in a poem which he said in praise of Sulaiman ibn ‘Abdul Malik:

دمه صبيحة النحر

عثمان إذ قتلوه وانتهكوا

‘Uthman, when they killed him and violated his blood the morning of the day of Nahr (10th Dhi al Hijjah).[51]

 

And al Numairi[52] said:

على متوكل أوفى وطابا

عشية يدخلون بغير إذن

ورابع خير من وطئ الترابا

خليل محمد ووزير صدق

The evening when they intruded without permission upon the one who had placed his trust in Allah and had lived up to his responsibilities and was pure.

The friend of Muhammad and his honest minister and the fourth of the best people to step foot upon the soil.[53]

 

And from his splendid poetry are the following couplets which al Mubarrid has cited:

ودعا، فلم أر مثله مخذولا

قتلوا عثمان الخليفة محرما

شققا وأصبح سيفهم مفلولا

فتفرقت من ذلك عصاهم

They killed ‘Uthman the Khalifah in the sacred month, making him a target. I did not see anyone more helpless than him.

Thereafter their unity was shattered and their swords became blunt.[54]

 

And Layla al Akhyaliyyah[55] said:

وكان آمن من يمشي على ساق

أبعد عثمان ترجوا الخير أمته

ما كان من ذهب محض وأوراق

خليفة الله أعطاهم وخولهم

Is the Ummah hopeful of good after ‘Uthman, whereas he was the greatest believer amongst those who walked upon a shin?

He was the Khalifah of Allah who showered them with his bounties of pure gold and pure silver.[56]

 

 

NEXT⇒ COMING SOON….


[1] Ka’b ibn Mati’ al Himyari, famously known as Ka’b al Ahbar. He was a Jew who accepted Islam and came to Madinah during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He is reliable. Ibn Sa’d has made mention of him in the first generation of the Tabi’in. One narration of his appears in Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He passed away toward the end of the Caliphate of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, p. 308; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Saghir, 1/62; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 7/161; al Dhahabi: al Tadhkirah, 1/49.

[2] Al Maliqi: al Tamhid wa al Bayan fi Maqtal al Shahid ‘Uthman, p. 178.

[3] Zaid ibn Suhan ibn Hujr ibn al Harith al ‘Abdi al Kufi, Abu Sulaiman, a Tabi’i. He accepted Islam during the lifetime of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and heard from ‘Umar, ‘Uthman and Salman radiya Llahu ‘anhum. He was a scholar and an ascetic. Ibn Sa’d said, “He was reliable and narrated a few narrations.” He was killed in the battle of Jamal in 36 A.H/656 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 6/123; Khalifah: al Tabaqat, 144; Ibn Hibban: Mashahir ‘Ulama’ al Amsar, p. 101; al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, 8/439.

[4] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 499.

[5] Sa’id ibn Hani’ al Khawlani al Shami, Abu ‘Uthman. He narrated from ‘Irbad ibn Sariyah, Muawiyah and Abu Muslim al Khawlani. Al ‘Ijli said, “A reliable Tabi’i.” And Ibn Sa’d said, “He was reliable by the will of Allah.” And Ibn Hibban has made mention of him in his al Thiqat. He passed away in 127 A.H/744 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 7/450; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 2/1/518; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 188; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, p. 4/70; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 4/92.

[6] ‘Abdullah ibn Thawb, famously known as Abu Muslim al Khawlani al Yamani al Shami. He travelled to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but did not meet him. He met Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Ibn Sa’d has mentioned him in the second generation of the Tabi’in of Sham and has deemed him reliable. Ibn Hibban, Ibn Ma’in have also deemed him reliable. And al ‘Ijli said, “He was reliable and from the senior Tabi’in.” He passed away in 62 A.H/681 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 7/448; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 511; al Fasawi: al Ma’rifah wa al Tarikh, 2/308; al Dhahabi: al Kashif, 3/333; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 12/235.

[7] The dwellings of the people of Thamud.

[8] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Madinah Dimashq, p. 499-500.

[9] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Madinah Dimashq, p. 502.

[10] Muhammad ibn al Muntashir ibn al Ajda’ ibn Malik al Hamadani al Wada’i al Kufi. He narrated from Ibn ‘Umar, Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhuma and his uncle Masruq. Ibn Sa’d said, “He was reliable and has narrated a few narrations.” And Ahmed has deemed him reliable and praised him. And al ‘Ijli said, “Reliable.” And Ibn Hibban has mentioned him in his al Thiqat. See: al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 1/1/219; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 414; Ibn Abi Hatim, al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 8/99; Ibn Hibban: al Thiqat, 7/365; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 9/471.

[11] Al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Saghir, 1/89.

[12] ‘Umair ibn Sa’id al Nakha’i al Sahbani al Kufi, Abu Yahya. He narrated from ‘Ali, Sa’d, Abu Musa, Ibn Mas’ud, Masruq and others. And al Sha’bi, al A’mash and Talhah ibn Musarrif narrated from him. Ibn Sa’d said, “He was reliable and has some narrations.” And al ‘Ijli and Ibn Ma’in have deemed him reliable. And Ibn Hibban has mentioned him in his al Thiqat. He passed away in 115 A.H/733 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 6/170; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 3/2/532; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 275; Ibn Hibban: al Thiqat, 5/252; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 8/146.

[13] Ibn Abi Shaybah: al Musannaf, 15/265; al Hakim: al Mustadrak, 3/107.

[14] Al Baladhuri: Ansab al Ashraf, 1/590.

[15] Ta’us ibn Kaysan al Yamani al Himyari al Jundi, Abu ‘Abdur Rahman. From of the ascetics of Yemen and a senior Tabi’i. Ibn Sa’d, Ibn Ma’in, and al ‘Ijli have deemed him reliable. He passed away in 106 A.H/724 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 5/537; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/275; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Saghir, 1/252; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 234; al Fasawi: al Ma’rifah wa al Tarikh, 1/705.

[16] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 456.

[17] ‘Abdullah ibn Abi al Hudhayl al ‘Anazi, Abu al Mughirah al Kufi. He narrated from a group of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, some being, Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Ali, and Ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Al Nasa’i said, “Reliable.” And Ibn Hibban has included him in his al Thiqat. And al ‘Ijli said, “A reliable Tabi’i.” He passed away after 110 A.H/728 A.C. during the reign of Khalid al Qasri. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 6/352; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 3/1/222; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 382; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 6/62.

[18] Ibn Abi Shaybah: al Musannaf, 15/206.

[19] Mubarak ibn Fudalah ibn Abi Umayyah, Abu Fudalah al Basri. He narrated from al Hassan al Basri and it is said that he accompanied him for thirteen years. Al Saji said, “He was truthful, a good person, and was an ascetic.” And al ‘Ijli said, “There is no problem with him.” And Abu Zur’ah said, “He would practice Tadlis, and wherever he emphatically mentions his acquisition of a narration he is reliable.” He passed away in 166 A.H/782 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 7/277; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 4/1/426; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 419; al Fasawi: al Ma’rifah wa al Tarikh, 2/135; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 10/28.

[20] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 4/1252.

[21] Al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Saghir, 1/79.

[22] Yunus ibn ‘Ubaid ibn Dinar al Basri, Abu ‘Ubaid. Ibn Hibban said, “He was a leader in knowledge, virtue, memory, precision, in following the Sunnah, and in despising the people of innovation. Together with that, he was stringently ascetic, a jurist and a retainer of many hadiths.” Ibn Sa’d, Ahmed, Ibn Ma’in, al Nasa’i, and Abu Hatim have deemed him reliable. And al Dhahabi said, “He was from the practicing and reliable scholars.” He passed away in 139 A.H/756 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 7/260; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Saghir, 2/49; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 9/242; Ibn Hibban: Mashahir ‘Ulama’ al Amsar, p. 150.

[23] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 500.

[24] ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Awn ibn Artaban al Muzani al Basri al Hafiz. Ibn Hibban said regarding him, “He was a leader in worship, virtue, piety, devotion, firmness upon the Sunnah, and harshness against the innovators.” And ‘Uthman ibn Shaybah said, “He was reliable and had an accurate record of hadith.” And al ‘Ijli said, “He was a reliable Basri, who was pious.” Ibn Ma’in, Ibn Sa’d and ‘Isa ibn Yunus deemed him reliable. And al Nasa’i said, “Reliable and trustworthy.” He passed away in 151 A.H/768 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 7/261; Khalifah: al Tabaqat, p. 219; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Saghir, 2/111; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 270; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 5/346.

[25] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 500.

[26] Ibid. p. 510.

[27] Qurrah ibn Khalid al Sadusi al Basri, Abu Muhammad. Ibn Ma’in, Nasa’i and Ibn Sa’d have deemed him reliable. Ibn Hibban has mentioned him in his al Thiqat, and said, “He was an expert.” And al Ajurri said, “Abu Dawood would mentioned him and elevated him.” And al Tahawi said, “Reliable, an expert and an accurate retainer.” He passed away in 155 A.H/771 A.H. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 7/275; Khalifah: al Tabaqat, p. 222; Ibn Hibban: Mashahir ‘Ulama’ al Amsar, p. 156; al Ajurri: al Su’alat, p. 344; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 8/371.

[28] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 457.

[29] Jasr ibn Farqad, Abu Jafar al Qassab al Basri. He narrated from Hassan, and ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Mahdi and Waki’ narrated from him. Abu Hatim said, “Satisfactory.” See: al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 1/2/246; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 2/539; Ibn Hajar: al Lisan, 2/104.

[30] ‘Imran ibn Malhan, famously known as Abu Raja’ al ‘Utaridi. A Tabi’i who witnessed both the pre-Islamic and Islamic era but was not blessed with the companionship of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He narrated from a group of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, some being, ‘Ali, ‘Amr, Samurah ibn Jundub, Aisha and others. Ibn Ma’in, al ‘Ijli and Abu Zur’ah have deemed him reliable. And ibn Sa’d said, “He was reliable in hadith.” He passed away in 107 A.H/744 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 7/704; Khalifah: al Tabaqat, p. 196; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 3/2/410; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 498.

[31] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 523.

[32] Musa ibn ‘Abdullah al Juhani al Kufi, Abu Salamah. Ya’la ibn ‘Ubaid said, “In Kufah there were four leaders and notables,” and one of those whom he mentioned was him. Yahya ibn Sa’id al Qattan, Ahmed, Ibn Ma’in, and al Nasa’i have deemed him reliable. Al ‘Ijli said, “Reliable and considered amongst the scholars.” And Abu Zur’ah said, “Satisfactory.” And Abu Hatim said, “No problem with him.” And Ibn Hibban has mentioned him in his al Thiqat. He passed away in 144 A.H/761 A.C. See: Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/149; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, 4/1/288; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 8/149; Ibn Hibban: Mashahir ‘Ulama’ al Amsar, p. 165; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 10/354.

[33] Talhah ibn Musarrif ibn ‘Amr ibn Harith al Hamdani al Kufi, Abu Muhammad. ‘Abdullah ibn Idris said, “I did not see A’mash praise anyone he met besides Talhah ibn Musarrif and they used to call him the leader of the scholars.” Ibn Ma’in, Abu Hatim, al ‘Ijli, Ibn Sa’d, and Ibn Hibban have deemed him reliable. He passed away in 112 A.H/730 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 6/308; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/278; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 235; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 4/473; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 5/25.

[34] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Madinah Dimashq, p. 511; al Dhahabi: Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, 5/191.

[35] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, 503, 504.

[36] Sulaiman ibn Abi al Mughirah al ‘Absi al Kufi, Abu ‘Abdullah. Ahmed said, “He was reliable and noble,” and Ibn Ma’in deemed him reliable and Ibn Hibban made mention of his in his al Thiqat. See: Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/234; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 4/145; al Dhahabi: al Kashif, 1/320; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 4/221.

[37] Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib al Hashimi al Qurashi, Abu Jafar al Baqir. Al Nasa’i has considered him from amongst the jurist of the Tabi’in of Madinah. And Ibn al Barqi said, “He was a jurist and was virtuous.” And Ibn Sa’d said, “He was reliable and narrated hadith in abundance.” And al ‘Ijli said, “He was reliable Tabi’i from Madinah.” He passed away in 114 A.H/732 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 5/320; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 410; al Fasawi: al Ma’rifah wa al Tarikh, 1/360; al Tabari: Dhayl al Mudhayyal, p. 641: Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 9/350.

[38] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 500.

[39] Abu Jafar al Qari’ al Madani al Makhzumi, his name was Yazid ibn al Qa’qa’. Ibn Sa’d said, “He was reliable, and he was the senior scholar of the people of Madinah in Qira’ah due to which he was accorded the title al Qari’.” Ibn Ma’in, al Nasa’i, and Ibn Hibban have deemed him reliable. And Abu Hatim said, “Satisfactory in hadith.” He passed away in 127 A.H/744. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat (section regarding the Tabi’in of Madinah), p. 151; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/699; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 9/284; Ibn al Jazari: Ghayah al Nihayah fi Tabaqat al Qurra’, 2/382; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 12/58.

[40] Al Baladhuri: Ansab al Ashraf, 1/591.

[41] Al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Saghir, 1/59.

[42] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 510.

[43] Ibid. p. 510.

[44] ‘Aththam ibn ‘Ali ibn Hujayr al ‘Amiri al Kufi, Abu ‘Ali. Al Ajurri narrates from Abu Dawood who heard Imam Ahmed saying, “‘Aththam was a pious person.” And He said, “I asked Abu Dawood about him, he praised him and made good remarks about him.” And al Nasa’i said, “There is no problem with him.” And Abu Zur’ah said, “Reliable.” And Abu Hatim said, “Truthful.” And al Daraqutni, Ibn Shahin, Ibn Sa’d, Ibn Hibban and al Bazzar have deemed him reliable.” He passed away in 195 A.H/810 A.C. See: Khalifah: al Tabaqat, p. 170; al Darimi: al Tarikh, p. 186; Ibn Abi Hatim: al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, 7/44; al Ajurri: al Su’alat, p. 214; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 7/105.

[45] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, p. 510.

[46] Mughirah ibn Miqsam al Dabbi al Kufi al Faqih, Abu Hisham. Abu Bakr ibn ‘Ayyash said, “I have not seen anyone more learned than Mughirah and so I stayed in his company.” Ibn Ma’in said, “Reliable and trustworthy.” And al ‘Ijli said, “Mughirah was reliable and was a jurist.” And al Nasa’i and Ibn Sa’d deemed him reliable and Ibn Hibban made mention of him in his al Thiqat. He passed away in 136 A.H/753 A.C. See: Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/581; Khalifah: al Tabaqat, p. 165; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Saghir, 2/28; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 437; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 10/261.

[47] Ibrahim ibn Yazid ibn Qais al Nakha’i al Kufi al Faqih, Abu ‘Imran. Al ‘Ijli said, “A reliable narrator from Kufah. He saw Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha in his dream. He was the Mufti of Kufah and was a pious and cautious jurist who had very little formalities. He passed away whilst under cover from Hajjaj. Al A’mash said, “Ibrahim was good in hadith.” And al Sha’bi said, “He did not leave anyone more knowledgeable than him. He passed away in 96 A.H/714 A.C. See: Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat, 6/270; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, 2/15; al Fasawi: al Ma’rifah wa al Tarikh, 2/100; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, 56; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib, 1/177.

[48] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, 4/1252.

[49] ‘Abdullah ibn Mus’ab ibn Thabit ibn ‘Abdullah al Zubairi al Qurashi al Asadi. He was from the most just rulers. He was the governor of Yamamah for the Abbasid Khalifahs al Mahdi and al Hadi. And Rashid forced him to govern over Madinah when his age was seventy which he accepted with some conditions. Al Khatib al Baghdadi said, “He was praiseworthy in his governance, had beautiful conduct and was great in his stature and nobility. He passed away in Raqqah whilst out with al Rashid in 184 A.H/800 A.C. See” Khalifah: al Tabaqat, 461; al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, 10/173; Ibn Kathir: al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 10/185.

[50] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, 8/353.

[51] Al Farazdaq: Diwan, 1/265.

[52] ‘Ubaid ibn Hussain ibn Muawiyah ibn Jandal al Numairi. He was given the title shepherd of the camel due to him very beautifully and abundantly praising them. He was a master of poetry in the Umayyad era and would stay in the outskirts of Basrah. He passed away in 90 A.H/ 709. See: Ibn Sallam: Tabaqat al Shu’ara’, p. 117; Ibn Abi al Khattab: Jamharah Ash’ar al ‘Arab, 172; al Asfahani: al Aghani, 23/348-363.

[53] Ibn Kathir: al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/197.

[54] Ibid. 2/39.

[55] Layla bint ‘Abdullah ibn al Rahhal ibn Shaddad al Akhyaliyyah al ‘Amiriyyah. She was a very intelligent and eloquent poetess and had excelled in the art of poetry. She is considered to be from the class which is second to the class of Khansa’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu in poetry. She would often visit Hajjaj and he would honour her. She passed away on her way to Rayy in 80 A.H/700 A.H. See: al Marzabani: Mu’jam al Shu’ara’, p. 343; Abu al Faraj al Asfahani: al Aghani, 11/194-234.

[56] Al Mubarrid: al Kamil fi al Lughah wa al Adab, 2/39; al Tabarani: al Mu’jam al Kabir, 1/42.

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