Perhaps one might ask: How was ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu murdered whilst there was a group of senior Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum present in Madinah?
A question that Ibn Kathir asks and answers, himself. His answer consists of the following four points:
Firstly, most or all of them did not think that the matter would escalate to his murder as the Khawarij were not actively trying to kill him. They had come seeking one of three outcomes, either he resigns from his position, he hands over Marwan ibn al Hakam, or they would kill him. They hoped that he would hand over Marwan to them or that he would resign thus gaining relief from this difficult situation. As for murder, no one thought it would happen and neither did they believe that these people would have the audacity to escalate to such a level.
Secondly, the Sahabah defended and protected him. However, when matters began to get out of hand, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu ordered the people to stand down so as not to spill blood of the Muslims and they did. After this those that laid siege were able to gain control and carry out what they wanted.
Thirdly, the Khawarij took advantage of the large number of people absent from Madinah. Many had left to perform the pilgrimage and many others were at the borders and outlying cities. The number of those that remained behind was perhaps not even equal to the number of the Khawarij who were close to two thousand.
Fourthly, the senior Sahabah had sent their children to the house to protect ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu whilst waiting for reinforcements from the cities to support them.
Moreover, al Maliqi goes on to further answer another question commenting that when ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu prevented them from helping him whilst himself being oppressed, he instructed them to stand down from a worthy act that was forbidding evil and establishing the truth. Why did he then do this? The answer to this has several dimensions, all praiseworthy. Consider the following four:
Some historians such as al Waqidi and Abu Mikhnaf have stated, as recorded in Tarikh al Tabari, that some of the Sahabah were content with his murder or that they were involved in it. Such statements are clearly refuted by authentic and reliable narrations that the muhaddithin have recorded in their books. What is evident is that not a single sahabi was content with the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Every one of them was at odds with it, cursing he who had carried out this accursed act. We will discuss this under the chapter that deals with the stance of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in the fitnah.
The stance adopted by ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in facing the difficulties that had befallen him and the Muslims is exemplary and worthy of emulation. The sacrifice of one, by himself of himself, to save many, secured the honour of the ummah, and protect the blood of the Muslims. It would have been easy for him to save himself at the cost of the lives of the ummah if he so wished. If he was selfish and not a man of giving preference to others he would have used the Sahabah and the sons of the Muhajirin and Ansar to protect himself and fight the Khawarij who defied him. He, however, intended to unify the ummah and sacrificed himself with patience and hope for reward.
Khalifah narrates in his Tarikh from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir ibn Rabi’ah who says:
كنت مع عثمان في الدار فقال أعزم على كل من رأى أن عليه سمعا وطاعة إلا كف يده وسلاحه ، فإن أفضلكم عندي عناء من كف يده وسلاحه
I was with ‘Uthman at his house and he said, “Have every person you see resolve that he will listen and obey in refraining from using his hands and weapons. The most virtuous amongst you in my eyes is one who refrains from using his hands and weapons.
He has also narrated through the chain of Muhammad ibn Sirin who said:
انطلق الحسن و الحسين و ابن عمر و ابن الزبير و مروان كلهم شاكي في السلاح حتى دخلوا الدار فقال عثمان أعزم عليكم لما رجعتم فوضعتم أسلحتكم و لزمتم بيوتكم
Al Hassan, al Hussain, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair, and Marwan came to the house of ‘Uthman, armed with their weapons to defend him. ‘Uthman told them, “I entreat you on oath to return, lay down your weapons, and remain in your homes.”
Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu is reported to have said:
قلت لعثمان : اليوم طاب الضرب معك ، قال : أعزم عليك لتخرجن
I said to ‘Uthman, “Today fighting for you is permitted.” He said, “I entreat you on oath to leave.”
Ibn Abi Shaybah has recorded on the authority of ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair who said:
قلت لعثمان يوم الدار : اخرج فقاتلهم ، فإن معك من قد نصر الله بأقل منه ، والله قتالهم لحلال ، قال : فأي
I said to ‘Uthman on the day he was besieged, “Come out and fight them. You have the assistance of those whom Allah gave victory with a smaller group. By Allah, fighting them is permitted.” He says, “‘Uthman refused.”
Imam Ahmed has narrated in his Musnad that Mughirah ibn Shu’bah radiya Llahu ‘anhu came to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu whilst he was besieged and said:
إنك إمام العامة وقد نزل بك ما ترى وإني أعرض عليك خصالا ثلاثا اختر إحداهن . إما أن تخرج فتقاتلهم ، فإن معك عددا وقوة ، وأنت على الحق وهم على الباطل . وإما أن تخرق بابا سوى الباب الذي هم عليه فتقعد على رواحلك فتلحق مكة ، فإنهم لن يستحلوك وأنت بها . وإما أن تلحق بالشام فإنهم أهل الشام وفيهم معاوية . فقال عثمان ، أما أن أخرج فأقاتل فلن أكون أول من خلف رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، في أمته بسفك الدماء ، وأما أن أخرج إلى مكة فإنهم لن يستحلوني بها ، فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول : « يلحد رجل من قريش بمكة يكون عليه نصف عذاب العالم »، ولن أكون أنا . وأما أن ألحق بالشام فإنهم أهل الشام وفيهم معاوية ، فلن أفارق دار هجرتي ومجاورة الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم
You are the ruler of the people and there has befallen you what you see. I advise you of three options; choose one of them. Go out and fight them, for you have the numbers and strength, and you are in the right and they are in the wrong; or make a door other than the door where they are, and sit on your mount and go to Makkah, for they will not dare to attack you there; or go to Syria, for among the people of Syria is Muawiyah.
‘Uthman replied, “As for going out and fighting them, I will not be the first one after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to rule the ummah by shedding its blood. As for going out to Makkah because they would not dare to attack me there, I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam say: “A man of Quraysh who visits Makkah with the aim of profanity or wrongdoing will have the punishment of half of mankind,” and I will never be that one; and as for going to Syria because among the people of Syria is Muawiyah, I will never leave the place to which I migrated and where I am close to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”
Ibn ‘Asakir has narrated with his chain of narration to Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent word to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu saying:
إن معي خمسمائة دارع ، فأذن لي فأمنعك من القوم ، فإنك لم تحدث شيئا يستحل به دمك . قال – أي عثمان – : جزيت خيرا ، ما أحب أن يهراق دم في سببي
I have five hundred men with shields. Give me permission to protect you against the people, for you have not done anything that would make it permissible to shed your blood.
‘Uthman replied, “May you be rewarded with good. I do not want blood to be shed for my sake”
Abu Habibah, the grandfather of Musa ibn ‘Uqbah, says:
بعثني الزبير إلى عثمان ، وهو محصور ، فدخلت عليه في يوم صائف وهو على كرسي ، وعنده الحسن بن علي ، وأبو هريرة ، وعبد الله بن عمر ، وعبد الله بن الزبير، فقلت : بعثني إليك الزبير بن العوام وهو يقرئك السلام ويقول لك : إني على طاعتي لم أبدل ولم أنكث فإن شئت دخلت الدار معك وكنت رجلا من القوم ، وإن شئت أقمت ، فإن بني عمرو بن عوف وعدوني أن يصبحوا على بابي ، ثم يمضون على ما آمرهم به . فلما سمع الرسالة قال : الله أكبر ، الحمد لله الذي عصم أخي ، أقرئه السلام ، ثم قل له : إن يدخل الدار لا يكن إلا رجلا من القوم ، ومكانك أحب إلي ، وعسى الله أن يدفع بك عني ، فلما سمع الرسالة أبو هريرة قام فقال : ألا أخبركم ما سمعت أذناي من رسول الله عل قالوا : بلى ! قال : أشهد لسمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول : « تكون بعدي فتن وأمور » فقلنا : فأين المنجى منها يا رسول الله ؟! قال : « إلى الأمين وحزبه ، وأشار إلى عثمان بن عفان . فقام الناس فقالوا : قد أمكنتنا البصائر، فأذن لنا في الجهاد ، فقال عثمان : أعزم على من كانت لي عليه طاعة ألا يقاتل
Zubair sent me to ‘Uthman when he was being besieged and I entered upon him on a summer day. He was sitting on a chair and Hassan ibn ‘Ali, Abu Hurairah, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar and ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair were with him. I said: “Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam has sent me to you. He sends greetings of salam to you and says to you: I am still loyal to you and I have not changed or retracted. If you wish, I will join you in your house, and will be one of the people there, or if you wish, I will stay where I am, because Banu ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf have promised to come to my place, then they will follow whatever instructions I give them.”
When ‘Uthman heard the message, he said: “Allah Akbar! Praise be to Allah Who has protected my brother. Convey salam to him and tell him, I appreciate what you said; may Allah ward off harm from me by you.”
When Abu Hurairah read the message he stood up and said: “Shall I not tell you what my ears heard from the Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam?”
They said: “Yes.”
He said: “I bear witness that I heard the Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam say: “After I am gone there will be turmoil and other things. We said, ‘Where should we turn to for safety, O Rasul of Allah?’ He said, ‘To Al Amin (the trustworthy one) and his group,’ and he pointed to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.
The people stood up and said: “Now we know what we should do. Give us permission to fight in jihad.
But ‘Uthman said: “I urge anyone who is supposed to obey me not to fight.”
Abu Qatadah al Ansari radiya Llahu ‘anhu is reported to have said:
دخلت على عثمان وهو محصور أنا ورجل من قومي نستأذنه في الحج ، فأذن لنا ، فلما خرجت استقبلني الحسن بن علي بالباب ، فدخل وعليه سلاحه ، فرجعت معه ، فدخل فوقف بين يدي عثمان قال : يا أمير المؤمنين ها أنا ذا بين يديك فمرني بأمرك ، فقال له عثمان : يا ابن أخي وصلتك رحم، إن القوم ما يريدون غيري ، ووالله لا أتوقی بالمؤمنين ، ولكن أوقى المؤمنين بنفسي ، فلما سمعت ذلك منه قلت – أي أبو قتادة : يا أمير المؤمنين ! إن كان من أمرك کون فما تأمر – قال : انظر ما اجتمعت عليه أمة محمد ال فإن الله لا يجمعهم على ضلالة ، كونوا مع الجماعة حيث كانت
I came to ‘Uthman with another man from my tribe seeking permission to go for Hajj whilst he was besieged and he permitted us to go. Upon leaving I met al Hassan ibn ‘Ali at the door who entered with his weapons. I went back with him. He entered and stood before ‘Uthman and said, “O Amir al Mu’minin, here I stand before you, command me as you wish.”
‘Uthman said to him, “My nephew, I sympathise with you. These people do not intend harm to anyone but me. By Allah, I will not protect myself by the believers, rather I will protect the believers by sacrificing myself.”
When I [Abu Qatadah] heard him say this, I said, “O Amir al Mu’minin, if that’s what you have decided, what is your instruction for us?”
He replied, “See what the ummah of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has unanimity on as Allah will never unify them onto misguidance. Be with the Jama’ah wherever you may be.”
Bashshar said, “I narrated this to Hammad ibn Zaid, he teared and said, ‘May Allah have mercy on the Amir al Mu’minin. He was besieged for more than forty nights and did not utter a word that could be held against him by an innovator.’”
In this manner, many courageous Sahabah of the Muhajirin and Ansar and their sons gathered around ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in order to protect and fight for him. If ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had permitted them to fight the Khawarij, they would have fought them and assisted him. However, the Islam, sentiment of giving preference, and sincerity of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu prevented him from allowing people to become embroiled in battle because of him. He detested the fact that if he permitted them to fight the Khawarij who had besieged him, senior and eminent Sahabah would be martyred; perhaps none would remain. The benefit of him staying alive would result in a greater atrocity of many people being killed. Thus, he patiently endured and hoped for reward, preferring to sacrifice himself for the ummah.
Al Qadi Abu Bakr al ‘Arabi says that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was killed and the Sahabah were innocent in the matter of his murder as he prevented them from fighting those who would attack him. He said, “I will not be the first leader after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to permit fighting in the ummah.” He endured the difficulties patiently, surrendered to the trials, and sacrificed himself for the ummah.
Also, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was most able to escape had he chosen to. It was for this reason Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu said to him:
انطلق معي إلى الشام قبل أن يهجم عليك من لا قبل لك به ، فإن أهل الشام على الأمر – الطاعة – لم يزالوا . فقال له عثمان – وهو لا يرغب مفارقة دار الهجرة – : أنا لا أبيع جوار رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بشيء وإن كان فيه قطع خيط عنقي . فقال له معاوية : فأبعث إليك جندا منهم يقيم بين ظهراني أهل المدينة النائبة إن نابت المدينة أو إياك – فقال عثمان – واضعا مصلحة الرعية في المقام الأول – : أنا لا أقتر على جيران رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الأرزاق بجند يساكنهم ، وأضيق على أهل الهجرة والنصرة . فقال معاوية : والله يا أمير المؤمنين لتغتال أو لتغزي . فقال عثمان : حسبي الله ونعم الوكيل
Come with me to Sham before you are attacked by men against whom you cannot defend yourself for people of Sham are steadfastly loyal.
‘Uthman replied—not wanting to leave the place of hijrah, “I will not forsake being in the proximity of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for anything, even if my throat be slashed.”
Muawiyah said to him, “Then I will send an army to you that will confront any evil that may befall Madinah and you.”
‘Uthman said in reply—prioritising the welfare of the people, “It will stint the rations allocated to the neighbours of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and it will create scarcity for the inhabitants of the Abode of Migration and Support (Dar al Hijrah wa al Nusrah)
Muawiyah said, “By Allah, O Amir al Mu’minin, you will surely be assassinated or attacked.”
‘Uthman concluded, “Allah is sufficient for me and what an excellent guardian he is.”
Ibn Khaldun says in his introduction:
إن الأمر كان في أوله خلافة ، ووازع كل أحد فيها من نفسه هو الدين ، وكانوا يؤثرونه على أمور دنياهم وإن أفضت إلى هلاكهم وحدهم دون الكافة ، فهذا عثمان لما حصر في الدار جاءه الحسن والحسين وعبد الله بن عمر وابن جعفر وأمثالهم يريدون المدافعة عنه فأبى ومنع من سل السيوف بين المسلمين مخافة الفرقة ، وحفظا للألفة التي بها حفظ الكلمة ولو أدى إلى هلاکه
In the early days there was the true application of the caliphate and the yardstick of excellence in every person was the measure of his faith. They would give preference over their worldly matters even if that meant they would be killed and the rest saved. Consider ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu whilst he was besieged in his house. Al Hassan, al Hussain, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, Ibn Jafar, and others like them intended defending him but he refused. He did not allow the unsheathing of swords between the Muslims fearing a greater split and further in order to protect the unity by which the faith is guarded, even if it lead to his death.
‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had strong faith in Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, he was generous with his life, far sighted, and patient to a fault in sacrificing his life for the ummah. This is counted amongst his greatest accolades by the Muslims. Ibn Taymiyyah says:
ومن المعلوم بالتواتر أن عثمان كان من أكف الناس عن الدماء وأصبر الناس على من نال من عرضه وعلى من سعى في دمه ، فحاصروه وسعوا في قتله وقد عرف إرادتهم لقتله ، وقد جاءه المسلمون ينصرونه ويشيرون عليه بقتالهم ، وهو يأمر الناس بالكف عن القتال ، ويأمر من يطيعه أن لا يقاتلهم … وقيل له تذهب إلى مكة فقال : لا أكون ممن ألحد في الحرم ، فقيل له : تذهب إلى الشام ، فقال : لا أفارق دار هجرتي ، فقيل له : فقاتلهم ، فقال : لا أكون أول من خلف محمدا في أمته بالسيف ، فكان صبر عثمان حتى قتل من أعظم فضائله عند المسلمين
It is known through undisputable channels that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was extremely precautious in ensuring no blood of the Muslims be spilt. He was also the most patient in facing those that sought to vilify him and against those who were after his blood. They besieged him and made inroads in order to assassinate him, and he knew that they intended killing him. Yet when the Muslims came to his aid and advised him to fight, he instructed them to stand down and commanded those who would heed him to not fight. He was counselled to leave for Makkah, but he did want the one to bring contention onto the haram. He was advised to go to Sham, but he did not want to leave Madinah. He was suggested to fight them, but he did not want to be the first leader after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to unsheathe the sword in the ummah. Thus, the patience of ‘Uthman until the moment of his assassination is reckoned to be amongst his greatest accolades by the Muslims.
In addition to his patience and protection of the ummah from ruin and fragmentation another stance of resilience adopted by ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was his refusal to resign from the post of caliphate; a demand of the Khawarij. By this he ensured the preservation and continuation of the system of state. If he had bowed to the pressure of the Khawarij and resigned, the post of caliphate would have become a play thing in the hands of those seeking mischief in the lands. Rebellion would have become wide spread, the caliphate system would have collapsed, and it would have allowed the masses and more so the agitators to impose upon the leaders.
‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was far-sighted in this decision. If he had given them what they wanted, it would have set a precedent of forcing resignation from the leaders whenever the people were displeased with them. It would have created long standing civil conflict, an inability to defend against enemies, and the weakening of the state. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu saw no one but himself able to preserve the ummah from disintegration, sacrificing himself to strengthen social order and protect the caliphate, thus preventing complete anarchism.
There is no doubt that that this act of resilience from ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the ultimate act of strength and greatness that could be expected from a man upon whom leadership had been thrusted. He adopted the lesser of the two evils by sacrificing himself in order to preserve the caliphate.
He had great faith in this decision of his. One of the leaders of the Khawarij, al Ashtar al Nakha’i had spoken to him of this as recorded by Ibn Sa’d in his Tabaqat. He narrates from —al Hassan from —Waththab, who was one of those manumitted by Amir al Mu’minin ‘Umar. Waththab says:
قال : بعثني عثمان فدعوت له الأشتر فجاء : فقال : يا أشتر ما يريد الناس مني – قال : ثلاث ليس لك من إحداهن به، قال : ما هن – قال : يخيرونك بين أن تخلع لهم أمرهم فتقول هذا أمركم فاختاروا من شئتم ، وبين أن تق من نفسك ، فإن أبيت هاتين فإن القوم قاتلوك . قال : أما ما من إحداهن بد . قال : لا ، ما من إحداهئ ب. أما أن أخلع لهم أمرهم ، والله لأن أقدم فتضرب عنقي أحب إلي من أن أخلع أمة محمد بعضها على بعض ، وأما أن أقض من نفسي فوالله لقد علمت أن صاحبي بين يدي قد كان يعاقبان وما يقوم بد من القصاص ، وأما أن تقتلوني فوالله لئن قتلتموني لا تتحابون بعدي أبدا ، ولا تصلون بعدي جميقا أبدا ، ولا تقاتلون بعدي عدؤا جميعا أبدا ثم انطلق – أي الأشتر
‘Uthman sent me to summon al Ashtar and he came. Then (‘Uthman) said, “Ashtar, what do the people want from me?”
He replied said, “You cannot avoid doing one of three things.”
‘Uthman asked, “What are they?”
Al Ashtar said, “They ask you to choose between the following. You may turn their affairs over to them and say, ‘This is your affair; choose whomever you will for it. Second, you may have yourself punished. If you reject these two choices, then this band of men will kill you.”
‘Uthman said. “Is there no way to avoid these choices?”
He said, “There is no choice to avoid them.”
‘Uthman said, “As for turning their affairs to them, by Allah! I would prefer be brought out and beheaded than abandoning the ummah of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to civil war. As for having myself punished, by Allah, you know that two of my associates were punished before me, and my body cannot endure punishment. As for your killing me, by Allah, if you kill me you will never again have love for one another, nor will you ever pray together again, nor will you ever be united in fighting an enemy.”
Then al Ashtar rose, and went away.
The eminent Companion, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma reinforced the stance of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in that he does not resign from the caliphate under the pressure of the siege. This was because he feared a destructive future precedent of forced resignations by people upon the slightest of annoyances.
Imam Ahmed has recorded in Fada’il al Sahabah from Nafi’, the freed slave of Ibn ‘Umar, who said:
دخل ابن عمر على عثمان وعنده المغيرة بن الأخنس – له صحبة – فقال : انظر ما يقول هؤلاء، يقولون : اخلعها ولا تقتل نفسك . فقال ابن عمر : إذا خلعتها أمخلد أنت في الدنيا ؟ قال : لا ، قال : فإن لم تخلعها هل يزيدون على أن يقتلوك ؟ قال : لا ، قال : فهل يملكون لك جئة أو نارا ؟ قال : لا ، قال : فلا أرى أن تخلع قميصا قمصکه الله ، فتكون سنة كلماه کره قوم خليفتهم أو إمامهم قتلوه
Ibn ‘Umar came to ‘Uthman and al Mughirah ibn al Akhnas—a Sahabi—was present there. He said, “Consider what they are saying, resign and do not kill yourself.”
Ibn ‘Umar said, “If you resign will you love forever?”
‘Uthman said, “No.”
Ibn ‘Umar said, “If you do not resign, will they make any more efforts in killing you?”
He said, “No”
Ibn ‘Umar asked, “Do they decide paradise or hell for you?”
‘Uthman replied, “No.”
Ibn ‘Umar said, “I do not think that you should remove this garment (of caliphate) that Allah has adorned you with. If you do, it will set a precedent of murdering the khalifah whenever the people are upset with their khalifah or leader.”
Therefore, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu deemed it better to be patient and steadfast, electing to give his life for the benefit of the faith. He was generous with his life for Allah, the faith, and the Muslims.
It has been authentically narrated from Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took a covenant of patience from ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Imam Ahmed has recorded with an authentic chain of transmission to Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha who reported:
قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ادعوا إلى بعض أصحابي ، قلت : أبو بكر ؟ قال : لا ، قلت : عمر ؟ قال : لا ، قلت : ابن عمك علي ؟ قال : لا ، قلت : عثمان ؟ قال : نعم . فلما جاء تنحّی فجعل يساره ولون عثمان يتغير ، فلما كان يوم الدار وحصر ، قلنا : يا أمير المؤمنين ألا تقاتل ؟ قال : لا ، انّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عهد إلىّ عهدا وإني صابر نفسي عليه
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Send for one of my companions.”
I asked, “Abu Bakr?”
He replied, “No.”
I asked, “‘Umar?”
He replied, “No.”
I asked, “Your cousin, ‘Ali?”
He replied, “No.”
I asked, “‘Uthman?”
He said, “Yes.”
When he came they stepped aside and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam began whispering to him and the colour of ‘Uthman began changing. Then when he was besieged, we said to him, “O Amir al Mu’minin, will you not fight?”
He said, “No. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took a covenant from me and will I will hold myself to it.”
The covenant taken from him by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was not to step down from the caliphate so as not to set a precedent. Ahmed ibn Hambal and ‘Umar ibn Shabbah have narrated on the authority of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha who says:
سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول : يا عثمان ! عسى الله أن يقمصك قميصا من بعدي فإن أرادك المبيتون – وفي رواية : المنافقون – على خلعه فلا تخلعه – يقول له ذلك ثلاثا
I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, “O ‘Uthman, perhaps Allah will clothe you with a garment after me. If the enemies—in another narration the word, hypocrites appear—intend to remove it from you, do not remove it.” He said this three times.
Ibn Shabbah has narrated on authority of Hafsah radiya Llahu ‘anha who said:
قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يا عثمان إنك مستشهد ، فاصبر صبرك الله ، ولا تخلع قميصا قمصكه الله – الخلافة
The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “O ‘Uthman, you will be martyred. Adopt patience and Allah will grant you the ability to persevere. And do not remove the garment (i.e. the caliphate) that Allah will clothe you with.”
This hadith clearly demonstrates that the Khawarij were not seekers of justice or the truth. They were a people accustomed to hypocrisy, hiding beneath declarations of revolution, commanding the good, and forbidding the evil. There has been no group that have posed a greater threat to Islam and the Muslims than the hypocrites.
Removing ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu from the office of caliphate had no shar’i justification as long as he continued to rule by the law of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, dealt with his constituents with justice, held court with kindness and wisdom, and did not commit a crime that would necessitate his death or resignation. It is for this reason that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu addressed those who besieged him saying, “If you find in the book of Allah—and in another narration in the truth—justification to shackle my legs, then do so.”
Imam Ahmed has reported in Fada’il al Sahabah and Ibn ‘Asakir in his Tarikh that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu faced those who had besieged him and said:
علام تقتلوني ! فإني سمعت رسول الله عل يقول : «لا يحل دم امرئ مسلم إلا بإحدى ثلاث : رجل زنی بعد إحصانه فعليه الرجم، أو قتل عمدا فعليه القود ، أو ارتد بعد إسلامه فعليه القتل » ، فوالله ما زنيت في جاهلية ولا إسلام ، ولا قتلت أحدا فأقيد نفسي منه ، ولا ارتددت منذ أسلمت ، وإني أشهد ألا إله إلا الله ، وأن محمدا عبده ورسوله وفي رواية أحمد زيادة : ولا أحببت أنّ لي الدنيا بديني بدلا منذ هداني له … فيم تقتلوني
For what reason are you trying to kill me? I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, “It is not permissible to spill the blood of a Muslim except in one of three cases: a married person who commits adultery, as retaliation from one who intentionally kills, and for one who turns apostate after his being a Muslim. Then he will be killed.”
By Allah, I have never committed an act of adultery in the time of ignorance, nor after Islam, I have never killed anyone that retaliation be taken from me, and I have not turned apostate after accepting Islam. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is his servant and Messenger.”
There is an addition in the narration of Ahmed in which he stated, “And I have never preferred the world in lieu of my faith since Allah guided me to it. Then why do you want to kill me.”
Ibn Sa’d and Ibn Mani’ have narrated the following account in Al Tabaqat and Al Musnad respectively:
یا قوم ! لا تقتلوني ، فإني وال وأخ مسلم ، فوالله إن أردت إلا الإصلاح ما استطعت أصبت أو أخطأت ، وإنكم إن تقتلوني لا تصلوا جميعا أبدا ، ولا تغزوا جميعا أبدا ، ولا يقسم فيؤكم بينكم
O people! Do not kill me, for I am the leader and a brother Muslim. By Allah, I have only ever intended betterment, whether the outcome was good or not. If you kill me, you will never pray together again, you will never fight together again, and your spoils of war will not be distributed amongst you.
The following is the wording of the narration recorded by Ibn Abi Shaybah:
فوالله لئن قتلتموني لا تصلون جميعا أبدا ، ولا تجاهدون عدوا أبدا ، ولتختلف حتى تصيروا هكذا – وشبك بين أصابعه
By Allah, if you kill me you will not pray together again, you will not fight the enemies again, and you will differ until you become like this—and he split his fingers apart.
Al Hassan al Basri—who had lived up to the year 110 A.H/728 A.D—commenting on this says:
فوالله إن صلی القوم جميعا إن قلوبهم مختلفة
By Allah, even if they prayed together, their hearts differed. 
The besiege continued from the end of Dhu al Qa’dah up to the eighteenth of Dhu al Hijjah the year 35 A.H. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was an embodiment of courage and fortitude during the siege. He radiated serenity and contentment of the highest level despite the severe conditions and the siege.
The pseudo-courage displayed by tyrants and authoritarian dictators who spill needless blood and arouse sentiments of submission based on fear mongering in order to secure their empires was a far throw from the true and eternal courage displayed by this Rightly Guided Khalifah of Islam. Punishments and chastisements, that in reality is torture are considered feats of courage by tyrants; leaders whose governors and close ones aren’t safe from their cruelty. These are self-serving oppressors who only concern themselves with their regimes. On the other hand, the courage and fortitude of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu who patiently endured without complaint and faced evil with no qualms was indeed the true manifestation of courage and fortitude.
‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu continued to advise those laying siege to him, reminding them of his status, perhaps they may relent, but they did not. His address to them was marked by strength, confidence, and reliance on Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. He knew he was on the truth and that he would soon die as a martyr to this truth. Sometimes he would recall the hadith of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as they stood atop mount Uhud with Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The mountain trembled and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam addressed the mountain saying:
اثبت أحد ، فما عليك إلا نبي وصديق وشهيدان
Be still Uhud, for upon you are a Prophet, a Siddiq, and two martyrs.
At times he would recall the hadith regarding the well of Aris in which he was given the glad tidings of Jannat due to the difficulties he was to face. And at other times he would recall the counsel of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to remain patient and to not remove himself from the caliphate.
Al Qadi Abu Bakr ibn al ‘Arabi says:
وأمر عثمان کله سنة ماضية وسيرة راضية ، فإنه تحقق أنه مقتول بخبر الصادق له بذلك ، وأنه بشره بالجنة على بلوى تصيبه وأنه شهيد
The whole life of ‘Uthman is an embodiment of being pleased with the decisions of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. He was sure that he would be killed as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam informed him, that he was promised paradise upon the difficulties he would face, and that he was to be a martyr.
Prior to his assassination, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu saw in his dream that his time to leave the world had drawn close and he submitted to the will of Allah. Al Hakim has with an authentic chain of transmission from Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma that ‘Uthman arose one morning and addressed the people saying:
رأيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في المنام فقال : یا عثمان ! أفطر عندنا ، فأصبح صائما وقتل من يومه
I saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in my dream and he said, “O ‘Uthman, break your fast with us.” [The narrator says] He started his fast that morning and was killed on that very day.
Abu Ya’la has recorded in his Musnad on the authority of Kathir ibn al Salt who says:
نام عثمان في ذلك اليوم الذي قتل فيه – وهو يوم الجمعة – فلما استيقظ قال : لولا أن يقول الناس تمنى عثمان أمنية لحدثتكم حديثا ، قال – أي الراوي – : حدثنا أصلحك الله ، فلسنا نقول كما يقول الناس ، قال : رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في منامي هذا فقال : إنك شاهد معنا الجمعة
‘Uthman slept on the day he was killed—it was the day of Friday—when he woke up he said, “If it wasn’t for people saying that ‘Uthman is wishing for death I would have narrated something to you.”
The narrator said, “May Allah have mercy on you, do narrate to us. We will not comment as the people would.”
He said, “I saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in my dream in this sleep of mine and he said, ‘You will be present with us for Jumu’ah.’”
Ahmed has narrated with a sound to chain to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu who said:
إني رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في النوم البارحة ، ورأيت أبا بكر وعمر ، وأنهم قالوا لي : اصبر فإنك تفطر عندنا القابلة ، ثم دعا بمصحف فنشره بين يديه فقتل وهو بين يديه
I saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Abu Bakr, and ‘Umar in my dream last night. They said to me, “Be patient, you will break your fast with us tomorrow.” He then called for a mushaf and opened it before him. He was killed with it was in front of him.
The Khawarij surrounded his house and stained their swords with his pure blood whilst he recited the Book of Allah. The narrations differ in specifying his killer. Was it Ruman al Yamani, Kinanah ibn Bishr al Tujibi, or a man named Jabalah. It has also been said that his killer has not been identified according to the correct opinion.
However, this is not as important as identifying the personalities of his killers, considering the fact that an abettor is no different from the killer. They were the scum of the cities as al Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu describes them. They were the outcasts of their tribes as portrayed by Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. Ibn Sa’d says in his Tabaqat that they were the dregs of society who were resolute in their aspirations of evil. Imam al Nawawi commenting on them in his commentary of Sahih Muslim depicts them as savage barbarians from riffraff tribes. Ibn Taymiyyah in his Minhaj describes them as misguided, tyrants, and imbeciles. Al Dhahabi calls them leaders of evil and outcasts in Duwal al Islam. And Ibn al ‘Imad al Hanbali concludes that they were vile men of disreputable tribes.
Such descriptions of this mob is consistent with their behaviour throughout the siege and tyrannical murder of the khalifah. How could they possibly bar him from water and food whilst being aware that he had, for so long, quenched the thirst and hunger of the Muslims utilizing his own personal wealth. He was one who never stopped giving when people faced difficulties or were in constrained circumstances. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu rebuking those that had besieged him and weighing the gravity of their ill said:
يا أيها الناس ! إن الذي تفعلوه لا يشبه أمر المؤمنين ولا أمر الكافرين ، فلا تمنعوا عن هذا الرجل الماء ولا المادة – الطعام – فإن الروم وفارس لتأسر وتطعم وتسقي
O people! Their actions aren’t like that of Muslims or non-Muslims. Do not bar this man from water and food. Even the Romans and the Persians give food and drink to their prisoners.
Then how is it that they suffocated him and barred him from performing salah in the Masjid of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam whereas he had extended that very masjid with his personal wealth. How did they dare to murder him in cold blood whereas he had never sought vengeance against any one of his constituents. He had lived and ruled with impartiality and compassion. His constituents spent their time under his caliphate in goodness and ease as related by those who witnessed it, the likes of al Hassan al Basri and others.
The narration recorded by Ibn Kathir in al Bidayah clearly outlines the true intent of these rebels. He narrates:
من أن الخوارج نادی بعضهم بعضا بعد قتل عثمان بالسطو على بيت المال ، فسمعهم خزنة بيت المال فقالوا : یا قوم ! النجا ! النجا ! فإن هؤلاء القوم لم يصدقوا فيما قالوا من أن قصدهم قيام الحق والأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر وغير ذلك مما ادعوا أنهم قاموا لأجله ، وكذبوا ، إنما قصدهم الدنيا
The Khawarij called out to each other after the killing of ‘Uthman to ransack the public treasury. The keeper of the treasury heard them and commented, “O people, save yourselves, save yourselves! These people aren’t truthful in their claims of intent to establish the truth, call to the good, and forbid the evil. These and other goals they have claimed are false. Their only objective is the world.”
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala did not overlook nor did he give respite to the oppressors, rather he disgraced them and extracted revenge from them, not sparring a single one of them.
Khalifah has recorded with an authentic chain in his Tarikh on the authority of ‘Imran ibn al Hudayr who said:
إن لا يكن عبد الله بن شقيق حدثني أن أول قطرة قطرت من دمه – أي عثمان – على فَسَیَكْفِیْكَهُمُ اللّٰهُ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيْعُ الْعَلِيْمُ فإن أبا حريث ذكر أنه ذهب وسهيل النميري ، فأخرجوا إليه المصحف ، فإذا القطرة على فَسَیَكْفِیْكَهُمُ اللّٰه فإنها في المصحف ما حكت
‘Abdullah ibn Shaqiq told me that the first drop of ‘Uthman’s blood fell on the words:
فَسَیَكْفِیْكَهُمُ اللّٰه وَهُوَ السَّمِيْعُ الْعَلِيْمُ
and Allah will be sufficient for you against them. And He is the Hearing, the Knowing. 
and Allah will be sufficient for you against them
is still in the Mushaf and has not been erased.
Ahmed has narrated with an authentic chain of narration from ‘Amrah bint Artat al ‘Adawiyyah who said:
خرجت مع عائشة سنة قتل عثمان إلى مكة ، فمررنا بالمدينة ، ورأينا المصحف الذي قتل وهو في حجره ، فكانت أول قطرة قطرت من دمه على هذه الأية فَسَیَكْفِیْكَهُمُ اللّٰهُ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيْعُ الْعَلِيْمُ. قالت عمرة : فما مات منهم رجل سويا
I went to Makkah with Aisha the year ‘Uthman was murdered. We passed through Madinah and saw the mushaf which was on his lap when he was killed. The first drop of his blood had spilt on the verse:
فَسَیَكْفِیْكَهُمُ اللّٰه وَهُوَ السَّمِيْعُ الْعَلِيْمُ
And Allah will be sufficient for you against them. And He is the Hearing, the Knowing.
‘Amrah says, “Not one of those men died a good death.”
Muhammad ibn Sirin says:
كنت أطوف بالكعبة فإذا رجل يقول : اللهم اغفر لي ، وما أظن أن تغفر لي قلت : يا عبد الله ! ما سمعت أحدا يقول ما تقول ؟ قال : كنت أعطيت الله عهدا إن قدرت أن ألطم وجه عثمان إلا لطمته ، فلما قتل وضع على سريره في البيت ، والناس يجيئون فيصلون عليه ، فدخلت كأني أصلي عليه ، فوجدت خلوة فرفعت الثوب عن وجهه ، فلطمت وجهه وسجيته وقد بيست يميني ، قال محمد بن سیرین : رأيتها يابسه كأنها عود
I was circumambulating the Ka’bah and I saw a man saying, “O Allah, forgive me, but I don’t think You will forgive me.”
I said, “O slave of Allah, I have never heard anyone saying what you are saying.”
He said, “I promised Allah that if I could slap ‘Uthman on the face I would do so. When he was killed and placed on the bier in the house, and the people were coming to pay their last respects, I entered as if I wanted to pay my last respects, and I found myself alone with him. I lifted the cloth from his face and slapped his face, and then I covered him again. Now my right arm is paralyzed.”
Muhammad ibn Sirin said: “I saw it, like a piece of wood.”
Al Baladhuri has narrated in Ansab al Ashraf on the authority of Talq ibn Khushshaf who said:
قدمت المدينة بعد مقتل عثمان ، فسألت عائشة عن قتله فقالت : لعن الله قتلته ، فقد قتل مظلوما أقاد الله من ابن أبي بكر ، وأهدى إلى الأشتر سهما من سهامه ، وهراق دم ابني بديل . فوالله ما من القوم أحد إلا أصابته دعوتها
I came to Madinah after the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. I asked Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha about his murderers and she said, “May the curse of Allah be upon his murderers. He was unjustly killed.”
[Talq ibn Khushshaf said] Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala took revenge on Ibn Abi Bakr, al Ashtar was struck with an arrow from His arrows, and the two sons of Badil were killed. Every one of them was afflicted by her curse.
Qatadah narrates from a man of the Bani Sadus who said:
كنت فيمن قتل عثمان فما منهم رجل إلا أصابته عقوبة غيري ، قال قتادة : فما مات حتى عمي ، قال أبو داود : وقتل ابني بديل بصفين
I was amongst those who killed ‘Uthman. Every one of them were afflicted by a punishment besides me.
Qatadah says, “He did not die until he lost his eyesight.”
Another devastating outcome of their act was the Muslims unsheathing their swords against them until the Day of Qiyamah. Al Qasim ibn Muhammad is narrated to have said:
مر علي رضي الله عنه على رجلين بالمدينة بعدما قتل عثمان وقبل بيعته وهما يقولان : قتل ابن بيضاء ومكانه من الإسلام والعرب ، ثم والله ما انتطح فيه عنزان فقال علي : ما قلتما ؟ فأعادا عليه ، فقال : بلى والله ! ورجال بعد رجال وكتائب بعد كتائب ، وزحوف بعد زحوف ورجال وكتائب وزحوف في أصلاب رجال حتى يكاد أو يخرج ابن مريم
‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed by two men in Madinah after ‘Uthman had been killed and before allegiance was sworn to him. They were saying, “Ibn al Bayda’ (i.e. ‘Uthman) has been killed and his seniority in Islam and position amongst the Arabs was well known. But by Allah, no one is seeking to avenge him.”
‘Ali said, “What did you say?”
They repeated their comments.
‘Ali said, “No, by Allah a lot of men will be killed and there will be a great deal of fighting until the son of Maryam appears.”
What he meant by this was that the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu opened the doors of division and differences between the Muslims which would last up to the looming of Qiyamah.
In conclusion of this section, we can determine that the murder of the khalifah was not the greater goal of those who planned the siege. If that was the case than matters would have calmed down and the fitnah would have waned. A new khalifah would have taken office and normalcy would have returned. However, the goals of those who led this movement were much more sinister and went far beyond killing the khalifah and replacing him. Their goal was to destroy the basis of Islam by attacking its beliefs and foundations through the outfall of a fallen khalifah; an opportune moment to engineer mechanisms of animosity and differences between the Muslims.
The most prominent example of this is when the whirlwinds of fitnah began to abate and efforts of reconciliation between ‘Ali, Talhah, and Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhum were afoot before the Battle of Jamal, almost having reconciled, the Saba’iyyah fearing the outcome of this reconciliation convened a meeting which comprised of Ibn Saba’ and the leaders of his cause. He apprised them of the situation and sought out their views. After having applied their minds to the issue, he began identifying avenues by which he could instigate war between the two parties.
In this manner the plans of the Saba’iyyah continued to take effect during the era of ‘Uthman and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Their only intent being the destruction of the faith and instigation of groups consisting of the harsh Bedouin mobs and Muslims of the newly conquered lands in whose hearts Islam had not yet truly taken root. The plan adopted by them was not dissimilar to other instigators who launch campaigns forming a breeding ground for such groups to exist and prosper. Islam though, through the grace of Allah, proved to be resilient to such attacks, robust in facing these challenges, and more than capable in remaining unmoved. No doubt, Ibn Saba’ and his cronies are long gone, yet Islam stands high and tall. And even though his disastrous ideologies do find place in the minds of some, it is worth noting that those that ascribe to his thought are shunned due to the foul beliefs they commit themselves to and wicked deeds they bind themselves by. Whereas the greater portion of the ummah—the al Sawad al A’zam—remain firm on the creed of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has stipulated individuals for the Islamic cause who will refute the smut of such ideologies and present before the world its evil. The Muslims thus remain on the pristine doctrine of Tawhid following in the footsteps of the pious predecessors. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has explained this designation of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in the following words:
لا تزال طائفة من أمتي على الحق لا يضرهم من خالفهم حتى يأتي أمر الله
A group of people from my Ummah will continue to be firm on the truth, and those who oppose them shall not harm them. They will continue to do so until the command of Allah comes.
 Ibn al Kathir in Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 197-198.
 Al Maliqi: Al Tamhid wa al Bayan, pg. 194.
 He is ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir ibn Rabi’ah al ‘Anzi, Abu Muhammad al Madani. Amongst the senior Tabi’in. He narrates from his father, ‘Amr ibn al ‘As, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, and others.
His life has been recorded by Ibn Ma’in: Al Tarikh, vol. 2 pg. 14; Al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, pg. 263; Al Fasawi: Al Ma’rifah wa al Tarikh, vol. 1 pg. 251; Al Dhahabi: Al Mizan, vol. 2 pg. 449.
 Khalifah: Al Tarikh, pg. 174.
 Khalifah: Al Tarikh, pg. 174.
 Ibid, pg. 174.
 Ibn Abi Shaybah: Al Musannaf, vol. 5 pg. 204.
 Ahmed: Al Musnad, vol. 23 pg. 18; Ibn al Kathir in Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 211. Ahmed Shakir has deemed its chain weak 1/369 hadith: 481.
 Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, pg. 403.
 He is Abu Habibah the freed slave of al Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He narrates from al Zubair and his grandson. The reliable historian Musa ibn ‘Uqbah narrates from him. His life has been recorded by Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 5 pg. 300; Ibn Abi Hatim: Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 9 pg. 359; and Ibn Hajar: Al Tahdhib, vol. 10 pg. 360.
 Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. 1 pgs. 511-512. The chain is authentic as per the comment of the researcher. It has also been reported by Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, pg. 374.
 Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 464. The chain is authentic as per the comment of the researcher. It has also been reported by Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, pg. 405.
 He is Bashshar ibn ‘Isa al Dab’i al Azraq.
Refer to, Al Dhahabi: Al Kashif, vol. 1 pg. 100; Ibn Hajar: Al Taqrib, vol. 1 pg. 97.
 He is Hammad ibn Zaid ibn Dirham al Azdi, Abu Isma’il al Azraq al Basri. One of the eminent leaders. He was a jurist and hafiz, amongst those with deep understanding into the sunnah and hadith.
He is of the seniors amongst the eight category. He passed away the year 179 A.H. His life has been recorded by Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 7 pg. 286; Ibn Ma’in: Al Tarikh, vol. 2 pg. 130; Ibn Abi Hatim: Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 3 pg. 137; Al Dhahabi: Al Kashif, vol. 1 pg. 187; and Ibn Hajar: Al Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 9.
 Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 414; Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, pg. 405.
 Ibn al ‘Arabi: Ahkam al Qur’an, vol. 2 pg. -.
 Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 345.
 Ibn Khaldun: Al Muqaddimah, pgs. 207-208.
 Ibn Taymiyyah: Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 3 pgs. 202-203.
 Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pgs. 72-73.
 Khalifah: Al Tarikh, pg. 170; Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 473. The chain is authentic as per the comment of the researcher.
 Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 494. The chain is authentic as per the comment of the researcher.
 Ahmed: Al Musnad, vol. 6 pg. 75; Al Tirmidhi: Al Sunan, hadith: 3706. Al Albani has deemed it authentic in Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi, vol. 3 pg. 210, hadith: 2923.
 Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, vol. 3 pgs. 1069-1070; Al Hindi has mentioned it in Muntakhab Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 5 pg. 33.
 Khalifah: Al Tarikh, pg. 171; Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 492. The chain is authentic as per the comment of the researcher.
 Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, pg. 348; Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 474. Its chain is sound and the hadith is authentic. It is also recorded in Al Musnad, vol. 1 pg. 63.
 He is Ahmed ibn Mani’ ibn ‘Abdur Rahman al Baghawi al Baghdadi, al Hafiz al Thiqah. From amongst the senior scholars of hadith.
He passed away the year 244 A.H/858 A.D. His life has been recorded by Al Bukhari: Al Tarikh al Saghir, vol. 3 pg. 379; Ibn Abi Hatim: Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 2 pg. 77; Al Dhahabi: al Tadhkirah, vol. 2 pg. 481; and Ibn Hajar: Al Tahdhib, vol. 1 pg. 84.
 Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 67; and Ibn Hajar: Al Matalib al ‘Aliyah bi Zawa’id al Masanid al Thamaniyah, vol. 4 pgs. 51-52. The researcher comments, al Busiri says, “The narrators are reliable.” A similar narration has been recorded by al Tabari, vol. 4 pg. 372.
 Ibn Abi Shaybah: Al Musannaf, vol. 14 pg. 590.
 Khalifah: Al Tarikh, pg. 171.
 Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 383.
 Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 4 pg. 204.
 Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 4 pg. 202.
 See pg. 525-526.
 Ibn al ‘Arabi: Al ‘Awasim, pg. 138.
 Al Hakim: Al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pgs. 99-103. Al Dhahabi has authenticated it and agreed with his classification; Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah with a different chain of transmission, vol. 1 pg. 494. The chain is sound as per the comment of the researcher.
 He is Kathir ibn al Salt ibn Ma’di Karib al Kindi, Abu ‘Abdullah al Madani. Ibn Sa’d has classified him amongst the first category of Tabi’in in Madinah.
His life has been recorded by Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 5 pg. 14; Al Bukhari: Al Tarikh al Kabir, 4/1/205; Al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, pg. 396; Ibn Abi Hatim: Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 7 pg. 157; Al Dhahabi: Al Kashif, vol. 3 pg. 5.
 Ibn Hajar: Al Matalib al ‘Aliyah bi Zawa’id al Masanid al Thamaniyah, vol. 4 pg. 291. The researcher quoting al Busiri said, “Al Bazzar, Abu Ya’la, and al Hakim have narrated it. Al Hakim has authenticated it and al Dhahabi has concurred with him. See, Al Hakim: Al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pg. 99.
 Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 497; and Al Haythami: Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 7 pg. 232. He said, “‘Abdullah has narrated it and Abu Ya’la in al Kabir, both of their narrators are reliable.
 Khalifah: Al Tarikh, pgs. 174-175.
 Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 394; Al Maliqi: Al Tamhid wa al Bayan, pg. 235.
 Ibn Hajar: Al Matalib al ‘Aliyah bi Zawa’id al Masanid al Thamaniyah, vol. 4 pg. 292. (From the Musnad of Ishaq ibn Rahawayh).
 Ibn al ‘Imad: Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 1 pg. 40.
 Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 462.
 Ibid, vol. 4 pg. 462.
 Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 71.
 Al Nawawi: Sharh Sahih Muslim, vol. 3 pgs. 148 -149.
 Ibn Taymiyyah: Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 3 pgs. 189-206.
 Al Dhahabi: Duwal al Islam, vol. 1 pg. 12.
 Ibn al ‘Imad: Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 1 pg. 40.
 Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 4 pg. 202; Al Tirmidhi: Al Sunan, vol. 5 pgs. 290-291.
 Al Maliqi: Al Tamhid wa al Bayan, pg. 242.
 Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 387.
 Al Tirmidhi: Al Sunan, vol. 5 pg. 290-291. He said, “The hadith is sound.” Al Albani has authenticated it in Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi, vol. 3 pg. 209, Hadith: 2921.
 Al Baladhuri: Ansab al Ashraf, vol. 1 pg. 594; Ibn al Kathir in Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 232.
 Ibn al Kathir in Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 189.
 He is, ‘Imran ibn al Hudayr al Sadusi, Abu ‘Ubaidah al Basri.
He passed away the year 149 A.H/766 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 7 pg. 271; Ibn Ma’in: Al Tarikh, vol. 2 pg. 436; Ibn Abi Hatim: Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 6 pg. 296; and Ibn Hajar: Al Tahdhib, vol. 8 pg. 125.
 He is ‘Abdullah ibn Shaqiq, Abu ‘Abdur Rahman; also known as Abu Muhammad al Basri.
He passed away the year 108 A.H/26 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 7 pg. 126; Al Bukhari: Al Tarikh al Kabir, 3/1/116; Al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, pg. 261; Ibn Abi Hatim: Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 5 pg. 81; and Ibn Hajar: Al Tahdhib, vol. 5 pg. 253.
 Surah Baqarah: 138.
 I have not come across his profile.
 I have not come across his profile in the readily available sources.
 Khalifah: Al Tarikh, pg. 175; Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, pg. 384.
 Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 501. The researcher states, “Its chain is authentic.” He has also narrated it in al Zuhd, pg. 127.
 Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, pg. 485.
 He is, Talq ibn Khushshaf ibn Bakr ibn Wa’il ibn Bani Qais ibn Tha’labah. A Tabi’i who narrated from ‘Uthman and Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Refer to Al Bukhari: Tarikh al Kabir, 2/2/358; Ibn Abi Hatim: Al Jarh wa Ta’dil, 4/49
 Al-Bukhari: Al Tarikh al Saghir, vol. 1 pg. 95; Al Baladhiri: Ansab al Ashraf, vol. 1 pg. 596.
 Al Maliqi: Al Tamhid wa al Bayan, pg. 233.
 Al Maliqi: Al Tamhid wa al Bayan, pg. 233.
 Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 488-489.
 Ibid, vol. 4 pg. 493.
 Al Bukhari: Al Jami’ Sahih, vol. 8 pg. 146; Muslim: Al Jami’ Sahih, vol. 2 pg. 193; Abu Dawood: Al Sunan, vol. 3 pg. 11; Al Tirmidhi: Al Sunan, vol. 4 pg. 585; Al Darami: Al Sunan, vol. 2 pg. 2.