Module Three: The first Fitnah in Light of revelation and the stance of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and Tabi’in – Section One: The Fitnah in Light of Revelation.

Section Three: The circumstances surrounding the assassination of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu
March 4, 2020
The Ten Promised Jannah
April 29, 2020

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Module Three: The first Fitnah in Light of revelation and the stance of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and Tabi’in

Section One: The Fitnah in Light of Revelation.

Section Two: The stance of the Sahabah in the Fitnah.

Section Three: The stance of the Tabi’in in the Fitnah.

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Module Three: The first Fitnah in Light of Revelation and the stance of the Sahabah and Tabi’in 

 

Section One: The Fitnah in Light of Revelation

 

Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had foretold the occurrence of the Fitnah. It has been established via revelation that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was upon the truth and that he was going to be killed wrongly therein. So how can it then be assumed that he was on falsehood?

Hence, it appears in an authentic narration that Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam informed him that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will make him wear a garment and that the hypocrites will want him to remove it and he ordered him not to remove it. And in some variations of the narration it is stated that he warned him against removing it and ordered him to exercise patience, he thus dutifully obeyed and exercised patience when he was tested.

This is the strongest proof of the fact that he was upon the truth, and after the truth there is nothing but misguidance! Hence, whoever opposed him has strayed from the path of truth. Why not so, when Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam described his detractors who wanted him to denounce the Caliphate with hypocrisy? From this it is clear that all the allegations which are hurled against him are either lies and fabrications, or they are interpretable with the best and most plausible of interpretations. This is in order that we confirm and accept as truth the prophecy of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which is categorical in nature.

Al Tirmidhi narrates from Abu al Sha’tha’[1] that various orators came forward in Sham after the Fitnah, amongst who were the Sahabah of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The last amongst them was a man by the name Murrah ibn Ka’b, a Sahabi, who said:

 

لولا حديث سمعته من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ما قمت، وذكر الفتن فقربها- أي الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم. فمر رجل مقنع بالثوب، فقال: هذا يومئذ على الهدى، فقمت إليه فإذا هو عثمان بن عفان. فأقبلت عليه بوجهه فقلت: هذا؟ قال: نعم.

Had it not been for a hadith of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which I heard I would not have stood up. Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made mention of various fitnahs and stated that they will ensue shortly. A man covered in a garment passed and Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said regarding him, “This man at that time will be upon guidance.” I went to him and behold, he was ‘Uthman. I thus faced Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and asked, “This man?” He said, “Yes.”[2]

 

Likewise, in Fada’il al Sahabah of Ahmed ibn Hanbal the following narration of Ka’b ibn ‘Ujrah radiya Llahu ‘anhu appears:

 

ذكر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فتنة قربها وعظمها، ثم مر رجل متقنع في ملحفة، فقال: هذا يومئذ على الحق. فانطلقت مسرعا فأخذت بضبعيه، فقلت: هذا يا رسول الله؟ قال: هذا، فإذا عثمان بن عفان

Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made mention of a fitnah and he gave the impression that it will occur soon and that it will be great. Thereafter, a man passed covered in a shawl, and Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said regarding him, “This man will be upon the truth on that day.”

I thus hurried to him and caught him by his bosom and asked, “This man, O Rasul Allah?”

He said, “This man.”

He was ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[3]

 

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma narrates that Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made mention of a fitnah and said, “This person will be killed therein wrongly,” referring to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[4]

Similarly Hakim has narrated the following from Musa ibn ‘Uqbah in his Mustadrak:

 

حدثني أبو أمي أبو حبيبة، أنه دخل الدار وعثمان محصور فيها، وأنه سمع أبا هريرة يستأذن عثمان في الكلام فأذن له، فقام فحمد الله وأثني عليه ثم قال: إني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: إنكم تلقون بعدي فتنة واختلافا، فقال له قائل من الناس، فمن لنا يا رسول الله؟ فقال: عليكم بالأمين وأصحابه يعني عثمان

Abu Habibah narrated to me that he entered the house of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu when he was incarcerated therein. He heard Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu seeking permission from ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to speak. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu acceded. He thus stood up, praised Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and thereafter said, “I heard Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, “You will encounter after me a fitnah and bickering.” A person asked, “So who should we hold on to?” He replied, “Hold on to the trustworthy and his companions,” referring to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[5]

 

Also, Ahmed ibn Hanbal has narrated the following from ‘Abdullah ibn Hawalah:

 

أتيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو تحت دومة وهو يكتب الناس، ففال: يا بن حوالة أكتب؟ قلت: نعم يا رسول الله، قال: كيف أنت يا عبد الله بن حوالة وفتنة تكون في أقطار الأرض؟ قلت: ما خار لي الله ورسوله. فقال: اتبع هذا الرجل، فإنه يومئذ على الحق. قال: فاتبعته فأخذت بمنكبه فلفته، قلت: هذا يا رسول الله؟ قال: نعم. وإذا هو عثمان بن عفان.

I came to Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when he was conscripting the people under a huge tree. He thus asked, “O Ibn Hawalah, should I conscript you as well?”

I said, “Yes o Rasul Allah.”

He then said, “What will your stance be, O ‘Abdullah ibn Hawalah, when a fitnah will ensue in various parts of the land?”

I said, “What Allah and Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam choose for me.”

He said, “Follow this man, for he will be upon the truth on that day.”

I thus followed him, held him by his shoulder, turned him around and asked, “This man, O Rasul Allah.”

He said, “Yes.”

He was ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[6]

 

Similarly, Ibn ‘Asakir narrates from Badr ibn Khalid the following:

 

وقف علينا ثابت يوم الدار، فقال: أما تستحيون ممن تستحيي منه الملائكة؟ قلنا: وما ذاك؟ فقال: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: مر بي عثمان وعندي جيل من الملائكة، فقالوا: شيهد من الأميين يقتله قومه، إنا لنستحيي منه، فقال بدر: فانصرفنا عصابة من الناس

Thabit emerged to address us on the day of the house (the day ‘Uthman was incarcerated in his own house) and said, “Do you not feel shy regarding a person from who the angels feel shy?”

We said, “What do you mean?”

He replied, “I heard Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, “‘Uthman passed by me when a group of angels were by me. They said he is a martyr from amongst the unlettered whose people will kill him, we feel shy before him.”

Badr says that a group of them thus stood up and left.[7]

 

And Ahmed has narrated in his Musnad and Ibn Shabbah in his Tarikh al Madinah from ‘Abdullah ibn Hawalah that Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

من نجا من ثلاث فقد نجا، قالوا: ماذا يا رسول الله؟ قال: موتي، وخروج الدجال، وقتل خليفة مصطبر بالحق يعطيه

“Whoever is saved from three things has attained salvation.”

They asked, “What are they o Rasul Allah.”

He said, “My death, the emergence of Dajjal, and the murder of a Khalifah who will be steadfast upon the truth and will dispense it.”[8]

 

Also, Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates that Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

إن لله سيفا مغمودا في غمده ما دام عثمان بن عفان حيا، فإذا قتل عثمان جرد ذلك السيف، فلم يغمد إلى يوم القيامة

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has a sword which is covered in its sheath as long as ‘Uthman is alive. But when ‘Uthman will be murdered that sword will be unsheathed and thereafter will never be returned to its sheath till the Day of Judgment.[9]

 

And al Bukhari cites the narration of Abu Musa al Ash’ari radiya Llahu ‘anhu wherein he states that Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam entered an orchard whereafter a person came and sought permission. Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Give him permission and give him the glad tidings of Jannat.” It was Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Thereafter another person sought permission and he said again, “Give him permission and give him the glad tidings of Jannat.” It was ‘Umar. Thereafter another person came seeking permission. He remained silent for a while and then said, “Give him permission and give him glad tidings of Jannat with a trial that will befall him.” That was ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[10]

Commenting upon this narration Ibn Hajar states:

أشار بالبلوى المذكورة إلى ما أصاب عثمان في آخر خلافته من الشهادة يوم الدار

Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam alluded by mentioning the trial which befell ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu at the end of his Caliphate when he was killed on the day of the house.[11]

 

He also says:

 

إنما خص عثمان بذكر البلاء مع أن عمر قتل أيضا، لكون عمر لم يمتحن بمثل ما امتحن عثمان من تسلط القوم الذين أرادوا منه أن نيخلع من الإمامة بسبب ما نسبوه إليه من الجور والظلم من ذلك، واعتذاره عن كل ما أوردوه عليه، ثم هجموهم عليه في داره وهتكهم ستر أهله، وكل ذلك زيادة على قتله

The reason why the trial was specifically mentioned for ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu whereas ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was also murdered is that ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not tested like ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu; for the people had gathered against him and wanted him to denounce the Caliphate due to the oppression of which they falsely accused him. Thereafter he presented his excuse for whatever they had raised against him, but they pounced upon his house and violated the privacy of his household. All of this was over and above his murder.[12]

 

Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates that Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam once climbed Mount Uhud and with him was Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman and it started to tremor. He thus said:

اسكن أحد- أطنه ضربه برجله-فليس عليك إلا نبي وصديق وشهيدان

Settle O Uhud—I think he struck it with his foot—for there is not upon you but a Nabi, a devout follower and two martyrs.[13]

 

And Ibn Majah has narrated the following in his Sunan from Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: يا عثمان إن ولاك الله هذا الأمر يوما، فأرادك المنافقون أن تخلع قميصك الذي قمصك الله-يعني الخلافة- فلا تخلعه، يقول ذلك ثلاث مرات

Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “O ‘Uthman, if Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala ever makes you preside over this matter and the hypocrites then want from you that you remove your shirt—i.e. the Caliphate—do not remove it.” He said that thrice.[14]

 

And in a narration of Tirmidhi the following appears:

يا عثمان إنه لعل الله يقمصك قميصا، فإن أرادوك على خلعه فلا تخلعه لهم

O ‘Uthman, probably Allah will make you wear a garment. If they want from you to remove it, then do not remove it.[15]

 

And in the narration of Ibn Shabbah the following appears:

يا عثمان إنك مستشهد، فاصبر صبرك الله ولا تخلعن قميصا قمصك الله

O ‘Uthman, you will surely be martyred. So exercise patience, may Allah grant you patience, and do not remove a garment which Allah adorned you with.[16]

 

And in al Sunnah of Abu al ‘Asim the following appears:

يا عثمان إن الله مقمصك قميصا، فإن أرادك المنافقون على خلعه فلا تخلعه

O ‘Uthman, Allah is surely going to adorn you with a garment, if the hypocrites want from you that you remove it, then don’t remove it.[17]

 

And the following appears in the narration of Ibn ‘Asakir:

يا عثمان إنك ستؤتى الخلافة من بعدي، وسيريدك المنافقون على خلعها فلا تخلعها

O ‘Uthman, you will surely be granted the Caliphate after me. The hypocrites will want you to denounce it, but never denounce it.[18]

 

And Abu Sahlah[19] narrates:

قال لي عثمان يوم الدار: إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قد عهد إلي عهدا فأنا صابر عليه

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu said to me on the day of the house, “Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took a pledge from me upon which I will remain steadfast.[20]

 

It is reported from ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu that Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

إنك ستبتلى بعدي فلا تقاتلن

You will be tested after me, so do not fight.[21]

 

Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates:

 

رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وضع يده على كتف عثمان، وقال: كيف أنتم إذا قتلتم إمامكم، ووتجالدتم بأسيافكم، وورث الدنيا شراركم، فويل لأمتي، فويل لأمتي إذا فعلوه

I saw Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam placing his hand upon the shoulder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and saying, “What will be your situation when you will kill your Imam, and you slay one another with your swords, and the evil amongst you will inherit your world? Destruction will await my Ummah! Destruction will await them when they do so.”[22]

 

It is also narrated from Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

بلغني أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم  ذكر فتنة فقربها فأتيته بالبقيع- وعنده أبوبكر وعمر وعثمان وطلحة والزبير- فقلت: يا رسول الله! بلغني أنك ذكرت فتنة، قال: نعم كيف أنتم إذا اقتتلت فئتان دينهما واحد وصلاتهما واحدة وحجهما واحد. قال أبو بكر: أدركها يا رسول الله؟ قال: لا. قال: الله أكبر. قال عمر: أدركها يا رسول الله؟ قال: لاز قال: الله أكبر. قال عثمان: أدركها يا رسول الله؟ قال نعم، وبك يبتلون

It reached me that Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made mention of a fitnah and that he mentioned its closeness. So I came to him whilst he was in Baqi’, and Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, Talhah, and al Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhum were by him.

I asked, “O Rasul Allah, it has reached me that you have made mention of a fitnah?”

He said, “Yes. What will your condition be when two groups among you will fight, their Din will be one, their Salah will be the same and their Hajj will be the same?”

Abu Bakr asked, “Will I witness it, O Rasul Allah?”

He said, “No.”

Thereafter ‘Umar asked, “Will I witness it o Rasul Allah?”

He said, “No.”

Subsequent to that ‘Uthman asked, “Will I witness it o Rasul Allah?”

He said, “Yes. And with you they will be tested.”[23]

 

Likewise, Khaithamah narrates the following from ‘Abdul Malik ibn ‘Umair[24]:

 

أرسلت امرأة من الأنصار إلى النعمان بن بشير تسأله عن كلام ابن خارجة عند الموت، فكتب إليها: إني أخبرك أني حضرت فعرج بروحه، حتى ما شككت إنه الموت، إذ أعاد الله إليه روحه، فقال: محمد خاتم النبيين، كان ذلك في الكتاب الأول، صدق، صدق. أبو بكر خليفة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الضعيف في نفسه القوي في أمر الله، كان ذلك في الكتاب الأول، صدق، صدق. عمر بن الخطاب، وهو أقوى الثلاثة، القوي في أمر الله، القوي في نفسه، كان ذلك في الكتاب الأول، صدق، صدق. عثمان بن عفان، كان ذلك في الكتاب الأول، مضت اثنتان وبقي أربع، اختلف الناس، ارجعوا إلى خليفتكم، فإنه مظلوم.

An Ansari woman sent a message to No’man ibn Bashir radiya Llahu ‘anhu asking him about the words uttered by Ibn Kharijah at the time of his death. So he wrote to her, “I inform you that I was present, his soul was taken up to the extent that I had no doubt it was death. Then suddenly Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala returned his soul to him and he started saying, “Muhammad is the seal of the Prophets, this was recorded in the first book. He spoke the truth, he spoke the truth. Abu Bakr was the Khalifah of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he was weak in himself but strong in the matter of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. This was recorded in the first book. He spoke the truth, he spoke the truth. ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, the strongest of the three, was strong in the matter of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and strong in himself. This was recorded in the first book. He spoke the truth, he spoke the truth. ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, this was recorded in the first book, two have passed and four remain. The people have differed, return to your Khalifah for he has been wronged.”[25]

 

Likewise al Bukhari states in the translation of Zaid ibn Kharijah:

توفي زمن عثمان، وهو الذي تكلم بعد الموت

He passed away in the era of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He is the one who spoke after death.[26]

 

And al Awza’i narrates that ‘Umar sent a message to Ka’b, Ka’b al Ahbar saying:

 

يا كعب كيف تجد نعتي؟ أي في التوراة، قال: أجد نعتك قرن حديد، قال: وما قرن حديد؟ قال: لا تأخذك في الله لومة لائم، قال: ثم مه؟ قال: يكون بعد خليفة تقتله أمة ظالمة له. قال: ثم مه؟ قال: يقع البلاء

“O Ka’b what description do you find of me (i.e. in the Tawrah)?”

He said, “I find in your description the mention of an iron horn.”

He asked, “What does an iron horn mean?”

He said, “The blame of the blamers will not affect you when it comes to Allah.”

He asked, “Then what?”

He replied, “After you there will be a Khalifah whose transgressive people will kill him.”

He asked, “Then what?”

He replied, “The trial will occur.”[27]

 

And ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu explains this verse:

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللهِ وَيَقْتُلُونَ النَّبِيِّينَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ وَيَقْتُلُونَ الَّذِينَ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْقِسْطِ مِنَ النَّاسِ فَبَشِّرْهُم بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ

Those who disbelieve in the signs of Allah, and kill the prophets without right and kill those who order justice from among the people-give them tidings of a painful punishment.[28]

Those who order justice from among the people are: the rulers of justice, it thus refers to ‘Uthman and his killing.[29]

 

And al ‘Irbad ibn Sariyah narrates:

 

وعظنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم موعظة ذرفت منها العيون ووجلت منها القلوب، فقام إليه رجل، فقال: يا رسول الله! كأن هذه موعظة مودع، فما تعهد إلينا؟ أو قال: أوصنا. قال: أوصيكم بتقوى الله والسمع والطاعة لمن ولي عليكم، وإن عبدا حبشيا، فأنه من يعش بعدي فسيرى اختلافا كثيرا، فعليكم بسنتي وسنة الخلفاء الراشدين المهديين من بعدي، عضوا عليها بالنواجذ.

Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave such an advice which caused the eyes to tear and the hearts to tremor. A person thus stood up and said, “O Rasul Allah, it seems as if this is an advice of one who is parting, so what do you emphasise upon us?” Or he said, “Advise us.”

He said, “I advise you to fear Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and to always listen and obey those who have been appointed over you, even if it be an Abyssinian slave. For whoever will live after me he will see a lot of bickering. So hold on to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Rightly Guided Khalifahs, bite upon it with your molars.”[30]

 

In this narration there is a clear indication toward the Fitnah, the obligation of obeying the Imam, and holding on to the straight path upon which the guided Khalifahs were, one among them being ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. They were blessed with such qualities which distinguished them from others in their personal conduct, their administration of the affairs of the Ummah, their preservation of its Din and dogma, and their meticulousness in upholding the path of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; that is inviting others toward Islam, engaging in Jihad, establishing justice, enjoining good and prohibiting evil.

Guidance is the antithesis of deviance and following of the ego. It is complete steadfastness upon the way of Nubuwwah, with which they have been described in this hadith. This is why their eras have been specifically mentioned to the exclusion of all the other eras of the various Islamic empires, i.e. due to the numerous specialities which distinguished them from all else. For the Rashidi era was an ideal and a perfect example which every reformer tried to reach and which every revolutionary made his target. Hence, each one of them would try to raise the Ummah to the level of that exemplary era or at least close to it; he would deem it an ideal which was to be emulated by the Muslim generation. Therefore, every reformer and every ruler was judged according to that era and he would be measured with its scale. To the extent that many people dubbed the Umayyad Khalifah, ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz, the fifth of the four guided Khalifahs and added him to them.[31] This is because he followed their ideal, treaded their path and restored in his short rule (99-101 A.H./717-719 A.C.) the symbols of their methodology and brought alive their ways of ruling, administration, and interacting with the masses.

 

NEXT⇒ Section Two: The Stance of the Sahabah regarding the Fitnah


[1] Jabir ibn Zaid al Azdi, Abu Sha’thaʾ al Basri. He has narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, and others. Ibn ‘Abbas has said regarding him, “If the people of Basrah have to be satisfied with the verdict of Jabir ibn Zaid, he would encompass them with knowledge of the Book of Allah.” He has been deemed reliable by Ibn Ma’in, Abu Zur’ah and al ‘Ijli. And Ibn Hibban says regarding him in his al Thiqat, “He was a jurist,” and when he passed away Qatadah said, “Today the most learned scholar of Iraq has passed on.” See: Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d 7/179; Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh 2/73; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat p. 93; al Fasawi: al Ma’rifah wa al Tarikh 2/12; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib 2/38.

[2] Sunan al Tirmidhi: chapter of merits: 5/291, he has deemed narration Hasan Sahih. And al Albani has deemed it Sahih in his Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi 3/210: hadith no. 2922.

[3] Ahmed ibn Hanbal: Fadaʾil al Sahabah 1/450. The chain is deemed Sahih by the annotator.

[4] Sunan al Tirmidhi: chapter of merits 5/293 (he has deemed in Hasan Sahih). The author of Tuhfah al Ahwadhi has stated that Ibn Hajar has deemed the narration Sahih: 4/323. And al Albani has deemed it Hasan in his Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi 3/210: hadith no. 2925.

[5] Mustadrak Hakim 3/99, he has deemed it Sahih and al Dhahabi has concurred; Ahmed: Fadaʾil al Sahabah 1/451, the annotator has deemed it authentic; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 7/210, he has also deemed its chain of transmission good.

[6] Ahmed: Fadaʾil al Sahabah 1/448. The annotator has deemed its transmission Sahih.

[7] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq p. 88.

[8] Musnad Ahmed 4/105,109; Tarikh Madinah 3/1076; Mustadrak Hakim 3/101. Al Hakim has deemed it Sahih and al Dhahabi has concurred.

[9] Tarikh Dimashq p. 456.

[10] Sahih al Bukhari: chapter regarding the Companions of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam: 4/202; Sahih Muslim: chapter of merits: 15/170.

[11] Ibn Hajar: Fath al Bari 7/38.

[12] Fath al Bari, 13/51.

[13] The reference has passed on p. 479: footnote number 2.

[14] Sunan Ibn Majah, chapter on the merit of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu 1/41. Albani has deemed it Sahih in his Sahih Sunan Ibn Majah, 1/25: hadith no. 90.

[15] The reference has passed on p. 476: footnote no. 2.

[16] Tarikh al Madinah, 3/1069-1070.

[17] Al Sunnah, 2/562. Albani has deemed it Sahih.

[18] Tarikh Dimashq, p. 288.

[19] Abu Sahlah, the freed slave of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He narrated from his master and Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. Al ‘Ijli said, “He a successor from Kufah who is reliable.” Likewise Ibn Hibban has enlisted him in his Thiqat. And Ibn Hajar in Taqrib has said that he is reliable. Al ‘Ijli has included his biography in his Tarikh al Thiqat, p. 500.

[20] Sunan al Tirmidhi, chapter on merits: 5/295. He has deemed this hadith Hasan Sahih. Mustadrak Hakim 3/99. He has deemed it Sahih and al Dhahabi has concurred. Albani has also deemed it Sahih in his Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi 3/212: hadith no. 2928.

[21] Tarikh Dimashq, p. 284.

[22] Al Muhibb al Tabari, al Riyad al Nadirah 3/58. He said, “Hakim has cited it.”

[23] Tarikh Madinah Dimashq, (manuscript) 12/357.

[24] ‘Abdul Malik ibn ‘Umair ibn Suwaid ibn Harithah al Qurashi al Qibti, Abu ‘Umar al Kufi. He saw ‘Ali and Abu Musa radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, and narrated from Jabir ibn Samurah Jundub ibn ‘Abdullah, Jarir ibn ‘Abdullah, Umm ‘Attiyah al Ansariyyah and Umm al ‘Alaʾ al Ansariyyah. Al Bukhari states that Ibn ‘Umair used to say, “When I narrate a hadith I do no discard even a letter of it.” Al ‘Ijli states, “He was called Ibn al Qibtiyyah, he was the governor of Kufah and was satisfactory in hadith. He has narrated more than a hundred narrations. His memory was affected before his demise. Al Nasaʾi states, “There is no problem with him.” Ibn Hibban has also mentioned him in reliable transmitters of the successors. He passed away in 136 A.H. (653 A.H). His biography can be found in: Ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh 2/373; Khalifah: al Tabaqat p. 163; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir 3/1/426; al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat p. 311; Ibn Hibban: al Thiqat 7/1176; Ibn Hajar: al Tahdhib 6/411.

[25] Khaithamah: Fadaʾil al Sahabah p. 249.

[26] Al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir 2/1/383.

[27] Al Tabarani: al Mujam al Kabir 1/40; al Muhibb al Tabari: al Riyad al Nadirah 3/57. He states that al Dahhak has cited it.

[28] Surah Al ‘Imran: 21.

[29] Tarikh Dimashq, p. 210.

[30] Sunan Abi Dawood, chapter of Sunnah, 4/201: Sunan al Tirmidhi, chapter of merits, 4/150, he has deemed it Hasan Sahih; Musnad Ahmed, 4/126; Albani has deemed it Sahih in his Sahih Sunan Abi Dawood 3/871: hadith no. 3851.

[31] Ibn al Jawzi: Sirah wa Manaqib ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz, p. 72.

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