Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan Dhu al Nurayn – The Bashful, Tolerant, and a Noble Son-in-Law

Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu – Strength in Mercy, Determination in Gentleness
April 29, 2020
Sayyiduna `Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu `anhu – Fostered in the Home of Nubuwwah; Husband of the Pure Queen
April 29, 2020

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Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan Dhu al Nurayn

The Bashful, Tolerant, and a Noble Son-in-Law

 

The eminent Sahabi Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had guaranteed him Jannat and prophesised his martyrdom. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away while pleased with him. He had prepared the Jaysh al ‘Usra (lit. army of distress, referring to the army of Tabuk). He married two of the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He is the third of the al Khulafa’ al Rashidin, and was martyred while reciting the glorious Qur’an.

 

Name and Lineage

He is ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan ibn Abi al ‘As ibn Umayyah ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab[1] of the Quraysh. His mother is Arwa bint Kurayz ibn Rabi’ah ibn Habib ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manaf. Arwa’s mother is Umm Hakim al Bayda’ bint ‘Abdul Muttalib, the paternal aunt of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam[2] and the twin sister of his father.[3]

He is the third Rightly Guided caliphate, one of the Ten Promised Jannat, and among the eminent men from whom Islam gained prominence during the early years of conquest.

 

Birth

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was born in Makkah six years after the year of the elephant.[4]

As apparent from his lineage, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu meets with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from both his father’s and mother’s side at his forefather, ‘Abd Manaf. His maternal grandmother al Bayda’ bint ‘Abdul Muttalib is Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam paternal aunt, making Sayyidina ‘Uthman the son of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam cousin.

Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu father went on a business trip towards Sham and passed away there. It is said that he was killed at Ghumaida’ with Fakih ibn al Mughirah.

Umm Hakim bint ‘Abdul Muttalib is the one who said to a woman from Quraysh who debated her:[5]

 

إني لحصان فما أكلم صناع فما أعلم

I am chaste hence I do not speak, Intelligent hence I am not taught.[6]

 

May Allah have mercy upon you. Have a look at this family link and unison between Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This unison grew stronger after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wed two of his daughters—Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhuma—to him, one after the other. We will elucidate on this later.

 

Agnomen

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is famous by two agnomens Abu ‘Abdullah and Abu ‘Amr. The agnomen of Abu ‘Amr eventually became more widely used.

Ibn Sa’d says in al Tabaqat:

 

وكان عثمان في الجاهلية يكنى أبا عمرو فلما كان الإسلام ولد له من رقية بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم غلام سماه عبد الله و اكتنى به فكناه المسلمون أبا عبد الله فبلغ عبد الله ست سنين فنقره ديك على عينه فمرض فمات في جمادى الأولى سنة أربع من الهجرة فصلى عليه رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و نزل في حفرته عثمان

‘Uthman was given the agnomen Abu ‘Amr during the days of ignorance. After Islam came, he had a son from Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam whom he named ‘Abdullah. The Muslims, thus, gave him the agnomen Abu ‘Abdullah. ‘Abdullah reached the age of six. A rooster pecked him in the eye, which resulted in him falling ill and passing away in Jumad al Ula 4 A.H. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam performed his Salat al Janazah and ‘Uthman descended into his grave.[7]

 

Titles

The most renowned title of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is Dhu al Nurayn[8] (The Possessor of Two Lights). He was given this title for he married two daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, sequentially.

Ibn ‘Abdul Barr has reported consensus on assigning this title to Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[9]

Al Muhallab ibn Abi Sufrah was asked, “Why was ‘Uthman called Dhu al Nurayn?” He answered:

 

لأنه لم نعلم أحدا أسبل سترا على ابنتي نبي غيره

Since we do not know of anyone who draped a veil over two daughters of a Nabi besides him.

 

Al Khaythamah reports in al Fadail and al Daraqutni in al Afrad the statement of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu who while speaking about Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu stated:

ذاك امرؤ يدعى في السماء ذو النورين

That is a gentleman who is called Dhu al Nurayn in the heavens.[10]

 

It appears in Sunan al Bayhaqi on the authority of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibn Aban al Ju’fi:

 

قال لي خالي حسين الجعفي يا بني تدري لم سمي عثمان ذو النورين قلت لا أدري قال لم يجمع الله بين ابنتي نبي منذ خلق الله آدم إلى أن تقوم الساعة لغير عثمان بن عفان رضي الله عنه فلذلك سمي ذو النورين

My maternal uncle Hussain al Ju’fi asked me, “O son, do you know why ‘Uthman is called Dhu al Nurayn?”

I replied in the negative.

He explained, “Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala never united two daughters of a nabi from the time He created Adam till the Hour for anyone besides ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Owing to this, he is titled Dhu al Nurayn.”[11]

 

Physical Description

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was exceptionally handsome in appearance, besides his beauty in din and character.

He had a handsome face, he was neither short nor tall in stature, with a large beard, brown-skinned, large limbs, and broad shoulders. He would dye his hair, and he had tied his teeth with gold strings.[12]

Abu ‘Abdullah the freed slave of Shaddad ibn al Had says:

 

رأيت عثمان بن عفان يوم الجمعة على المنبر عليه إزار عدني غليظ ثمنه أربعة دراهم أو خمسة و ريطة كوفية ممشقة ضرب اللحم طويل اللحية حسن الوجه

I saw ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan on Friday on the pulpit wearing a coarse ‘Adni trouser worth 4 or 5 silver coins and a scrap kufi sheet. He was slim, with a long beard, and a handsome face.

 

‘Abdullah ibn Hazm al Mazini says:

رأيت عثمان بن عفان فما رأيت قط ذكرا و لا أنثى أحسن وجها منه

I saw ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan. I never saw any male or female with a more beautiful face than his.[13]

 

Someone asked Hassan al Basri, “O Abu Sa’id, describe ‘Uthman to us.” He replied:

 

كان رجلا أبيض نحيف الجسم مشرف الأنف كثير شعر الساعدين و الساقين شعر رأسه إلى أنصاف أذنه

He was a fair-skinned man, with a thin body, and prominent nose. He had plenty hair on his forearms and shins, and the hair on his head reached up to half his ears.[14]

 

These external features which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala had favoured Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu with had a major effect, along with his internal qualities, of making him beloved to others. As soon as you saw him and your gaze fell on him, you realised in the first moment that you knew him and that he is close to your heart, beloved to yourself.

 

Glance at his Household (Wives and Children)

Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu had more than one wife. All in all, he had 9 wives with whom he had children. The total amount of his issue is 16, 9 sons and 7 daughters. We will begin with the most superior of them and details will be presented to you.

 

Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu married Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Her mother is Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had previously got her married to ‘Utbah ibn Abi Lahab and her sister Umm Kulthum to ‘Utaybah ibn Abi Lahab.

 

لما نزلت تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ قال لهما أبو لهب رأسي من رأسيكما حرام إن لم تفارقا ابنتي محمد ففارقاهما قبل أن يدخلا بهما كرامة من الله تعالى لهما

When the verse was revealed, “May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined is he,”[15] Abu Lahab said to his sons, “I have cut off relations with you, if you do not separate from the two daughters of Muhammad.” They complied and divorced them before consummation of the marriage, which was Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala unique grace upon them both.

 

Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu then married Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha in Makkah and immigrated along with her to Abyssinia. She gave birth to his son in that land whom he named ‘Abdullah. Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu would be attributed to this son of his in his agnomen. Nevertheless, this child passed away in infancy. When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam left for Badr, his daughter Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was unwell. Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, thus, stayed behind on the instruction of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to take care of her. She passed away the day Sayyidina Zaid ibn Harithah radiya Llahu ‘anhu brought the good news of the Muslims’ victory.[16]

 

Umm Kulthum bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu married Umm Kulthum bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Her mother is Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. She is younger than her sister Ruqayyah. ‘Utaybah ibn Abi Lahab had married her aforetime, but the marriage was not consummated, as mentioned earlier. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married her to Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu after Sayyidah Ruqayyah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha demise. He consummated the marriage in Jumad al Akhirah of the same year. He never had any offspring from her. She passed away in Sha’ban 9 A.H. and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam performed her Salat al Janazah.[17]

Ibn Sa’d reports in al Tabaqat that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu after the demise of his daughter Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha:

لو كن عشرا لزوجتهن عثمان

Had I had ten daughters, I would have married them all to ‘Uthman.[18]

 

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu did marry other women besides the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and he had children from them. In the forthcoming lines, a list of their names and children will be presented:

  • Fakhitah bint Ghazwan ibn Jabir ibn Nasib ibn Qais ‘Ayla She gave birth to ‘Abdullah al Asghar who passed away in infancy.
  • Umm ‘Amr bint Jundub ibn ‘Amr from the Azd. She mothered ‘Amr, Khalid, Aban, ‘Umar, and Maryam.
  • Fatimah bint al Walid ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn al Mughirah from the Banu Makhzu She mothered Walid, Sa’id, and Umm Sa’id.
  • Ramlah bint Shaybah ibn Rabi’ah ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manaf ibn Qus She mothered Aisha, Umm Aban, and Umm ‘Amr.
  • Na’ilah bint al Farafisah ibn al Ahwas ibn ‘Amr from the Kalb. She gave birth to Maryam.
  • Umm al Banin bint ‘Uyaynah ibn Hisn ibn Hudhayfah ibn Badr al Fazari. She gave birth to ‘Abdul Malik who passed away in infancy.
  • Umm Walad: She gave birth to Umm al Banin bint ‘Uthma[19]

 

Islam and Hijrah

Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu embraced Islam in the early days of its emergence. Some scholars have gone to the extent of saying that Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the fourth man to accept Islam, after Sayyidina Abu Bakr, Sayyidina ‘Ali, and Sayyidina Zaid ibn Harithah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[20]

It appears in Usd al Ghabah:

أسلم في أول الإسلام دعاه أبو بكر إلى الإسلام فأسلم و كان يقول إني لرابع أربعة في الإسلام

He embraced Islam in its early stages. Abu Bakr invited him to Islam subsequent to which he entered the faith. He would boast, “I am the fourth of four in Islam.”[21]

 

His Islam was at the hands of Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Ibn Ishaq says:

 

و أسلم على ما بلغني على يد أبي بكر الزبير و عثمان و طلحة و عبد الرحمن و سعد

According to the reports that have reached me, Zubair, ‘Uthman, Talhah, ‘Abdur Rahman, and Sa’d embraced Islam at the hands of Abu Bakr.[22]

 

Ibn Hajar relates a lengthy incident in al Isabah. Part of this incident is as follows:

 

أن عثمان أتى مجلس الصديق فقال له الصديق ويحك يا عثمان والله إنك لرجل حازم ما يخفى عليك الحق من الباطل هذه الأوثان التي يعبدها قومك أليست حجارة صما لا تسمع و لا تبصر و لا تضر و لا تنفع قلت بلى والله إنها لكذلك قال هذا محمد بن عبد الله قد بعثه الله برسالته إلى جميع خلقه فهل لك أن تأتيه و تسمع منه فقلت نعم فوالله ما كان بأسرع من أن مر رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و معه علي بن أبي طالب يحمل ثوبا لرسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فلما رآه أبو بكر قام إليه فساره في أذنه فجاء رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فقعد ثم أقبل علي فقال يا عثمان أجب الله إلى جنته فإني رسول الله إليك و إلى جميع خلقه قال فوالله ما تمالكت حين سمعت قوله أن أسلمت و شهدت أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له و أن محمدا عبده و رسوله ثم لم ألبث أن تزوجت رقية و كان يقال أحسن زوجين رآهما إنسان رقية و زوجها عثمان

‘Uthman came to al Siddiq’s gathering. Al Siddiq said to him, “What is your case, O ‘Uthman! By Allah, you are a resolute gentleman. The truth cannot be unclear to you from falsehood. These idols which your people are worshipping, are they not only dumb stones which cannot see, cannot hear, cannot harm and cannot benefit.”

I said, “Definitely, by Allah, they are just as you mentioned.”

Abu Bakr said, “This is Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has sent him with His message to the entire creation. Do you mind approaching him and listening to him.”

“Certainly,” I replied.

By Allah, it was not long before Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed along with ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib who was carrying Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam clothes. As soon as Abu Bakr saw him, he stood up and whispered something in his ears. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came and sat down. He then turned his attention to me and said, “O ‘Uthman! Answer Allah’s call to His Jannat, for I am indeed Allah’s Messenger to you and to His entire creation.”

By Allah, I could not control myself when I heard his statement and I embraced Islam and testified that there is no deity besides Allah, the One with no partner, and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.

It was not long before I married Ruqayyah.

The famous saying was, “The most beautiful couple seen by man, is Ruqayyah and her husband ‘Uthman.”[23]

 

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu entered Islam and was not spared from persecution and torture.

 

فلما أسلم عثمان بن عفان أخذه عمه الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية فأوثقه رباطا و قال نزعت من ملة آبائك إلى دين محدث والله لا أحلك أبدا حتى تدع ما أنت عليه من هذا الدين فقال عثمان والله لا أدعه أبدا و لا أفارقه فلما رأى الحكم صلابته في دينه تركه

After ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan entered the faith, his uncle Hakam ibn Abi al ‘As ibn Umayyah caught him and tied him in shackles.

He yelled at him, “You have renounced the religion of your forefathers and turned to a new religion? By Allah, I will never ever untie you until you forsake the religion you are adhering to.”

‘Uthman countered: “By Allah, I will never ever renounce it or separate from it.”

When Hakam saw his determination in his din, he left him.[24]

 

The result of this ill-treatment is that Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu fled with his religion from Makkah, leaving the homeland where he was born and the earth upon which he grew up and flourished, towards Abyssinia along with his wife, Sayyidah Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Owing to this, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is the first individual of this ummah to immigrate with his family.[25]

It appears in al Bayhaqi’s al Dalail that Qatadah radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates:

 

إن أول من هاجر إلى الله عز و جل بأهله عثمان بن عفان و سمعت النضر بن أنس يقول سمعت أبا حمزة يعني أنسا يقول خرج عثمان بن عفان و معه رقية بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إلى أرض الحبشة فأبطأ خبرهم على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فقدمت امرأة من قريش فقالت يا محمد قد رأيت ختنك و معه امرأته قال على أي حال رأيتهما قالت رأيته قد حمل امرأته على حمار من هذه الدبانة و هو يسوقها فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم صحبهما الله إن عثمان لأول من هاجر بأهله بعد لوط

The first to immigrate towards Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala with his family is ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.

I heard al Nadr ibn Anas saying that he heard―Abu Hamzah, i.e. Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu reporting:

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan left along with Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to the land of Abyssinia. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not receive news from them for a long period. A woman from the Quraysh arrived and said, “O Muhammad, I had seen your son-in-law with his wife.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked, “In which situation did you see them?”

She explained, “I saw him after he had mounted his wife on a donkey, these weak ones[26], and was driving the animal.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated, “May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala be their companion. Certainly, ‘Uthman is the first to immigrate with his family after Lut.”[27]

 

When rumours of the people of Makkah accepting Islam spread, the immigrants to Abyssinia began returning and Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu returned with them along with his wife Ruqayyah bint Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. They returned only to find that the news was false. The persecution against the Muslims intensified so they immigrated to Abyssinia a second time[28] and thereafter they emigrated to Madinah.

Ibn al Athir says:

 

و لما أسلم عثمان زوجه رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بابنته رقية و هاجرا كلاهما إلى أرض الحبشة الهجرتين ثم عاد إلى مكة و هاجر إلى المدينة و لما قدم إليها نزل على أوس بن ثابت أخي حسان بن ثابت

When ‘Uthman embraced Islam, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wed his daughter Ruqayyah to him. They both immigrated to the land of Abyssinia on both occasions, from where they returned to Makkah and emigrated to Madinah. When he arrived in Madinah, he stayed with Aws ibn Thabit, the brother of Hassan ibn Thabit.[29]

 

Thus, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had the fortune of completing both immigrations. He was the man of two immigrations just as he was the husband of two daughters.

After Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu emigrated, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam contracted brotherhood between him and Sayyidina Aws ibn Thabit, Abu Shaddad ibn Aws radiya Llahu ‘anhu. It is said that Abu ‘Ubadah Sa’d ibn ‘Uthman al Zuraqi radiya Llahu ‘anhu was his brother.[30]

Ibn Sa’d reports from ‘Ubaidullah ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Utbah who says:

 

لما أقطع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم الدور بالمدينة خط لعثمان بن عفان داره اليوم و يقال إن الخوخة التي في دار عثمان اليوم وجاه باب النبي الذي كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يخرج منه إذا دخل بيت عثمان

When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam apportioned pieces of land in Madinah, he allotted to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan his present house. It is said that the door of ‘Uthman’s house today―facing the door of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which he would exit from―is the door from which he would enter ‘Uthman’s house.[31]

 

This indicates to the ample movement of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam into the home of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to the extent that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made a door to ‘Uthman’s house from which he would exit straight into his own home. This is something natural, for both daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were in Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu wedlock, consecutively.

 

‘Uthman: a Caliphate of a Special Variety

Caliphate was assumed by Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu after Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu martyrdom. After the latter was stabbed in his mihrab, he placed the responsibility of the caliphate on the shoulders of six individuals of the senior Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum to choose the khalifah of the Muslims from themselves. They were: ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam, and Talhah ibn ‘Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

Al Bukhari reports:

 

أنه لما فرغ من دفن عمر اجتمع هؤلاء الرهط فقال عبد الرحمن اجعلوا أمركم إلى ثلاثة منكم فقال الزبير قد جعلت أمري إلى علي فقال طلحة قد جعلت أمري إلى عثمان و قال سعد قد جعلت أمري إلى عبد الرحمن بن عوف فقال عبد الرحمن أيكما تبرأ من هذا الأمر فنجعله إليه والله عليه و الإسلام لينظرن أفضلهم في نفسه فأسكت الشيخان فقال عبد الرحمن أفتجعلونه إلي والله علي أن لا آلو عن أفضلكم قالا نعم فأخذ بيد أحدهما فقال لك قرابة من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و القدم في الإسلام ما قد علمت فالله عليك لئن أمرتك لتعدلن و لئن أمرت عثمان لتسمعن و لتطيعن ثم خلا بالآخر فقال له مثل ذلك فلما أخذ الميثاق قال ارفع يدك يا عثمان فبايعه فبايع له علي و ولج أهل الدار فبايعوه

When they were finished burying ‘Umar, this unit assembled. ‘Abdur Rahman said, “Place the matter to three individuals among you.”

Zubair said, “I hand over my right to ‘Ali.”

Talhah said, “I give my right to ‘Uthman.”

Sa’d said, “I gave my right to ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf.”

‘Abdur Rahman then said, “Which one of you relinquishes his right to caliphate, and we will allow him to take the decision. Allah and Islam will be witness upon him to observe the most superior of them in his sight.”

‘Uthman and ‘Ali remained silent so ‘Abdur Rahman said, “Do you then give me the right to decide and Allah is my witness that I will not steer away from the most superior of you?”

They replied in the affirmative.

He caught hold of one of their hands [i.e. ‘Ali] and said, “You have kinship to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and enjoy precedence in Islam which you are well aware of. Allah is witness over you, if I appoint you, will you most certainly deal with justice and if I appoint ‘Uthman, will you most certainly listen and obey?”

He then spoke to the other person in secret and took the same covenant. After taking the covenant, he said, “Raise your hand, O ‘Uthman.” He then pledged allegiance to him, and ‘Ali did the same. Thereafter, the people entered the house and pledged allegiance.[32]

 

Whoever wants to learn about the incidents relating to the consultation and how the bay’ah was finalised in detail, should study Hafiz Ibn Kathir’s al Bidayah wa al Nihayah. He has done exceptionally well in describing the events. May Allah shower tremendous mercy upon him.[33]

This is how the decision was reached for Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu to become khalifah and everyone to pledge allegiance to him. The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum unanimously accepted his caliphate after the martyrdom of Amir al Mu’minin Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was definitely the most deserving of caliphate from all the members of the committee. Otherwise, the members of the committee would not have pledged allegiance to him, nor would the Muslims followed suit.

Ibn ‘Asakir reports through his chain that Hafs ibn Ghiyath reported that―Sharik ibn ‘Abdullah observed:

 

مرض رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فأمر أبا بكر أن يصلي بالناس فلو علم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إن في أصحابه أحدا أفضل من أبي بكر لأمر ذلك الرجل و ترك أبا بكر فلما احتضر أبو بكر استخلف عمر بن الخطاب و لو علم أبو بكر أن في أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم أحدا أفضل من عمر بن الخطاب ثم قدم عمر و ترك ذلك الرجل لقد كان غش أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم فلما احتضر عمر بن الخطاب فصير الأمر شورى فوقعت الشورى بعثمان بن عفان فلو علم أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم إن في القوم أحدا أحق بها من عثمان ثم نصبوا عثمان و تركوا ذلك الرجل لقد كانوا غشوا هذا الأمة

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam fell ill and consequently commanded Abu Bakr to lead the people in salah. Had Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam known that in the midst of his Companions there was someone superior to Abu Bakr, he would have ordered that man and discarded Abu Bakr.

When Abu Bakr was in the throes of death, he appointed ‘Umar ibn al Khattab as his successor. Had Abu Bakr known that among the Companions of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam there was someone superior to ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, and despite this he appointed ‘Umar and left the other, he would have been deceiving the Companions of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

When ‘Umar ibn al Khattab lay on his deathbed, he placed the matter in a consultative committee. The committee settled on ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan. Had the Companions of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam known that among the people there was someone more deserving of it than ‘Uthman and despite that they appointed ‘Uthman and discarded that person, they would have betrayed this ummah.[34]

 

Allah’s Favour in the Caliphate of ‘Uthman

The days of Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu caliphate were days of celebration. Islam enjoyed honour and divine assistance. Wealth was copious and happiness abounded. Rayy was conquered in 24 A.H. Jazirah and Armenia were conquered in 25 A.H. Alexandria was conquered in 26 A.H. and [north west] Africa was conquered in 27 A.H.

The Battle of Sabur al Junud took place in 26 A.H. The Battle of [north west] Africa took place in 27 A.H. with the military leader ‘Abdullah ibn Sa’d ibn Abi Sarh. The first Battle of Faris and the Last Battle of Istakhr took place in 28 A.H. The Final Battle of Faris took place in 29 A.H. The Battle of Tabristan took place in 30 A.H. The Battle of Asawidah took place in 31 A.H. The Battle of al Madiq took place in 32 A.H. The Battle of Cyprus took place in 33 A.H. the Battle of al Sawari took place in 34 A.H. The Battle of Dhu Khashab took place in 35 A.H. while Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was besieged in his home.[35]

 

Why is ‘Uthman from the Ten?

In reality, this question is the focus of our discussion on Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and others of the Ten Promised Jannat. As to facilitate our answer of this question, it is necessary to throw light on some of the virtues of the third khalifah, the possessor of two lights, the husband of both daughters of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidina ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

To begin, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu grew up with outstanding excellences, a noble pattern of life, complete humility which attracted amazement and made him beloved to Quraysh. He earned a high status and lofty pedestal and lived a pleasant and noble life. Al Sha’bi’s report highlights some of this.

 

كان عثمان في قريش محببا يوصون إليه و يعظمونه و إن كانت المرأة من العرب ترقص صبيها و هي تقول أحبك و الرحمن حب قريش عثمان

‘Uthman was beloved in the eyes of Quraysh. They would entrust things to him and revere him. An Arab woman would dance for her child singing, “I love you, by Rahman, the way the Quraysh love ‘Uthman.”[36]

 

Abu Nuaim has written an impressive paragraph about Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

و ثالث القوم القانت ذو النورين و الخائف ذو الهجرتين و المصلي إلى القبلتين هو عثمان بن عفان رضي الله عنه كان من الذين آمنوا و عملوا الصالحات ثم اتقوا و آمنوا ثم اتقوا و أحسنوا فكان ممن هو قانت آناء الليل ساجدا و قائما يحذر الآخرة و يرجو رحمة ربه غالب أحواله الكرم و الحياء و الحذر و الرجاء حظه من النهار الجود و الصيام و من الليل السجود و القيام مبشر بالبلوى و منعم بالنجوى

The third of the nation; the subservient, possessor of two lights; the fearful, migrator to two lands; prayed to both qiblahs; he is ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He is among those who believed and practiced righteous deeds then feared and believed then feared and did well. He is from those who were in prayer in the hours of the night, in prostration and standing, fearful of the Hereafter and hopeful of his Rabb’s mercy. His condition was mostly kindness, modesty, fear, and hope. His days were spent in generosity and fasting and his nights in prostration and standing in adoration. He is given glad tidings of a calamity and favoured with special supplication.[37]

 

‘Uthman’s Distinctiveness with Writing Revelation

One of the many excellences of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is that he was a scribe of revelation. This is a privilege which highlights his proximity to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as well as his honesty and Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam reliance in him.

Ahmed narrates through his chain from Fatimah bint ‘Abdur Rahman―from her mother. She was sent by her uncle to Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha and asked, “One of your sons conveys his salam to you and asks you regarding ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, because people have disparaged him. Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha stated:

 

لعن الله من لعنه فوالله لقد كان عند نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم و أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لمسند ظهره إلي و أن جبريل ليوحي إليه القرآن و أنه ليقول له اكتب يا عثيم فما كان الله لينزل تلك المنزلة إلا كريما على الله و رسوله

May Allah curse the one who curses him. By Allah, he was in the presence of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had leaned on me. Jibril was conveying the Qur’an to him and he was commanding him (‘Uthman), “Write, O ‘Uthaym.” Allah would only raise someone who was praiseworthy in the eyes of Allah and His Messenger to this lofty pedestal.[38]

 

Jafar al Sadiq ibn Muhammad al Baqir narrates from his father:

 

كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إذا جلس جلس أبو بكر عن يمينه و عمر عن يساره و عثمان بين يديه و كان كاتب سر رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم

When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would sit, Abu Bakr would sit at his right, ‘Umar at his left, and ‘Uthman in front of him. ‘Uthman was the scribe of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam secrets.[39]

 

Asceticism

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is recognised to be honest and true ascetic despite the abundant wealth and prosperity that he possessed. Abu ‘Abdullah, the freed slave of Shaddad ibn al Had, says:

 

رأيت عثمان بن عفان يوم الجمعة على المنبر عليه إزار عدني غليظ ثمنه أربعة دراهم أو خمسة و ريطة كوفية ضرب اللحم يعني خفيف اللحم طويل اللحية حسن الوجه

I saw ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan on Friday on the pulpit wearing a course ‘Adni trouser worth 4 or 5 silver coins and a kufi sheet[40]. He was slim, with a long beard, and a handsome face.[41]

 

Al Bayhaqi reports in his Sunan that Hassan al Basri was asked about taking siesta in the Masjid. He answered:

 

رأيت عثمان بن عفان رضي الله عنه و هو يومئذ خليفة يقيل في المسجد و قد أثر الحصى بجنبه فيقول هذا أمير المؤمنين هذا أمير المؤمنين

I saw ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu while he was khalifah having siesta in the Masjid. The stones had left marks on his flank.

Hassan would comment in admiration: “This is Amir al Mu’minin! This is Amir al Mu’minin!”[42]

 

Shurahbil ibn Muslim says:

كان عثمان رضي الله عنه يطعم الناس طعام الإمارة و عندما يدخل بيته كان يأكل الخل و الزيت

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu would feed the people royal food. When he would go home, he would eat vinegar and olive oil.[43]

 

May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala have mercy on you. Have a look at the unmatched Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The world came to him wholeheartedly, but he placed it in his hands and not his heart. He lived the life of a pauper while he was in the ranks of the affluent and the first register of the wealthy. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala be pleased with him, make him happy, and reach his desired destination.

 

Worship

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu worshipped diligently, fasted during the days, and stood in prayer at night, reciting the glorious Qur’an, remembering his Rabb. To the extent that it is narrated that he would recite the entire Book of Allah in a single unit of prayer.

‘Ata’ ibn Abi Rabah reports:

أن عثمان بن عفان صلى بالناس ثم قام خلف المقام فجمع كتاب الله في ركعة كانت وتره فسميت البتيراء

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan led the people in salah after which he stood behind the Maqam (Ibrahim) and recited the entire Book of Allah in a single rak’ah, which was his witr. A single unit of prayer was named al Butayra’.[44]

 

It appears in Sunan al Bayhaqi on the strength of ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Uthman al Taymi:

 

قلت لأغلبن على المقام الليلة فسبقت إليه فبينما أنا قائم أصلي إذا رجل وضع يده على ظهري قال فنظرت فإذا عثمان بن عفان رضي الله عنه و هو يومئذ أمير فتنحيت عنه فقام فافتتح القرآن حتى فرغ منه ثم ركع و جلس و تشهد و سلم في ركعة واحدة لم يزد عليها فلما انصرف قلت يا أمير المؤمنين إنما صليت ركعة قال هي وتري

I determined, “I will dominate the Maqam tonight.” So I got there first. While I was standing in prayer, a man placed his hand on my back. I glanced and saw ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, who was the khalifah at the time. I thus shifted a little. He stood and began reciting the Qur’an until he completed it. He then bowed, sat, recited tashahhud, and made salam in one unit of prayer, with no addition. As he got up to leave, I said, “Amir al Mu’minin, you only prayed one rak’ah.” “It was my witr,” he explained.[45]

 

Muhammad ibn Sirin reports:

لما أطافوا بعثمان يريدون قتله قالت امرأته إن تقتلوه أو تدعوه فقد كان يحيي الليلة بركعة يقرأ فيها القرآن

When they surrounded ‘Uthman with the intention to slay him, his wife yelled, “Whether you kill him or not, he would spend the entire night in a single rak’ah, in which he recited the entire Qur’an.”[46]

 

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu would not awaken anyone of his family members when he stood for prayer at night. If he found someone awake, he would call him and give him his ablution water. He would also fast every day. He would be scolded for this, “Why do you not awaken one of the servants.” He would reply:

 

لا الليل لهم يستريحون فيه

No. The night is for them to rest.[47]

 

Abu Nuaim reports through his chain from Zubair ibn ‘Abdullah from his grandmother, who was called Zuhaymah or Ruhaymah. She says:

 

كان عثمان يصوم الدهر و يقوم الليل إلا هجعة من أوله

‘Uthman would fast daily and stand in prayer at night except for a nap he would take in the first portion of the night.[48]

 

Hassan reports that Amir al Mu’minin Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu announced:

 

لو أن قلوبنا طهرت ما شبعنا من كلام ربنا و إني لأكره أن يأتي علي يوم لا أنظر في المصحف و ما مات عثمان حتى خرق مصحفه من كثرة ما كان يديم النظر فيه

“Had our hearts been pure, we would never get satiated with the Speech of our Rabb. I certainly dislike a day passing by me in which I had not looked in the mushaf.”

‘Uthman never passed away until his mushaf tore due to his continuous paging through it.[49]

Hassan reports:

 

لما كان من بعض هيج الناس ما كان جعل رجل يسأل عن أفاضل أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فجعل لا يسأل أحدا إلا دله على سعد بن مالك قال أخبرني عن عثمان فقال كنا إذ نحن جميع مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كان أحسننا وضوءا و أطولنا صلاة و أعظمنا نفقة في سبيل الله

After some of the turmoil gripped the people, individuals would begin enquiring about the eminent Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Whoever they would ask, he would point out Sa’d ibn Malik. He asked, “Tell me about ‘Uthman.”

Sa’d replied, “When we were all with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, ‘Uthman would perform the most perfect wudu’, the lengthiest salah, and would spend most generously in the path of Allah from us all.”[50]

 

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was from the devout worshippers and sincere fearful bondsmen. He would pray his fard as if he was to meet his Rabb subhanahu wa ta ‘ala directly thereafter. He would fast and pray until Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala honoured him with martyrdom while he was fasting and reciting the glorious Qur’an. Just as he was sincere to his worship during his lifetime, worship remained loyal to him up until his demise and it was the last thing that separated from him in the world, although it will join him in the Hereafter. He was martyred while in a state of fasting and reciting the Qur’an. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala be pleased with him and make him blissful.

 

Knowledge

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was recognised for his wealth, affluence, modesty, as well as his knowledge and understanding. He is one of the distinguished scholars of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. They would regard Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to be the best versed of all in regards the rituals of hajj, followed by Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.[51]

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is also renowned for his knowledge of inheritance. Ibn Shihab al Zuhri remarks:

 

لو هلك عثمان و زيد بن ثابت في بعض الزمان لهلك علم الفرائض لقد أتى على الناس زمان و ما يعلمها غيرهما

Had ‘Uthman and Zaid ibn Thabit passed away at some point, the knowledge of inheritance would have been lost. A time had come upon the people, when no one besides them knew this science.[52]

 

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is also from those Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum who issued many verdicts, like Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. The only sad part is that the former did not have students who were recognised and who transmitted his verdicts unlike the latter.[53]

 

Humility

Humility in a nutshell is the opposite of arrogance, accepting the truth from whoever speaks it, lowering your shoulder, dealing leniently, and the self not feeling that it has virtue over others.

The nature of humility makes the one who possesses it a shining star in the horizon. The more humbleness increases, the higher he rises in rank and his status increases. People begin flocking to him, loving his dealings, enjoying his company, yearning to meet him, feeling comfortable with his words, and absorbed in serving him.

Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu was a humble man, who never allowed pride to enter his heart, despite the abundance of wealth and comfortable life Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala had blessed him with. The more his wealth increased, the more his humility and meekness intensified. This was the aspect that made people associate with him and mingle with him without fear or fright.

It is reported that Hassan said:

رأيت عثمان نائما في المسجد و رداؤه تحت رأسه فيجيء الرجل فيجلس إليه ثم يجيء الرجل فيجلس إليه و يجيء الرجل فيجلس إليه كأنه أحدهم

I saw ‘Uthman sleeping in the Masjid with his shawl under his head. People would come to him, one after the other, and he would sit with them, as if he was one of them.[54]

 

Ahmed narrates in al Musnad through his chain from Hassan ibn Abi al Hassan:

 

دخلت المسجد فإذا أنا بعثمان بن عفان متكئ على ردائه فأتاه سقاآن يختصمان إليه فقضى بينهما

I entered the Masjid and saw ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan leaning on his shawl. Two water carriers brought a case to him and he passed judgement between them.[55]

 

This is the finest proof of the man’s humbleness. It was this simplicity which made everyone fond of him and they would rush to him to get their needs fulfilled. They were comfortable in his company without sensing any apparent division between him and them.

 

Modesty

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was extremely bashful. His modesty had reached this level that it is safe for us to declare that the most outstanding quality and the most brilliant feature of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, which he may be identified by, is modesty. It is the key to his personality. Whenever modesty is spoke of, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is remembered.

Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared:

 

أرحم أمتي بأمتي أبو بكر و أشدهم في دين الله عمر و أصدقهم حياء عثمان و أقضاهم علي بن أبي طالب و أقرؤهم لكتاب الله أبي بن كعب و أعلمهم بالحلال و الحرام معاذ بن جبل و أفرضهم زيد بن ثابت ألا و إن لكل أمة أمينا و أمين هذه الأمة أبو عبيدة بن الجراح

The most merciful from my ummah upon my ummah is Abu Bakr. The most firm of them in [establishing] the din of Allah is ‘Umar. The most sincere of them in modesty is ‘Uthman. The most proficient in judicial matters is ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. The best reciter of the Book of Allah is Ubay ibn Ka’b. The most knowledgeable of them of permissible and impermissible is Muaz ibn Jabal. The expert of inheritance is Zaid ibn Thabit. Hearken! Indeed, every ummah has a trustworthy individual and the trustworthy individual of my ummah is Abu ‘Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah.[56]

 

Just look at how Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam described Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He did not just say that he is modest. Rather, he affirmed that he is the most sincere of the entire ummah in modesty.

This bashfulness, along with other qualities, earned Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu dignity among the Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. And owing to it, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam placed him on a befitting pedestal.

Muslims narrates in his Sahih from Abu Salamah ibn ‘Abdur Rahman that Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha recalls:

 

كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم مضطجعا في بيتي كاشفا عن فخذيه أو ساقيه فاستأذن أبو بكر فأذن له و هو على تلك الحال فتحدث ثم استأذن عمر فأذن له وهو كذلك فتحدث ثم استأذن عثمان فجلس رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و سوى ثيابه قال محمد بن أبي حرملة و لا أقول ذلك في يوم واحد فدخل فتحدث فلما خرج قالت عائشة دخل أبو بكر فلم تهتش له و لم تباله ثم دخل عمر فلم تهتش له و لم تباله ثم دخل عثمان فجلست و سويت ثيابك فقال ألا أستحيي من رجل تستحيي منه الملائكة

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was lying down in my house, with his thighs or shins exposed. Abu Bakr sought permission to enter. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam allowed him in, in the condition he was. He spoke. Thereafter ‘Umar sought permission to enter. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam allowed him in in the same condition. He spoke. ‘Uthman then sought permission to enter. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sat up and neatened his clothes. (Muhammad ibn Abi Harmalah clarifies: I do not say that all of this happened in one day.) ‘Uthman entered and spoke. After he left, Aisha asked, “Abu Bakr entered but you did not receive him specially or show extra consideration to him. Then ‘Umar entered and you did not receive him specially or show extra consideration to him. But when ‘Uthman entered, you sat up and neatened your clothes?”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam remarked, “Should I not show modesty to a man before whom the angels are also modest.”[57]

 

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu being distinctive with modesty, the most sincere in bashfulness, and the angels showing shyness before him is his speciality. This is what authentic ahadith have highlighted.[58]

 

Generosity and Benevolence

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala had blessed Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu with a pure generous benevolent soul. He never allowed greed to touch his heart. He was designed with generosity, charity, open heartedness, and munificence. This quality was natural. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala created him with it. He did not have to force or compel himself. Some examples of it are as follows:

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was owed 50 000 by Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. One day, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu left to the Masjid. Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu met him and said, “Your money is ready, so kindly collect it.” ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

 

هو لك يا أبا محمد معونة لك على مروءتك

Keep it, O Abu Muhammad. It will assist you in your generosity.[59]

 

Muhammad ibn Hilal al Madini reports from his father from his grandmother:

 

أنها تدخل على عثمان بن عفان ففقدها يوما فقال لأهله ما لي لا أرى فلانة فقالت امرأته يا أمير المؤمنين ولدت الليلة غلاما قالت فأرسل إلي بخمسين درهما و شقيقة سنبلانية ثم قال هذا عطاء ابنك و هذه كسوته فإذا مرت به سنة رفعناه إلى مئة

She would visit ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan. One day, he never saw her so he asked his wife, “Why did I not see so and so?”

His wife explained, “O Amir al Mu’minin, she gave birth to a baby boy last night.”

She explains, “He sent me 50 silver coins and a long piece of garment with the message, ‘This is a gift for your son and this is his garment. After a year, we will increase it to 100.’”[60]

 

Ibn Sa’id ibn Yarbu’ ibn ‘Ankathah al Makhzumi says:

 

انطلقت و أنا غلام في الظهيرة و معي طير أرسله من المسجد يبنى فإذا شيخ جميل حسن الوجه نائم تحت رأسه لبنة أو بعض لبنة فقمت أنظر إليه أتعجب من جماله ففتح عينيه فقال من أنت يا غلام فأخبرته فنادى غلاما نائما قريبا منه فلم يجبه فقال لي ادعه فدعوته فأمره بشيء و قال لي اقعد قال فذهب الغلام فجاء بحلة و جاء بألف درهم فنزع ثوبي و ألبسني الحلة و جعل الألف درهم فيها فرجعت إلى أبي فأخبرته فقال يا بني من فعل هذا بك فقلت لا أدري إلا أنه رجل في المسجد نائم لم أر قط أحسن منه قال ذلك أمير المؤمنين عثمان بن عفان

When I was young, I walked at midday one day. I had a bird with me which I was to set free at the Masjid being built. On reaching the Masjid, I observed a handsome elderly man, with an extremely handsome face, sleeping with a brick or piece of a brick under his head. I stood and looked at him, astonished at his handsomeness. He opened his eyes and asked, “Who are you, young lad?” I told him. He called a young boy who was sleeping near him, but the boy did not respond. So he told me to call the boy and I complied. He instructed the boy to do something and told me to have a seat. The boy went and brought a garment as well as 1000 silver coins. The old man took off my garment and put the new garment on me, after which he placed the 1000 silver coins in my pocket. I returned to my father and told him what had happened.

My father asked me, “O son, who gave you this?”

“I do not know,” I replied, “A man who was sleeping in the masjid, more handsome than him I have never seen.”

My father said, “That is Amir al Mu’minin ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.”[61]

 

After citing these examples, it is necessary to enquire: Is it correct to criticise the din of a man who had reached this level of generosity, munificence, and love for others? Is it possible for him to be suspected in any situation of having greed for the world and giving preference to his family’s and kinsmen’s needs over the benefit of the din and ummah? We leave the answer to the reader.

 

‘Uthman subjected to Trials and Tribulations

The Almighty subhanahu wa ta ‘ala had favoured Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu with abundant sustenance and prosperity, which he utilised in the service of Islam and the Muslims. He spent generously in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala removed through him many difficulties, trials, and tribulations which had afflicted the Muslims. It is not known about Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu his entire life of him being hesitant or stingy with his wealth for Islam and the Muslims. Examples will elucidate upon the claim.

 

Devoting his Caravan to the Muslims

In the reign and caliphate of Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu, a financial crisis gripped the lands and servants. Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma relates to us one of the happenings of this crisis saying:

 

قحط المطر على عهد أبي بكر الصديق فاجتمع الناس إلى أبي بكر فقالوا السماء لم تمطر و الأرض لم تنبت و الناس في شدة شديدة فقال أبو بكر الصديق انصرفوا و اصبروا فإنكم لا تمسون حتى يفرج الله الكريم عنكم فما لبثنا إلا قليلا أن جاء أجراء عثمان من الشام فجاءته مائة راحلة برا أو قال طعاما فاجتمع الناس إلى باب عثمان فقرعوا عليه الباب فخرج إليهم عثمان في ملأ من الناس فقال ما تشاؤون قالوا الزمان قد قحط السماء لم تمطر و الأرض لم تنبت و الناس في شدة شديدة وقد بلغنا أن عندك طعاما فبعناه حتى نوسع على فقراء المسلمين فقال عثمان حبا و كرامة ادخلوا فاشتروا فدخل التجارفإذا الطعام موضوع في دار عثمان فقال معشر التجار كم تربحوني على شرائي من الشام قالوا للعشرة اثنا عشر قال عثمان زادوني قالوا للعشرة أربعة عشر قال عثمان قد زادوني قالوا للعشرة خمسة عشر قال عثمان قد زادوني قال التجار يا أبا عمرو ما بقي في المدينة تجار غيرنا فمن الذي زادك قال زادني الله عز و جل بكل درهم عشرة أعندكم زيادة قالوا اللهم لا قال فإني أشهد الله أني قد جعلت هذا الطعام صدقة على فقراء المسلمين

There was a drought during the era of Abu Bakr al Siddiq so the people gathered by Abu Bakr and submitted, “No rain has fallen from the sky and the earth has not produced any plants. At the same time, people are suffering greatly.”

Abu Bakr al Siddiq said, “Go back and observe patience, for before evening, Allah the Generous will make an opening for you.”

Not after long, the employees of ‘Uthman arrived from Sham with 100 camels of wheat―or food. Subsequently, the traders gathered by ‘Uthman’s door and knocked at the door. ‘Uthman came out to the group of them and enquired, “What do you want?”

They explained, “Drought has gripped the people. No rain has fallen from the sky and the earth has not produced any plants. At the same time, people are suffering greatly. We have received information that you have some food. So sell it to us so that we may enrich the needy Muslims.”

‘Uthman said, “By all means, enter with love and honour, and buy.”

The traders thus entered. The food was packed in ‘Uthman’s house. He asked, “Gathering of traders, how much profit will you give me on my merchandise from Sham?”

They said, “12 for every 10.”

‘Uthman said, “I can obtain more profit.”

The traders re-joined, “14 for every 10.”

‘Uthman said, “Indeed, they offered me more.”

They said, “Okay, 15 for every 10.”

‘Uthman said, “Indeed, they offered me more.”

They submitted, “O Abu ‘Amr, there are no traders in Madinah besides us. So who offered you more?”

“Allah―The Mighty and Majestic―did,” he countered, “10 for every dirham. Do you have more to offer?”

They submitted, “No, by Allah.”

He announced, “I make Allah witness that I have given this food as charity to the needy Muslims.”[62]

 

Preparing the Army of Distress

The Battle of Difficulty was the Battle of Tabuk, and the Army of Distress is the army that advanced to this battle. This is deduced from Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala statement:

اَلَّذِيْنَ اتَّبَعُوْهُ فِيْ سَاعَةِ الْعُسْرَةِ

Who followed him in the hour of difficulty. [63]

 

It was captioned such since it was at a time of extreme heat, famine of the land, the distance was extensive, and the enemy massive.[64]

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam invited and encouraged the Muslims to advance and commanded them to give charity to mobilise the army. Accordingly, people presented donations openheartedly.

The first to bring his donation was Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He brought all of his wealth which amounted to 4000 silver coins. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked him: “What have you left for your family?” He answered: “I left Allah and His Messenger for them.”

Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu brought half of his wealth. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked him, “Have you left anything for your family?” He replied, “The other half.” Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu brought 100 uqiyah.[65]

With regards to Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he prepared 10 000 warriors. He spent on them 10 000 gold coins. In addition to this, he gave 900 camels and 100 horses with provisions and all accessories to the extent that he gave items to tie the water skins.[66]

‘Abdur Rahman ibn Samurah relates:

 

جاء عثمان إلى النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم بألف دينار حين جهز جيش العسرة فينثرها في حجره قال عبد الرحمن فرأيت النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يقلبها في حجره و يقول ما ضر عثمان ما عمل بعد اليوم مرتين

‘Uthman came to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with 1000 gold coins when the latter was mobilising the Army of Distress and scattered them in his lap.

‘Abdur Rahman continues: I saw the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam turning them in his lap and declaring: “No action of ‘Uthman’s after today will harm him.” He repeated this twice.[67]

 

Another narration states that Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu brought 10 000 gold coins to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which were placed in front of him. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam began turning them with his hands upside down and pronouncing:

 

غفر الله لك يا عثمان ما أسررت و ما أعلنت و ما كان منك و ما هو كائن إلى يوم القيامة ما يبالي ما عمل بعدها

O ‘Uthman! May Allah forgive you, for your blunder in secret, your slipup in public, whatever sin you committed, whatever sin you will commit till the Day of Qiyamah. He does not worry of what he does after this. [i.e. he is forgiven no matter what.][68]

 

Imam Ahmed and al Nasa’i report from Ahnaf ibn Qais who says:

 

سمعت عثمان رضي الله عنه يقول لسعد بن أبي وقاص و علي و الزبير و طلحة أنشدكم الله هل تعلمون أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال من جهز جيش العسرة غفر الله له فجهزتهم حتى ما يفقدون خطاما و لا عقالا قالوا اللهم نعم قال اللهم أشهد الله أشهد اللهم أشهد ثم انصرف

I heard ‘Uthman enquiring from Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, ‘Ali, Zubair, and Talhah: “I entreat you on Allah’s oath, do you remember that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam affirmed, ‘Whoever equips the Army of Distress is forgiven.’ I equipped them to the extent that they were not short of a halter or cord.”

They replied, “Yes, by Allah.”

‘Uthman implored, “O Allah be witness! O Allah be witness! O Allah be witness!” He then left.[69]

 

Ibn Ishaq says:

أنفق عثمان رضي الله عنه في ذلك الجيش نفقة عظيمة لم ينفق أحد مثلها

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu spent a considerable amount of wealth in this army, which no one matched.[70]

 

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had announced:

من جهز جيش العسرة فله الجنة

Whoever equips the army of distress is guaranteed Jannat.[71]

It is said:

عثمان بن عفان و عبد الرحمن بن عوف رضي الله عنهما كانا خزنتين من خزائن الله في الأرض ينفقان في طاعة الله تعالى

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan and ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were two treasures from the treasures of Allah on earth. They spent liberally in the obedience of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.[72]

 

Digging the Well of Rumah

Among the magnificent actions and benevolent accomplishments of Sayyidina Dhu al Nurayn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu for Islam and the Muslims is his purchasing the well of Rumah from its Jewish owner and gifting it to the Muslims, thus becoming the purport of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam glad tidings:

 

من حفر بئر رومة فله الجنة

The one who digs the well of Rumah is guaranteed Jannat.[73]

 

The meaning of him digging the well of Rumah, is that he purchased it, expanded it, and built a wall around the mouth of the well. Thus, the digging was attributed to him.[74]

This well belonged to a Jew who would sell the water to the Muslims, a water skin in lieu of a silver coin. Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu purchased it and endowed it to the Muslims with the condition that he may drink from it along with other Muslims.

Ibn Battal says:

 

بئر رومة كانت ليهودي و كان يقفل عليها بقفل و يغيب فيأتي المسلمون ليشربوا منها فلا يجدونه حاضرا فيرجعون بغير ماء فشكا المسلمون ذلك فقال صلى الله عليه و سلم من يشتريها و يمنحها للمسلمين و يكون نصيبه فيها كنصيب أحدهم فله الجنة فاشتراها عثمان و هي بئر معروفة بمدينة النبي عليه الصلاة و السلام اشتراها عثمان بخمسة و ثلاثين ألف درهم فوقفها

The well of Rumah belonged to a Jew. He would lock it up and disappear. The Muslims would come to drink from it, only to find him absent, and return with no water. The Muslims complained of this. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announced, “Whoever purchases it and gifts it to the Muslims, with his share equal to the share of any other person, is promised Jannat.” ‘Uthman purchased it. It is a well-known well in the city of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which ‘Uthman purchased for 35 000 silver coins and donated it as an endowment.[75]

 

It appears in al Isabah:

و بئر رومة هي التي روي فيها قول النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم نعم القليب قليب المزني و هي التي اشتراها عثمان بن عفان فتصدق بها

The well of Rumah is referred to in the statement of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, “What a pleasant well is the well of al Muzani.” It was purchased and subsequently donated by ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.[76]

 

Abu Salamah, Bishr ibn Bashir al Aslami reports from his father:

 

لما قدم المهاجرون المدينة استنكروا الماء و كانت لرجل من بني غفار عين يقال لها رومة و كان يبيع منها القربة بمد فقال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بعنيها بعين في الجنة فقال يا رسول الله ليس لي و لا لعيالي غيرها لا أستطيع ذلك فبلغ ذلك عثمان رضي الله عنه فاشتراها بخمسة و ثلاثين ألف درهم ثم أتى النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال يا رسول الله أتجعل لي مثل الذي جعلته له عينا في الجنة إن اشتريتها قال نعم قال قد اشتريتها و جعلتها للمسلمين

When the Muhajirin arrived in Madinah, they did not approve of the water. A man from the Banu Ghifar had a spring called Rumah. He would sell a water skin full of water in lieu of a mudd of grain. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to him, “Sell it to me for a spring in Jannat.”

The man submitted, “O Messenger of Allah, me and my family do not have anything besides it. Hence, I am unable to meet your offer.”

News of this deal reached ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu so he bought it for 35 000 dirhams. He then resorted to the presence of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and said, “O Messenger of Allah, will you make the same deal with me like the one you made with him, a spring in Jannat if I buy it?”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied in the affirmative.

‘Uthman stated, “I bought it and gave it to the Muslims.”[77]

 

Al Bukhari reports through his chain from Abu ‘Abdur Rahman:

 

أن عثمان رضي الله عنه حيث حوصر أشرف عليهم و قال أنشدكم بالله و لا أنشد إلا أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم ألستم تعلمون أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال من حفر رومة فله الجنة فحفرتها ألستم تعلمون أنه قال من جهز جيش العسرة فله الجنة فجهزته قال فصدقوه بما قال

While ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was besieged, he came out and stood above the people and shouted, “I entreat you in Allah’s oath, and I only entreat the Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam! Are you not aware that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announced, ‘Whoever digs Rumah will have Jannat.’ and I dug it. Are you not aware that he announced, ‘Whoever equips the Army of Distress, Jannat is his.’ and I equipped it.

The narrator says: They attested to what ‘Uthman said.[78]

 

It is apparent that the narrations differ as to who the owner of the well of Rumah was prior to Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Either it was the Jew or a man from the Banu Ghifar. Nonetheless, whether it was the former or the latter, the object is one, i.e. Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu purchased this well and donated it to the Muslims. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala be pleased with him.

 

Expansion of the Masjid of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

One of the great merits which Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu obtained and one of his grand accomplishments is the expansion of the Masjid of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when it became constrained for the Muslims.

This is what Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu recalled when he was besieged in his home. He said to them in a lengthy narration:

 

أنشدكم بالله و الإسلام هل تعلمون أن المسجد ضاق بأهله فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من يشتري بقعة آل فلان فيزيدها في المسجد بخير منها في الجنة فاشتريتها من صلب مالي فأنتم اليوم تمنعوني أن أصلي فيها ركعتين قالوا اللهم نعم

“I entreat you by Allah and Islam! Do you know that the Masjid was constrained for the congregants so Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam pronounced, ‘Who will purchase the land of so and so family and add it to the Masjid in lieu of something far greater in Jannat.’ I bought it from the cream of my wealth. And today you prevent me from praying two rak’at therein.”

They confirmed, “Yes, by Allah.”[79]

 

It appears in Tarikh Dimashq from Sa’sa’ah ibn Muawiyah al Tamimi:

 

أرسل عثمان و هو محصور إلى علي و طلحة و الزبير و أقوام من الصحابة فقال أحضروا غدا فكونوا حيث تسمعون ما أقول بهذه الخارجة ففعلوا و أشرف عليهم فقال أنشد الله من سمع النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول من يشتري هذا المربد و يزيده في مسجدنا و له الجنة و أجره في الدنيا ما بقي درجات له فاشتريته بعشرين ألفا و زدته في المسجد قالوا اللهم نعم

‘Uthman summoned ‘Ali, Talhah, Zubair, and a group of Sahabah while he was besieged with the message, “Be present tomorrow and be at a place outside, from where you can hear what I say.” They complied.

He stood above them and announced, “I entreat by Allah, who heard the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, ‘Who will purchase this stable and add it to our Masjid, for Jannat. His reward in the world, as long as he lives, will increase his ranks.’ I bought it for 20 000 and added it to the Masjid.”

They all answered, “By Allah, yes [we heard].”[80]

 

Bay’at al Ridwan took place due to ‘Uthman

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam despatched Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to negotiate with the people of Makkah to allow him and the believers to enter the Sacred House. The rumour spread that the Quraysh disbelievers had killed Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This resulted in Bayat al Ridwan taking place. It is called Bayat al Ridwan (the Pledge of Pleasure) since Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala was pleased with those who pledged allegiance. It is also called Bayat al Shajarah (the Pledge of the Tree) since it took place under a lotus tree.[81]

The reason for this Bay’ah as commonly known is that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gathered his Companions and set off with them towards Makkah to perform ‘Umrah. When they reached Hudaybiyyah, the following transpired:

Ibn Ishaq reports from Sayyidina ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

أن قريشا كانوا بعثوا أربعين رجلا منهم أو خمسين أمروهم أن يطيفوا بعسكر رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ليصيبوا لهم من أصحابه أحدا فأخذوا فأتي بهم رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فعفا عنهم و خلى سبيلهم و قد كانوا رموا في عسكر رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بالحجارة و النبل ثم دعا عمر بن الخطاب ليبعثه إلى مكة فيبلغ عنه أشراف قريش ما جاء له فقال يا رسول الله إني أخاف قريشا على نفسي و ليس بمكة من بني عدي أحد يمنعني و قد عرفت قريش عداوتي إياها و غلظتي عليها و لكني أدلك على رجل أعز بها مني عثمان بن عفان فدعا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم عثمان بن عفان فبعثه إلى أبي سفيان و أشراف قريش يخبرهم أنه لم يأت لحرب و إنما جاء زائرا لهذا البيت معظما لحرمته فخرج عثمان إلى مكة فلقيه أبان بن سعيد بن العاص حين دخل مكة أو قبل أن يدخلها فحمله بين يديه ثم أجاره حتى بلغ رسالة رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فانطلق عثمان حتى أتى أبا سفيان و عظماء قريش فبلغهم عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ما أرسله به فقالوا لعثمان حين بلغ رسالة رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إن شئت أن تطوف بالبيت فطف قال ما كنت لأفعل حتى يطوف به رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و احتبسته قريش عندها فبلغ رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و المسلمين أن عثمان قد قتل قال ابن إسحاق فحدثني عبد الله بن أبي بكر أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال حين بلغه أن عثمان قد قتل لا نبرح حتى نناجز القوم و دعا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إلى البيعة و كانت بيعة الرضوان تحت الشجرة و كان الناس يقولون بايعهم رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم على الموت و كان جابر بن عبد الله يقول إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لم يبايعنا على الموت و لكن بايعنا على أن لا نفر فبايع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم الناس و لم يتخلف عنه أحد من المسلمين حضرها إلا الجد بن قيس أخو بني سلمة

The Quraysh had sent 40 or 50 of their men whom they ordered to surround the army of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and take one of his Sahabah as captive for them. These men were captured and brought to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam forgave them and allowed them to leave. They had thrown rocks and shot arrows at the army of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then called ‘Umar ibn al Khattab in order to send him to Makkah to convey on his behalf to the notables of Quraysh the reason of his coming. ‘Umar submitted, “O Messenger of Allah, I fear for myself from the Quraysh. And there is no one from the Banu ‘Adi in Makkah who can protect me. Moreover, the Quraysh are well aware of my enmity for them and sternness towards them. Nevertheless, I will point out a man who is more honoured than me in Makkah; ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam thus called for ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan and sent him to Abu Sufyan and the notables of Quraysh informing them that he did not come to fight and that he only came as a visitor to this House, honouring its sacredness. ‘Uthman left to Makkah. Aban ibn Sa’id ibn al ‘As met him as he entered Makkah or before he entered. He mounted him in front of himself and then gave him amnesty till he delivers the message of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. ‘Uthman walked until he reached Abu Sufyan and the dignities of Quraysh. He then conveyed to them the message Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had sent him with.

They said to ‘Uthman after he conveyed Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam message, “If you wish to circumambulate the House, then go ahead.”

‘Uthman retorted, “It is not befitting for me to do so until Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam circumambulate it.”

Quraysh then prevented him from returning. Meanwhile, rumours reached Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Muslims that ‘Uthman had been slain.

Ibn Ishaq says: ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr narrated to me that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announced when the news reached him that ‘Uthman had been martyred, “We will not stop until we fight the enemy.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then called towards the bay’ah. Thus, Bay’at al Ridwan took place under the tree. People would say, “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took their pledge upon death.”

Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah would say, “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not take our allegiance upon death. However, he took our pledge that we will not flee.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam thus took the pledge of allegiance from the people and none of the Muslims who were present there held back, except Jadd ibn Qais, the brother of the Banu Salamah.[82]

 

Sayyidina Jabir radiya Llahu ‘anhu clarifies:

 

إنما بيعة الرضوان بيعة الشجرة في عثمان بن عفان خاصة قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إن قتلوا لأنابذهم قال فبايعناه و لم نبايعه على الموت و لكنا بايعناه ألا نفر و نحن ألف و ثلاث مئة

Bay’at al Ridwan was the pledge under the tree regarding ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan exclusively. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “If they killed him, I declare war on them.”

Jabir continues, “We pledged to him, not upon death, but rather that we will not flee. We were 1300 in number.”[83]

 

It appears in Sahih Muslim that Sayyidina Jabir radiya Llahu ‘anhu recounted:

 

كنا يوم الحديبية ألفا و أربعمائة فبايعناه و عمر آخذ بيده تحت الشجرة و هي سمرة و قال و بايعناه على أن لا نفر و لم نبايعه على الموت

We were 1400 on the Day of Hudaybiyyah. We pledged to him, while ‘Umar was holding his hand under the tree, a lotus tree. We pledged to him that we will not flee. We did not pledge allegiance upon death.[84]

 

Al Tabarani reports via his chain from Sayyidina Salamah ibn al Akwa’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بايع لعثمان بن عفان بإحدى يديه على الأخرى و قال اللهم إن عثمان في حاجتك و حاجة رسولك

Certainly, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam pledged on behalf of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan with one of his hands upon the other, submitting, “O Allah, ‘Uthman is currently executing Your mission and Your Messenger’s mission.”[85]

 

The narration of Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu is documented in Sunan al Tirmidhi as follows:

 

لما أمر رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ببيعة الرضوان كان عثمان بن عفان رسول رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إلى أهل مكة فبايع الناس قال فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إن عثمان في حاجة الله و حاجة رسوله فضرب بإحدى يديه على الأخرى فكانت يد رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لعثمان خيرا من أيديهم لأنفسهم

At the time Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had commanded Bay’at al Ridwan, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan was the messenger of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to the people of Makkah. The people pledged. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announced, “‘Uthman is taking care of Allah’s mission and His Messenger’s mission. He then placed one of his hands on the other [for ‘Uthman]. The hand of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for ‘Uthman was far greater than their hands for themselves.[86]

 

What greater virtue is there for Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu than this? Bay’ah is taken because of him and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gives the pledge with his noble hand, as his substitute.

 

‘Uthman’s Compilation of the Glorious Qur’an

The glorious Qur’an underwent compilation twice after the demise of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The first time was during the reign of the first khalifah, Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu, on the suggestion of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu when the Qurra’ of the glorious Qur’an were killed in large numbers in the Battle of Yamamah. The mission of Sayyidina Zaid ibn Thabit radiya Llahu ‘anhu compiling the Qur’an in a mushaf reached completion.[87]

This compilation refers to transcribing the Qur’an and writing it in a single mushaf, with verses in sequence, sufficing on those verses whose recitation had not been abrogated, substantiating it by tawatur and consensus. The object of this compilation was documentation of the Qur’an and recording it in word form, in one place in sequence, out of fear of losing any portion of it by the death of the bearers and memorisers of the Qur’an.[88]

The second compilation took place in the era of Amir al Mu’minin Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. There is no third instance.

With regards to the second compilation of the Qur’an, which took place in the reign of Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Imam al Bukhari gives us a history of it in his Sahih from Ibn Shihab who in turn reports that Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu had informed him:

 

أن حذيفة بن اليمان قدم على عثمان و كان يغازي أهل الشام في فتح أرمينية و آذربيجان مع أهل العراق فأفزع حذيفة اختلافهم في القراءة فقال حذيفة لعثمان يا أمير المؤمنين أدرك هذه الأمة قبل أن يختلفوا في الكتاب اختلاف اليهود و النصارى فأرسل عثمان إلى حفصة أن أرسلي إلينا بالصحف ننسخها في المصاحف ثم نردها إليك فأرسلت بها حفصة إلى عثمان فأمر زيد بن ثابت و عبد الله بن الزبير و سعيد بن العاص و عبد الرحمن بن الحارث بن هشام فنسخوها في المصاحف و قال عثمان للرهط القرشيين الثلاثة إذا اختلفتم أنتم و زيد بن ثابت في شيء من القرآن فاكتبوه بلسان قريش فإنما نزل بلسانهم ففعلوا حتى إذا نسخوا الصحف في المصاحف رد عثمان الصحف إلى حفصة فأرسل إلى كل أفق بمصحف مما نسخوا و أمر بما سواه من القرآن في كل صحيفة أو مصحف أن يحرق

Hudhayfah ibn al Yaman arrived by ‘Uthman. The people of Sham along with the people of Iraq were fighting to conquer Armenia and Azerbaijan. Their disagreement in the modes of recitation got Hudhayfah worried so Hudhayfah said to ‘Uthman, “O Amir al Mu’minin. Save this ummah before they differ in the Book as the Jews and Christians differed.”

Accordingly, ‘Uthman sent a message to Hafsah, “Kindly send the manuscripts to us, we will transcribe them in perfect copies and then return them to you.”

Hafsah sent the manuscripts to ‘Uthman. He instructed Zaid ibn Thabit, ‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair, Sa’id ibn al ‘As, and ‘Abdur Rahman ibn al Harith ibn Hisham to transcribe it in perfect copies. ‘Uthman said to the three Qurashi scribes, “If you and Zaid ibn Thabit differ in anything of the Qur’an, then write it according to the dialect of the Quraysh since it was revealed in their tongue.” They complied until they completed transcribing the manuscripts into perfect copies, after which ‘Uthman returned the manuscripts to Hafsah. ‘Uthman sent one mushaf of what they had copied to every province. He ordered that all Qur’anic material, whether in fragmentary copies or manuscripts, be burnt.[89]

 

This is the second compilation in the era of Dhu al Nurayn radiya Llahu ‘anhu. As mentioned previously, it refers to transcribing what was in the manuscripts compiled in the first round to one complete master mushaf (copy) and copying perfect copies from it to be sent to the Islamic horizons, considering the previous specialities mentioned with sequencing all the chapters and verses. The object of it was to put an end to the fitnah which reared its ugly head among the Muslims who differed in the modes of recitation. It served to unite them, to unify their call, and to protect the Book of Allah from alternation and modification.[90]

 

Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Testimony of Jannat for ‘Uthman

Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu was among the devout worshippers, standing reciting the verses of Allah in the hours of night, prostrating, fearful of the Hereafter, hopeful of the mercy of his Rabb. He lit up all his nights with the entire Qur’an in one rak’ah during the lifetime of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and during his caliphate. When he assumed leadership, he remained the cream of the elite and the leader of the pious until he was martyred. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave him glad tidings of Jannat. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away while pleased with him.

Due to all these magnificent virtues and others, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was deserving of being among the Ten Promised Jannat and worthy of receiving Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam glad tidings of the same.

Muslim reports in his Sahih through his chain from Sayyidina Abu Musa al Ash’ari radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

بينما رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في حائط من حائط المدينة و هو متكئ يركز بعود معه بين الماء و الطين إذا استفتح رجل فقال افتح و بشره بالجنة قال فإذا أبو بكر ففتحت له و بشرته بالجنة قال ثم استفتح رجل آخر فقال افتح و بشره بالجنة قال فذهبت فإذا هو عمر ففتحت له و بشرته بالجنة ثم استفتح رجل آخر قال فجلس النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال افتح و بشره بالجنة على بلوى تكون قال فذهبت فإذا هو عثمان بن عفان قال ففتحت و بشرته بالجنة قال و قلت الذي قال فقال الله صبرا أو الله المستعان

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was reclining in one of the orchards of Madinah, digging with a stick between the water and earth, when a man sought permission to enter. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Open and give him glad tidings of Jannat.” It was Abu Bakr so I opened for him and gave him glad tidings of Jannat.

Thereafter another man sought permission to enter. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Open and give him glad tidings of Jannat.” I went and found ‘Umar so I opened for him and gave him glad tidings of Jannat.

Thereafter a third person sought permission to enter. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sat up and said, “Open for him and give him glad tidings of Jannat after a calamity.” I went and found ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan at the door. I opened for him and gave him the glad tidings as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said. He remarked, “O Allah, patience!” or “Allah is the One from whom help is sought.”[91]

 

Sayyidina Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates:

 

صعد النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أحدا و معه أبو بكر و عمر و عثمان فرجف الجبل فقال اثبت أحد فإنما عليك نبي و صديق و شهيدان

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam climbed upon Uhud along with Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman. The mountain began to shake so Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Remain firm, O Uhud! Indeed, only a Nabi, a Siddiq, and two martyrs are upon you.”[92]

 

Al Tirmidhi reports from Abu ‘Abdur Rahman al Sulami who says:

 

لما حصر عثمان أشرف عليهم فوق داره ثم قال أذكركم بالله هل تعلمون أن حراء حين انتفض قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم اثبت حراء فليس عليك إلا نبي أو صديق أو شهيد قالوا نعم قال أذكركم بالله هل تعلمون أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال في جيش العسرة من ينفق نفقة متقبلة و الناس مجهدون معسرون فجهزت ذلك الجيش قالوا نعم ثم قال أذكركم بالله هل تعلمون أن بئر رومة لم يكن يشرب منها أحد إلا بثمن فابتعتها فجعلتها للغني و الفقير و ابن السبيل قالوا اللهم نعم و أشياء عددها

When ‘Uthman was besieged, he gazed at the people from above his house and announced, “I remind you in the name of Allah! Do you know that when Hira’ shook, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed, ‘Remain firm, Hira’, for only a Nabi, a Siddiq, or martyr is upon you.’”

They replied in the affirmative.

He proclaimed, “I remind you in the name of Allah! Are you aware that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said regarding the Army of Distress, ‘Who will spend an accepted expenditure, when people are hard-pressed and poor.’ And I equipped that army.”

They replied in the affirmative.

He then announced, “I remind you in the name of Allah! Are you cognisant of the fact that no one could drink from the well of Rumah except by paying. I purchased it and donated it for the rich, poor, and wayfarer.”

They replied, “By Allah, yes.”

He listed a few other aspects.[93]

 

Ahmed and al Tirmidhi report from Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu who reports:

 

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أبو بكر في الجنة و عمر في الجنة و عثمان في الجنة و علي في الجنة و طلحة في الجنة و الزبير في الجنة و عبد الرحمن بن عوف في الجنة و سعد في الجنة و سعيد في الجنة و أبو عبيدة بن الجراح في الجنة

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated: “Abu Bakr is in Jannat. ‘Umar is in Jannat. ‘Uthman is in Jannat. ‘Ali is in Jannat. Talhah is in Jannat. Zubair is in Jannat. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf is in Jannat. Sa’d is in Jannat. Sa’id is in Jannat. Abu ‘Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah is in Jannat.”[94]

 

All these transmissions emphatically confirm that Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu is from the inhabitants of Jannat. This is the greatest of his excellences. In fact, it is the highest hope of every Muslim. Jannat is the most precious and coveted that can be hoped for and desired in the world by any bondsman.

 

The Oppressed Khalifah in the Rows of the Martyrs

Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred as a result of a fitnah that had enveloped the major Islamic cities, and devised by a group of misguided villains. Their leader was a Jew who claimed to be a Muslim, ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’. He ignited the fire and fuelled the flames. He claimed against the third khalifah many falsities and lies which caused the rebellion against him and resulted in his home in Madinah coming under siege. It ended in him being killed unjustly, while fasting and while reciting the glorious Qur’an. None of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum who were present in Madinah at the time were accomplices in his murder. To the contrary, all of them, without exception, were ready to support and defend him. In fact, they would lay their lives at his feet had the khalifah Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu not prevented them from this. They obeyed his command in submission, and turned away from the rebels.[95]

Some of the reports in this regard:

It is reported about Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

أنه لبس الدرع مرتين فأتى عثمان فقال صحبت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و عرفت له حق الرسالة و حق النبوة و صحبت أبا بكر فعرفت له حق الولاية و صحبت عمر فكنت أعرف له حق الوالد و حق الولاية و أنا أعرف لك مثل ذلك فقال له عثمان جزاكم الله خير من أهل بيت اقعد في بيتك حتى يأتيك أمري

He wore armour on two occasions and approached ‘Uthman saying, “You accompanied Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and recognised his right of Risalah and his right of Nubuwwah. You accompanied Abu Bakr and recognised his right of leadership. You accompanied ‘Umar and were the most cognisant of his right as a father and his right of leadership. And I recognise the same for you.”

‘Uthman said to him, “May Allah reward you abundantly, from the Ahlul Bayt. Sit in your house until my command reaches you.”[96]

 

Ibn Sa’d mentions in al Tabaqat through his chain from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir ibn Rabi’ah who reports:

 

قال عثمان يوم الدار إن أعظمكم عني غناء رجل كف يده و سلاحه

‘Uthman announced on the day he was besieged, “The person who is most excellent in my eyes is the one who withholds his hand and weapon.”

 

Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports in the same book:

 

دخلت على عثمان يوم الدار فقلت يا أمير المؤمنين طاب الضرب فقال يا أبا هريرة أيسرك أن تقتل الناس جميعا و إياي قال قلت لا قال فإنك والله إن قتلت رجلا واحدا فكأنما قتل الناس جميعا قال فرجعت و لم أقاتل

I entered the presence of ‘Uthman on the day he was besieged and submitted, “O Amir al Mu’minin! It is the time to fight!”

‘Uthman said, “O Abu Hurairah! Will it please you to kill all the people as well as myself?”

I answered in the negative.

He explained, “By Allah, if you kill one person, it is as if all the people have been slain.”

Hearing this, I returned and did not fight.[97]

 

May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala shower His choicest mercy on Amir al Mu’minin Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He was merciful towards the believers in his lifetime and after his demise. He did not take revenge for himself, and was eager to reunite the ummah.

He was martyred on Friday, 18th of Dhu al Hijjah 35 A.H. His caliphate lasted for 11 years, 11 months, and 22 days. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala have extensive mercy upon him.[98]

 

Why was ‘Uthman martyred?

I do not wish to penetrate deeply into this matter, with all discussions, investigations, lessons, and details. I simply wish to briefly present what happened in general, avoiding details, just to give the noble reader a brief yet comprehensive glance of the entire occurrence.

The establishment of the Islamic State with this power and haste led to the collapse of many states and cities which resulted in malice in the hearts of those who had to abandon his precious religion. Although majority of them accepted it and entered into the din sincerely, some of them found safety in it from oppression and preferred to remain upon the imposition of Jizyah. On the other hand, some of them entered the din outwardly to corrupt it from inside, like ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’. He was a Jew from the residents of Yemen. He claimed to be Muslim. He began his conspiracies and spreading false information. People with weak souls and feeble minds picked up on these, led by hidden passions. Conversely, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was on the other spectrum, totally shunning bloodshed, inclined to pardon and forgiveness which was translated as weakness by those hell-bent on fitnah. They abused this soft nature to reach their corrupt agendas.

The villains entered Madinah, the capital of the caliphate, majority of the residents of which were Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and their children, who never thought for a moment that blood would be spilled in that blessed land, forget the martyrdom of the Rightly Guided Khalifah Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The villains’ agenda was conducive to this idea.

Sayyidah ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu swore on oath not to shed blood and turned his sincere followers away from him [i.e. he instructed them not to protect him]. He denounced leaving his place of immigration, Madinah, just as he refused to allow the advance of the armies from Sham and other areas, fearing that the provisions of the people of Madinah might straighten.

Ibn Abi Shaybah reports in his Musannaf from Ibn Sirin:

 

جاء زيد بن ثابت إلى عثمان فقال هذه الأنصار بالباب قالوا إن شئت أن نكون أنصارا لله مرتين قال أما قتال فلا

Zaid ibn Thabit approached ‘Uthman and said, “The Ansar are here by the door. They say that if you desire, they will become the helpers of Allah for a second time.”

‘Uthman answered, “No to fighting!”[99]

 

Ahmed narrates in al Musnad through his sanad―from Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan who in turn narrates―from Mughirah ibn Shu’bah radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

أنه دخل على عثمان رضي الله عنه و هو محصور فقال إنك إمام العامة و قد نزل بك ما ترى و إني أعرض عليك خصالا ثلاثا اختر إحداهن إما أن تخرج فنقاتلهم فإن معك عددا و قوة على الحق و هم على الباطل و إما أن تخرق لك بابا سوى الباب الذي هم عليه فتقعد على رواحلك فتلحق بمكة فإنهم لن يستحلوك و أنت بها و إما أن تلحق بالشام فإنهم أهل الشام و فيهم معاوية فقال عثمان أما أن أخرج فأقاتل فلن أكون أول من خلف رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في أمته بسفك الدماء و أما أن أخرج إلى مكة فإنهم لي يستحلوني بها فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول يلحد رجل من قريش بمكة يكون عليه نصف عذاب العالم فلن أكون أنا إياه و أما أن ألحق بالشام فإنهم أهل الشام و فيهم معاوية فلن أفارق دار هجرتي و مجاورة رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم

Mughirah entered the presence of ‘Uthman while the latter was besieged and said, “You are the leader of the masses and you are faced with this predicament. I present to you three options, you may choose one of them. Either you come out and we will fight them, for indeed you have numbers and power upon the truth while they are upon falsehood. Either you break the wall and make an exit for you, besides the door they are surrounding, and you sit on your conveyance and set off to Makkah for they will not spill your blood as long as you are there. Or either you settle in Sham for there you have the residents of Sham and their leader Muawiyah.”

‘Uthman replied, “As regards to me coming out and fighting, I will not be the first to succeed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his ummah by spilling blood. With regards to me traveling to Makkah for they will not spill my blood there, I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, ‘A man from Quraysh will deviate from the right path in Makkah and will suffer half the punishment of the universe.’ I will not be that person. And with regards to me settling in Sham because they are the people of Sham and they have Muawiyah, I will not abandon the abode of my hijrah and being the neighbour of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[100]

 

Some Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum presented themselves to protect him while others sent their sons, the likes of Sayyidina ‘Ali, Sayyidina Talhah, Sayyidina Abu Hurairah, Sayyidina Abu Qatadah, Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Safiyyah, Sayyidina Hassan, and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

Some might have disagreed with Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. However, none of them joined the criminals in spilling his blood and they all were distraught by the occurrence. This is due to the fact that they never regarded Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu mistake to reach the level of dismissal, leave alone being slain. Add to this that a large number of Sahabah and their sons radiya Llahu ‘anhum were out of Madinah in the conquests or on the journey of Hajj.

Muhammad ibn Shihab al Zuhri says:

 

قلت لسعيد بن المسيب هل أنت مخبري كيف كان قتل عثمان ما كان شأن الناس و شأنه و لم خذله أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال قتل عثمان مظلوما و من قتله كان ظالما و من خذله كان معذورا

I asked Sa’id ibn al Musayyab, “Will you inform me how ‘Uthman was killed? What was the people’s position and what was his position? And why did the Companions of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not assist him?”

He explained, “‘Uthman was killed unjustly. Those who killed him were oppressors. And those who did not assist him were excused.”[101]

 

This will clarify the great devastation felt by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his brothers when news of his martyrdom reached them. Some of them felt that they had sinned by not being present to protect him with their own lives. Some others who had censured him, felt embarrassed out of shock of the wicked assault in the sacred month, in an honoured city. That is why his martyrdom resulted in the sprading of turmoil thereafter.

The noble reader should be cognisant of the false ideologies peddled by some authors. For example, the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were fragmented or that some of them had evil intentions towards others. These authors turned a blind eye to the rich legacy of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in the company of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, their hijrah, jihad, taqwa, and deep knowledge. They relied on conjectures which they refer to as research and fabrications which they term narrations, which have no backing of isnad and no worth as proof, despite knowing fully well that speaking on such matters demands comprehensive knowledge. A text from here, and a quotation from there does not suffice. It is mandatory to settle on muhkam (fact) and discard the doubtful and debatable. Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala praise and Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam praise for the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and the established traditions with authentic chains of transmission are sufficient and heart-warming.

 

The Relationship between ‘Uthman and the Ahlul Bayt

The relationship of Dhu al Nurayn Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu with the household of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam begins in his common lineage with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at their forefather ‘Abd Manaf, from both his father’s as well as mother’s side. Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, as we clarified earlier on, his maternal grandmother al Bayda’ bint ‘Abdul Muttalib was the paternal aunt of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam making Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu the son of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam cousin.

In addition to this, he married two daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Ruqayyah and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, successively.

These links highlight the extent of the deep connection between Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Ahlul Bayt. An extra is the Ahlul Bayt’s praise for him and their death defiance to protect him when he was surrounded.

One of the evidences for this is the report of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

إياكم و الغلو في عثمان تقولون حرق المصاحف والله ما حرقها إلا عن ملأ من أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم ولو وليت مثلما ولي فعلت مثل الذي فعل

Be careful of extremism in relation to ‘Uthman! You say that he burnt the mushafs. By Allah, he only issued the command after consulting with the Companions of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Had I faced his situation, I would have acted in the same way.[102]

 

The Ahlul Bayt radiya Llahu ‘anhu would defend Amir al Mu’minin Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and sacrifice their souls to protect him. They are after all the loyal progeny of al Mustafa salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Ibn ‘Asakir reports from Kinanah the freed slave of Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Hafsah radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

كنت فيمن حمل الحسن بن علي بن أبي طالب جريحا من دار عثمان و كان الحسن بن علي آخر من خرج من عند عثمان

I was among those who carried Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib wounded from the house of ‘Uthman. Hassan ibn ‘Ali was the last person to leave ‘Uthman’s presence.[103]

 

دخل الحسن و الحسين رضي الله عنهما و من كان معهما فوجدوا عثمان مذبوحا فانكبوا عليه يبكون و خرجوا و دخل الناس فوجدوه مذبوحا و بلغ علي بن أبي طالب الخبر و طلحة و الزبير و سعدا و من كان بالمدينة فخرجوا و قد ذهبت عقولهم للخبر الذي أتاهم حتى دخلوا على عثمان فوجدوه مقتولا فاسترجعوا و قال علي لابنيه كيف قتل أمير المؤمنين و أنتما على الباب و رفع يده فلطم الحسن و ضرب صدر الحسين و شتم محمد بن طلحة و لعن عبد الله بن الزبير و خرج علي و هو غضبان فلقيه طلحة فقال مالك يا أبا الحسن ضربت الحسن و الحسين فقال عليك و عليهما لعنة الله إلا أن يسوءني ذلك يقتل أمير المؤمنين رجل من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بدري لم تقم عليه بينة و لا حجة

Hassan and Hussain entered with those with them only to find ‘Uthman slaughtered. They fell upon him, and wept, and then left. People entered and found him slain. The news reached ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Talhah, Zubair, Sa’d, and those present in Madinah. Their minds were bewildered due to the news they received. They left and entered upon ‘Uthman only to find him killed. They recited, To Allah do we belong and to Him is our return.” ‘Ali scolded his sons, “How could Amir al Mu’minin be killed when you were guarding the door?” He lifted his hand and slapped Hassan and punched Hussain in the chest. He rebuked Muhammad ibn Talhah and reproached ‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair. ‘Ali then left totally outraged.

Talhah met him and asked, “What is the matter with you, O Abu al Hassan? You hit Hassan and Hussain?”

He replied, “May Allah’s curse be upon you and them, except if this saddens me. Amir al Mu’minin is killed. A man from the Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. A participant of Badr. Whereas no proof or evidence was established against him.”[104]

 

Abu Qatadah says:

 

دخلت على عثمان وهو محصور أنا و رجل من قومي نستأذنه في الحج فأذن لنا فلما خرجت استقبلني الحسن بن علي بالباب فدخل و عليه سلاحه فرجعت معه فدخل فوقف بين يدي عثمان قال يا أمير المؤمنين هاأنذا بين يديك فمرني بأمرك فقال له عثمان يا ابن أخي وصلتك رحم إن القوم ما يريدون غيري و والله لا أتوقى بالمؤمنين و لكن أوقي المؤمنين بنفسي فلما سمعت ذلك منه قلت يا أمير المؤمنين إن كان من أمرك كون فما تأمر قال انظر ما اجتمعت عليه أمة محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم فإن الله لا يجمعهم على ضلالة كونوا مع الجماعة حيث كانت

I entered upon ‘Uthman who was surrounded, I and a man from my tribe, seeking his permission to go for Hajj. He allowed us. As I left, Hassan ibn ‘Ali met me at the door. He entered wearing his weapons. I returned with him. He entered and stood before ‘Uthman and submitted, “O Amir al Mu’minin, here I am before you. Give me your command.”

‘Uthman said to him, “O my nephew, you have maintained your ties. The rebels do not intend anyone besides me. By Allah, I will not use the believers as a shield. Rather I will protect the believers with my life.”

When I heard him say this, I said, “O Amir al Mu’minin, if something happens to you, then what do you instruct?”

He said, “See upon what the Ummah of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam unites upon, because Allah will not unite them on deviance. Be with the group wherever they may be.”[105]

 

Innocence of the Ahlul Bayt and Sahabah from ‘Uthman’s Murder

The one who reads the reports on the martyrdom of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu will realise that those who killed him were a handful of bandits, rogues, devoid of manhood and a sense of honour. They had no respect for women, not even the Ummahat al Mu’minin, nor for the mushaf, nor for someone aged and illustrious.

Al Zuhri says:

 

قتل عثمان عند صلاة العصر و شد عبد لعثمان على كنانة بن بشر فقتله و شد سودان على العبد فقتله و دخلت الغوغاء دار عثمان فصاح إنسان منهم أيحل دم عثمان و لا يحل ماله فانتهبوا متاعه فقامت نائلة زوجته فقال لصوص و رب الكعبة يا أعداء الله ما ركبتم من دم عثمان أعظم أما والله لقد قتلتموه صواما قواما يقرأ القرآن في ركعة

‘Uthman was killed at the time of Salat al ‘Asr. ‘Uthman’s slave attacked Kinanah ibn Bishr and killed him. Sudan attacked the slave and killed him. The rogues entered the house of ‘Uthman. One of them shouted, “Is the blood of ‘Uthman permissible while his wealth is not?” They thus stole his possessions.

Na’ilah his wife stood up and shouted, “Thieves, by the Rabb of the Ka’bah! O enemies of Allah, the crime you perpetrated of spilling ‘Uthman’s blood is far worse. Hearken! By Allah, you killed him whereas he fasted and stood in salah reciting the entire Qur’an in a single unit of prayer.”[106]

 

The people left the house of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and closed the door on three slain, viz. ‘Uthman, his African slave, and Kinanah ibn Bishr.

This is how the soul of the Rightly Guided Khalifah Dhu al Nurayn Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu departed. The bashful, the merciful, the pure, the chaste, the leader of the devout, the cream of the elite, martyred by the evildoers. The glad tidings of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was realised, when he said to Sayyidina Abu Musa al Ash’ari radiya Llahu ‘anhu, “Open and give him glad tidings of Jannat upon a calamity.”[107]

He passed away an oppressed martyr. Congratulations to him of martyrdom! Congratulations of Jannat to him as guaranteed by the trustworthy, the truthful, may salutations and the choicest peace be upon him.

 

NEXT⇒ Sayyiduna `Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu `anhu – Fostered in the Home of Nubuwwah; Husband of the Pure Queen


[1] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 3.

[2] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 53; al Isti’ab, vol. 3 pg. 1037.

[3] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 6

[4] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 53.

[5] The origin of this statement is that Umm Jamil, the wife of Abu Lahab, tripped over her cloak while circumambulating the House so she said, “May the dispraised perish,” referring to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She wanted his paternal aunt, Umm al Hakim bint ‘Abdul Muttalib, to hear. Umm al Hakim thus answered saying, “I am a stallion, hence I do not speak; skilful, hence I do not teach.” Another narration has the words, “Smart, so I do not teach.” Both of us are cousins and from Quraysh. (Musnad al Humaidi, vol. 1 pg. 153, Hadith: 323; Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 4 pg. 604.)

[6] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 7.

[7] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 55.

[8] Ibn al Jawzi: Zad al Masir, vol. 7 pg. 183; Ibn Abi ‘Asim: Kitab al Sunnah, pg. 534; al Mubarakfuri: Tuhfat al Ahwadhi, vol. 10 pg. 128; al ‘Ayni: ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 22 pg. 122.

[9] Al Isti’ab, vol. 2 pg. 478.

[10] ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 16 pg. 201.

[11] Al Sunan al Kubra, book on marriage, chapter on the names of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wives and daughters and marrying off his daughters, vol. 7 pg. 73, Hadith: 13205.

[12] Tarikh al Islam, vol. 3 pg. 468.

[13] Al Mujam al Kabir, regarding ‘Uthman, vol. 1 pg. 75, Hadith: 95.

[14] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 16 – 17.

[15] Surah al Masad: 1.

[16] Fath al Bari, vol. 7 pg. 43; al Maliqi: al Tamhid wa al Bayan, pg. 20; al Isti’ab, vol. 4 pg. 1840.

[17] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 3 pg. 154; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 252.

[18] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 38; al Bidayah wa Al Nihayah, vol. 5 pg. 330; al Mujam al Kabir, Hadith: 1063.

[19] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 54.

[20] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 12.

[21] Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 376.

[22] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 46.

[23] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 177, 178; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 376.

[24] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 55.

[25] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 139; ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 7 pg. 268.

[26] Al dabanah: it appears like this in al Dala’il. In Tarikh Dimashq, the word al dababah appears. It refers to weak animals that walk slowly, not quickly. (Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 29; Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 1 pg. 370.)

[27] Dala’il al Nubuwwah, chapter on the first hijrah to Abyssinia, vol. 2 pg. 176, Hadith: 592; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 5 pg. 456 – 457.

[28] ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 7 pg. 268.

[29] Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 376.

[30] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 56.

[31] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 56.

[32] Sahih al Bukhari, book on pledge of allegiance, chapter on the incident of the bay’ah and consensus upon ‘Uthman, Hadith: 3497.

[33] Al Bidayah wa Al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 163, 165; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 192.

[34] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 203.

[35] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 210.

[36] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 251.

[37] Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 55.

[38] Musnad Ahmed, the hadith of Sayyidah Aisha, vol. 6 pg. 250, Hadith: 26173.

[39] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 26 pg. 344.

[40] Al ritah: used to refer to every gentle thin fabric. Or it is a sheet when from one piece. (Taj al ‘Urus, vol. 10 pg. 267.)

[41] Al Mustadrak, book on recognising the Sahabah, chapter on the virtues of Amir al Mu’minin Dhu al Nurayn, Hadith: 4532; Majma’ al Zawa’id, the merits of ‘Uthman, chapter on his appearance, vol. 8 pg. 386, Hadith: 14492. Al Haythami comments, “Al Tabarani narrates it and his isnad is hassan.”

[42] Sunan al Bayhaqi, book on salah, chapter on a Muslim sleeping in the Masjid, vol. 2 pg. 391, Hadith: 4513; Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 60.

[43] Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 60.

[44] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 76; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 234.

[45] Al Sunan al Kubra, chapter on witr with one rak’ah, vol. 3 pg. 25, Hadith: 5461.

[46] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 235.

[47] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 236; Al Bidayah wa Al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 241.

[48] Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 56; Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 2 pg. 73, Hadith: 6611.

[49] Al Bidayah wa Al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 241.

[50] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 239.

[51] Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 3 pg. 430, Hadith: 15676; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 31 pg. 161.

[52] Sunan al Darimi, book on inheritance, chapter on teaching inheritance, vol. 2 pg. 441, Hadith: 2852. Hussain Salim Asad said, “Its isnad is sahih and it is the statement of al Zuhri.”

[53] Ibn al Qayyim: A’lam al Muqi’in, vol. 1 pg. 20.

[54] Tarikh al Islam, vol. 3 pg. 476.

[55] Musnad Ahmed, Musnad ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, vol. 1 pg. 73, Hadith: 537.

[56] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of Muaz ibn Jabal, Zaid ibn Thabit, and Abu ‘Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah, Hadith: 3790. Al Albani classified it sahih. Sunan Ibn Majah, chapter on the merits of Khabbab, Hadith: 154, al Albani classified it sahih. Al Mustadrak, book on recognising the Sahabah, chapter on the merits of Zaid ibn Thabit, Hadith: 5784. Al Hakim said, “This isnad is sahih and meets the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim who have not documented it with this starting.” Al Dhahabi concurs in al Talkhis, “According to the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim.” Sahih Ibn Hibban, book on his speaking on the virtues of the Sahabah, mention of the fact that Muaz ibn Jabal was one of the most knowledgeable of the Sahabah in permissible and impermissible, Hadith: 7131. Shu’ayb al Arna’ut said, “His isnad is sahih according to the standard of al Bukhari.”

[57] Sahih Muslim, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on the merits of ‘Uthman, vol. 4 pg. 1866, Hadith: 2401.

[58] Muhammad Amhazun: Tahqiq Mawaqif al Sahabah fi al Fitnah, vol. 1 pg. 373.

[59] Tarikh al Tabari, vol. 3 pg. 433; al Kamil, vol. 3 pg. 184.

[60] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 25 pg. 104.

[61] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 229; al Bidayah wa Al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 240.

[62] Muhammad ibn Yahya al Maliqi: al Tamhid wa al Bayan, pg. 239.

[63] Surah al Tawbah: 117.

[64] ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 16 pg. 202.

[65] Al Sirah al Halabiyyah, vol. 3 pg. 100.

[66] Al Sirah al Halabiyyah, vol. 3 pg. 100.

[67] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of ‘Uthman, vol. 5 pg. 626, Hadith: 3701. Abu ‘Isa, “This hadith is hassan gharib from this chain.” Sheikh al Albani adds a footnote to this saying, “Hassan.” Al Mustadrak, book on recognising the Sahabah, chapter on the virtues of Amir al Mu’minin Dhu al Nurayn, Hadith: 4553. Al Hakim comments, “This hadith has a sahih isnad but they have not documented it.” Al Dhahabi concurs in al Talkhis.

[68] Al Sirah al Halabiyyah, vol. 3 pg. 100.

[69] Musnad Ahmed, Musnad ‘Uthman, vol. 1 pg. 70, Hadith: 511. Shu’ayb al Arna’ut adds a footnote with the words, “Sahih li ghayrihi (authentic with corroboratory narrations). This isnad is da’if.” Al Sunan al Kubra, book on livening barren land, chapter on taking Masjid and watering places, vol. 6 pg. 167, Hadith: 11715.

[70] Al Sirah al Halabiyyah, vol. 3 pg. 100; Ibn Hisham: al Sirah al Nabawiyyah, vol. 4 pg. 945; Ibn Kathir: al Sirah al Nabawiyyah, vol. 4 pg. 6; Subul al Huda wa al Rashad, vol. 5 pg. 435.

[71] Sahih al Bukhari, book on bequests, chapter on someone giving a land or well as an endowment, Hadith: 2626; and in book on Sahabah, chapter on the virtues of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.

[72] Al Sirah al Halabiyyah, vol. 3 pg. 100.

[73] Sahih al Bukhari, book on bequests, chapter on someone giving a land or well as an endowment, Hadith: 2626.

[74] Research of Mustafa Dayb al Bagha on Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 3 pg. 1021.

[75] ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 12 pg. 190.

[76] Al Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 449.

[77] Al Mujam al Kabir, chapter on the name Bushayr, Bushayr al Aslami, vol. 2 pg. 41, Hadith: 1227.

[78] Sahih al Bukhari, book on bequests, chapter on someone giving a land or well as an endowment, Hadith: 2626.

[79] Sunan al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of ‘Uthman, vol. 5 pg. 627, Hadith: 3703. Al Albani classified it hassan. Sunan al Nasa’i, book on Masajid, chapter on waqf of Masajid, vol. 6 pg. 235, Hadith: 3608.

[80] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 332 – 333.

[81] Al Bidayah wa Al Nihayah, vol. 4 pg. 191.

[82] Al Bidayah wa Al Nihayah, vol. 4 pg. 191.

[83] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 75.

[84] Sahih Muslim, book on leadership, chapter on the imam taking the pledge from the army when intending to fight being preferred, vol. 3 pg. 1483, Hadith: 1856.

[85] Al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 7 pg. 23, Hadith: 6278.

[86] Sunan al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of ‘Uthman, vol. 5 pg. 626, Hadith: 3702. Al Tirmidhi comments, “This hadith is hassan sahih gharib.”

[87] Sahih al Bukhari, book on virtues of the Qur’an, chapter on compilation of the Qur’an, vol. 4 pg. 1907, Hadith: 4701.

[88] Al Zarqani: Manahil al ‘Irfan, vol. 1 pg. 183.

[89] Sahih al Bukhari, book on virtues of the Qur’an, chapter on compilation of the Qur’an, Hadith: 4702.

[90] Manahil al ‘Irfan, vol. 1 pg. 183.

[91] Sahih Muslim, book on the virtues of the Companions, chapter on the merits of ‘Uthman, Hadith: 28.

[92] Sahih al Bukhari, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam statement had I taken a bosom friend, Hadith: 3472.

[93] Sunan al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of ‘Uthman, Hadith: 3699. Al Tirmidhi comments, “This hadith is hassan sahih gharib.” Sheikh al Albani labels it sahih.

[94] Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 1675. Shu’ayb al Arna’ut comments, “Its isnad is strong on the standards of Muslim.” Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, the virtues of ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Hadith: 3747. Al Albani classified it sahih. Al Nasa’i: al Sunan al Kubra, Hadith: 8194; Sahih Ibn Hibban, book on his informing of the virtues of the Sahabah, Hadith: 7002.

[95] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 64 – 67.

[96] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 394.

[97] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 70.

[98] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 518.

[99] Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 7 pg. 516, Hadith: 37664.

[100] Musnad Ahmed, Musnad ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, vol. 1 pg. 68, Hadith: 841; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 7 pg. 158, Hadith: 12001. Hafiz al Haythami says, “Ahmed narrated it and his narrators are reliable except that I have not found that Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan heard directly from Mughirah.

[101] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 415.

[102] Al Bidayah wa Al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 244.

[103] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 392; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 8 pg. 181.

[104] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 419.

[105] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 400.

[106] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 74; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 39 pg. 414.

[107] Sahih al Bukhari, book on the virtues of the Companions, chapter on the merits of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Hadith: 3490; Sahih Muslim, book on the virtues of the Companions, chapter on the merits of ‘Uthman, Hadith: 2403.

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