He is ‘Umar ibn al Khattab ibn Nufayl ibn ‘Abdul ‘Uzza ibn Riyah ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Qurt ibn Razah ibn ‘Adi ibn Ka’b.
His agnomen is Abu Hafs. His mother is Hantamah bint Hashim ibn al Mughirah ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar ibn Makhzum.
He is from the Banu ‘Adi tribe, one of the distinguished tribes of Quraysh. They were in charge of mediation among the Quraysh.
Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was born 13 years after the Year of the Elephants. Usamah ibn Zaid ibn Aslam reports―from his father who in turn reports―from his grandfather who narrates that he heard―Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu saying:
ولدت بعد الفجار الأعظم بأربع سنين
I was born 4 years after the great war of Fijar.
The Almighty subhanahu wa ta ‘ala awarded Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu some unique physical characteristics which, from the very onset indicate strength, like robustness and the ability to work with both hands, which is something rare. Among these characteristics are those brought to light by the author of Usd al Ghabah who says:
كان عمر أعسر يسر يعمل بيديه و كان أصلع طويلا قد فرع الناس كأنه على دابة و قال الواقدي كان عمر أبيض أمهق تعلوه حمرة يصفر لحيته و إنما تغير لونه عام الرمادة لأنه أكثر أكل الزيت لأنه حرم على نفسه السمن و اللبن حتى يخصب الناس فتغير لونه
‘Umar was left-handed. Nonetheless, he could work with both hands. He was bald, and tall, towering above people as if he is mounted on a conveyance.
Al Waqidi says: ‘Umar had a very fair-complexion with reddishness. He would dye his beard yellow. His complexion changed the Year of Ashes due to his excessive consumption of olive oil. He had forbidden butter and milk upon himself until the drought ended. As a result, his complexion changed.
كان عمر أروح كأنه راكب و كأنه من رجال بني سدوس و الأروح الذي يتدانى قدماه إذا مشى
‘Umar was extremely tall as if he were mounted and as if he was of the men of Banu Sadus. Al Arwah is one whose feet are close when he walks.
Zirr ibn Hubaysh says:
كان عمر أعسر يسر آدم قال الواقدي لا يعرف عندنا أن عمر كان آدم إلا أن يكون رآه عام الرمادة
‘Umar was left handed, brown in complexion. Al Waqidi says: We do not acknowledge that ‘Umar was brown in complexion, except that if he saw him in the Year of Ashes.
Abu ‘Umar says:
وصفه زر بن حبيش و غيره أنه كان آدم شديد الأدمة و هو الأكثر عند أهل العلم
Zirr ibn Hubaysh and others have described him as dark brown in complexion. And this is the according to the majority of scholars.
It is reported that he was tall, well-built, and bald. He was white in complexion with extreme redness of the eyes. The sides of his moustache were long with redness on the side.
And as narrated by al Tabarani, when he would become angry he would twist his moustache.
Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu had a fair share of wives and children. He married more than one wife, and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala blessed him with a number of male and female offspring.
His wives are as follows:
His children are: ‘Abdullah, ‘Abdur Rahman, Zaid al Akbar, ‘Abdur Rahman al Awsat, ‘Ubaidullah, ‘Abdur Rahman al Asghar, Hafsah, Ruqayyah, and Zainab his youngest child.
Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was nurtured in the care of his father and inherited his harsh and stern characteristics which never knew weakness, determination near which uncertainty would not come, and resolution which accommodated no indefiniteness.
He was from the noble and influential men of Quraysh. He was in charge of mediation in the period of ignorance.
Ibn ‘Asakir reports via his chain from Ma’ruf ibn Kharrabudh who said:
من انتهى إليه الشرف من قريش فوصله الإسلام عشرة نفر من عشرة بطون من هاشم و آمنة و نوفل و أسد و عبد الدار و تيم و مخزوم و عدي و سهم و جمح فكان من بني عدي عمر ابن الخطاب و كان إليه السفارة إن وقعت بين قريش و بين غيرهم بعثوه سفيرا و إن فاخرهم مفاخر بعثوه مفاخرا و رضوا به
Those of Quraysh who possessed high nobility and Islam reached them were 10 individuals from 10 tribes viz. Hashim, Aminah, Nawfal, Asad, ‘Abdul Dar, Taym, Makhzum, ‘Adi, Sahm, and Jumh. Umar was from the Banu ‘Adi and he was in charge of mediation. If war broke out between Quraysh and another tribe, they would send him as an ambassador. And if any proud person boasted over them, they would send him to boast and would be pleased with him.
He attained mediation and ambassadorship among his people especially due to his physical features and other characteristics he possessed. Among his physical features making him worthy of this task was that he had a strong physique.
Among his personal characteristics is that he was composed, unshakable at heart, determined, resolute, and unaware of doubt and misgivings. He was never uncertain nor hesitated. Conflicting passions and diverse ideas would not afflict him. Rather, he was unique. When he moved, all his faculties moved. So wherever ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was, his senses were acutely tuned to the situation with accuracy and all in harmony. As if he was an army moving with steady footsteps in one determined direction with a distinctive personality, without an atom of his existence deviating from his intent.
Islam witnessed in its infancy, in Makkah, stations which took it many strides forward. One of the most important of these stations was most certainly the Islam of Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This magnificent station was unanticipated and a disappointment to majority of the Mushrikin when it occurred; especially due to Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu well-known and deep seated hatred for the Muslims.
Nonetheless, justice and acknowledging the truth demands from one who examines the personality of Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu to admit that the harshness which was apparent from him and surrounded his personality, in fact which dominated him at times, was only a shell behind which mountains of mercy, shades of compassion, and rivers of leniency and clemency were hidden.
The best evidence for this is what the books of history report from the wife of Sayyidina ‘Amir ibn Rabi’ah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. She says:
والله إنا لنرتحل إلى أرض الحبشة وقد ذهب عامر بن ربيعة في بعض حاجتنا إذ أقبل عمر بن الخطاب حتى وقف علي قالت و كنا نلقى منه البلاء أذى لنا و غلظة علينا فقال إنه الانطلاق يا أم عبد الله قالت قلت نعم والله لنخرجن في أرض الله آذيتمونا و قهرتمونا حتى يجعل الله لنا فرجا فقال عمر صحبكم الله و رأيت منه رقة لم أرها منه قط قالت فلما رجع ابن ربيعة من حاجته قلت يا أبا عبد الله لو رأيت عمر بن الخطاب أتانا و رقته و حزنه علينا قال عامر كأنك طمعت في إسلام عمر قالت قلت نعم فقال لها لا يسلم الذي رأيت حتى يسلم حمار الخطاب إياسا
By Allah, we were departing to the Land of Abyssinia. Meanwhile, ‘Amir ibn Rabi’ah had gone to take care of one of our needs. Just then ‘Umar ibn al Khattab arrived and stopped in front of me. We would face heavy persecution from him, torture and harshness.
He said, “So you leaving, O Umm ‘Abdullah?”
“Yes,” I replied, “By Allah, we leaving to the land of Allah. You have persecuted us and subjugated us. Now Allah has opened an avenue for us.”
‘Umar said, “May Allah accompany you.”
I observed his compassion which I never witnessed before. As soon as Ibn Rabi’ah completed his work and returned, I told him, “O Abu ‘Abdullah, had you only observed ‘Umar ibn al Khattab coming to us and his compassion and sympathy for us.”
‘Amir remarked, “Are you hopeful of ‘Umar embracing Islam?”
“Yes,” I said.
He commented, “The man you saw will not embrace Islam until the donkey of Khattab accepts Islam, out of despair.”
Sayyidina ‘Amir ibn Rabi’ah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu statement indicates that he had not even the slightest thought that Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu would embrace Islam. Nevertheless, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala desired that Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu embrace the faith and become an assistance and strength for the Muslims.
Ahadith and historical reports explain the incident of Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Islam and the events surrounding it.
Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates:
خرج عمر متقلدا السيف فلقيه رجل من بني زهرة فقال له أين تعمد يا عمر قال أريد أن أقتل محمدا قال و كيف تأمن من بني هاشم و بني زهرة و قد قتلت محمدا قال فقال له عمر ما أراك إلا قد صبوت و تركت دينك الذي أنت عليه قال أفلا أدلك على العجب إن ختنك و أختك قد صبوا و تركا دينك الذي أنت عليه قال فمشى عمر ذامرا يعني غضبانا حتى أتاهما و عندهما رجل من المهاجرين يقال له خباب قال فلما سمع خباب بحس عمر توارى في البيت فدخل عليهما فقال ما هذه الهينمة التي سمعتها عندكم قال و كانوا يقرأون طه فقالا ما عدا حديثا تحدثناه بيننا قال فلعلكما قد صبوتما فقال له ختنه يا عمر إن كان الحق في غير دينك قال فوثب عمر على ختنه فوطئه وطئا شديدا قال فجاءت أخته لتدفعه عن زوجها فنفحها نفحة بيده فدمي وجهها فقالت و هي غضبى و إن كان الحق في غير دينك إني أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله و أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله قال عمر أعطوني الكتاب الذي هو عندكم فأقرأه قال و كان عمر يقرأ الكتب فقالت أخته إنك رجس و إنه لا يمسه إلا المطهرون فقم فاغتسل أو توضأ قال فقام عمر فتوضأ ثم أخذ الكتاب فقرأ طه حتى انتهى إلى إِنَّنِيْ أَنَا اللَّهُ لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِيْ وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِيْ فقال عمر دلوني على محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم قال فلما سمع خباب قول عمر خرج من البيت فقال أبشر يا عمر فإني أرجو أن تكون دعوة رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ليلة الخميس اللهم أعز الإسلام بعمر بن الخطاب أو بعمرو بن هشام و كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في الدار التي في أصل الصفا قال فانطلق عمر حتى أتى الدار و على باب الدار حمزة و طلحة و ناس من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فلما رأى حمزة وجل القوم من عمر قال حمزة هذا عمر إن يرد الله بعمر خيرا يسلم فيتبع النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم و إن يرد الله غير ذلك يكون قتله علينا هينا قال و النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم داخل يوحى إليه قال فخرج رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم حتى أتى عمر فأخذ بمجامع ثوبه و حمائل السيف و قال ما أنت بمنته يا عمر حتى ينزل الله بك من الخزي و النكال ما أنزل بالوليد بن المغيرة فهذا عمر بن الخطاب اللهم أعز الدين بعمر بن الخطاب قال فقال عمر أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله و أنك عبده و رسوله
‘Umar departed, with a sword hung around his neck. A man from the Banu Zuhrah met him and asked, “Where are you heading, O ‘Umar?”
“I intend killing Muhammad,” he replied.
The man said, “How do you feel safe [from retaliation] from the Banu Hashim and Banu Zuhrah after you kill Muhammad?”
‘Umar said to him, “It seems to me as if you have renounced your religion and forsaken the religion you adhered to.”
The man said, “Should I not tell you something really amazing? Your brother-in-law and sister have renounced their religion and forsaken the religion you adhere to.”
‘Umar walked grumbling, i.e. angrily, until he reached them. A man of the Muhajirin was with them named Khabbab. No sooner Khabbab heard ‘Umar’s footsteps, he hid in the house. ‘Umar entered their presence and shouted, “What was the mumbling I heard from you. (They were reciting Taha.) They replied, “Nothing besides a dialogue we were having.”
‘Umar said, “It seems that you have renounced your religion.”
His brother-in-law told him, “O ‘Umar, what if truth lies in something other than your religion.”
Hearing this, ‘Umar jumped upon his brother-in-law and began trampling him severely. His sister came to push him off her husband but he smite her harshly with his hand which caused her face to bleed.
She yelled angrily, “Even if the truth lies in something other than your religion! Certainly I testify that there is no deity besides Allah and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”
‘Umar said, “Give me the manuscript that is by you so that I may read it.”
The narrator adds: ‘Umar was able to read books.
His sister said, “You are filthy and only the pure may touch it. So stand up and take a bath or perform ablution. Accordingly, ‘Umar stood up and performed ablution after which he took the book and read Taha until he reached the words: Indeed, I am Allah. There is no deity except Me, so worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance.
‘Umar said, “Guide me to Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”
When Khabbab heard ‘Umar’s statement, he came out of hiding and said, “Rejoice O ‘Umar for I hope that you will be the realisation of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplication on Wednesday night, ‘O Allah, strengthen Islam with ‘Umar ibn al Khattab or ‘Amr ibn Hisham.’”
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was in the house situated at the foot of Safa. ‘Umar walked until he reached the house. Hamzah, Talhah and other Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were at the door. When Hamzah sensed the people’s fear for ‘Umar, he shouted, “This is ‘Umar. If Allah intends good for ‘Umar, he will embrace Islam and follow the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. And if He intends anything else, killing him will be an easy task for us.”
The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was inside, receiving revelation. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam exited and came in front of ‘Umar. He grabbed him by his clothes and sheathe of the sword and said, “You are enjoying His grace, O ‘Umar, until Allah sends upon you the humiliation and punishment He sent upon Walid ibn al Mughirah.”
[He then supplicated:] “This is ‘Umar ibn al Khattab. O Allah, honour din by ‘Umar ibn al Khattab.”
‘Umar said, “I testify that there is no deity save Allah and that you are His servant and Messenger.”
We sense from this incident long lines of the personality of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The man was strong, yes. He was stern, yes. However, this strength and sternness was mixed with mercy and compassion beneath, which became apparent from him on various occasions. This is exactly what happened on the occasion of his Islam.
What transpired with Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala answer to the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplication, “ O Allah, honour Islam with ‘Umar ibn al Khattab.”
The scholars have differed as regards the year in which Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu embraced Islam. Some scholars have suggested that his Islam was after the first hijrah to Abyssinia. Others suggest that his Islam was in Dhu al Hijjah in the sixth year after nubuwwah, and he was 26 at the time. Others are of the opinion that he embraced Islam in the fifth year after nubuwwah while some say that he embraced Islam three days after Sayyidina Hamzah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Islam.
Ibn Sa’d mentions in his al Tabaqat on the strength of al Zuhri―from Sa’id ibn al Musayyab who says:
أسلم عمر بعد أربعين رجلا و عشرة نسوة فما هو إلا أن أسلم عمر فظهر الإسلام بمكة
‘Umar embraced Islam after 40 men and 10 women. As soon as ‘Umar embraced the faith, Islam was practised openly in Makkah.
Ibn Sa’d explains to us in his al Tabaqat the effect Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu brought to Islam and the lives of Muslims after embracing it. He reports from Suhayb ibn Sinan radiya Llahu ‘anhu who explains:
لما أسلم عمر ظهر الإسلام و دعي إليه علانية و جلسنا حول البيت حلقا و طفنا بالبيت و انتصفنا ممن غلظ علينا و رددنا عليه بعض ما يأتي به
No sooner ‘Umar accepted Islam, Islam became public and open invitation was given towards it. We sat in circles around the House and circumambulated the House. We took justice from those who were harsh to us and evened the score on some of the tribulations they meted out.
What Ibn Sa’d mentions verifies for us the great impact ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Islam had in the souls of the Muslims. This abstract power which he awarded them is an aspect which allows us to declare that Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Islam was a victory for the Muslims. This is exactly the sentiments Sayyidina Ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu voiced:
ما زلنا أعزة منذ أسلم عمر
We remained honoured since ‘Umar entered Islam.
It is reported that Sayyidina Ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu said on another occasion:
كان عمر أعلمنا بكتاب الله و أفقهنا في دين الله و كان إسلامه فتحا و كانت هجرته نصرا و كانت خلافته رحمة
‘Umar was the most versed among us of the Book of Allah and the most understanding of the din of Allah. His Islam was a victory, his hijrah was a support, and his caliphate was a mercy.
This is the meaning towards which Ibn Hajar alludes to in al Isabah by saying:
و كان إليه أي عمر السفارة في الجاهلية و كان عند المبعث شديدا على المسلمين ثم أسلم فكان إسلامه فتحا على المسلمين و فرجا لهم من الضيق
‘Umar was in charge of mediation during the days of ignorance. When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was appointed a nabi, ‘Umar was stern against the Muslims. He then embraced Islam and his Islam was a victory for the Muslims and an opening for them from narrowness.
I deliberately postponed speaking on the agnomen and title of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu till after discussing his Islam due to the connection of his titles with his Islam.
Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu is famous with the agnomen, Abu Hafs. It is an agnomen given to him which contains meanings of sternness and power since Hafs is one of the names of the lion cub. Attributing it to Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu is comparing him to a lion in his strength and power since the father of lion cub can only be a lion. This agnomen can also be in relation to his daughter Hafsah. Both possibilities exist.
Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu is also famous with few titles which have become his label, he is recognised by it and the label is understood by him. The most famous of his titles is al Faruq.
The secret in him being given this title lies in the fact that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala utilised him to publicise Islam and differentiate between truth and falsehood.
As soon as Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu embraced Islam in the house of Sayyidina Arqam radiya Llahu ‘anhu in front of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the people within the house shouted the takbir so loudly that it could be heard in the Masjid. Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports:
قلت يا رسول الله ألسنا على الحق قال بلى قلت ففيم الاختفاء فخرجنا صفين أنا في أحدهما و حمزة في الآخر حتى دخلنا المسجد فنظرت قريش إلي و إلى حمزة فأصابتهم كآبة شديدة فسماني رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يومئذ الفاروق و فرق بين الحق و الباطل
I asked, “O Messenger of Allah, are we not following the truth?”
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Definitely.”
“So why the secrecy?” I asked.
We thus left in two rows, I headed the one and Hamzah headed the other until we entered the Masjid. The Quraysh looked at me and Hamzah and were afflicted by a severe calamity. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam named me al Faruq on that day and Allah differentiated between truth and falsehood.
Ibn ‘Asakir reports through his chain from Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:
سألت عمر بن الخطاب لأي شيء سميت الفاروق قال أسلم حمزة قبلي بثلاثة أيام قال فخرجت إلى المسجد فرجع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فأسرع أبو جهل إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يسبه قال فلما رجع حمزة أخبر قال فرفع رداءه و أخذ قوسه ثم خرج إلى المسجد إلى حلقة قريش التي فيها أبو جهل قال فاتكأ على قوسه مقابل أبي جهل قال فنظر إليه فعرف الشر في وجهه فقال ما لك يا أبا عمارة قال فرفع القوس فضرب بها أخدعيه فقطعه فسالت الدماء قال فأصلحت ذلك قريش مخافة أن يكون بينهم قائدة قال و رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم مختف في دار أرقم بن أبي الأرقم المخزومي قال فانطلق حمزة مغضبا حتى أتى النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فأسلم و خرجت بعده بثلاثة أيام فإذا فلان بن فلان المخزومي فقلت له أرغبت عن دين آبائك و اتبعت دين محمد قال إن فعلت فقد فعله من هو أعظم عليك حقا مني قال قلت و من هذا قال أختك و ختنك قال فانطلقت فوجدت الباب مغلقا و سمعت همهمة ثم ساق خبر إسلامه قلت يا رسول الله ألسنا على الحق إن متنا و إن حيينا قال بلى والذي نفسي بيده إنكم على الحق إن متم و إن حييتم قال فقلنا ففيم الاختفاء والذي بعثك بالحق فتخرجن فأخرجناه في صفين حمزة في أحدهما و أنا في الآخر له كديد ككديد الطحين حتى دخلنا المسجد قال فنظرت إلي قريش و إلى حمزة فأصابتهم كآبة لم يصبهم مثلها فسماني رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يومئذ الفاروق و فرق بين الحق و الباطل ثم خرجت فكنت لا أشاء أن أرى رجلا من المسلمين يضرب إلا رأيته قال ثم ذهبت إلى خالي فقرعت عليه الباب فقال من هذا فقلت ابن الخطاب فخرج إلي فقلت له أعلمت أني صبوت قال فعلت قلت نعم قال لا تفعل ثم دخل و أجاف الباب دوني قال قلت ما هذا بشيء قال فذهبت إلى رجل من أشراف قريش فقرعت عليه بابه فقال من هذا قلت ابن الخطاب فخرج فقلت أشعرت أني صبوت قال أفعلت قلت نعم قال لا تفعل ثم دخل و أجاف دوني الباب قال قلت ما هذا بشيء قال فقال لي رجل أتحب أن تعلم إسلامك قال قلت نعم قال فإذا كان الناس في الحجر جئت إلى ذلك الرجل فجلست إلى جنبه و أصغيت إليه فقلت أعلمت إني صبوت قال أو فعلت قلت نعم قال فرفع بأعلى صوته ثم قال ابن الخطاب قد صبأ و ثار الناس علي فضربوني فضربتهم فقال رجل ما هذه الجماعة قالوا هذا ابن الخطاب قد صبأ فقام على الحجر ثم أشار بكمه فقال ألا إني قد أجرت ابن أختي قال فقلت لا حتى يصيبني ما يصيب المسلمين فأمهلت حتى إذا جاء الناس في الحجر فجئت إلى خالي فقلت اسمع فقال ما أسمع قلت جوارك رد عليك قال لا تفعل يا ابن أختي قال قلت بل هو رد عليك فقال ما شئت قال ما زلت أضرب الناس و يضربونني حتى أعز الله بنا الإسلام
I enquired from ‘Umar ibn al Khattab the reason he was titled al Faruq.
He explained: Hamzah embraced Islam three days before me. I exited from the Masjid and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam returned. Abu Jahl followed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in haste and began swearing him. When Hamzah returned, he was informed of this so he lifted his shawl and took his bow, after which he left for the Masjid for the gathering of the Quraysh in which Abu Jahl was. He leaned on his bow facing Abu Jahl. Abu Jahl looked at him and sensed evil in his face so he asked, “What is the matter, O Abu ‘Umarah?” Hamzah lifted the bow and struck him on his veins in the neck severing them and causing blood to flow. The Quraysh settled the matter fearing that an altercation might arise between them. Meanwhile, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was in secret in the house of Arqam ibn Abi al Arqam al Makhzumi. Hamzah left in anger and came to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and embraced Islam.
I left three days thereafter. Suddenly, so and so the son of so and so al Makhzumi faced me. I said to him, “Have you turned away from the religion of your forefathers and followed the religion of Muhammad?”
He answered, “If I did, then someone who has greater right over you than me has done the same.”
“Who,” I asked.
“Your sister and brother-in-law,” he replied.
I thus walked [to their home] and found the door locked and heard low voices. He then mentioned the incident of his Islam.
I said, “O Messenger of Allah, are we not upon the truth if we live and we die?”
“Definitely, by the Being who controls my life, you are upon the truth if you die or live.”
We said, “Then why the secrecy? By the Being who sent you with the truth, you will most definitely emerge.”
He arranged us in two rows, with Hamzah in the one and I in the other. Our walking gave rise to soft sand, like ground flour, until we entered the Masjid. Quraysh looked at me and Hamzah and were afflicted with an affliction like never before. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam named me al Faruq on that day and truth and falsehood were distinguished.
I then left, and I would not want to find a Muslim man being beaten except that I would find the same. So I went to the home of my maternal uncle and knocked at his door.
“Who is it,” he asked.
“The son of Khattab,” I replied.
He came out and I said to him, “Do you know that I have accepted Islam.”
“Have you,” he asked in disbelief.
“Yes,” I replied.
He said to me, “Do not do so,” and then entered the house and shut the door on my face.
I said to myself, “This is nothing.”
I then went to a noble man of Quraysh and knocked at his door. He asked, “Who is it?”
“The Son of Khattab,” I answered.
He came out and I said to him, “Do you know that I have accepted Islam?”
“Have you,” he asked in astonishment.
“Yes,” I proudly replied.
He said, “Do not do so,” and entered the house and shut the door on my face.
I said to myself, “This is nothing.”
A man asked me, “Do you want to publicise your Islam?”
“Yes,” I replied.
He suggested, “When the people are at the Hijr, go up to that man.”
I acted in accordance. I sat at the man’s side and whispered to him, “Do you know that I have accepted Islam.”
“Have you,” he asked.
“Yes,” came my reply.
He shouted at the top of his voice: “The son of Khattab has turned renegade!”
Hearing this, people jumped on me and beat me and I beat them. A man asked, “What is this gathering?”
They replied, “This is the son of Khattab who has turned renegade.”
He stood on the rock and indicated with his sleeve and announced, “Hearken! I have indeed given amnesty to my nephew.”
I said, “No, not until I am afflicted like the Muslims.”
So I waited until the people came to the Hijr. I went up to my maternal uncle and said, “Listen.”
“What should I listen to,” he asked.
I said, “Your amnesty is rejected.”
“Do not do this my nephew,” he pleaded.
I repeated, “Yes, it is returned to you.”
“As you wish,” he said.
I continued beating the people and they continued thrashing me until Allah honoured Islam through us.
Have you seen the great desire Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu has for the polytheists to learn about his Islam and for their ears to hear the declaration of oneness, without caring a bit about what difficulties and persecutions this will bring his way. This eminent Sahabi and other Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam have portrayed great value in the history of Muslims and have paved a way for those after them. It is binding upon every Muslim to place a portion of their sacrifices in front of himself as a lantern which will guide him to the straight path. May Allah be pleased with them all.
When Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu intended to emigrate, he chose a path which enlightens us of his courageous personality and his stance in the face of oppression, sacrifice, and hardship; a path that has encompassed within itself the personality of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu and become his trademark. When Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu intended to emigrate, he did not sneak out at night nor at a time when the Mushrikin were negligent. Rather, he emigrated publicly in broad daylight in front of the Mushrikin to see and hear. His hijrah was an obvious challenge to the senses of the polytheists.
Ibn al Samman reports in al Muwafaqah from Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
ما علمت أن أحدا من المهاجرين هاجر إلا مختفيا إلا عمر بن الخطاب فإنه لما هم بالهجرة تقلد سيفه و تنكب قوسه و انتضى في يده أسهما و اختصر عنزته و مضى قبل الكعبة و الملأ من قريش بفنائها فطاف بالبيت سبعا متمكنا ثم أتى المقام فصلى ركعتين ثم وقف على الحلق واحدة واحدة وقال لهم شاهت الوجوه لا يرغم الله إلا هذه المعاطس من أراد أن يثكل أمه أو يؤتم ولده أو يرمل زوجته فليلقني وراء هذا الوادي قال علي فلم يتبعه أحد إلا قوم من المستضعفين علمهم ما أرشدهم إليه ثم مضى لوجهه
As far as I know, all the Muhajirin emigrated secretly besides ‘Umar ibn al Khattab. When he intended to emigrate, he girded his sword around his neck, placed his bow on his shoulder, took some arrows in his hand, and hung his dagger at his waist. He then set off towards the Ka’bah while the chieftains of Quraysh were in the open area around the Ka’bah. He circumambulated the House 7 times, with leisure, and then came to the Maqam where he offered two units of prayer. He then went to the gatherings, one by one, and said to them, “May the faces be disfigured and may Allah only humiliate these noses [faces]. Whoever desires that his mother bereaves him, his children become orphan, or his wife be widowed should meet me behind this valley.”
‘Ali said: No one followed him except some weak minded people who he taught a good lesson. He then set off on his journey.
Probably, someone inquisitive may ask: Was Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu more daring than Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, since Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam emigrated in secrecy from the polytheists. Whoever asks this forgets that the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was wanted by the Mushrikin. Moreover, when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam will emigrate, there are those in Makkah who follow him. So had Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam emigrated openly in broad daylight, the Muslims would have followed his example and emulated him in his hijrah, whereas they were weak at the time, without power. They would have then been subjected to torture by the Mushrikin. When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was emigrating, he sets the standard for all, weak and strong. The practices and statements of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam serve as guidelines for the ummah which they will follow diligently. So Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam by emigrating in this manner wishes to safeguard the lonely and weak individuals of this ummah from falling prey to oppression and the tyrants. Otherwise, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was the most courageous man who walked the earth. This is what his Companions tell us of him and what the books of Sunnah contain.
Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who is one of the most daring of his Companions, tells us about Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:
كنا إذا احمر البأس ولقي القوم القوم اتقينا برسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فما يكون منا أحد أدنى من القوم منه
When the flames of war raged and the armies met, we would secure ourselves behind Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. None of us would be closer to the enemy than him.
Whoever studies the biography of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu will find that he was inspired in his opinions, and he will notice that revelation came to support and corroborate his views at many instances. Probably, the most evident of these instances is the narration of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu himself informing us, which al Bukhari quotes through his chain from Sayyidina Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
وافقت ربي في ثلاث قلت يا رسول الله لو اتخذنا من مقام أبراهيم مصلى فنزلت وَاتَّخِذُوْا مِنْ مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيْمَ مُصَلًّى و آية الحجاب قلت يا رسول الله لو أمرت نساءك أن يحتجبن فإنه يكلمهن البر و الفاجر فنزلت أية الحجاب و اجتمع نساء النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم في الغيرة عليه فقلت لهن عَسىٰ رَبُّهُ إِنْ طَلَّقَكُنَّ أَنْ يُبْدِلَهُ أَزْوَاجًا خَيْرًا مِّنكُنَّ فنزلت هذه الآية
I corroborated my Rabb in three instances. I said, “O Messenger of Allah, if only we take the Maqam Ibrahim as a place to perform salah.” Upon this, the verse was revealed: And take, [O believers], from the standing place of Abraham a place of prayer. The verse of hijab: I suggested, “O Messenger of Allah, if you would command your wives to veil themselves for good and evil people speak to them. Upon this the verse of hijab was revealed. The wives of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gathered in possessiveness over him so I warned them: Perhaps his Lord, if he divorced you [all], would substitute for him wives better than you. And the verse was revealed.
Muslim documents the following declaration of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
وافقت ربي في ثلاث في مقام إبراهيم و في الحجاب و في أسارى بدر
I corroborated my Rabb in three instances, viz. Maqam Ibrahim, hijab, and the captives of Badr.
Al Nawawi writes in the footnotes of this hadith:
هذا من أجل مناقب عمر و فضائله رضي الله عنه
This is among the most exalted virtues and merits of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
Probably, this is the realisation of the hadith of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:
إن الله تعالى جعل الحق على لسان عمر و قلبه
Indeed, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has placed the truth on ‘Umar’s tongue and heart.
Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu has attained many virtues and merits. He is the exemplar of the steadfast. Through him, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala publicised the invitation of the truthful Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and differentiated between fact and fiction. He supported that which would enhance his brilliance and prepared for him the evidence of tawhid from the gracious gifts and eliminated the material of disparagement. The message, thus, became public and the kalimah was grounded. Hence, their voice was raised with tawhid after being soft and they remained firm in their conditions after instability. He overpowered the plots of the Mushrikin with the reality of conviction that had covered his heart, without considering their numbers and experience. He paid no attention to their might and power relying on the One who created them and is sufficient to destroy them and seeking help from the One who could shatter them and destroy them. Carrying the burden Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam carried, persevering in difficulties for the hope of reaching [the objective], breaking away from the one who prefers luxury and indulgence, and embracing the one who bears to work briskly and in direction. He is singled among the Sahabah for challenging those hell-bent on falsehood and of corroborating the Lord of the worlds in commandments. The truth flows on his tongue and the truth pours wisdom in his speech. He was inclined towards the truth, leaping with it, carrying burdens, and he never feared any power besides Allah.
A multitude of narrations from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam have been reported on the virtues and excellence of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Some of them are reproduced below:
لقد كان فيما قبلكم من الأمم ناس محدثون فإن يكن في أمتي أحد فإنه عمر
There were in the previous nations men who were inspired. If there be anyone in my ummah, it is certainly ‘Umar.
أريت في المنام أني أنزع بدلو بكرة على قليب فجاء أبو بكر فنزع ذنوبا أو ذنوبين نزعا ضعيفا والله يغفر له ثم جاء عمر بن الخطاب فاستحالت غربا فلم أر عبقريا يفري فريه حتى روي الناس و ضربوا بعطن
While I was sleeping I saw myself standing over a well with a bucket on it. I drew from it as much as Allah decreed. Then Abu Bakr took it and drew a bucket or two. His drawing was somewhat weak but Allah overlooked it. Then it turned into a big bucket and ‘Umar ibn al Khattab took it. I never saw a giant, draw water like he did, until people were fully satiated.
بينا أنا نائم رأيت الناس يعرضون علي و عليهم قمص منها ما يبلغ الثدي و منها ما دون ذلك و عرض علي عمر بن الخطاب و عليه قميص يجره قالوا فما أولت ذلك يا رسول الله قال الدين
While asleep, I saw people being presented to me clad in robes. Some of these reached the chest and others reached below that. ‘Umar ibn al Khattab was presented to me and he had a robe which he was dragging.
They asked, “How do you interpret it, O Messenger of Allah?”
“The din,” he replied.
مر فتى على عمر فقال عمر نعم الفتى قال فتبعه أبو ذر فقال يا فتى استغفر لي فقال يا أبا ذر أستغفر لك و أنت صاحب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال استغفر لي قال لا أو تخبرني فقال إنك مررت على عمر فقال نعم الفتى و إني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول إن الله جعل الحق على لسان عمر و قلبه
A youngster passed by ‘Umar who commented, “What an excellent youngster!”
Abu Dhar followed him and said, “O lad, seek forgiveness for me.”
The youngster said, “O Abu Dhar, should I seek forgiveness for you whereas you are the Companion Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam?”
Abu Dhar submitted, “Seek forgiveness on my behalf.”
“Either you tell me or I will not,” said the youngster.
Abu Dhar explained, “You passed by ‘Umar who commented, ‘What an excellent youngster!’ And I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying: ‘Allah has placed the truth on ‘Umar’s tongue and heart.”
The narration of al Tirmidhi from Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma has the wording:
إن الله تعالى جعل الحق على لسان عمر و قلبه
Certainly, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has placed the truth on ‘Umar’s tongue and heart.
These texts and others testify to the excellence of Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his position in Islam. They make it crystal clear, leaving no scope for doubt that this Sahabi is among the cream of the Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, from the carriers of the banner of Islam and the trust of conveying the message. It is equivalent to blows to the hearts of those who permit and allow swearing and cursing Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala deal with them as they deserve.
Among the characteristics of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu is his love for Jihad in the path of Allah. The one studying his life will see that from the beginning of Islam, every page is filled with war after war and battle after battle until his final days.
Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu participated alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Badr, Uhud, Khandaq, Bay’at al Ridwan, Khaybar, the Conquest of Makkah, Hunayn and other illustrious battles in the prophetic era. In every battle, he left behind clear impressions.
The demise of Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu took place on Monday evening and he was buried the same night. This took place 8 days before the end of Jumad al Akhirah 13 A.H, after a sickness of 15 days. During these days, Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu would lead the Muslims in salah on his behalf. Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu had written the covenant and read it out to the Muslims who agreed with it and listened and obeyed. The caliphate of Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu lasted for 2 years and three months. His age at his demise was 63, the exact age Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala had united them in the same sand just as he united them during their lifetime. May Allah be pleased with him.
Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu assumed the caliphate by appointment of Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu after he had consulted with the senior Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and it became clear to him that none equates anyone with Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Hence, he appointed him khalifah after his demise.
The caliphate of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu was one of assistance and blessings in which the number of conquests increased and the area of the Islamic state expanded. He challenged the Persian kingdom and end the kingdom of the Chosroes, never to return.
Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the first to be titled Amir al Mu’minin.
The origin of this was that Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu wrote to his governor in Iraq to send Labid ibn Rabi’ah and ‘Adi bin Hatim radiya Llahu ‘anhuma to him. When they reached Madinah, they entered the Masjid and found Sayyidina ‘Amr ibn al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
They said to him, “Seek permission for us to enter the presence of Amir al Mu’minin.”
‘Amr radiya Llahu ‘anhu said to them, “You are spot on with his name, by Allah.”
‘Amr radiya Llahu ‘anhu entered upon Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu and said, “Peace be upon you, O Amir al Mu’minin.”
‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu asked, “What happened to you, O Ibn al ‘As? You must retract that statement.”
‘Amr radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrated the incident to him and he sanctioned it. This was the first time he was titled Amir al Mu’minin.
This was the inception of this title. The first to be titled with it―as just mentioned―was our leader Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
This titled stuck with all those who assumed the caliphate after Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu besides the Khulafa’ of the Banu Umayyah in Spain. They were addressed only by the title Amir until ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Muhammad commonly known as al Maqtul assumed the caliphate and was titled Amir al Mu’minin. This practice then continued until the end of their dynasty.
Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu caliphate was a caliphate filled with blessings for the Muslims. Goodness multiplied, justice was maintained, the mischief makers were slain, and Islamic conquests increased; which is regarded as a precursor for the new Islamic era. The area of the Islamic state broadened during Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu caliphate. The Muslims broke the Persians in their sanctuary and the Romans lost their prized garrisons.
Among the celebrated conquests and invasions of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu caliphate are:
The conquest of Damascus, the Battle of al Namariq, the Battle of the Bridge, the Battle of Buwayb, the Battle of al Qadisiyyah, the First Battle of Hims, the Battle of Qinnasrin, the Battle of Qaisariyyah, the Battle of Ajnadayn, the Conquest of Bayt al Maqdis, the Conquest of al Mada’in, the Battle of Jalula’, the Conquest of al Halawan, the Conquest of Tikrit and Mosul, the Conquest of al Ahwaz and Manazir, the Conquest of Tustur, the War in the Persian Lands, the Conquest of Egypt, the Conquest of al Rayy, the Conquest of Jurjan, the Battle of al Akrad.
Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu initiated few practices which no one preceded him to. It was commended by his associates and enemies. Some of these aspects which Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu initiated are listed below:
Al ‘Askari said:
هو أول من سمي بأمير المؤمنين و أول من كتب التاريخ من الهجرة و أول من اتخذ بيت المال و أول من عس بالليل و أول من عاقب على الهجاء و أول من ضرب في الخمر ثمانين و أول من نهى عن بيع أمهات الأولاد و أول من جمع الناس في صلاة الجنائز على أربع تكبيرات و أول من اتخذ الديوان و أول من فتح الفتوح و مسح السواد و أول من حمل الطعام من مصرفي بحر أيلة إلى المدينة و أول من احتبس صدقة في الإسلام و أول من أعال الفرائض و أول من أخذ زكاة الخيل و أول من قال أطال الله بقاءك قاله لعلي و أول من قال أيدك الله قاله لعلي
He is the first to be named Amir al Mu’minin. The first to record history from the hijrah. The first to appoint a treasury. The first to patrol at night. The first to punish for derision. The first to lash eighty for drinking liquor. The first to prohibit selling Ummahat al Awlad. The first to unite the people in Salat al Janazah upon 4 takbirs. The first to start the register. The first to start the conquests and touch the rural areas of Iraq. The first to carry food from Egypt on the Aylah Sea to Madinah. The first to withhold sadaqah in Islam. The first who took responsibility of inheritance. The first to take zakat for horses. The first to say, “May Allah prolong your stay,” which he told ‘Ali. The first to say, “May Allah support you,” which he told ‘Ali.
It is also reported that Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the first to take a whip. The first to appoint judges in the cities. The first to develop cities. The first to place chandeliers in the Masajid. The first to start a post office. And the first to exile the Jews from Hijaz to Sham.
These were aspects in which Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not preceded to. All of them testify to his greatness and wise political manoeuvres which he used to manage the Islamic state, crush the oppressors, and demolish the thrones of the arrogant. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala shower extensive mercy on Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed away in 23 A.H. The scholars differ on his age at the time of his demise. Some say that he was martyred at the age of 55 while others say 56. Others opinions are 53, 63, and 65. Others have said 60, and al Waqidi commented, “It is the most established opinion in our sight.”
Ibn al Athir narrates through his chain from Abu Rafi’:
كان أبو لؤلؤة عبدا للمغيرة ابن شعبة و كان يصنع الأرحاء و كان المغيرة يستغله كل يوم أربعة دراهم فلقي أبو لؤلؤة عمر فقال يا أمير المؤمنين إن المغيرة قد أثقل علي غلتي فكلمه يخفف عني فقال له عمر اتق الله و أحسن إلى مولاك و من نية عمر أن يلقى المغيرة فيكلمه يخفف عنه فغضب العبد و قال وسع الناس كلهم عدله غيري فأضمر على قتله فاصطنع له خنجرا له رأسان و شحذه و سمه ثم أتى به الهرمزان فقال كيف ترى هذا قال أرى أنك لا تضرب به أحدا إلا قتلته قال فتحين أبو لؤلؤة عمر فجاءه في صلاة الغداة حتى قام وراء عمر و كان عمر إذا أقيمت الصلاة يقول أقيموا صفوفكم فقال كما كان يقول فلما كبر وجأه أبو لؤلؤة في كتفه و وجأه في خاصرته و قيل ضربه ست ضربات فسقط عمر و طعن بخنجره ثلاثة عشر رجلا فهلك منهم سبعة و أفرق منهم ستة و حمل عمر فذهب به
Abu Lu’lu’ah was a slave of Mughirah ibn Shu’bah and was skilled at making handmills. Mughirah would take 4 silver coins from him daily. Abu Lu’lu’ah met ‘Umar and submitted, “O Amir al Mu’minin. Mughirah is overburdening me with proceeds, so speak to him to lessen my burden.”
‘Umar said to him, “Fear Allah and be good to your master.”
‘Umar had intention to meet Mughirah and speak to him to lessen his burden. The slave got upset and remarked, “His justice has encompassed everyone besides myself.”
He secretly planned to kill him. He made a two edged dagger, which he sharpened and poisoned. He then took it to Hurmuzan and asked, “What do you think of this?”
Hurmuzan commented, “I think that you will kill anyone you stab with it.”
Abu Lu’lu’ah then waited for an opportunity to strike ‘Umar. He came to him in the morning prayer and stood behind ‘Umar. When the call for salah was given, ‘Umar would command, “Straighten your rows.” and he did as was his usual practice. As soon as he recited the takbir, Abu Lu’lu’ah stabbed him in the shoulder and then in his waist. It is said that he stabbed him 6 times. ‘Umar fell to the ground. The villain went on to stab 13 men, of whom 7 succumbed to their wounds while the other 6 were severely injured. ‘Umar was carried and taken away.
Ibn Sa’d reports in al Tabaqat that Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu said to his son ‘Abdullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu after he was stabbed:
يا عبد الله اذهب إلى عائشة أم المؤمنين فقل لها يقرأ عليك عمر السلام و لا تقل أمير المؤمنين فإني لست لهم اليوم بأمير يقول تأذنين له أن يدفن مع صاحبيه فأتاها ابن عمر فوجدها قاعدة تبكي فسلم عليها ثم قال يستأذي عمر بن الخطاب أن يدفن مع صاحبيه فقالت قد والله كنت أريده لنفسي و لأوثرنه به اليوم على نفسي فلما جاء قيل هذا عبد الله بن عمر فقال عمر ارفعاني فأسنده رجل إليه فقال ما لديك فقال أذنت لك قال عمر ما كان شيء أهم إلي من ذلك المضجع يا عبد الله بن عمر انظر إذا أنا مت فاحملني على سرير ثم قف بي على الباب فقل يستأذن عمر بن الخطاب فإن أذنت لي فأدخلني و إن لم تأذن فادفني في مقابر المسلمين فلما حمل فكأن المسلمين لم تصبهم مصيبة إلا يومئذ قال فأذنت له فدفن رحمه الله حيث أكرمه الله مع النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم و أبي بكر و قالوا له حين حضره الموت استخلف فقال لا أجد أحدا أحق بهذا الأمر من هؤلاء النفر الذين توفي رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و هو عنهم راض فأيهم استخلف فهو الخليفة من بعدي فسمى عليا و عثمان و طلحة و الزبير و عبد الرحمن و سعدا فإن أصابت سعدا فذاك و إلا فأيهم استخلف فليستعلن به فإني لم أعزله عن عجز و لا خيانة قال و جعل عبد الله معهم يشاورونه و ليس له من الأمر شيء
‘Abdullah! Go to Umm al Mu’minin Aisha and say to her, “‘Umar conveys his salam to you.” Do not say Amir al Mu’minin for I am no more their leader from today. Say, “Do you permit him to be buried alongside his companions.”
Ibn ‘Umar came to her and found her sitting and weeping. He greeted her with salam and then said, “‘Umar ibn al Khattab seeks permission to be buried with his two companions.”
She said, “By Allah, I had reserved it for myself but I will give him preference today over myself.”
When he returned, ‘Umar was told that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar has arrived. ‘Umar said, “Lift me.” A man thus seated him.
He asked [‘Abdullah], “What do you have?”
“She has given you permission,” ‘Abdullah replied.
‘Umar remarked, “There was nothing more important to me than that resting place, O ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar. See, after I pass away, then carry me on a bier and then halt at the door and say that ‘Umar ibn al Khattab seeks permission to enter. If she permits me, then take me in. And if she does not, then bury me in the graveyard of the Muslims.”
When his bier was lifted―it was as if the Muslims were never afflicted with a calamity except on that day. Aisha permitted him and he was buried―may Allah have mercy upon him―at a station where Allah honoured him, with the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Abu Bakr.
They said to him before he passed away, “Appoint a khalifah.”
He said, “I do not find anyone more deserving of this matter than this group whom Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was pleased with at his demise. Whichever of them is chosen as khalifah will become the leader after me. He named ‘Ali, ‘Uthman, Talhah, Zubair, ‘Abdur Rahman, and Sa’d. If Sa’d is chosen, then so be it; otherwise whichever of them is chosen as khalifah then seek aid with him. Indeed, I did not dismiss Sa’d out of any incapability or breach of trust from his side.”
He appointed ‘Abdullah to give them his opinion but he cannot be chosen as leader.
This is the account of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu demise. This even contains the ending of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu which he desired and supplicated for. Al Bukhari reports through his chain that Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu would supplicate to his Rabb with the words:
اللهم ارزقني شهادة في سبيلك واجعل موتي في بلد رسولك
O Allah, award me with martyrdom in Your path and determine my demise in the city of Your Messenger.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala answered his desire and gave him a bonus. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala blessed him with martyrdom so he might obtain the reward of the martyrs and he further favoured him that he is buried alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and not only in his city.
You will notice in the incident of his demise that high level of respect which gripped the heart of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu until his demise, and after his demise. He sends someone to seek permission from Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, the wife of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, to be buried alongside his two companions. He was not satisfied with Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha’s radiya Llahu ‘anha approval during his lifetime. Instead, he goes on further and seeks permission a second time after his demise and moments before he is buried, fearing that her initial approval might me out of embarrassment during his lifetime.
At the demise of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were extremely grieved. A door was opened in Islam from which the drafts of turmoil emerged, and the Muslims continue to face its effects to date.
Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu declared after Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu demise:
كان عمر حصنا حصينا للإسلام يدخلون فيه و لا يخرجون منه فلما مات عمر انثلم الحصن فالناس يخرجون من الإسلام
‘Umar was a protected fortress for Islam. People entered it and did not leave it. After ‘Umar passed away, the fort was breached and people began leaving Islam.
Salamah ibn Abi Salamah ibn ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf stated:
لما مات عمر بن الخطاب بكى سعيد بن زيد بن عمرو بن نفيل فقيل ما يبكيك فقال لا يبعد الحق و أهله اليوم يهي أمر الإسلام
When ‘Umar ibn al Khattab passed away, Sa’id ibn Zaid ibn ‘Amr ibn Nufayl cried bitterly. He was asked, “What makes you cry?”
He replied, “May the truth and its people never be distant. Today, Islam will become weak.”
It is reported that Sayyidina Sa’id ibn Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhu cried. Someone asked him:
يا أبا الأعور ما يبكيك فقال على الإسلام أبكي إن موت عمر ثلم الإسلام ثلمة لا ترتق إلى يوم القيامة
“O Abu al A’war, what makes you cry?”
He explained, “I cry over Islam. The demise of ‘Umar is such a breach in Islam which cannot be filled till the Day of Qiyamah.”
Once, while speaking on Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Sayyidina Abu ‘Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah radiya Llahu ‘anhu stated:
إن مات عمر رق الإسلام ما أحب أن لي ما تطلع عليه الشمس أو تغرب و إني أبقى بعد عمر قال قائل و لم قال سترون ما أقول إن بقيتم أما هو فإن ولي وال بعد عمر فأخذهم بما كان عمر يأخذهم به لم يطع له الناس بذلك و لم يحملوه و إن ضعف عنهم قتلوه
“If ‘Umar dies, Islam will become feeble. I will not desire having everything the sun rises and sets upon, and I am spared until after ‘Umar.”
A person asked, “Why?”
He explained, “You will soon see what I am referring to if you live. With regards to him, if a governor takes control after ‘Umar and is stern with them the way ‘Umar was, people will not obey him in this and they will not be able to bear it. And if he is weaker than them, they will kill him.”
It is reported that Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu observed:
أي أهل البيت لم يجدوا فقد عمر فهم أهل بيت سوء
Whichever household does not miss ‘Umar is indeed an evil household.
Rib’i ibn Hirash reports that Sayyidina Hudhayfah radiya Llahu ‘anhu commented:
كان الإسلام في زمن عمر كالرجل المقبل لا يزداد إلا قربا فلما قتل عمر رحمه الله كان كالرجل المدبر لا يزداد إلا بعدا
Islam during the era of ‘Umar was like a man advancing, only getting closer. After ‘Umar, may Allah have mercy upon him, was killed, it became like a retreating man, only going further away.
Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu mentioned:
لما أصيب عمر بن الخطاب قال أبو طلحة ما من أهل بيت من العرب حاضر و لا باد إلا قد دخل عليهم بقتل عمر نقص
When ‘Umar ibn al Khattab was stabbed, Abu Talhah said: “There is no household of the Arabs, city dweller or bedouin, except that deficiency came upon them due to ‘Umar’s martyrdom.”
These statements which the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum made after the demise of Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu indicate initially to the active state of ‘Umar in the life of the ummah and their extreme love for him and sorrow over his loss.
In this section, we will run quickly through some of the highlights from the life of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. We will reflect upon some glimpses of his ingenuity and the specialities of his personality, as well as some sections of his biography. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala be pleased with him.
‘Umar ibn al Khattab was a unique personality among his peers who had gathered distinctive qualities hardly found in others. The qualities he possessed were sternness upon the truth and justice, a merciful heart, humility, humbleness, and submission to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.
If we intend encapsulating the personality of Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu in a single word, it will most definitely be without the slightest doubt al ‘Abqariyyah (ingenuity).
It is a word which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used and applied to Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu when he said:
فلم أر عبقريا يفري فريه
I have never seen any genius draw water with such strength as him.
This word is only used for the most gifted of individuals, created to manage nations and lead men.
The Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam penetrating gaze seared deep into Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu soul and he recognised instantaneously and through true revelation the effects of his genius: for which occasions will he be suitable, which actions he will be familiar with, when his time will arrive, and when his skills will be needed.
Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was strong natured; however, despite his strong nature, he was not desirous or intrusive with his opinion. He was not from those who seek to only expand their own prominence and dominance, rather it was the keen sense justice, desire to fulfil rights, and abstinence from the prohibited that spurred him on.
These qualities made Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu worthy of assuming the post of responsibility and leadership from his small clan of the Banu ‘Adi, and his tribe of the Quraysh, in fact it made him worthy of being leader of all the Arabs, and I would not be exaggerating if I say, over the whole world.
When we wish to speak of some of the effects of this genius, the first quality that comes to our mind is the awe which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala had favoured the personality of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu with. Everyone who saw him was awestruck to the extent that the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:
ما لقيك الشيطان سالكا فجا إلا و سلك فجا غير فجك
Shaitan does not find you walking on a path, except that he takes a path besides yours.
Imam Ahmed ibn Hambal mentions another narration which points out the awe of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Shaitan’s fear of him. He reports in his Musnad on the authority of ‘Abdullah ibn Buraydah from his father:
إن أمة السوداء أتت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و رجع من بعض مغازيه فقالت إني كنت نذرت إن ردك الله صالحا أن أضرب عندك بالدف قال إن كنت فعلت فافعلي و إن كنت لم تفعلي فلا تفعلي فضربت فدخل أبو بكر و هي تضرب و دخل غيره و هي تضرب ثم دخل عمر قال فجعلت دفها خلفها و هي مقنعة فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إن الشيطان ليفرق منك يا عمر أنا جالس ههنا و دخل هؤلاء فلما أن دخلت فعلت ما فعلت
An African slave girl approached Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, who had just returned from one of his expeditions, and said, “I had taken a vow, that if Allah returns you safe and sound, I will play the daff before you.”
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “If you had taken this vow, then continue otherwise not.”
She thus began beating the daff. Abu Bakr entered and she continued beating. Others besides him entered and she continued beating. But as soon as ‘Umar entered, she put the daff behind her and veiled her face.
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commented, “Indeed, shaitan fears you, O ‘Umar! I was sitting here and these men also entered. But as soon as you entered, she behaved in this manner.”
There are other examples which elucidate the potency of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu qualities and the manner in which it was ingrained in his personality. In the examples cited above, there is sufficient elucidation.
This awe that had clothed the personality of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu was apparent to the friend before the enemy, and according to the interpretation of ‘Uqqad:
إن الذين يعرفون عمر أهيب له من الذين يجهلونه و تلك علامة على أن هيبته كانت قوة نفس تملأ الأفئدة قبل أن تملأ الأنظار
Those who knew ‘Umar were more awestruck than those who did not know him. This is a sign that his awe was an inherent quality that filled the hearts before it filled the eyes.
Al Tabarani narrates through his chain from Sayyidina Abu Umamah radiya Llahu ‘anhu that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared:
أتقوا فراسة المؤمن فإنه ينظر بنور الله
Fear the intuition of a believer for indeed he sees with the light of Allah.
Study this narration carefully and you will realise that it applies perfectly to Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu in addition to his awe, enjoyed a sense of rare intuition, scarcely found among the masses. One of the most profound examples of his intuition is the following incident:
Ibn al Athir reports from Maymun ibn Mahran from Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma who relates about his father:
إنه كان يخطب على منبر رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يوم الجمعة فعرض له في خطبته أن قال يا سارية الجبل الجبل من استرعى الذئب ظلم فالتفت الناس بعضهم إلى بعض فقال علي ليخرجن مما قال فلما فرغ من صلاته قال له علي ما شيء سنح لك في خطبتك قال و ما هو قال قولك يا سارية الجبل الجبل من استرعى الذئب ظلم قال و هل كان ذلك مني قال نعم قال وقع في خلدي أن المشركين هزموا إخواننا فركبوا أكنافهم و أنهم يمرون بجبل فإن عدلوا إليه قاتلوا من وجدوا وقد ظفروا و إن جاوزوا هلكوا فخرج مني ما تزعم أنك سمعته قال فجاء البشير بالفتح بعد شهر فذكر أنه سمع في ذلك اليوم في تلك الساعة حين جاوزوا الجبل صوتا يشبه صوت عمر يا سارية الجبل الجبل قال فعدلنا إليه ففتح الله علينا
‘Umar was delivering a sermon on the pulpit of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the Day of Jumu’ah. During his khutbah, he said, “O Sariyah! The mountain, the mountain! The one who shepherds a wolf is oppressive.”
People began looking at each other in amazement. ‘Ali said, “He will have an explanation for his statement.”
After completing his salah, ‘Ali said to him, “What came to your mind during your khutbah?”
“What do you mean,” ‘Umar asked.
‘Ali explained, “Your statement, ‘O Sariyah! The mountain, the mountain! The one who shepherds a wolf is oppressive.’”
“Did I really say that,” asked ‘Umar.
“Yes,” replied ‘Ali.
‘Umar clarified, “The thought came to mind that the polytheists had defeated our brothers and surrounded them and they were passing a mountain. If they took sanctuary by the mountain and fought those before them, they would be victorious. And if they passed the mountain, they would be destroyed. Thus I uttered the statement you claim you heard.”
The bearer of glad tidings of victory came after a month. He mentioned that on that particular day, at that particular moment, when they were passing the mountain, they heard a voice which resembled ‘Umar’s voice, “O Sariyah! The mountain, the mountain!”
He remarked, “We thus resorted to the mountain and Allah granted us victory.”
The gist of this is that Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu was an extraordinary individual, in every meaning of the word, extraordinary by what is perceived by the eye and what actions and behaviour testify to. He was extraordinary according to the estimations of the predecessors and successors.
This is one of the distinguished features of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This personality, outstanding in its form, has encompassed characteristics and marks that are not possessed but by the exceptional.
Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu is inseparable from the word justice; wherever ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu is spoken about justice is mentioned and when justice is mentioned ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu is spoken of.
Al Tirmidhi reports via his chain from Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:
إن الله جعل الحق على لسان عمر و قلبه
Certainly, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has placed the truth on ‘Umar’s tongue and heart.
It is clear from this hadith that the quality of justice which Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu possessed—which became his title—was a gift and favour of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala upon him. It is Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala who had placed the truth and justice on his heart and tongue. Owing to this, Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was befitting of being awarded this title. A few incidents of this nature will follow.
Al Bayhaqi and ‘Abdur Razzaq report via their chains from Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:
شرب أخي عبد الرحمن بن عمر و شرب معه أبو سروعة عقبة بن الحارث و هما بمصر في خلافة عمر فسكرا فلما أصبحا انطلقا إلى عمرو بن العاص و هو أمير مصر فقالا طهرنا فإنا قد سكرنا من شراب شربناه فقال عبد الله فذكر لي أخي أنه سكر فقلت ادخل الدار أطهرك و لم أشعر أنهما أتيا عمر فأخبرني أخي أنه قد أخبر الأمير بذلك فقال عبد الله لا يحلق القوم على رؤوس الناس ادخل الدار أحلقك و كانوا إذ ذاك يحلقون مع الحدود فدخل الدار فقال عبد الله فحلقت أخي بيدي ثم جلدهم عمرو فسمع بذلك عمر فكتب إلى عمرو أن أبعث إلي بعبد الرحمن على قتب ففعل بذلك فلما قدم على عمر جلده و عاقبه لمكانه منه ثم أرسله فلبث شهرا صحيحا ثم أصابه قدره فمات فيحسب عامة الناس أنما مات من جلد عمر و لم يمت من جلد عمر
My brother, ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Umar, consumed alcohol and Abu Sur’ah ‘Uqbah ibn al Harith drank with him while they were in Egypt during the caliphate of ‘Umar, and as a result they were intoxicated. In the morning, they went to ‘Amr ibn al ‘As who was the governor of Egypt and said, “Purify us for we have been intoxicated from alcohol we consumed.”
‘Abdullah says: My brother mentioned to me that he was intoxicated. I said, “Enter the house, I will purify you.”
I had no idea that they went to ‘Amr. So my brother informed me that he had informed the governor of this. ‘Abdullah said, “The people will not be shaved in public view. Enter the house, I will shave you.”
During that time, heads would be shaved coupled with the legal punishment. He thus entered the house. ‘Abdullah says, “I thus shaved my brother’s head with my hand.” Thereafter ‘Amr whipped them.
‘Umar heard of this and wrote to ‘Amr, “Send ‘Abdur Rahman to me on a hunch camel.” He complied and when he arrived, ‘Umar whipped him and punished him due to his proximity to ‘Umar. He then sent him away and he was well for a month. Thereafter, his destiny came upon him and he passed away.
The general masses think that he died due to ‘Umar’s whipping whereas he did not die due to ‘Umar’s whipping.
Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was a unique class of individual, one who never feared the criticism of the critics when it came to the law of Allah. A man whose heart and all affairs had been governed by justice. He thus only desired justice and never deterred from delivering it, even if it be upon those who were close to him, even his own children. That is why we find him prohibiting his family with vehemence, out of fear of them falling prey to any disobedience and warning them that whoever commits a crime will be punished twofold.
Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma says:
كان عمر إذا نهى الناس عن شيء جمع أهله و قال إني قد نهيت الناس عن كذا و كذا و إنهم إنما ينظرون إليكم نظر الطير إلى اللحم فإن وقعتم وقعوا و إن هبتم هابوا و أيم الله لا أوتي برجل منكم فعل الذي نهيت عنه إلا أضعفت عليه العقوبة لمكانه مني فمن شاء فليتقدم و من شاء فليتأخر
When ‘Umar would prevent people from something, he would gather his household members and say, “I have prevented people from this and they look at you like how a bird fixes its gaze on meat. If you perpetrate the crime, they will follow suit and if you abstain, they will abstain. By the oath of Allah, none of you will be brought to me who committed the crime I had forbidden except that I will double his punishment due to his proximity to me. So whoever desires should perpetrate and whoever desires should desist.”
Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu did this because he was aware that establishing justice between people is among the most sacred and important duties. It is not something optional, to be discarded due to the leader’s desire or disinterest.
Owing to this, the scholars are unanimous as narrated by al Fakhr al Razi that whoever is a leader, it is mandatory upon him to rule with justice. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares:
وَإِذَا حَكَمْتُمْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ أَنْ تَحْكُمُوْا بِالْعَدْلِ
This justice of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not specific for the Muslims. Rather, it encompassed all and sundry, for people’s rights are equal. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوْا كُوْنُوْا قَوَّامِيْنَ لِلَّهِ شُهَدَاءَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلَا يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ عَلىٰ أَلَّا تَعْدِلُوْا اعْدِلُوا هُوَ أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوىٰ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيْرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُوْنَ
O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm for Allah, witnesses in justice, and do not let the hatred of a people prevent you from being just. Be just; that is nearer to righteousness. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is Acquainted with what you do.
Imam Malik narrates in al Muwatta’ via his chain from Sa’id ibn al Musayyab:
إن عمر بن الخطاب اختصم إليه مسلم و يهودي فرأى عمر أن الحق لليهودي فقضى له فقال له اليهودي والله لقد قضيت بالحق فضربه عمر بن الخطاب بالدرة ثم قال و ما يدريك فقال له اليهودي إنا نجد أنه ليس قاض يقضي بالحق إلا كان عن يمينه ملك و عن شماله ملك يسددانه و يوفقانه للحق ما دام مع الحق فإذا ترك الحق عرجا و تركاه
A Muslim and a Jew brought a dispute to ‘Umar ibn al Khattab. ‘Umar discerned that the Jew was in the right, so he passed judgement to this effect. The Jew said to him, “By Allah, you have judged justly.”
‘Umar ibn al Khattab struck him and asked, “And what makes you say that?”
The Jew explained to him, “We find that there is no judge who rules with justice except that there is an angel on his right and left, guiding him and directing him to the truth, so long as he remains upon the same. When he drifts from the truth, the angels ascend and leave him.”
Probably the most renowned example of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu justice with non-Muslims is the event of Sayyidina Ibn ‘Amr ibn al ‘As beating an Egyptian Copt who had beat him in a horse race. It is related:
فأتى المصري إلى عمر و شكا إليه فبعث عمر إلى عمرو و ولده واقتص للمصري من ولد عمرو و قال لعمرو قولته المشهورة مذ كم تعبدتم الناس و قد ولدتهم أمهاتهم أحرارا قال يا أمير المؤمنين لم أعلم و لم يأتني
The Egyptian came and complained to ‘Umar. ‘Umar summoned ‘Amr and his son and exacted justice for the Egyptian from ‘Amr’s son. He then said his famous statement, “Since when have you made people slaves whereas their mothers had given birth to them as free men.”
‘Amr excused himself, “O Amir al Mu’minin, I do not know a thing about this and he did not come to me.”
Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu did this for he understood perfectly that all people in the sight of Islam are equal, without any difference between the ruler and the ruled, the rich and poor, man and woman. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ مِّنْ ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثىٰ وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوْبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوْا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيْمٌ خَبِيْرٌ
O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted.
This does not mean that one who does not believe in Islam can be oppressed in an Islamic state or that his wealth or life is can be taken with impunity. Islam does not condone this.
Al Bukhari narrates through his chain from Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who announced:
من قتل معاهدا لم يرح رائحة الجنة و إن ريحها توجد من مسيرة أربعين عاما
One who kills a man who has been given amnesty will not smell the fragrance of Jannat. Its fragrance can be smelt from the journey of 40 years away.
Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the best of those who understood this and the best of those who enforced it after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu and asceticism have a long history, which extends through his entire life. No sooner a man enters the faith and teachings of Islam are embedded in his heart, he announces clearly from his heart:
وَمَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقىٰ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُوْنَ
And what is with Allah is better and more lasting; so will you not use reason?
Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu might have resided physically with people with his body but his heart and mind resided in the Hereafter. Sufficient an honour for him is that when he was the khalifah, with every victory and increased provision, the more the patches on his clothes increased.
Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu placed the world in his hand, not his heart. He renounced its fading pleasures and transient beauty. He renounced luxury and comfort and strove hard in waging jihad against the Persians and Romans, until the adherents of Islam became the leaders of the entire world and Islam spread in the inhabited territories.
He abandoned everything which was not beneficial in the Hereafter. Asceticism to him did not mean cutting off from the world by abandoning family, wealth, and children. This is not asceticism in the least and Islam is exempt from this. This is due to the fact that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala informed us about His messengers that they had wives and children, and that spending on them is part of one’s religious duties, abandonment of which is a sin. How then can an obligatory action be an area of observing asceticism?
Sayyidina Talhah ibn ‘Ubaidullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu declared:
ما كان عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه بأولنا إسلاما و لا أقدمنا هجرة و لكنه كان أزهدنا في الدنيا و أرغبنا في الأخرة
‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not the first of us to embrace Islam nor did he enjoy precedence in hijrah. However, he was most disinclined from the world and had the greatest yearning for the Hereafter.
Piety refers to abstaining from the doubtful and relinquishment of some permissible things out of fear of falling into the forbidden. Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu had mastered this and had reached a lofty pedestal of piety, which he learnt directly from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, who declared:
إن الحلال بين و إن الحرام بين و بينهما مشتبهات لا يعلمهن كثير من الناس فمن اتقى الشبهات استبرأ لدينه و عرضه و من وقع في الشبهات وقع في الحرام كالراعي يرعى حول الحمى يوشك أن يرتع فيه ألا و إن لكل ملك حمى ألا و إن حمى الله محارمه ألا و إن في الجسد مضغة إذا صلحت صلح الجسد كله و إذا فسدت فسد الجسد كله ألا و هي القلب
Halal is clear and haram is clear and between the two there are the doubtful things, which majority of people are unaware of. The person who refrains from the doubtful has protected his din and honour whereas whoever falls into the doubtful, falls into haram. Like a shepherd who grazes his flock at the border of the royal pasture. Very soon, the flock will graze in the royal pasture. Hearken! Every king has a royal pasture. Hearken! The royal pasture of Allah are His prohibitions. Hearken! The body has a piece of flesh; when it is healthy, the body is healthy and when it is corrupt, the body is corrupt. Listen, it is the heart!
‘Abdur Rahman ibn Najih recalls:
نزلت على عمر رضي الله عنه فكانت له ناقة يحلبها فانطلق غلامه ذات يوم فسقاه لبنا أنكره فقال ويحك من أين هذا اللبن لك قال يا أمير المؤمنين إن الناقة انفلت عليها ولدها فشربها فخليت لك ناقة من مال الله فقال ويحك تسقيني نارا و استحل ذلك اللبن من بعض الناس فقيل هو لك حلالا يا أمير المؤمنين و لحمها
I lived with ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu as a guest. He had a camel which he would milk. His slave went out one day and gave him milk which he disapproved of. He said, “Woe to you! Where did you get this milk from?”
The slave explained, “O Amir al Mu’minin, the camel escaped with her young one and the young one drank her milk. So I milked one of the camels of sadaqah for you.”
“Woe to you, you gave me fire to drink,” shouted ‘Umar.
‘Umar asked some people if this milk was permissible for him. He was told, “It is permissible for you, O Amir al Mu’minin, as well as its meat.”
May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala have mercy on you. Look at Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu fear of Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala punishment when he drank the milk, although not intentionally. His heart was not satisfied until he enquired its permissibility from some senior Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum who act as representatives of all the Muslims in this matter.
Humility and mercy are from the noble qualities which Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu possessed and which earned him the love of others.
Our discussion here briefly revolves around two inseparable qualities in Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu to the extent that it is difficult for us to differentiate between the two or determine one from the other. The quality of humility mixed with mercy, or compassion enveloped by humbleness.
One who studies and examines Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu biography will find him a major exemplar of mercy. The one who possesses this quality must necessarily have a merciful heart and be compassionate towards people, emotional at their pains, and eager to remove these from them to the best of his ability. This is exactly Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
Al Bukhari reports through his chain from Zaid ibn Aslam who in turn reports from his father:
خرجت مع عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه إلى السوق فلحقت عمر امرأة شابة فقالت يا أمير المؤمنين هلك زوجي و ترك صبية صغارا والله ما ينضجون كراعا و لا لهم زرع و لا ضرع و خشيت أن تأكلهم الضبع و أنا بنت خفاف بن إيماء الغفاري و قد شهد أبي الحديبية مع النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فوقف معها عمر و لم يمض ثم قال مرحبا بنسب قريب ثم انصرف إلى بعير ظهير كان مربوطا في الدار فحمل عليه غرارتين ملأهما طعاما و حمل بينهما نفقة و ثيابا ثم ناولها بخطامه ثم قال اقتاديه فلن يفني حتى يأتيكم الله بخير فقال رجل يا أمير المؤمنين أكثرت لها قال عمر ثكلتك أمك والله إني لأرى أبا هذه و أخاها قد حاصرا حصنا زمانا فافتتحاه ثم أصبحنا نستفيء سهمانهما فيه
I left with ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu to the market. A young woman met ‘Umar and submitted, “O Amir al Mu’minin. My husband has passed on and left behind small children. By Allah, they are unable to cook a trotter; they do not have an orchard, nor a milk giving animal. I fear that the hyenas will devour them. I am the daughter of Khufaf ibn Ima’ al Ghifari. My father had witnessed al Hudaybiyyah alongside the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. ‘Umar paused by her without moving. He then said, “Welcome to a close connection.”
He proceeded to an camel tied in the house. He loaded upon it two sacks which he filled with food. He stuffed wealth and clothes between the two. He then gave her the halter and said, “Lead it for it will not finish until Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala brings you goodness.”
A man complained, “O Amir al Mu’minin, you have given her too much.”
‘Umar said, “May your mother be bereaved of you! By Allah, I saw the father and brother of this young lady besieging a fort for a long while before conquering it. And we are now benefitting of their shares.”
This is a wonderful example; firstly of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu mercy and secondly his appreciation of men of virtue.
How amazingly pious is Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu who appreciates other’s virtue and precedence and due to this honours their family and nation.
Among the many evidences of the mercy of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu is how he treated the woman, the mother of orphans and her little ones when he found them famished. His mercy, despite him being Amir al Mu’minin, urged him to carry flour on his back and walk briskly through the streets of Madinah to feed the little children and their mother. He did not stop there, but prepared the food for them himself.
This is the height of realising the trust owed to them and loftiness in understanding his responsibility towards them. It was mercy that manifested and exhibited all of this.
Here is another example which elucidates to us Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu humility and submission before Allah, the Lord of the worlds.
Al Hakim reports through his chain―from Tariq ibn Shihab:
خرج عمر بن الخطاب إلى الشام و معنا أبو عبيدة بن الجراح فأتوا على مخاضة و عمر على ناقة له فنزل عنها و خلع خفيه فوضعها على عاتقه و أخذ بزمام ناقته فخاض بها المخاضة فقال أبو عبيدة يا أمير المؤمنين أنت تفعل هذا تخلع خفيك و تضعها على عاتقك و تأخذ بزمام ناقتك و تخوض بها المخاضة ما يسرني أن أهل البلد استشرفوك فقال عمر أوه لو يقول ذا غيرك أبا عبيدة جعلته نكالا لأمة محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم أنا كنا أذل قوم فأعزنا الله بالإسلام فمهما نطلب العز بغير ما أعزنا الله به أذلنا الله
‘Umar ibn al Khattab left towards Sham. With us was Abu ‘Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah. They came upon a pond of water while ‘Umar was on his camel. He dismounted from the camel, took off his leather sock and placed it on his shoulder. He then held the nose rope of the camel and plunged into the pond.
Abu ‘Ubaidah commented, “O Amir al Mu’minin. You are behaving in this manner. You took out your leather sock and placed it on your shoulder and then took the halter of your camel and plunged into the water. It will not please me that the residents of the city see you.”
‘Umar said, “Ah! If only someone beside you had said this, O Abu ‘Ubaidah, I would have made him an example for the ummah of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. We were the most humiliated nation. And Allah honoured us with Islam. No sooner we search for honour in something other than what Allah has honoured us with, Allah will humiliate us.”
Due to all the qualities that passed and others, Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu was deserving of being promised Jannat on the tongue of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
Muslim reports in his Sahih via his sanad from Sayyidina Abu Musa al Ash’ari radiya Llahu ‘anhu who says:
بينما رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في حائط من حائط المدينة و هو متكئ يركز بعود معه بين الماء و الطين إذا استفتح رجل فقال افتح و بشره بالجنة قال فإذا أبو بكر ففتحت له و بشرته بالجنة قال ثم استفتح رجل آخر فقال افتح و بشره بالجنة قال فذهبت فإذا هو عمر ففتحت له و بشرته بالجنة ثم استفتح رجل آخر قال فجلس النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال افتح و بشره بالجنة على بلوى تكون قال فذهبت فإذا هو عثمان بن عفان قال ففتحت و بشرته بالجنة قال و قلت الذي قال فقال الله صبرا أو الله المستعان
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was reclining in one of the orchards of Madinah, digging with a stick between the water and earth, when a man sought permission to enter. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Open and give him glad tidings of Jannat.” It was Abu Bakr so I opened for him and gave him glad tidings of Jannat.
Thereafter another man sought permission to enter. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Open and give him glad tidings of Jannat.” I went and found ‘Umar so I opened for him and gave him glad tidings of Jannat.
Thereafter a third person sought permission to enter. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sat up and said, “Open for him and give him glad tidings of Jannat after a calamity.” I went and found ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan at the door. I opened for him and gave him the glad tidings as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said. He remarked, “O Allah, patience!” or “Allah is the One from whom help is sought.”
Sayyidina Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports:
صعد النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أحدا و معه أبو بكر و عمر و عثمان فرجف الجبل فقال اثبت أحد فإنما عليك نبي و صديق و شهيدان
The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam climbed upon Uhud along with Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman. The mountain began to shake so Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Remain firm, Uhud! Indeed, only a Nabi, Siddiq and two martyrs are upon you.”
Love, compassion, and a cordial relationship prevailed between Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Ahlul Bayt of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Ahlul Bayt of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam reciprocated this love, appreciation, and respect. No narration or statement having any authentic basis or reliable chain proves them insulting or criticising him. On the contrary, they dissociated themselves from those who perpetrated this crime.
Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the warrior of Islam, the leader of the believers, the genius of the creed, the conqueror of the Byzantine Empire, and defeater of the Persian dynasty. He was beloved to the Ahlul Bayt of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
At the forefront of this harmonious relationship between Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Ahlul Bayt radiya Llahu ‘anhum is that they share the same forefather. His lineage meets with the Ahlul Bayt of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at one forefather, Ka’b ibn Lu’ayy, the seventh forefather of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
One of the signs of the cordial relationship between Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq and Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhuma is the report of Nahj al Balaghah attributed to Imam ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu who declared while speaking about Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his authority:
و وليهم وال فأقام و استقام حتى ضرب الدين بجرانه
Then such a leader assumed leadership over them who established religion and remained resolute upon the same until it became firmly grounded.
Ibn Abi al Hadid, the commentator of Nahj al Balaghah comments under this address:
و هذا الوالي هو عمر بن الخطاب و هذا الكلام من خطبة خطبها في أيام خلافته طويلة يذكر فيها قربه من النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم و اختصاصه له و إفضائه بأسراره إليه
The leader being referred to is ‘Umar. This is a snippet of his lengthy sermon delivered in his caliphate, in which he mentions his close relationship to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the special relationship they had, and how he would disclose his secrets to him.
Pay attention with me to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu―what is attributed to him―and the manner in which he acknowledges before the people that din was established in the era of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu and that Islam was firmly grounded in the days of his caliphate. Do you think it is possible for him to utter such words in favour of a person he does not love? Does a man praise his enemies in front of everyone?
Whoever desires to learn more should refer to the references mentioned hereunder.
After Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was bathed and shrouded, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu entered his presence and declared:
ما على الأرض أحد أحب إلي أن ألقى الله بصحيفته من هذا المسجى أي المكفون بين أظهركم
There is no one on earth with whose deeds I would like to meet Allah with more than this shrouded man in your midst.
Al Saduq mentions in al Amali that a person insulted Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in the presence of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu remarked:
تعرف صاحب هذا القبر يعني النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم لا تذكرن عليا إلا بخير فإنك إن تنقصته آذيت هذا في قبره
Do you recognise the individual buried in this grave―referring to the Nabi. You would never speak except positively of ‘Ali. If you disparage ‘Ali, you are harming this individual in his grave.
Scores of narrations are reported which support that Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu would prefer Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu decision in aspects in which there existed difference of opinion. Al Mufid has dedicated a special chapter in his book al Irshad with the title “mention of his judgements in the leadership of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab” under which he listed a number of various instances where Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu judged by the judgement of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. One of them is as follows:
أن عمر أتي بحامل قد زنت فأمر برجمها فقال له أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام هب أن لك سبيلا عليها أي سبيل لك على ما في بطنها والله تعالى يقول أَلَّا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرىٰ فقال عمر لا عشت لمعضلة لا يكون لها أبو الحسن ثم قال فما أصنع بها قال احتط عليها حتى تلد فإذا ولدت ووجدت لولدها من يكفله فأقم عليها الحد فسرى بذلك عن عمر و عول الحكم به على أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام
A pregnant woman who had committed adultery was brought to ‘Umar. ‘Umar ordered she be stoned. Amir al Mu’minin radiya Llahu ‘anhu said to him, “You have right over her but what right do you have over what her belly holds, whereas Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares That no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another?”
‘Umar said, “May I not live for a predicament for which you, O Abu al Hassan, are not present.”
He then asked, “What should I do then?”
“Delay it until she gives birth,” ‘Ali suggested. “After she delivers and you find someone who can care for her child, then mete out the punishment on her.”
‘Umar was appeased with this and he changed his judgement to Amir al Mu’minin’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
Here you have Imam Jafar al Sadiq commanding his followers to befriend Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq and Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhuma as reported by the author of al Kafi. His famous student Abu Basir reports to an audience:
كنت جالسا عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام إذ دخلت علينا أم خالد التي كان قطعها يوسف بن عمر تستأذن عليه فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام أيسرك أن تسمع كلامها قال فقلت نعم قال فأذن لها قال و أجلسني على الطنفسة قال ثم دخلت فتكلمت فإذا امرأة بليغة فسألته عنهما أي أبي بكر و عمر فقال لها توليهما قالت فأقول لربي إذا لقيته إنك أمرتني بولايتهما قال نعم
I was sitting by Abu ‘Abdullah rahimahu Llah when Umm Khalid―whose hand was severed by Yusuf ibn ‘Umar―came and sought permission to enter his presence. Abu ‘Abdullah asked, “Do you desire to listen to her speech?”
I answered positively. He thus allowed her to enter. Meanwhile, he seated me on a velvet like carpet. She entered and spoke and she was an eloquent woman. She then asked him regarding them, i.e. Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.
He instructed her, “Befriend them.”
She said, “So I will tell my Rabb when I meet Him that you commanded me to befriend them.”
“Yes,” he replied.
There you have it. Not only does Sayyidina Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah befriend Sayyidina Abu Bakr and Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma but he also commands his followers to befriend them as well, as reported by those who claim to follow him. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala have mercy on their blessed souls. May the mercy of our Rabb be upon those who fulfil his command and the command of his forefathers of befriending Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq and Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhuma and other Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. May Allah’s choicest salutations, peace, and pleasure be upon them all.
Probably the greatest and most outstanding of these connections is Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam marriage to Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Hafsah bint ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. This is an established fact which no one can deny. Scholars of different schools of thought have attested to this.
One of the signs of love, the proofs of friendship, and the indications of proximity between Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma is the well-known marriage of the former to the latter’s daughter Umm Kulthum from Sayyidah Fatimah al Zahra’ radiya Llahu ‘anhum.
Al Dhahabi while discussing Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, mentions:
و خلفت من الأولاد الحسن و الحسين و زينب و أم كلثوم فأما زينب فتزوجها عبد الله بن جعفر فتوفيت عنده و ولدت له عونا و عليا و أما أم كلثوم فتزوجها عمر فولدت له زيدا ثم تزوجها بعد قتل عمر عون بن جعفر فمات ثم تزوجها أخوه محمد بن جعفر فولدت له بنته ثم تزوج بها أخوه عبد الله بن جعفر فماتت عنده
Her children who survived her are Hassan, Hussain, Zainab, and Umm Kulthum.
‘Abdullah ibn Jafar married Zainab and she passed away in his wedlock and she bore ‘Awn and ‘Ali for him.
Umm Kulthum was married to ‘Umar and she gave birth to Zaid. After ‘Umar’s martyrdom, ‘Awn ibn Jafar married her and then passed on. Thereafter, his brother Muhammad ibn Jafar married her and she gave birth to his daughter. Finally, his brother ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar married her and she passed away in his wedlock.
This marriage and connection has been mentioned by a number of scholars.
From among the evidences of the strong relationship and the mutual love between Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq and the Ahlul Bayt radiya Llahu ‘anhum is the Ahlul Bayt naming their sons after Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu, out of love for him, appreciation of his services to din, his pure actions, and excellent qualities.
Al Mufid mentions in the chapter on the children of Amir al Mu’minin, their number and names:
فأولاد أمير المؤمنين سبعة و عشرون ولدا ذكرا و أنثى الحسن و الحسين و زينب الكبرى و زينب الصغرى … و عمر و رقية كانا توأمين أمهما أم حبيب بنت ربيعة
The offspring of Amir al Mu’minin are 27, males and females: Hassan, Hussain, Zainab al Kubra, Zainab al Sughra… ‘Umar and Ruqayyah who were twins, and their mother was Umm Habib bint Rabi’ah.
Whoever desires to know more in this regard should resort to some of the references mentioned hereunder.
Muhammad Mahdi Shams al Din lists him among the male supporters of Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu who were spared after Karbala’. Al Asbahani mentions that he was among those taken captive. Ibn ‘Inabah lists him among Sayyidina Hassan’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu children.
Al Katib al Baghdadi in Tarikh al A’immah lists him among the offspring of ‘Ali ibn al Hussain. Abu al Farj al Asbahani says that ‘Umar ibn ‘Ali ibn al Hussain is the true brother of Zaid ibn ‘Ali.
ولد له أي موسى عشرون ابنا و ثمانية عشر بنتا أسماء بنيه علي الرضا الإمام و زيد و إبراهيم و عقيل و هارون و الحسن و الحسين و عبد الله و إسماعيل و عبيد الله و عمر و أحمد
These are five of the renowned members of the Ahlul Bayt and their Imams. The level of love and friendship they cherish for Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu after his demise has become manifest. They named their sons after him. When this is the case, will it be fathomable that enmity existed between Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Ahlul Bayt? I hope that the answer is obvious and needs no contemplation after the texts of mutual praise and appreciation, as well as the family connections, has come to light.
This has been a concise summary of the vast life of Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. We mentioned some aspects of his life and we sensed some areas of the magnificence of his personality. A personality that cannot be matched by those who come after him. He persevered and persisted alongside Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam until Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala established his din and raised its banner and dispersed its haters. The result of this was that Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu was crowned with glad tidings from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam of Jannat. Congratulations of Jannat to him! Congratulations to the ummah who have the likes of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 265.
 Tabaqat Khalifah, pg. 109; al Isti’ab, vol. 3 pg. 1145. The great war of Fijar refers to pre-Islamic battle that took place between the Quraysh, the Banu Kinanah amongst eh, and the tribe of Qais. It was referred to as the War of Fijar due to their fighting during the screed months.
 Usd al Ghabah, vol. 4 pg. 78.
 Al Isti’ab, vol. 3 pg. 1146.
 Al Mujam al Kabir, chapter on ‘Umar’s connection, vol. 1 pg. 66, Hadith: 54.
 Umm Walad is a slave who bears children for her master, as a result she cannot be sold and will be automatically set free on the death of the master.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 265.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 265.
 Tarikh Madinah Dimashq, vol. 44 pg. 258 – 259.
 Al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 25 pg. 29, Hadith: 47; Abu Nuaim: Ma’rifat al Sahabah, vol. 23 pg. 485, Hadith: 7187; al Bayhaqi: Dala’il al Nubuwwah, vol. 2 pg. 95, Hadith: 522; Tarikh Madinat Dimashq, vol. 44 pg. 23. Sheikh al Albani classified the narration of al Bayhaqi as sahih in Sahih al Sirah, vol. 1 pg. 190.
 Surah Taha: 14.
 Dala’il al Nubuwwah, Hadith: 519; Ma’rifat al Sahabah, vol. 23 pg. 407, Hadith: 7147; Tarikh al Khulafa’, pg. 125 – 126; Tarikh Madinat Dimashq, vol. 44 pg. 34 – 35; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 267 – 268, Dar Sadir, Beirut.
 Al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 10 pg. 159, Hadith: 10314.
 Al Salihi al Shami: Subul al Huda wa al Rashad fi Sirat Khayr al ‘Ibad, vol. 2 pg. 493.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 269.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on the merits of ‘Umar, Hadith: 3481.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 270; Subul al Huda wa al Rashad, vol. 11 pg. 273.
 Al Isabah, vol. 4 pg. 484.
 Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 44 pg. 466; Tarikh al Tabari, vol. 3 pg. 267.
 Maqayis al Lughah, vol. 2 pg. 86.
 Tarikh al Khulafa’, pg. 128 – 129; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 44 pg. 31; Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 40.
 Al akhda’an: veins at the side of the neck. Ibn Manzur explains: Two veins hidden in the place of cupping in the neck. (Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 8 pg. 66.)
 Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 44 pg. 33; Tarikh al Islam, vol. 1 pg. 179.
 Subul al Huda wa al Rashad, vol. 3 pg. 225.
 Musnad Ahmed, Musnad ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, vol. 1 pg. 156, Hadith: 1346. Shu’ayb al Arna’ut declares the isnad sahih. Al Mustadrak, book on dividing the Fay’, Hadith: 2633. Al Hakim comments, “This hadith has an authentic chain but they have not documented it.” Al Dhahabi concurs.
 Surah al Baqarah: 125.
 Surah al Ahzab: 59.
 Surah al Tahrim: 5.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on the doors of the Qiblah, chapter on the narrations about the Qiblah, Hadith: 393.
 Sahih Muslim, book on virtues, chapter on the virtues of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Hadith: 2399.
 Sharh al Nawawi ‘ala Sahih Muslim, vol. 15 pg. 166, Dar al Kitab al ‘Arabi, Beirut, second edition, 1407 A.H.
 Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, chapter on the virtues of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Hadith: 3682. Sheikh al Albani classifies it sahih. Musnad Ahmed, Musnad ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Hadith: 5145. Shu’ayb classifies it sahih.
 Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 1 pg. 28.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on the virtues of the Companions, chapter on the merits of ‘Umar, Hadith: 3486.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on the virtues of the Companions, chapter on the merits of ‘Umar, Hadith: 3479; Sahih Muslim, chapter on the virtues of ‘Umar, Hadith: 3647.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on interpretation, chapter on a shirt in sleep, Hadith: 6066; Sahih Muslim, chapter on the virtues of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Hadith: 2390.
 Al Mustadrak, book on recognising the Companions, chapter on the merits of ‘Umar, Hadith: 4501. Al Hakim comments, “This hadith is sahih on the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim who have not documented it in this manner.” Al Dhahabi comments, “Meet Muslim’s standard.”
 Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Hadith: 3682. Sheikh al Albani graded it sahih.
 Al Bidayah wa Al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 18.
 Al Qalqashandi: Ma’athir al Inafah fi Ma’alim al Caliphate, vol. 1 pg. 28, Hukumat al Kuwait print, Kuwait, second edition, 1985.
 ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad. The first to be titled khalifah from the men of the Umawi state in Spain. He assumed caliphate after the demise of his father in the beginning of Rabi’ al Akhir 300 A.H and remained khalifah for 50 years. His rule is among the surprising ones since he was only a youngster while his uncles and his father’s uncles were still alive and present. He challenged for it and prevailed over them. He found Spain disorganised by opposition and in flames by those breaking resistance. He thus extinguished these fires and made the criminals cower. Spain in all directions thus fell under his control. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 14 pg. 156 and footnotes by Nadhir Hamdan.
 Al Qalqashandi: Ma’athir al Inafah fi Ma’alim al Caliphate, vol. 1 pg. 28.
 Al Baladhuri: Futuh al Buldan, vol. 1 pg. 104, 135, 138, 164, 254, 305, al Nahdah al Misriyyah Library, Cairo; al Bidayah wa Al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 19 – 130.
 Plural of Umm Walad.
 Tarikh al Khulafa’, pg. 155, 156.
 Massara al amsar: develop cities and set their borders. (Taj al ‘Urus, vol. 7 pg. 484.)
 Tarikh al Khulafa’, pg. 156.
 Al Bidayah wa Al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 131.
 Usd al Ghabah, vol. 4 pg. 76.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 337 – 339.
 Sahih al Bukhari, chapters on the virtues of Madinah, chapter on the Nabi’s dislike that Madinah become desolate, Hadith: 1791.
 Al Mujam al Kabir, Hadith: 8804; Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, chapter on the narrations on the virtue of ‘Umar, vol. 6 pg. 354, Hadith: 31997; Musannaf ‘Abdur Razzaq, chapter on selling ummahat al awlad, vol. 11 pg. 231, Hadith: 20407.
 Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 44 pg. 495.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 372.
 Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 44 pg. 335.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 373.
 Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 44 pg. 459.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 371 – 375.
 Sharh al Nawawi ‘ala Sahih Muslim, vol. 15 pg. 162.
 Al ‘Uqqad: ‘Abqariyyat ‘Umar, pg. 14, Nahdat Misr, Cairo, 1409 A.H.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on the inception of creation, chapter on the virtues of the Muhajirin, Hadith: 3480.
 Musnad Ahmed, vol. 5 pg. 353, the hadith of Buraydah al Aslami, Hadith: 23039. Shu’ayb classified the isnad as hassan.
 Al ‘Uqqad: ‘Abqariyyat ‘Umar, pg. 24.
 Al Mujam al Kabir, Hadith: 7513; al Mujam al Awsat, Hadith: 3254. Hafiz al Haythami states in Majma’ al Zawa’id, “Al Tabarani narrates it and his isnad is hassan.” (Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 11 pg. 170, Hadith: 17940.
 Usd al Ghabah, vol. 2 pg. 24.
 ‘Abqariyyat ‘Umar, pg. 30.
 Jami’ al Tirmidhi, book on virtues, chapter on the merits of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Hadith: 3682. Sheikh al Albani graded it sahih; Musnad Ahmed, Musnad Abi Hurairah, Hadith: 9202. Al Haythami said in al Majma’, “Narrated by Ahmed, al Bazzar, and al Tabarani in al Awsat. The narrators of al Bazzar are the narrators of al Sahih, besides al Jahm ibn Abi al Jahm and he is reliable.” (Majma’ al Zawa’id vol. 8 pg. 368, Hadith: 14421.)
 Al Bayhaqi: Al Sunan al Kubra, book on drinks, chapter on the narrations on the obligation of punishment on the one who consumes alcohol, Hadith: 17275; Musannaf ‘Abdur Razzaq, book on drinks, chapter on drinking in Ramadan, Hadith: 17047.
 Musannaf ‘Abdur Razzaq, book on knowledge, chapter on sticking to the majority, Hadith: 20713.
 Surah al Nisa’: 58.
 Tafsir al Razi, vol. 10 pg. 140.
 Surah al Ma’idah: 8.
 Muwatta’ Malik, book on judgements, chapter on encouragement towards judging with justice, Hadith: 2663.
 Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 12 pg. 661.
 Surah al Hujurat: 13.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on the chapters of Jizyah and Muwada’ah, chapter on the sin of killing a dhimmi without any crime on his part, Hadith: 2995.
 Surah al Qasas: 60.
 Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 44 pg. 287; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 4 pg. 60.
 Sahih Muslim, book on musaqat, chapter on taking the permissible and leaving the doubtful, Hadith: 4178; Sahih al Bukhari, book on iman, chapter on the virtue of one who protects his din, Hadith: 50. The wording is Muslim’s.
 Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah, vol. 2 pg. 703.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on jihad, chapter on the Battle of Hudaybiyyah, Hadith: 3928.
 Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 44 pg. 354.
 Al Mustadrak, book on iman, Hadith: 207. Al Hakim comments: “This is a sahih hadith on the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim due to them both using Ayub ibn ‘A’idh al Ta’i and all other narrators as proof although they have not documented it.”
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on the virtues of the Companions, chapter on the merits of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Hadith: 3490; Sahih Muslim, book on the virtues of the Companions, chapter on the merits of ‘Uthman, Hadith: 2403.
 Sahih al Bukhari, book on the virtues of the Sahabah, chapter on the merits of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Hadith: 3483.
 Tahdhib al Kamal, vol. 21 pg. 316; al Isabah, vol. 4 pg. 484.
 Sharh Nahj al Balaghah, vol. 4 pg. 519.
 Nahj al Balaghah, vol. 2 pg. 29, 222; Sharh Nahj al Balaghah, vol. 12 pg. 3, 4; Bihar al Anwar, vol. 31 pg. 137.
 Al Murtada: al Shafi fi al Imamah, vol. 3 pg. 95.
 Al Saduq: al Amali, pg. 472.
 Surah al Najm: 38.
 Al Irshad, vol. 1 pg. 204.
 Al Kafi, vol. 8 pg. 101.
 Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 82 onwards; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 1 pg. 33; al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 85; al Tabarsi: I’lam al Wara, vol. 1 pg. 277; Tarikh Ya’qubi, vol. 2 pg. 84.
 Tarikh al Islam, vol. 3 pg. 45, 275.
 Al Safdi: al Waif bi al Wafiyyat, vol. 1 pg. 79; al Bidayah wa Al Nihayah, vol. 5 pg. 314, vol. 7 pg. 157; al Maqrizi: Imta’ al Asma’, vol. 5 pg. 370; Muhsin al Amin: A’yan al Shia, vol. 3 pg. 486; Ibn al Sabbagh: al Fusul al Muhimmah, vol. 1 pg. 154.
 Al Irshad, vol. 1 pg. 354; al Fusul al Muhimmah, vol. 1 pg. 642.
 Bihar al Anwar, vol. 42 pg. 74; al Fusul al Muhimmah fi Ma’rifat al A’immah, vol. 1 pg. 647; Ibn ‘Inabah: ‘Umdat al Talib, pg. 64; Ibn Qutaybah: al Ma’arif, pg. 210.
 Bihar al Anwar, vol. 30 pg. 388.
 Muhammad Mahdi Shams al Din: Ansar al Hussain, pg. 64.
 Al Asfahani: Maqatil al Talibiyyin, pg. 79.
 Ibn ‘Inabah: ‘Umdat al Talib, pg. 68.
 Al Hilli: al Mustajad min al Irshad, pg. 168.
 Al Katib al Baghdadi: Tarikh al A’immah, pg. 19.
 Maqatil al Talibiyyin, pg. 86.
 Ibn Abi al Fath al Arbili: Kashf al Ghummah, vol. 3 pg. 31.