Records of Takfir from the books of the Shi`ah Ithna `Ashariyyah

September 22, 2023
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أَفَمَنْ كَانَ عَلىٰ بَيِّنَةٍ مِّنْ رَّبِّهِ كَمَن زُيِّنَ لَهُ سُوْءُ عَمَلِهِ وَاتَّبَعُوْا أَهْوَاءَهُمْ

So, is he who is upon a clear proof from his Lord like him to whom his evil deed is made fair-seeming and they follow their low desires.[1]


Records of Takfir from the books of the Shia Ithna ‘Ashariyyah


Record 1: Ni’mat Allah al Jaza’iri: Al Anwar al Nu’maniyyah


Translation 1: The Asha’irah and their followers are worse than the polytheists and Christians in the aspect of recognising the Creator.

Translation 2: Their recognition of Him subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in this false way is one of the many reasons determining their eternity in Hell with their brothers among the disbelievers.

Translation 3: The gist of it is that we do not concur with them on a deity, nor a nabi, nor an imam. This is because they claim that their Rabb is the one whose Nabi is Muhammad and the Khalifah after him is Abu Bakr. We do not agree with such a rabb, nor such a nabi. We state that the rabb whose nabi’s khalifah is Abu Bakr is not our rabb, nor is that nabi our nabi.


Record 2: ‘Ali ibn ‘Abd al-’Al al-Karaki: Nafahat al-Lahut fi La’n al-Jibt wa al-Taghut


Translation: However, the Ahlus Sunnah are the worst nation on the face of the earth and have the least shame for Allah and His Messenger. In fact, when ‘Umar or anyone else opposed ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam, he became a disbeliever by the demand of these proofs.


Record 3: Muhammad Tahir ibn Muhammad Hussain al Shirazi: Al Arba’in fi Imamat al A’immah al Tahirin


Translation 1: I say: ‘Uthman’s absence from Badr and Bay’at al Ridwan and his running off on the Day of Uhud is established by his acknowledgement. There is no proof or evidence for his claim of being excused.

Translation 2: Certainly, ‘Aishah is a disbeliever deserving of Hell.


Record 4: Muhammad Baqir al Majlisi: Al ‘Aqa’id


Translation 1: What is considered from the essentials of the creed of the Imamiyyah is regarding Mut’ah and Hajj al Tamattu’ permissible and dissociating from the three [viz. Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman], Muawiyah, Yazid ibn Muawiyah, and all those who fought Amir al Mu’minin—Allah’s salutations be upon him—or any of the other Imams besides him.

Translation 2: Al Mufid reports on the authority of Abu Jafar ‘alayh al Salam, “Whoever disbelieves in any Imam from Allah and dissociates from him and his religion is a disbeliever and apostate from Islam.”


Record 5: ‘Abdullah Shibr: Haqq al Yaqin fi Ma’rifat Usul al Din


Translation 1: Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated, “Whoever wages war against ‘Ali wages war against me and whoever wages war against me has waged war against Allah, the Mighty and Majestic.” He salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said regarding ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain ‘alayhim al Salam, “I am at war with one who wages war against them and at peace with one who declares peace with them.” Our belief regarding dissociation for they are from the four idols and four daughters and from all their factions and followers and that they are the worst of Allah’s—the Mighty and Majestic—creation and that belief in Allah, His Messenger, and the Imams ‘alayhim al Salam is not complete except with dissociation from their enemies.

Translation 2: Sheikh al Mufid writes in Kitab al Masa’il: The Imamiyyah are unanimous that one who rejects the Imamah of one of the Imams and negates the mandatory obedience that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala placed upon him is a disbeliever, deviant, and deserving of eternity in Hell. He says at another place: The Imamiyyah are unanimous that all innovators are disbelievers and that the Imam ought to command them to repent after gaining authority over them and inviting them with establishing proofs. If they repent from their innovations and adopt the correct (beliefs), otherwise he should kill them due to their apostasy from iman and that whoever of them dies in this state is from the inmates of Hell. The Mu’tazilah have unanimously agreed contrary to this and have the belief that majority of the innovators are fussaq (transgressors), not kuffar (disbelievers). Some of them are not even considered transgressors due to their innovation and do not fall out of the fold of Islam, like the Murji’ah from the followers of Ibn Shabib and the Batariyyah from the Zaidiyyah who agree with them in usul, although differ with them in the qualities of the Imam.

Translation 3: Al Muhaqqiq al Tusi writes in Qawa’id al-’Aqa’id: The fundamentals of iman according to the Shi’ah are three: testifying to the oneness of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in His being and justice in His actions, testifying to the Nubuwwah of the Ambiya’ ‘alayhim al-Salam, and testifying to the Imamah of the infallible Imams after the Prophets.

Translation 4: The Ahlus Sunnah opine that iman is testifying to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam being truthful, and testifying to the ahkam (verdicts) which we know with certainty that he ‘alayh al Salam judged accordingly without any dispute or doubt. Disbelief is the opposite of iman and sin is the opposite of good deeds, divided into major and minor. A believer deserves eternity in Jannat—unanimously—whereas a disbeliever deserves eternity in punishment.


Record 6: Abul Qasim al Musawi al Khu’i: Misbah al Faqahah fi al Mu’amalat


Translation 1: I say: The purport of Mu’min here is one who believes in Allah, His Messenger, Afterlife, and the Twelve Imams ‘alayhim al Salam—the first being ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib and the last al Qa’im, the proof, the awaited.

Translation 2: The permissibility of cursing the opposition and the necessity of dissociating from them, swearing them excessively, slandering them, and backbiting them are established in narrations, supplications, and ziyarat, as they are men of innovation and suspicion.

Translation 3: Mutawatir distinct reports indicate the disbelief of the rejecter of Wilayah.


Record 7: Muhammad Baqir al Majlisi: Bihar al Anwar


Translation 1: Al Sadiq ‘alayh al-Salam said: Certainly, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala appointed us His authorities over His creation and His trustees over His knowledge. Whoever denies us is in the position of Iblis in his pigheadedness towards Allah when Allah commanded him to prostate to Adam. Whoever recognises and follows us, he is in the position of the angels whom Allah commanded to prostate to Adam and they obeyed Him.

Translation 2: Abu ‘Ali al Khurasani reports from the freed slave of ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ‘alayhima al Salam: I was once with him [‘Ali ibn al Hussain ‘alayhima al Salam] in seclusion. I submitted, “I have a right over you. Will you not inform me of these two men, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar?” He said, “They are disbelievers. One who loves them is a disbeliever.”

Translation 3: It is reported from various chains from ‘Ali ibn al Hussain, Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, and Jafar ibn Muhammad ‘alayhim al Salam that they declared: “Three persons, Allah will neither look at them on the Day of Qiyamah nor purify them and they will have a severe punishment. [1] Whoever thinks he is an Imam and is not. [2] Whoever rejects the Imamah of an Imam from Allah. [3] And whoever thinks that they two [Abu Bakr and ‘Umar] have a share in Islam.”



[1] Surah Muhammad: 14.