Introduction

Final Word
August 27, 2015
Umm al-Mu’minin Sayyidah Khadijah
August 27, 2015

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Introduction

By Molana Khalid Mahmud Siyalkoti

 

All praise belongs to Allah, peace and salutations upon His chosen servants.

Allah Ta’ala has placed much emphasis upon maintaining family ties in the Noble Qur’an. In the early years before the advent of Islam, a person would associate the lineage of his adopted son to himself and not the biological father. This untrue association of lineage was deemed opposite to the natural system of Islam. In the cultural norms of the Hindus, the children of one’s wife, born from another marriage, would be ascribed to the present husband. Islam abolished the incorrect cultural practices of many creeds, making declaration of correct lineage and abstaining from incorrect attribution a compulsory principle of the natural order of Islam. It is also a fact that one possessing sound intellect feels no honour in having another’s children attributed to him. Allah Ta’ala says in the noble Qur’an:

اُدْعُوْهُمْ لِاٰبَآئِهِمْ هُوَ اَقْسَطُ عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ ۚ

Call them by (the names of) their fathers; it is more just in the sight of Allah.[1]

 

The wisdom behind this decree is so that there will remain no doubt with regards to biological relations and as a result there will be no doubt or confusion with regards to the laws pertaining thereto. Therefore the correct course of action would be to ascribe children to their biological fathers.

This does not apply to men only — that there should be no confusion with regards to their lineage — but the same ruling applies to women as well; they too are required to attribute the children to their biological father. General laws such as these which are spelt out in the Noble Qur’an apply to both male and female.

The Arabs were extremely passionate regarding genealogy and lineage, Islam intended to raise this passion more meticulously, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam thus said:

من ادعى الى غير ابيه و هو يعلم انه غير ابيه فالجنة عليه حرام

Whoever ascribes his lineage to another besides his biological father, and he is aware that he is not his biological father, then Jannat is Haram on such a person.[2]

 

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also said:

من ادعى الى غير ابيه و انتمى الى غير مواليه فعليه لعنة الله المتتابعة الى يوم القيمة

Whoever ascribes his lineage to another besides his biological father and claims to be a slave other than his true master; the curse of Allah is upon him until the Day of Qiyamah.[3]

 

This clear declaration of Islam was so pertinent that the adopted son of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam — who was up to this point referred to as Zaid, the son of Muhammad — now became Zaid, the son of Harithah; and the law was set forth that one’s lineage will be attributed to the biological father. This is just and closest to the truth. Maintaining family ties is a fundamental teaching of Islam, which is only possible if the family relation of each is recognised. Thus, learning about one’s genealogy is incumbent. Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu has narrated that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has said:

تعلموا من انسابكم ما تصلون به ارحامكم فان صلة الرحم محبة في الاهل مثرات في المال و منسأة في الاثر

Learn of your genealogy such that you will be able to maintain family ties; because maintaining family ties creates love amongst your family, blessing in wealth, and increases one’s lifespan.

 

It was in this environment that the Ahlul Bayt of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was raised. The call of Islam also reached the ears of the four daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhunna — and those who referred to them as the four daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam could not discard this principle of Islam, resulting in a practice contrary to Islamic teachings coming into vogue, nor could history arrive at a decision contrary to reality. It is impossible that these honourable ladies were the daughters of another and then incorrectly dubbed to be the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, who in turn approved of this attribution (despite the prohibition of the Qur’an). If Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not act upon the Qur’an or upon his own blessed instructions, then who would thereafter?

When Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhu could no longer remain Zaid ibn Muhammad but had to now be referred to as Zaid ibn Harithah; then how is it possible that these four noble women, despite being the daughters of another, came to be known as the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ?

In light of the decrees of the Qur’an and guidance of the ahadith, it is impossible that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the Ummahat al Mu’minin, and Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum all continued referring to these ‘adopted’ daughters as the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam — who was sent as a universal nabi — failed to practice upon the injunctions of the Qur’an and apply its teachings in his own home.

Thus, it is a fact that these pure honourable women were the biological daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. How is it possible for one to ascribe her lineage to a non-biological father when it is established that one will be summoned forth on the Day of Qiyamah by the name of one’s father, then too such an act is perceived to emanate from the house of the Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? It can never be that the very household of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are unmindful of the teachings of risalat.

Sayyidina Abu Darda’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

انكم تدعون باسمائكم و اسماء ابائكم

Verily (on the Day of Qiyamah) you will be called forth by your names and the names of your fathers’.[4]

 

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would have definitely announced the purity of his lineage, cleared the blemish from his name and declared his honour. There would have been no fault on him in doing so, or any accusation of pursuing a personal agenda. Rasulullah has said:

وَقَالَ انا انفسكم نسبا وصهرا وحسبا لَيْسَ فِي آبَائِي من لدن آدم سفاح كلنا نِكَاح

I am the purest in terms of descendants, in-laws and lineage, there is none in my ancestors from Adam ‘alayh al Salam who was born from adultery, all were born in wedlock.[5]

 

When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was so particular with regards to his genealogy, describing its uniqueness and purity, how can it be envisaged that he would conceal the true lineage of Sayyidah Zainab, Sayyidah Ruqayyah and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhunna. This is impossible.

Furthermore, this is not just one daughter; the true lineage of three daughters is brought into question, and for years they are left in this condition; not in just any home but in the home of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, which is an example for all creation.

It is in no way logical that Allah, Who did not permit Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to attribute his single adopted son to him, would then permit Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to attribute three daughters to him, thus including them amongst his Ahlul Bayt. If it was permissible to do so then there would have been a clear unambiguous announcement as such, in the same manner as it was announced for Sayyidina Zaid ibn Harithah radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

 

The Child Resembles the Father

It is common knowledge that some of the physical features and peculiarities are inherited by the child, such that doctors are able to perform blood transfusions between father and child, as most often their blood types are the same. Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates that a Jewess (Zainab bint Harith) presented some lamb meat before Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which contained poison. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam consumed from it. Allah Ta’ala informed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam about it and he pulled his hand away[6]. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was saved from its dreadful effects but the Sahabah could tell that it had entered the blood stream of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Muhaddithin wrote:

ان اثر تلك اللقمة من الشاة كان باقيا تعتريه حتى الوفاة – اذ كان يعرف ذلك بتغير لون اللهوات

The effects of this poison remained until his demise, as the effects of this poison were recognised by the colour change in the palate.

 

In his final illness, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam felt the full effects of this poison and it was on account of this that the senior Sahabah regarded Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to be a shahid (martyr). Molana Ashraf ‘Ali Thanwi rahimahu Llah writes: “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also said that the effects of this poison continued (from the time it was consumed) but now it has fulfilled its purpose. In light of this, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam attained martyrdom through poisoning. ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu as well as a few others of the pious predecessors were also of this opinion.”[7]

Harmful effects being suppressed and then emerging at the time of demise was also seen in the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha. The difficulties she had to endure when performing hijrah was acknowledged by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself, he said:

خير بناتي اصيبت فيّ

The best of my daughters, who suffered on account of me.

 

In the same manner that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam felt the intense effects of the poison in his final illness, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha also experienced something similar; the wounds she had suffered when migrating (the effects of which had been suppressed) again began to pain her and resulted in her departing from this world as a martyr. This was a unique physical resemblance between Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his daughter, Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha:

فلم تزل وجعة حتى ماتت من ذلك الوجع فكانوا يرون انها شهيدة

The pain did not subside up until she passed away from that very pain. Everyone considered her to be martyr.[8]

 

Ibn Kathir also referred to her as a martyr:

ماتت شهيدة

She passed away as a martyr.[9]

 

These incidents inform us that Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha resembled her father, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, very closely in physical condition. This physical resemblance is an undeniable fact and serves as surma (antimony) for those who wish to view this discussion with perfect eyesight. Thus there is no doubt whatsoever that Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was the biological daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and that she bore a definite physical similarity to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This similarity between the two martyrs, father and daughter, is exceptionally clear.

In addition, consider that the husband, Abu al ‘As ibn al Rabi’, of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was amongst the prisoners of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the Battle of Badr and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam showed such sympathy towards him on account of his daughter Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha. Her concern became his. It’s obvious that such heartfelt consideration and care would not be shown to the step-children from one’s wife, and more so when that wife is no longer alive and the step-father has married others thereafter.

The truth is that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam fulfilled the role of both father and mother in terms of the affection he showered upon his daughters after the demise of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. He said with tenderness: “She is the most virtuous of my daughters, who suffered on account of me.”

 

The Difference Between Most Virtuous and Most Superior

The incidents which transpired at Badr and during hijrah, that is the difficulties which Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha endured, resulted in Sayyidina Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu embracing Islam. The virtue of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha guided Sayyidina Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu and it is in this quality that he she surpassed her other three sisters, whose husbands were already Muslim. Sayyidah Zainab’s radiya Llahu ‘anha husband, on the other hand, was not yet a Muslim and even participated in the Battle of Badr on the side of the mushrikin, where he was then captured. Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha forwarded his ransom from Makkah — which was the necklace of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha — and ultimately became the means of her being able to migrate to Madinah, which is a well-known amongst the learned. Thereafter whatever good deeds and sacrifices were performed by Sayyidina Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu will count as a virtue for Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha.

The words most virtuous and most superior should be considered carefully. The most superior of all Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam daughters is Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha — her rank and status being extremely lofty — but the most virtuous will be Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha. Possessing enumerable meritorious traits is a separate matter altogether, and one’s inherent qualities affecting another this is termed being virtuous. Mulla ‘Ali Qari rahimahu Llah writes:

فباب الخيرية و هي الطاعة للحق و المنفعة للخلق متعد و باب الفضيلة لازم

Virtuous, which is adherence to the truth and benefitting others is Muta’adi and possessing meritorious traits is lazim.

 

In other words, possessing meritorious traits does not require benefitting others (which is termed lazim) whereas being virtuous necessitates benefitting others (which is termed Muta’adi).

The most superior (possessing enumerable praiseworthy and meritorious traits) was Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha — the wife of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu — and the most virtuous was Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha — the mother-in-law of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu married the daughter of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha, Sayyidah Umamah radiya Llahu ‘anha, in accordance with the bequest of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha (after her demise). This is yet another example of the virtuous nature of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha which extended towards Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in this instance, as well as Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who continued to receive motherly affection on account of this union. If we look closely then from this angle Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu can also be dubbed Dhu al Nurayn (possessor of two lights); the most superior of the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam being his wife and the most virtuous being his mother-in-law.

The prestigious Ka’bah is the epicentre of Islam and the qiblah of the Muslims. The day Makkah was conquered, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam entered Makkah with his grandson, ‘Ali ibn Abi al ‘As (the son of Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha) seated behind him. Ibn Hajar al ‘Askalani rahimahu Llah writes:

توفي علي بن ابي العاص و قد ناهز الحلم و كان النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم اردفه على راحلته يوم الفتح

…’Ali ibn Abi al ‘As passed away, and he was a recipient of great affection (from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam seated him on his steed the day Makkah was conquered.[10]

 

In short, we only wish to point out that the daughter whom Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam referred to as the most virtuous of his daughters; her virtue touched the entire ummah. This is the reason why Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam seated his grandson, ‘Ali ibn Abi al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu, with him the day Makkah was conquered. Such affection for a step-daughter or the daughter of one’s sister-in-law is not found in the history of the Arabs, more so when this wife — their mother — no longer lives and the ‘step-father’ has married someone else. Therefore the truth of the matter is that this is the true grandson of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was the true daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and most deserving of the love and affection which her father showed to her.

 

The Marriage of Sayyidah Ruqayyah and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum to ‘Utbah and ‘Utaybah

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had wedded his beloved daughters, Sayyidah Ruqayyah and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, to the sons of Abu Lahab, ‘Utbah and ‘Utaybah before the advent of nubuwwah, but they had not yet been sent off to their marital homes. When Surah Lahab was revealed, Abu Lahab became more obstinate and increasing in his ignorance wished to retaliate against Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He summoned his sons and instructed them both; invoking his right as their father, to divorce the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.

The shame of one’s step-daughters or adopted daughters was never a blemish on one’s honour or a target of scorn from one’s enemies, and their shame was never regarded to be a shame upon the step-father. Whereas Abu Lahab instructed his sons to divorce the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Ruqayyah and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, so as to harm Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Step-daughters never become the target of the enmity one holds for another, it is only those who share blood relations who become the target. The risalat of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was the topic of discussion and the Qur’an had been revealed to him, which contained Surah Lahab; the primary cause which set Abu Lahab on a path to cause harm to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. It would make no sense for him to direct this anger towards the orphaned children of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Thus, ‘Utbah and ‘Utaybah divorcing Sayyidah Ruqayyah and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhuma screams out that they were the biological daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and never his step or adopted daughters. Step-daughters will never become a target of one’s honour, as was the case here, nor is there any example of such in the history of the Arabs.

 

The Grief of Sayyidina ‘Uthman on the Demise of Sayyidah Ruqayyah

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was grief-stricken on the demise of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and at the centre of this grief was that his link to the house of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam — being his son-in-law — had been severed. This in truth is a tragedy. If Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was the step daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then he was never the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and thus this link was not severed, leaving no reason for him to grieve over it. However this is a reality — undeniable too at that — that the grief of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was on account of his link to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam being severed. Imam Abu Hanifah rahimahu Llah reports from Haytham ibn Habib al Sarfi:

عن الهيثم عن موسى بن كثير ان عمر مر بعثمان رضي الله عنه و هو حزين قال ما يحزنك قال الا احزن و قد انقطع الصهر بيني و بين رسول الله و ذلك حدثان ماتت بنت رسول الله

‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed by ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and he was extremely forlorn. ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu asked: “What depresses you so?” ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied: “Why should I not be depressed when my marital link between me and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has been broken.” This was when the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away.[11]

 

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was not pleased with this sadness Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and so wedded his other daughter, Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha, to him. In the history of man, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is the only person to have ever married two daughters of a nabi. The honour of being Dhu al Nurayn is an honour that belongs to Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu alone.

 

Distinctiveness of the Daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

It has very rarely occurred that the two wives of one man lived lovingly and graciously with each other. Co-wives usually gaze upon each other with envy and if ever they were to fight, will they belittle each other’s husbands? Of course not, there husband is the same. Will they attack the in-laws of each other? Again, this would be absurd as they share this too, instead they will attack the parents of the latter as this is unique to each.

Now ponder, whichever woman will become a co-wife to the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, there will be the possibility of her harbouring enmity to the parents of the latter, which in this case will be Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself. Now, if on account of natural jealousy she were to bear some form of enmity — however minute — towards Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, what would become of her iman? One might ask at this juncture: What protocols have been instituted by Islam to prevent this from happening?

The only solution to this would be that the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam should not be co-wife to any other, so the jealousy and enmity of the other will never be directed to their father (who in this case is Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). In this light, it is yet another quality unique to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that his daughters will not share wedlock with any other woman and the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam will not be co-wife to anyone.

Jalal al Din al Suyuti rahimahu Llah has written a chapter in al Khasa’is al Kubra:

The unique quality of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that his daughters will not be co-wives.

 

As long as Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was in the wedlock of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu he took no other wife, then as long as Umm Kulthum was in his wedlock he never married. Similarly, as long as Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was in wedlock with Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu he took no other wife.

After the demise of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha, Sayyidina ‘Uthman married other women and after the demise of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu did the same. This too proves that Sayyidah Ruqayyah and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. If they were the daughters of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha from previous marriage then it would not have been impermissible for him to marry others while she was in his wedlock. After the demise of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum, he married many others; Fatimah bint Walid, Fakhitah bint Ghazwan, Ramlah bint Shaibah, and Na’ilah were his wives.

May Allah Ta’ala reward Molana Muhammad Nafi’ abundantly and make his efforts a means of benefit to all. He has executed his duty in explaining the lives, traits and rank of the beloved daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in such an amazing manner that without a doubt publishing this book would add to the scholastic legacy of this age. Molana’s method of elucidation is not merely propagatory but analytical as well, and in the manner of a historian explains matters to the minutest detail. After Ruhama’ Baynahum this piece of research is a gift of knowledge to the world. May Allah accept this effort and protect from all trials and jealous eyes.

Discussing the family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in this manner that it creates love and honour for them in the hearts of the readers is a clear proof of the deep affection and regard that the author has for the Ahlul Bayt of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. We have high hopes that this book will grant the readers contentment and gratification. It is the unique trait of the family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that reading about them creates peace of heart and increases one’s love for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Khalid Mahmud

(While on a visit to Pakistan)

Lahore

 

NEXT⇒ The Four Daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam


[1]  Surah al Ahzab: 5

[2]Sunan Abi Dawood vol. 2 pg. 350

[3]  ibid

[4]Sunan Abi Dawood vol. 2 pg. 328

[5]  Zurqani, Sharah Mawahib vol. 1 pg. 67

[6]  Refer to Sahih Bukhari vol. 1 pg. 1356, vol. 2 pg. 610

[7]Nash al Tib pg. 203

[8]Majma’ al Zawa’id vol. 9 pg. 216

[9]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 5 pg. 308

[10] Al Isabah vol. 2 pg. 503

[11]Musnad Imam A’zam pg. 205

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