Umm al-Mu’minin Sayyidah Khadijah

Introduction
August 27, 2015
The Four Daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam
August 28, 2015

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Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Khadijah

Sayyidah Khadijah bint Khuwaylid bin Asad radiya Llahu ‘anha belonged to the well-known tribe of Banu Asad. She was an honourable and respected woman, known to be one of the wealthiest women of that era. Due to the nobility of her tribe and refined conduct, she was highly respected admired. She is regarded to be amongst the most blessed and pious women of history.

 

Previous Husbands

Prior to having the good fortune of coming into the wedlock of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha had been married twice previously. A brief synopsis of these marriages is as follows:

Abu Halah Hind ibn Nabash ibn Zurarah: Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha was married to Abu Halah and from this union two children were born; a son – Hind ibn Abi Halah and a daughter – Halah bint Abi Halah.

Atiq ibn A’id al Makhzumi: Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha also married ‘Atiq ibn ‘A’id and from this union one daughter was born: Hind bint ‘Atiq.

 

These were the children of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha who were born before her marriage to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and this fact has been attested to by both the Ahlus Sunnah wa l-Jama’ah and Shia. There is however one difference of opinion amongst the historians and that is whether Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha married Abu Halah first or ‘Atiq. Whatever the case may be, the children born from these two unions have been mentioned in accordance with the well-known narrations. Other narrations have also been mentioned in some books:

  1. Al Haythami: Majma’ al Zawa’id vol. 9 pg. 219
  2. Abu Jafar al Baghdadi: Kitab al Muhabbar pg. 78, 79
  3. Ibn Sa’d: Tabaqat vol. 8 pg. 8
  4. Al Baladhuri: Ansab al Ashraf vol. 1 pg. 406
  5. Al Bayhaqi: al Sunan al Kubra vol. 7 pg. 71
 

Shii books

  1. Ni’mat Allah al Jaza’iri: al Anwar al No’maniyyah vol. 1 pg 367
  2. Baqir al Majlisi: Hayat al Qulub vol. 2 pg. 768
 

Note:- I think it only appropriate to mention for the research scholars that there is a difference of opinion regarding the name of Sayyidah Khadijah’s previous husband whether it is ‘A’id (with a ‘د’) or ‘A’idh (with a ‘ذ’). If you seek a satisfactory verdict on this difference then refer to Sharh Mawahib al Diniyyah of Muhammad al Zurqani. The honourable Sheikh has recorded excellent research in this regard.

 

The Honour of Being a Spouse of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Sublimeness of Khadijah

1. When the age of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha drew close to forty, fortune knocked her door and the chit chatter of the praises and description, honour and truthfulness, honesty and trustworthiness of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam reached her, she herself then sent a marriage proposal to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam accepted her marriage proposal and as per custom of those days the marriage was contracted with the consent of ‘Umar ibn Asad — the paternal uncle of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha — in lieu of 12 uqiyah (480 silver coins). In this way Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha was blessed with this honour of being the consort of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

2. Rasulullah’s blessed age at the time of nikah was 25, while according to some 30. This was prior to the advent of nubuwwah. According to Hakim ibn Hizam, Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha was 15 years elder than Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. From this the ‘ulamaʼ deduce that Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha was approximately 40 years of age.[1]

 

3. At the advent of nubuwwah, the degree of unshakable assistance lent by Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has been recorded in much detail and depth by the Muhaddithin, the ‘ulamaʼ of sirah (biography of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and the Muslim historians. The scholars are fully aware of those details. In the hardships of the beginning stages of Islam, the steadfastness and consolation of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha has been described by the ‘ulamaʼ of this subject in many different ways. The author of Zad al Ma’ad has written:

هى التى وازرته على النبوة و جاهدت معه و واسته بنفسها و مالها …

Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha helped Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam through the difficulties of nubuwwah, became a firm support for him and stood together with him through his sufferings. She supported him with her life and wealth and displayed her well-wishing for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at every level. It was her perfect display of preference to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam over herself which served as an aid and support in the spreading and dissemination of Islam in the most cumbersome of times.[2]

4. One of the virtues of Umm al Mu’minin Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha has been mentioned thus that Allah Ta’ala through the medium of Jibril ‘alayh al Salam instructed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam : “Convey my salam to Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha and that of Jibril and give her the glad tidings of a fantastic palace in Jannat.”

The conveying of the salam of Allah Ta’ala and Jibril ‘alayh al Salam through the medium of the angels and the giving of glad tidings in this very world of a fabulous palace in Jannat is an accolade of great honour and virtue in her favour.

 

5. Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has announced: “Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha has been given the glad tidings of such a palace in Jannat where there will be neither hustle and bustle nor will fatigue overcome one.”[3]

 

6. Another great virtue of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha has been mentioned in Zad al Ma’ad. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not marry a second wife in the lifetime of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha until she passed away.[4]

This is a great proof of her sublimeness and a sign of the lofty status she enjoined in the sight of Rasulullah. May Allah Ta’ala be pleased with her.

 

7. The privilege of enjoying the honour of being the consort of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha lasted for approximately 24 years and a few months. She passed away in Makkah three days after the demise of the paternal uncle of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam — Abu Talib — after the month of Ramadan. Her age at that time was close to 65 years. This occurred three years prior to the migration to Madinah.[5]

 

8. When Umm al Mu’minin Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha passed away, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was extremely grieved and sorrowful at the separation of his life partner. Preparations for the burial of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha took place at a place called Hujun. When the blessed grave was ready, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself descended into the grave to lower Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Hakim ibn Hizam[6] radiya Llahu ‘anhu was also present at that burial with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Until then, the shar’i law of Salat al Janazah had not yet been prescribed.[7]

 

9. One of the virtues mentioned in favour of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha is that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared regarding Maryam bint ‘Imran radiya Llahu ‘anha and Khadijah bint Khuwaylid radiya Llahu ‘anha:

Maryam was the best woman from the women of her time and Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha is the best woman from the women of her time.[8]

This declaration of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in praise of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha holds high esteem which exalts Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha to the highest pedestal among the women of her time. The person to narrate this is the nephew of ‘Ali viz. ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Regarding this matter, more detail will follow after mention of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

 

The Children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from Sayyidah Khadijah

The first blessed wife of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. She enjoys the honour of being the first wife of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from the other pure wives. Furthermore, all the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam besides Ibrahim radiya Llahu ‘anhu are born from her.[9]

After mentioning some of the virtues and accolades of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha, mention of the illustrious children who were born from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha will ensue.

 

The Children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam According to the Muhaddithin

The Muhaddithin have elaborated upon the discussion of the blessed children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam under numerous headings. The famous Muhaddith al Haythami rahimahu Llah has written regarding this discussion in the following manner:

 

The first son of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to be born from the blessed womb of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha was Qasim radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He was the eldest. Thereafter, his daughter Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was born. Then ‘Abdullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was born. He is also called Tayyib and Tahir. He was born after nubuwwah and passed away in infancy. Then his daughter Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha was born. Then Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was born. Thereafter, Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha was born. In this sequence were the children born. (According to some, this is the sequence.) Then, the first son Qasim radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed away in Makkah. Thereafter ‘Abdullah passed away. (Tabrani has recorded this with reliable narrators.)[10]

 

An Apology

At this juncture, an apology is extended to the honoured readers i.e. numerous Muhaddithin have mentioned Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam blessed children including the four daughters in their respective writings. Here, we have sufficed on recording the reference of ‘Allamah al Haythami rahimahu Llah, whereas, in the Sihah Sittah (the six famous compilations of hadith) and other books, their respective mention has been recorded at several places.

 

The Children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam According to the Historians

Ibn Hisham has mentioned the discussion of the children from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha in Sirah Nabawiyyah under a separate heading in the following words:

 

All the children of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam besides Ibrahim were born from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Qasim radiya Llahu ‘anhu (through his name, the agnomen of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Abu al Qasim began), Tayyib and Tahir radiya Llahu ‘anhu, then Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha were born.[11]

 

In the above mentioned narration, there is a slight difference. Nevertheless, there is consensus upon the fact that Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam four daughters were born from the blessed womb of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha and these are the biological children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, not from another husband, that they be referred to with words like foster or adopted.

Ibn Qayyim rahimahu Llah is one of the most renowned historians. He compiled the sirah in a fiqhi sequence. One separate chapter has been dedicated to the mention of the blessed offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wherein it is recorded that the very first son Qasim radiya Llahu ‘anhu was born from the blessed womb of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. By his name, the agnomen of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Abu al Qasim radiya Llahu ‘anhu became famous. He passed away in infancy. Some have recorded that he lived to such an age that he was able to sit on a conveyance. Thereafter, Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was born. Some ‘ulamaʼ are of the view that she was elder than Qasim radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Then Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha, Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha were born.

… و هؤلاء كلهم من خديجة

All the above-mentioned blessed children were from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Besides Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had no children from the other pure wives. Thereafter in Madinah, Ibrahim was born from one of the slave girls of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam by the name of Mariyyah Qibtiyyah, who was sent as a gift by al Maqawqas. This happened in 8 A.H. Abu Rafi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu came to give the glad tidings of the birth of Ibrahim radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Upon this, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gifted Abu Rafi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu with a slave. Ibrahim radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed away in infancy prior to being weaned. [12]

 

After quoting the texts of the Muhaddithin and the scholars of sirah, now the writings of the genealogists will be presented. Read them carefully so that there remains no doubt that the four daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are his own biological offspring.

 

The Children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam According to the Genealogists

The scholars are aware of this, however for the benefit of the general masses, it needs to be mention that whatever ancestry and family trees etc. are recorded by the genealogists in their ancestral books are recorded from the perspective of genealogy. The lineage is not recorded according to some sect (e.g. the views of Shia or Ahlus Sunnah) and there is absolutely no interference of religious favouritism in the genealogical details. Whatever is recorded in the books of genealogy has been compiled and sequenced from the perspective of historical facts.

After this humble explanation, we wish to relate the discussion of the offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who were born from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha from the great genealogists. The objective of this is to make it explicitly clear to the readers that whatever rumours people are spreading nowadays amongst the masses regarding the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam i.e. that three daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are not his biological offspring, but in fact the offspring of the previous husbands of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha or that they are the nieces of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha are completely false. This is in stark conflict to reality and a slander upon the offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Injustice is being done to the biological sisters of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. These three daughters are the biological offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who were born from the blessed womb of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. They are the real sisters of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

The readers should research this matter from the books of the great scholars of this science and be rest assured. The research of the genealogists regarding this matter are presented in sequence hereunder. Read carefully with full attention. The six authentic references of the genealogists are presented. These books are reckoned on the level of the primary sources of this science.

 

1. Tabaqat of Ibn Sa’d has the following:

كان اول من ولد لرسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بمكة قبل النبوة القاسم و به كان يكنى ثم ولد له زينب ثم رقية ثم فاطمة ثم ام كلثوم ثم ولد له فى الاسلام عبد الله فسمى الطيب و الطاهر و امهم جميعا خديجة بنت خويلد بن اسد

The first son of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam born in Makkah prior to nubuwwah was Qasim radiya Llahu ‘anhu. By him, the agnomen of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam became Abu al Qasim. Thereafter, Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was born. Then Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha, then Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha and then Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha. Thereafter, in the era of Islam, Rasulullah’s son ‘Abdullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was born. He is known as Tayyib and Tahir. The mother of all these children is Khadijah bint Khuwaylid ibn Asad radiya Llahu ‘anha.[13]

 

2. Al Mus’ab al Zubairi (d. 236 A.H) — one of the early genealogists — has recorded the offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha in the following way:

و اما خديجة بنت خويلد فولدت لرسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم القاسم و كان يقال له الطاهر و الطيب ولد بعد النبوة و مات صغيرا و اسمه عبد الله و فاطمة و زينب و ام كلثوم و رقية بنى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم

Regarding Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha bint Khuwaylid. She gave birth for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to Qasim radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who was known as Tahir, Tayyib radiya Llahu ‘anhu — who was born after Nubuwwah and passed away in infancy and whose name was ‘Abdullah — Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha, Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha and Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha.[14]

 

3. Abu Jafar al Baghdadi (d. 245 A.H) is a famous genealogist. He has written regarding the discussion of the offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his famous book, al Muhabbar, in the following words. He writes in the biography of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha:

فولدت للنبى الله صلى الله عليه و سلم القاسم و زينب و ام كلثوم و فاطمة و عبد الله و هو الطيب اسم واحد و كان عليه السلام يوم تزوجها ابن خمس و عشرين سنة و هى بنت اربعين سنة

Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha gave birth[15] to Qasim radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha, Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha, Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, and ‘Abdullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu — who is known as Tayyib. At the time of marriage, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was 25 years of age and Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha was 40 years of age.[16]

 

4. A famous renowned scholar of this field Ibn Qutaybah al Dinwari (d. 276 A.H) writes in his book, al Ma’arif, concerning the offspring of Rasulullah:

و ولد لرسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من خديجة القاسم و به كان يكنى و الطاهر و طيب و فاطمة و زينب و رقية و ام كلثوم و من مارية القبطية ابراهيم

The children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha are Qasim radiya Llahu ‘anhu (through which his agnomen became Abu al Qasim radiya Llahu ‘anhu), Tahir and Tayyib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha, Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha. Ibrahim radiya Llahu ‘anhu was born from Mariyyah Qibtiyyah radiya Llahu ‘anha.[17]

 

5. The prominent genealogists of the third century Ahmed ibn Yahya al Baladhuri (d. 277 A.H) has dedicated a special chapter in volume two of his book Ansab al Ashraf, entitled: The wives and children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

He mentioned Khadijah bint Khuwaylid ibn Asad radiya Llahu ‘anha first coupled with her children in numerical order:

  1. The son of Rasulullah, Qasim radiya Llahu ‘anhu was born from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha.
  2. Then, the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha was born. She was the eldest daughter of Rasulullah. She was married to Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu who was her maternal cousin i.e. the son of Halah ibn Khuwaylid ibn Asad.
  3. Then Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha was born.
  4. Then Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha was born.
  5. Then Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was born from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

Baladhuri here has given the detailed biography of each.[18]

 

6. Ibn Hazam al Andalusi (d. 456 A.H) has dedicated a separate chapter to the blessed lineage of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his book Jamharah Ansab al ‘Arab titled: This is the lineage of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn ‘Abd Manaf. Under this title, he has discussed this issue in the following words:

و كان له عليه السلام من البنات زينب اكبرهن و تاليها رقية و تاليها فاطمة و تاليها ام كلثوم ام جميع ولده حاشى ابراهيم خديجة ام المؤمنين بنت خويلد بن اسد بن عبد العزى بن قصى

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had four daughters; Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha the eldest followed by Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha, then Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha and then Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha. The mother of all of his children besides Ibrahim radiya Llahu ‘anhu was Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha — the mother of the believers — bint Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn ‘Abdul ‘Uzza ibn Qusayy.[19]

 

The readers have read the discussion regarding the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the light of the research of the genealogists. All of the genealogists have attributed the four daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. From here it becomes clearly evident that the propaganda of them being foster or adopted children is baseless. These are the biological daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

Adequate clear texts of the Muhaddithin, historians and genealogists have come before you proving that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had four biological daughters.

Hereafter, now at the service of the readers, the writings of the leaders of the Shia, their illustrious Mujtahidin and senior scholars will be produced so that the authenticity of this discussion becomes apparent in front of the readers from both sides.

And my capability comes only from Allah!

 

The Children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam According to the Shia Scholars

The majority of Shia scholars and their famous Mujtahidin and historians have concurred with the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah with regards to the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam born from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha and have stated that all the children besides Ibrahim radiya Llahu ‘anhu are born from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. If there is any difference, it is regarding the sequence of birth of the blessed children. Therefore, we wish to include the texts of the Shia scholars only as much as is needed. Whether it be their ‘infallible’ leaders, or early scholars or historians; we desire to quote their texts thereby solidifying this discussion. In this manner, the readers will be fully assured regarding this discussion that the scholars of both groups testify to the truthfulness of the fact that the four daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were born from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. And so that there remains not the slightest doubt regarding this discussion. Nowadays, some Shia are writing that Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was the only daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam born from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha whereas the other three viz. Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha, Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha and Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha were the children of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha from previous spouses or that they are the nieces of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. This is a blatant lie which is in stark contrast to the accepted view of the consensus of Muslims and in direct conflict to the statements of their ‘infallible’ scholars. It is tantamount to causing divergences and confusion in the Muslim ummah through this matter which is totally against a unified din. And the worst thing is that it is a grave slander against the blessed offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. A grave oppression is being done to the blessed family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his household is being dishonoured, Allah forbid!

May Allah Ta’ala grant each and every Muslim the ability to have correct conviction and belief regarding this pure family which will be beneficial in the hereafter and may He save us from wrong belief which will be a cause of great loss in the hereafter.

1. Firstly, this discussion will be taken from the Shia book Usul al Kafi. Usul al Kafi is the highest ranking of their four principles which also has the affirmation of their ‘absent Imam’ and the authentication of all the Shia scholars and Mujtahidin who accept its narrations and contents. The author of the book Muhammad ibn Yaqub al Kulayni al Razi has written in the section titled Kitab al Hujjah of this book in the chapter concerning the birth of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam :

و تزوج الخديجة و هو ابن بضع و عشرين سنة فولد له منها قبل مبعثه القاسم و رقية و زينب و ام كلثوم و ولد له بعد المبعث الطيب و الطاهر و فاطمة عليه السلام

He married Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha when he was 25 years old. Prior to nubuwwah, Qasim, Ruqayyah, Zainab and Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhum were born to him from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. After nubuwwah, Tayyib, Tahir and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were born to him. May peace be upon them all.[20]

 

This authentic narration of Usul al Kafi has made this discussion clear in explicit words that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has four daughters who were all born from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha i.e. they are not born from the previous husbands of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

The commentators of Usul al Kafi have commented and elaborated on this narration in a very beautiful way. It has many commentaries in Arabic e.g. Mir’at al ‘Uqul Sharh Usul of Baqir al Majlisi and its famous commentary in Persian al Safi Sharh Usul al Kafi of Khalil al Qazwini. All of the commentators have accepted the above narration and commented accordingly i.e. they did not term it to be weak and reject it but rather accepted it.

Now if some Shia of the fourteenth century want to term this narration as weak and reject it then they should firstly present a suitable reason for its weakness which is accepted by the scholars of this field. Otherwise, this will be committing treachery with their previous Mujtahidin and leaders and this will be synonymous to making the nation opposed to their seniors.

We will now relate the commentary of the above mentioned narration of Usul al Kafi from al Safi in the words of Khalil al Qazwini so that the readers are rest assured that the correct meaning of this narration is what we have reproduced. Khalil al Qazwini elaborates:[21]

بزنی خواست خدیجۃ را داد فرزند بست سالہ و کسری بودیس زادہ شد براۓ او از خدیجۃ پیش از رسالت او قاسم و رقیہ و زینب و ام کلثوم و زادہ شد براۓ او بعد از رسالت طیب و طاہر وفاطمۃ

Khalil’s text has the same implication as what we have mentioned under the original text i.e. the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha are as follows; prior to nubuwwah — Qasim radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha, Zainab and Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha were born and after nubuwwah — Tayyib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Tahir radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha were born.

 

2. Secondly, the famous Sheikh al Saduq ibn Babuwayh al Qummi, one of the authors of the four canonical works of the Shia, has mentioned this discussion many times in his famous book Kitab al Khisal. He reports from Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah:

عن ابى عبد الله عليه السلام قال ولد لرسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من خديجة القاسم و الطاهر و هو عبد الله و ام كلثوم و رقية و زينب و فاطمة و تزوج على بن ابى طالب فاطمة و تزوج ابو العاص بن الربيع و هو رجل من بنى امية زينب و تزوج عثمان بن عفان ام كلثوم و ماتت و لم يدخل بها و لما ساروا الى بدر زوجه رسول الله رقية

Qasim, Tahir — who is ‘Abdullah — Umm Kulthum, Ruqayyah, Zainab and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were born to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu married Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu who is a man from the Bani Umayyah married Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha. ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu married Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha who passed away before consummation of the marriage. When they proceeded to Badr, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wedded him to Ruqayyah.[22]

 

3. At this juncture, Sheikh al Saduq has mentioned a statement of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam :

فان الله تبارك و تعالى بارك فى الولود الودود و ان خديجة رحمها الله ولدت منى طاهرا و هو عبد الله و هو المطهر و ولدت منى القاسم و فاطمة و رقية و ام كلثوم و زينب

Allah Ta’ala has blessed the woman who bears many children and has excessive love for her husband and kids. May Allah have mercy on Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha who bore for me children viz. Tahir — who is ‘Abdullah and Mutahhar — Qasim, Fatimah, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Zainab.[23]

 

Sheikh al Saduq has clearly elaborated regarding this discussion on the four biological daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in these two texts and has refuted them being from earlier husbands.

 

4. Furthermore, Sheikh al Saduq has in al Amali, related a sermon of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which he delivered to the people. Sheikh ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani in the end of Tanqih al Maqal has mentioned this same virtue regarding the daughter of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha. Mentioned therein is:

 

يا معشر الناس الا ادلكم على خير الناس خالا و خالة قالوا بلى يا رسول الله قال الحسن و الحسين فان خالهما القاسم بن رسول الله و خالتهما زينب بنت رسول الله ثم قال بيده هكذا يحشرنا الله ثم قال اللهم انك تعلم ان الحسن فى الجنة و الحسين فى الجنة و جدهما فى الجنة و جدتها فى الجنة و اباهما فى الجنة و امهما فى الجنة و عمهما فى الجنة و عمتها فى الجنة و خالهما فى الجنة و خالتهما فى الجنة

O people! Should I not inform you of the best of people with regards to having the best maternal uncle and aunt?” The people replied in the affirmative. He salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Hasan and Hussain for indeed their maternal uncle is Qasim ibn Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and their maternal aunt is Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.” He then made a gesture with his hand stating: “Allah will gather us all.” He then said: “O Allah! You have full knowledge that Hasan is in Jannat, Hussain is in Jannat, their maternal grandfather is in Jannat, their maternal grandmother is in Jannat, their father is in Jannat, their mother is in Jannat, their paternal uncle (Jafar al Tayyar) is in Jannat, their paternal aunt (Umm Hani) is in Jannat, their maternal uncle (Qasim) is in Jannat and their maternal aunt (Zainab) bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is in Jannat.[24]

 

The above mentioned sermon has been narrated by innumerable Shia scholars. We have only included a few references here. By this prophetic words, it is established that:

  • Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha is the biological daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
  • She is the respected aunt of Hasan and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.
  • This is also established that Zainab bint Rasulillah will be gathered in the company of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the Day of Judgement.
  • She will be with her nephews; Hasan and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma in Jannat.
  • The glad tidings of Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha being in Jannat is established explicitly in this narration.
 

Note: – Presently, some Shia authors are claiming very boldly and brazenly in their writings:

No virtue at all can be located in any Sunni or Shia books regarding the three daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam viz. Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha, Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha and Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha.

 

After reading these narrations, the readers will judge for themselves what truth is found in the writings of those who reject them. Is it that their esteemed leaders and grand Mujtahidin who are mentioning the virtues of each of the three daughters over and over are speaking the truth or are these amateurs saying this as an open challenge that no virtue can be located in the books?

The intelligent and far-sighted will through this discussion find out vividly if there is any difference between speaking the truth and blurting out drivel — and there is definitely polarity between the two — and will be able to distinguish between truth and falsehood.

 

5. Amongst the disciples of Hasan al ‘Askari is the famous Shia scholar ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar al Himyari al Qummi. In his ‘famous’ and ‘reliable’ book Qurb al Asnad, he has recorded the statement of Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah just as how his father al Baqir rahimahu Llah has narrated it. Jafar al Sadiq narrates from his father Muhammad al Baqir who states:

ولد لرسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من خديجة القاسم و الطاهر و ام كلثوم و رقية و فاطمة و زينب و تزوج على عليه السلام فاطمة عليها السلام و تزوج بن الربيع و هو من بنى امية زينب و تزوج عثمان بن عفان ام كلثوم و لم يدخل بها حتى هلكت و زوجه رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله مكانها رقية

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had the following children from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha viz. Qasim, Tahir — who is ‘Abdullah — Umm Kulthum, Ruqayyah, Zainab and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu married Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu who is a man from the Bani Umayyah married Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha. ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu married Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha who passed away before consummation of the marriage. Then Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wedded Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha to him in her place.[25]

 

This narration of the A’immah has explained this discussion in detail that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had four biological daughters who were all born from the blessed womb of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Neither from any previous husband nor the daughters of Khadijah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha sister.

 

A ploy or crippled excuse

It is appropriate to inform the readers that since this statement of Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah is detrimental to some Shia folk, hence the previous Shia scholars would explain that this statement of the Imam is a form of Taqiyyah (dissimulation). They had no other ploy besides this.

Now some of the cunning Shia of the fourteenth century have opted for this path that the narrator of this narration is weak and in order to detect the reason of weakness have presented a crude recommendation that the narrator’s name is so and so who is an ‘Ami (Sunni). Hence, this narration is not acceptable.

Subhan Allah! This amazing scheme has been adopted to reject the statement of the Imam. Narrators having the same name is not something extra-ordinary. There are scores of narrators who possess the same name. An intelligent man sees whether the narrator who I am regarding weak, is he the exact same one or some other person. Due to a similarity of names we are rejecting it. This means that clarification is necessary and if this is not carried out then this is deception. Here we have done the very same thing that on the basis of a name, we have rejected ‘Mus’idah’ whereas this man is a ‘devout Shia’, who is a ‘dedicated disciple’ of Jafar al Sadiq, whose narrations are accepted.

 

Matters that need attention

  • This narrator, Mus’idah ibn Sadaqah, on account of whom this narration is being rejected; his narrations appear copiously in this very same book. And all those narrations are accepted. Moreover, countless narrations of this narrator – Mus’idah – are recorded in books considered reliable by the Shia such as al Kafi, Kitab al Khisal, al-Amali of Sheikh al Saduq and Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih etc., which are all accepted by the Shia. If it is correct to reject this narration under discussion because of him being an ‘Ami (i.e. a Sunni) then all the above mentioned dozens of narrations will have to be rejected as well, whereas all of his narrations are accepted.
  • Secondly, the Shia Mujtahidin have cited this narration of Qurb al Asnad in their respective writings as a form of support. For example, Baqir al Majlisi has in Hayat al Qulub (ch. 15 vol. 2 pg. 718) Sheikh ‘Abba al Qummi has in Muntaha al A’mal (ch. 8 vol. 1 pg. 108) and Sheikh ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani has in the end of Tanqih al Maqal under the chapter Umm Kulthum bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with reference to Qurb al Asnad authored by al Himyari. When the above mentioned Shia scholars have mentioned this narration to lend support, and not in order to reject it, then this is another proof of the authenticity of this narration and a sign of its acceptance. Otherwise, their senior scholars would have rejected this narration on the grounds of it being weak.
  • Thirdly, this narration conforming to other narrations in this discussion according to the Shia scholars and Shia Mujtahidin is a clear proof of its authenticity. If for arguments sake there is some weakness in this narration due to the isnad (chain of narrators), then since this narration conforms to other narrations, it is accepted. And there is no logical reason to reject it. Now those who wish to reject it by tactic of a weak narrator are trying to reject their senior Mujtahidin and deeming the works of the philosophers of the Shia religion as false.
 

The Shia should now themselves judge whether their early senior scholars were truthful or these contemporary amateurs? Their senior scholar authors who dealt favourably with this narration was this correct or just a ploy?

An early famous Shia historian al Yaqubi (who passed away in the third century) has written about Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam children who were born from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha in Tarikh al Yaqubi in the following words:

و تزوج رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم خديجة بنت خويلد و له خمس و عشرون سنة و قيل تزوجها و له ثلاثون سنة و ولدت له قبل ان يبعث القاسم و رقية و زينب و ام كلثوم و بعد ما بعث عبد الله و هو الطيب و الطاهر لانه ولد فى الاسلام و فاطمة

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married Khadijah bint Khuwaylid radiya Llahu ‘anha when he was 25 years of age. It is said that he married her at the age of 30. Qasim, Ruqayyah, Zainab and Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhum were born to him before nubuwwah while after nubuwwah ‘Abdullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu — who is called Tayyib and al Tahir since he was born in the period of Islam — and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.[26]

 

6. A famous historian Shia historian of the third century —considered reliable by the Shia —has recorded the discussion of the blessed children in very clear words, differentiating between pre and post nubuwwah in a very explicit way. All the daughters being mothered by Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha is an accepted fact which is being announced by both the Shia and Ahlus Sunnah.

To deem the three daughters as children of previous husbands is tantamount to falsifying the entire history of Islam which is not befitting for any intelligent Muslim.

 

7. After the Shia historian, Yaqubi, now the text of another famous Shia historian, Mas’udi, regarding these noble children will be quoted. He has written in his famous book, Muruj al Dhahab:

و كل اولاده صلى الله عليه و سلم من خديجة خلا ابراهيم و ولد له صلى الله عليه و سلم القاسم و به كان يكنى و كان اكبر بنيه سنا و رقية و ام كلثوم و كانتا تحت عتبة و عتيبة ابنى ابى لهب عمه فطلقاهما لخبر يطول ذكره فتزوجهما عثمان ابن عفان واحدة بعد واحدة و زينب و كانت تحت ابى العاص بن ربيع

All the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam save Ibrahim radiya Llahu ‘anhu are from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Qasim was born with whose name Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam agnomen became Abu al Qasim. He was the eldest child. Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum were then born, who were married to ‘Utbah and ‘Utaybah — the sons of his uncle Abu Lahab (which was done according to a custom prior to the advent of Islam). They divorced them prior to consummation of the marriage. Thereafter ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan married them one after the other. And Zainab was born who was married to Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’.[27]

Mas’udi has mentioned Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha in detail together with these three daughters. By the text of Mas’udi, it is established without an iota of doubt that the four daughters born from the blessed womb of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha are the noble offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

The famous Shia historians (Yaqubi, Mas’udi, etc.) have reproduced the discussion of the four daughters in a wonderful manner leaving no scope for rejection or objection. After reading all of these details, if they are not regarded as the offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and them being from the previous husbands of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha is echoed, then this is not just obstinacy but in fact a display of hostility to Islamic history and a motive to disprove it. An intelligent person does not reject his history, but rather protects historic narrations.

 

8. The book Nahj al Balaghah is considered to be a famous and authentic compilation of the speech of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu by the Shia brotherhood. And in the sight of their scholars it is very authentic. Therein, at one place, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu addresses ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu saying:

و انت اقرب الى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله و شيجة رحم منهما و قد نلت من صهره ما لم ينالا

O ‘Uthman! You enjoy closer relation to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam than Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and you have the honour of being the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which was not attained by Abu Bakr and ‘Umar (i.e. the two daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were married to you one after the other).[28]

 

By this statement of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu (recorded in Nahj al Balaghah) it is clearly established that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu considers ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to enjoy closer proximity to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in relation to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and he verifies ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu being the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which is well-known i.e. the two daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were married to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu one after the other. The discussion on the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has been completely verified by this statement. After finding these clear-cut attestations, rejection of the biological daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is pure falsehood and refutation of the above statement of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

It is appropriate to inform the readers that the commentators of Nahj al Balaghah (viz. Ibn Abi al Hadid, Ibn Mitham al Bahrani and the author of Durrah Najafiyyah, etc.) under the commentary of the above text of Nahj al Balaghah have recorded the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam viz. (Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhuma) as being in the marriage of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu one after the other. All of these commentators accept all the biological daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam being from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha and not from previous husbands. In other words, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is the true son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and not a son-in-law in relation to foster/step-daughters.

 

9. A famous Shia scholar of the fourth century Sheikh al Mufid has stated in his book al Irshad under the accolades of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu that when the kuffar forced Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to emigrate, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam found no one in his family and people more trustworthy than ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu who would return the trusts of the people to them without any deduction whatsoever.

فاستخلفه فى رد الودائع الى اربابها و قضا ما كان عليه من دين لمستحقيه و جمع بناته و نساء اهله و ازواجه و هاجر بهم اليه

Thus, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam chose ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to return all trusts and to settle all debts. Moreover, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam emigrated and selected ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to bring his daughters and the rest of his family to him.

 

Sheikh al Mufid says, that to fulfil all those responsibilities:

فقام على به احسن القيام و رد كل وديعة الى اهلها و اعطى كل ذى حق حقه و حفظ بنات نبيه صلى الله عليه و سلم و حرمه و هاجر بهم ماشيا على قدميه يحوطهم من الاعداء حتى اوردهم اليه المدينة

‘Ali prepared himself for this responsibility, returned the trusts to their respective owners, fulfilled the rights of the rightful, protected the daughters and family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and emigrated on foot with them. He guarded them from the enemy, defended them from opposition and escorted them to the presence of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Madinah under maximum security.[29]

 

It becomes apparent from the text of Sheikh al Mufid that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had more than one daughter who emigrated to Madinah Munawwarah in the security of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was one of the women who emigrated and the emigration of all these sisters happened at once.

 

10. A renowned Shia scholar, ‘Ali ibn ‘Isa al Arbili wrote a book in the seventh century titled Kashf al Ghummah fi Ma’rifat al A’immah. He dedicated a chapter to the virtues of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha in the second volume of this book. He writes in the end of that chapter:

و كانت اول امراة تزوجها رسول الله صلى الله عليه و اله و اولاده كلهم منها الا ابراهيم فانه من مارية القبطية[30]

A Shia translator has translated it into Persian in the following words:

و اول زنے بود کہ آحضرت خواستہ بود وہمہ اولاد آحضرت خواستہ از او بود ند الا ابراھیم کہ از ماریہ قبطیہ بود

Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha was the first wife whom Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married. All of his children (sons and daughters) were born from her except Ibrahim who was born from Mariyyah Qibtiyyah. (Translated by ‘Ali ibn Hussain Zawwari)

 

The writer of this book ‘Ali ibn ‘Isa al Arbili and translator ‘Ali ibn Hussain Zawwari – both senior Shia scholars – have agreed to all the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam being from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha and have not noted any difference of opinion in this matter.

The above author is a renowned Shia scholar and mujtahid of the seventh century and the above commentator and translator is a distinguished scholar of the ninth century.

The readers should consider how all the Shia scholars of all the eras relate the discussion on the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and in what form are the contemporary writers presenting it, and accept that which appears to be the truth. In other words, the contemporary writers have made it a practice to refute their senior mujtahidin and have opted to disprove their elders. Now, only the considerate and understanding of the Shia sect will be able to judge as to who is truthful and who is false.

 

11. Another renowned and distinguished scholar and mujtahid of the Shia sect Baqir al Majlisi al Isfahani (a renowned mujtahid of the 11th century) writes in chapter 52 of his book Hayat al Qulub:

پس اول فرزندے کہ از براۓ او بہم رسید عبد اللہ بود کہ اورا بعبد اللہ و طیب و طاھر ملقب ساختند و بعد از او قاسم متولد شدو بعضے گفتند کہ قاسم از عبد اللہ بزرگ تر بود و چہار دختر از براۓ حضرت آورد زینب و رقیہ و ام کلثوم و فاطمہ

The first son of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam born from Khadijah was ‘Abdullah who was titled Tayyib and Tahir. Thereafter Qasim was born. Some ‘ulamaʼ say that Qasim was elder than ‘Abdullah. Four daughters were born, viz. Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhunna.[31]

 

Baqir al Majlisi has spoken highly about the four daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at several places in his book. The readers should peruse yet another text:

ابن بابویہ بسند معتبر آحضرت روایت کردہ است کہ از براۓ حضرت رسول متولد شد از خدیجہ قاسم و طاہر و نام طاہر عبد اللہ بود و ام کلثوم و رقیہ و زینب و فاطمہ

و حضرت امیر المؤمنین فاطمہ را تزویج نمود و تزویج نمود زینب را ابو العاص بن ربیع و او مردے بود از بنو امیہ و عثمان بن عفان ام کلثوم را تزویج نمود و پیش ازاں کہ نجانہ اور برود برحمت الہی واصل شد پس چوں بجنگ بدر رفتند حضرت رسول رقیہ را باو تزویج نمود

Ibn Babuwayh al Qummi relates with an authentic chain from Imam Jafar Sadiq that these children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were born from Khadijah: Qasim, Tahir whose name was ‘Abdullah, Umm Kulthum, Ruqayyah, Zainab and Fatimah. ‘Ali married Fatimah and Abu al ‘As — who was from the Banu Umayyah — married Zainab. ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan married Umm Kulthum. Before she could go to his house, she reached the mercy of Allah (i.e. she passed away). Thereafter, when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went to Badr, he married Ruqayyah to ‘Uthman.[32]

 

Just as Baqir al Majlisi has at other places clarified this matter, similarly, he has clarified the narrations of the above two scholars as well i.e. the four daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are biological, born from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha; neither from a previous husband of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha nor the nieces of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

The readers should pay attention to the fact that Baqir al Majlisi has sternly rebutted both views (the daughters being the children of previous husbands and being nieces). He thus writes in the same chapter 51 of Hayat al Qulub: “Authentic narrations reject both these claims.”[33]

 

12. A prominent Shia Muhaddith of the 11th century Sayed Ni’mat Allah al Jaza’iri states in volume 1 of his recognised book al Anwar al No’maniyyah:

انما ولدت له ابنان و اربع بنات زينب و رقية و ام كلثوم و فاطمة

Khadijah bore two sons and four daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam viz. Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah.[34]

 

A prominent Shia scholar Ni’mat Allah al Jaza’iri has lent support to this discussion i.e. these four are the biological daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam born from none other than Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha; not the children of the previous husbands of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

 

13. An eminent author of the Shia, ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani, in his famous work Tanqih al Maqal fi Ahwal al Rijal has titled a separate section at the end of the third volume as al Nisa’. Therein under mention of Umm Kulthum bint Rasulillah radiya Llahu ‘anha he has written the following, Muntaha al Maqal of Abu ‘Ali has the same quote:

و كانت خديجة اذ تزوجها رسول الله بنت اربعين سنة و ستة اشهر و كان رسول الله يومئذ ابن احدى و عشرين سنة و ولدت له اربع بنات كلهن ادركن الاسلام و هاجرن و هن زينب و فاطمة و رقية و ام كلثوم (انتهى كلامه فى مجمع البحرين)

When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married Khadijah, her age was forty years and six months and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was twenty one years old. She bore four daughters of his, all of them lived till the era of Islam and migrated to Madinah. Their illustrious names are Zainab, Fatimah, Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum.[35]

 

‘Abdullah al Mamaqani has at this juncture included relative biographies under the name of each daughter. And for the information of the scholars and researchers; Sheikh al Mamaqani has at all of those junctures strongly rejected the daughters being step-daughters.

Furthermore, Abu ‘Ali under this section (i.e. the biography of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha and Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha) of Muntaha al Maqal has mentioned these in a proficient manner which efficiently refutes the ideologies of modern day Shia eulogy writers.

 

14. One renowned scholar of the later Shia scholars Muhammad Hashim ibn Muhammad ‘Ali al Khurasani (d. 1352 A.H) who is called the ‘pillar of Islam and the Muslims’ in (ch. 1 sec. 5) his famous history book — considered authentic by the Shia — Muntakhab al Tawarikh has discussed in detail the illustrious children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Therein he writes:

آں بزرگوار صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم از خدیجۃ الکبری سہ پسر داشت و چہار دختر جناب قاسم و زینب و رقیہ و ام کلثوم کہ قبل از بعثت متولد شدند و جناب طیب و طاہر و فاطمہ زہرا کہ بعد از بعثت متولد شدند

Khadijah bore three sons and four daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam viz. Qasim, Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum prior to nubuwwah and Tayyib, Tahir and Fatimah al Zahra’ after nubuwwah.[36]

 

Mention is made, to make the readers aware, that just as the senior Shia scholars, Muhammad Hashim al Khurasani — a renowned Shia scholar of that era — at this point of Muntakhab al Tawarikh has also mentioned a detailed biography of each of the four daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wherein he has spoken about their husbands including details on the different years of demise of the four daughters. Whichever scholar has perused this point of this book will be fully aware of the details. This section five alone is a sufficient answer to the ‘one daughter’ propaganda on condition that the fervour to belie their seniors is not overwhelming their disposition and that they have not made their objective rejection of their elders.

Sheikh ‘Abbas al Qummi is one of the Shia Mujtahidin of the 14th century. In his book Muntaha al Amal (vol. 1 ch. 8) he discusses the offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the following words:

از حضرت صادق علیہ السلام روایت شدہ است از براۓ رسول خدا صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم از خدیجہ متولد شدند طاہر و قاسم و فاطمہ و ام کلثوم و رقیہ و زینب و تزویج نمود فاطمہ را بحضرت امیر المؤمنین علیہ السلام و زینب را بابی العاص بن ربیع از بنی امیہ بود و ام کلثوم را بعثمان بن عفان

Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam reports that the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam born from Khadijah are Tahir, Qasim, Fatimah, Umm Kulthum, Ruqayyah and Zainab. Fatimah was married to ‘Ali; Zainab was married to Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ from the Banu Umayyah and Umm Kulthum was married to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan. When she passed away, Ruqayyah was then married to him.[37]

 

Sheikh ‘Abbas al Qummi has written here about the four daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in different ways. By these details, the readers are fully satisfied that the biological daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha are four. There is no doubt in this! And the propaganda of them being foster or step-daughters is absolute drivel even according to the Shia and is rejection and denial of the seniors of the Shia creed.

 

Summary

The readers have read the texts of approximately 14/15 geologists besides the honoured A’immah, great mujtahids and the historians. These references are merely a sample. To present all the views of the Shia on this discussion was a lengthy task. But to ascertain the truthfulness of this discussion, this amount is sufficient.

It is quite apparent that these are not scholars of one era. In fact, these are the quotations of the senior Shia of every era from the ‘infallible’ A’immah and early scholars to the 14th century hijri. All have stated that the four pure daughters are biological in a very explicit manner, rather than them being foster. Now, no just and intelligent person will have the slightest doubt regarding them being the biological offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

For the benefit of the unprejudiced readers, a fair amount of reliable material from the Shia books has been reproduced to determine the truthfulness and veracity of this discussion. Consensus of every era is found in these references which no sane person will reject.

Think for yourselves; were their A’immah truthful or the modern day eulogy writers? Were their great mujtahidin truthful or the modern day orators? Were their senior scholars of the creed speaking the truth or these mourners of the lowest category? Similarly, the high calibre historians and geologists of the Shia religion are correct or these Shia zealots?

Keep this saying in front of you “If you cannot differentiate between statuses, this is apostasy,” and in accordance to justice and truth, decide for yourself. There is no need for any explanation.

Note:-

The majority of Shia authors have included the statements of their A’immah regarding the four daughters. Consensus of every era is found therein, which we have quoted sufficiently and we have presented nearly all of their texts so that the scholars are at ease with regards to references.

Nevertheless, there are some people like the author of al Istighathah fi Bid’i al Thalathah, Abu al Qasim ‘Ali ibn Ahmed al ‘Alawi al Kufi etc. who have opposed their honourable A’immah, great mujtahidin and renowned scholars and have devised an odd obscure view that the only biological daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is Sayyidah Fatimah al Zahra’ radiya Llahu ‘anha. The other three daughters are adopted, step-children or the nieces of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

To rebut these type of odd views, we have produced sufficient material from reliable Shia books and have presented the consensus of the different eras which is the accurate answer. Go back and be satisfied. References are reproduced correctly.

Now, we will produce answers to this odd view from the senior Shia scholars and their reliable books to ascertain what the great thinkers of the Shia creed have said regarding such drivel.

Sheikh ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani has at the end of Tanqih al Maqal written a detailed answer to Abu al Qasim al ‘Alawi. Kindly read through it carefully:

و لسيد ابى القاسم العلوى الكوفى فى الاستغاثة فى بدع الثلثة كلام طويل اصرفيه على ان زينب التى كانت تحت ابى العاص بن ربيع و رقية التى كانت تحت عثمان ليستا بنتيه بل ربيبتاه لم يات الا بما زعمه برهانا حاصله عدم تعقل كون رسول الله قبل البعثة على دين الجاهلية بل كان فى زمن الجاهلية على دين يرتضيه الله من غير دين الجاهلية و حينئذ فيكون محالا ان يزوج ابنته من كافر من غير ضرورة دعت الى ذلك و هو مخالف لهم فى دينهم عارف بمكرهم و الحادهم ثم اخذ فى نقل ما يقضى بوجود بنتين لاخت خديجة من امها اسمهما زينب و رقية و انهما اللتان كانتا تحت ابى العاص و عثمان و هذا لب كلامه تركنا نقله لطوله و هو ان اتعب نفسه الا انه لم يات بما يغنى عن تكلف النظر و الثبوت و انه كبيت العنكبوت اما اولا فلانه يشبه الاجتهاد فى قبال النصوص من الفريقين عى النبى و عن ائمتنا عليهم السلام و اما ثانيا فلانا و ان كنا نسلم ان رسول الله لم يكن فى زمان الجاهلية على دين الجاهلية بل على دين يرتضيه الله تعالى و لكن رسول الله ليس مشرعا بل كل حكم كان ينزل عليه كان يلتزم به تمام الالتزام و لم يكن يخترع من قبل نفسه حكما و الاحكام كانت تنزل تدريجا و عند تزويجه زينب و رقية لم يكن الكفائة فى الايمان شرطا شرعا فزوج بنتيه من الرجلين تزويجا صحيحا شرعا فى ذلك الزمان ثم انزل الله تعالى قوله و لا تنكحوا المشركين حتى يؤمنوا ففرق بين ابى العاص و بين زينب و لو كانت الكفائة فى الاسلام شرطا قبل ذلك لما انزل الله سبحانه الاية فما ذكره لا وجه له و اما ثالثا فلانه لا شبهة فى كون زينب و رقية اللتين تحت ابى العاص و عثمان مسلمتين كما لا شبهة فى كون تزويجهما من رسول الله باذنه و اجازته فلا يفرق الحال بين ان تكونا بنتيه او ربيبتيه او بنتى اخت خديجة من امها او غير ذلك لاشتراك الجميع فيما جعله علة للانكار فما ذكره ساقط بلا شبهة [38]

We have quoted the exact text of al Mamaqani for the benefit of the ‘ulamaʼ. The meaning of the above text is as follows:

 

Sayed Abu al Qasim al ‘Alawi al Kufi has brought a lengthy discussion in his book al Istighathah fi Bid’i al Thalathah. He adamantly claims that Zainab — the wife of Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ — and Ruqayyah — the wife of ‘Uthman — are not the biological daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but are in fact his foster children. The gist of the proof furnished by Abu al Qasim for his claim is:

It is impossible for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to be on the din of jahiliyyah (ignorance) prior to nubuwwah. In fact, in the era of jahiliyyah Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was on such a path opposed to the din of jahiliyyah which was pleasing to Allah Ta’ala. In that period, for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to give his daughter in the marriage of a kafir without any pressing need is impossible since Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was opposed to their din and well aware of their treachery and atheism.

Thereafter, Abu al Qasim began producing such evidences which prove that those two girls were the daughters of the sister of Khadijah whose names were Zainab and Ruqayyah and who were married to Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi and ‘Uthman. This is the gist of his explanation. Due to the length of his research, we have opted not to fully reproduce it.

Although Abu al Qasim tried his utmost best, but he was unable to furnish reliable proofs free from stretching things. His proof is just like a spider’s web, because:

Firstly, he presents his ijtihad in direct conflict to the clear statements of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and our honoured A’immah.

Secondly, we accept that in the era of jahiliyyah, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not follow the din of jahiliyyah, but rather followed the din loved by Allah. And he would not give any new command; but complied fully with the command which was revealed. He would not fabricate any new law. In that time, commandments were being revealed slowly after intervals. At the time of the marriage of Zainab and Ruqayyah there was no condition in the shari’ah for the spouses to be on iman. Hence, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wedded his daughters to those two men in conformity with the correct shari’ah of that time.

Thereafter, when the command was revealed that until a mushrik does not become a muʾmin, do not marry (your daughter to) him, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam separated Abu al ‘As and Zainab. If unity in Islam was a condition for marriage before the revelation of this Ayah, Allah Ta’ala would not have revealed this command.

Thirdly, just as there is no doubt that Zainab and Ruqayyah got married with the permission of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, similarly there is no doubt that Zainab and Ruqayyah were believers when they were married to Abu al ‘As and ‘Uthman.

Moreover, the cause of rejection furnished by Abu Al Qasim is present in all these instances whether Zainab and Ruqayyah are Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam foster daughters or biological daughters or the daughters of Khadijah’s sister. There is no difference in these instances.

(Meaning that if Islam was a condition in marriage and for this reason the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Zainab and Ruqayyah were unable to get married to Abu al ‘As and ‘Uthman, then this condition is still present even if they were the foster daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam or the daughters of Khadijah’s sister.)

Hence, the proof furnished by Abu Al Qasim is baseless.[39]

 

The proof of Abu al Qasim was rejected by his own Sheikh ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani and Sheikh has clearly pointed out the weakness and flaw in his proof. There is no need for us now to further scrutinise it.

Nonetheless, we feel it appropriate to produce the views of the senior Shia regarding Abu al Qasim al ‘Alawi al Kufi, author of al Istighathah, so that his religious and academic level may become apparent to all, the weight of his writings according to the Shia known and his unworthiness evident.

 
 

Abu al Qasim al Alawi al Kufi according to the Shii scholars

The Shia scholarly giants have mentioned the following qualities of ‘Ali ibn Ahmed Abu al Qasim al Kufi besides others. Examine them carefully.

  1. This man is from the people of Kufah and he claimed to be from the family of Abu Talib.
  2. Towards the end of his life, he became extreme in his ideologies and his creed became fallacious.
  3. He has written quite a number of books which are mainly based on falsehood.
  4. According to the statement of al Ghada’iri, he was a liar in his claim to being ‘Alawi; he was extreme and an innovator. He has scores of books which are not worth a glance.
  5. He adopted the ideology of takhmis. The meaning of takhmis as defined by their scholars is: Salman Farsi, Miqdad, Abu Dhar, ‘Ammar and ‘Umar ibn Umayyah al Damari radiya Llahu ‘anhum; Allah Ta’ala has handed over His entire universe’s affairs to these five persons. (i.e. all the matters of the world have been given in their control.) People with such ideologies are called Mukhammisah and Abu al Qasim al ‘Alawi was fully supportive of this corrupt ideology.
  6. Abu Al Qasim died in Jumad al Ula 352 A.H and was buried in Karmi in the district of Fusah which is close to Shiraz[40]
 

To summarise the above, we have mentioned the individual views of some Shia which was followed by pointing out his mistakes and deviances by the help of the opinions of the senior scholars. Thereafter, we made it clear to the readers the religious and academic level of Abu al Qasim according to the Shia. It is hoped that this will be sufficient material to let the hearts be satisfied and so that the position of the individual viewers are centred and so that there remains no need for us to scrutinise and criticise. There is no difficulty for the intelligent and just to come to a conclusion. Remember:

The corrupt ideology of there being only one daughter fabricated by the Shia of this age and time; their fundamental proof and primary source is this author of al Istighathah — the commentary on whose beliefs, actions and writings the writers have heard from the tongues of the senior Shia scholars. After knowing this dimension of the discussion at hand, no intelligent sensible man will be deceived and will not be affected by this propaganda.

Now the biography of each daughter will be presented separately. Firstly, the eldest daughter Sayyidah Zainab’s radiya Llahu ‘anha biography will be written followed by the biographies of the other three daughters in sequence. Allah willing.

 

NEXT⇒ The Biography of Sayyidah Zainab bint Rasulillah


[1]Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 9-10 – Mention of Khadijah, Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol.8 pg.8 – Mention of Khadijah, al Isabah ma’ahu al Isti’ab vol. 4 pg. 274 – Mention of Khadijah, Tabaqat of Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 156 – The number of wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam .

[2]Zad al Ma’ad by Ibn Qayyim vol. 1 pg. 26 – The chapter regarding the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam .

[3]Bukhari vol. 2 pg. 787 Kitab al Nikah – The chapter regarding the self-honour of women and their anger. Mishkat pg.573 – The chapter concerning the accolades of the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam .

[4]Zad al Ma’ad by Ibn Qayyim vol. 1 pg. 26 – The chapter regarding the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , Jami‘ Masanid al Imam al A’zam vol. 1 pg. 207 – The fourth chapter regarding virtues, Zad al Ma’ad by Ibn Qayyim vol. 1 pg. 26 – The chapter regarding the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam .

[5]Al Ma’arif by Ibn Qutaybah pg.59 – The wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam . Tarikh Ibn Jarir al Tabari vol. 13 pg.2 extracted from the book Dhayl al Muzil by Abu Jafar al Tabari, Tabaqat of Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 156 – The number of wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam .

[6]  His full name is Hakim ibn Hizam ibn Khuwaylid ibn Asad. He is the biological nephew of Khadijah i.e. Khadijah is his paternal aunt. The scholars of this science have mentioned one of his specialities that he is known as the one born in the Ka’bah. Just as it is famous about ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu that his birth took place in the Ka’bah, similarly Hakim ibn Hizam radiya Llahu ‘anhu was also born in the Ka’bah. He accepted Islam at the conquest of Makkah [Kitab al Muhabbar of Abu Jafar al Baghdadi pg.176 – The heading; The counsel of Quraysh; Al Isabah fi Tamiz al Sahabah of Ibn Hajar pg. 348 – The heading Hakim ibn Hizam ibn Khuwaylid; Al Ikmal fi Asma’ al Rijal of the author of Mishkat pg. 591 – The heading Hakim ibn Hizam]

[7]Al Ma’arif by Ibn Qutaybah pg.59 – The wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam . Tarikh Ibn Jarir al Tabari vol. 13 pg.2 extracted from the book Dhayl al Muzil by Abu Jafar al Tabari, Tabaqat of Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 156 – The number of wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam .

[8]Al Musannaf ‘Abdul Razzaq vol. 7 pg. 492, 493 – The chapter regarding the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , Bukhari vol. 1 pg. 538 – The chapter concerning the marriage of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha and her virtue, Muslim vol. 2 pg. 284 – The chapter concerning the virtues of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha, Mishkat pg.573 – First portion of the chapter concerning the accolades of the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam .

[9]Majma’ al Zawa’id vol. 9 pg. 220 – The chapter concerning the virtue of Khadijah bint Khuwaylid radiya Llahu ‘anha.

[10]Majma’ al Zawa’id of al Haythami vol. 9 pg. 217 – The chapter regarding the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[11]Sirah Nabawiyyah of Ibn Hisham vol.1 pg.190 – The hadith concerning the marriage of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha and his children being from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha, Kitab al Thiqat of Ibn Hibban vol. 1 pg.46,47 – The mention of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam journey to Sham.

[12]Zad al Ma’ad of Ibn Qayyim vol. 1 pg. 25, 26 – The chapter regarding the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam .

[13]Tabaqat of Ibn Sa’d vol. 1 pg. 85 – portion one under mention of the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and their names, Tabaqat of Ibn Sa’d vol. 8 pg. 156 – under mention of the number of wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[14]Nasab Quraysh of Al Mus’ab al Zubairi pg. 231 under the children of Asad ibn ‘Abdul ‘Uzza.

[15]  Abu Jafar al Baghdadi has at this juncture – under the lives of the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam – mentioned the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (born from Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha) but he did no mention the name of Ruqayyah in the list of daughters. Only this amount of explanation is needed to clear any misgiving; the scribe from the original work has made a typing error. The proof of this is that the author of the Kitab al Muhabbar has written further where mention has been made of those women who pledged allegiance to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam : “The daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam : Zainab, Umm Kulthum, Fatima and Ruqayyah and Safiyyah ‘Abdul Muttalib.” He mentioned the names of all four daughters including Ruqayyah. (Kitab al Muhabbar pg.406).

[16]Kitab al Muhabbar pg. 79 under the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam of Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Habib al Baghdadi.

[17]Al Ma’arif pg. 61

[18]Kitab Ansab al Ashraf vol.1 pg.397, 398, 401, 402 – The wives and children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam .

[19]Jamharah Ansab al ‘Arab pg.16 – The heading: This is the lineage of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib.

[20]Usul al Kafi pg. 279 Kitab al Hujjah – The chapter concerning the birth of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam .

[21]Al Safi fi Sharh Usul al Kafi, Kitab al Hujjah vol. 3 sec. 2 pg. 147 – The chapter concerning the birth of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam .

[22]Kitab al Khisal of Sheikh al Saduq pg. 375 7th section

[23]  ibid

[24]Al Amali of Sheikh al Saduq pg.262 Majlis 67, Tanqih al Maqal by ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani pg.79 – The end of third volume, the virtue of women, under Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam . Muntaha al Maqal of Abu ‘Ali pg.434 – The chapter of the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam , under Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam .

[25]Qurb al Asnad of Abu ‘Abbas ‘Abdullah ibn Ja’far al Humairi pg.6 – The children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam – Iran print, Tehran

[26]Tarikh al Yaqubi of Ahmed ibn Abi Yaqub ibn Jafar ibn Wadih al Katib al ‘Abbasi known as al Yaqubi vol. 2 pg. 20 – The chapter of the marriage to Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.

[27]Muruj al Dhahab vol. 2 pg. 298 – The chapter concerning matters and events from the birth to the demise of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[28]  a) Nahj al Balaghah vol. 1 pg. 303 – The chapter concerning the speech of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu when the people gathered by him and began complaining about ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

  1. b) Tarjamah wa Sharh Nahj al Balaghah 3 pg. 516-519

[29]  a) Al Irshad pg. 23 – The chapter concerning the speciality of ‘Ali

  1. b) Al Irshad 23 – The section concerning Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam being the trust keeper of the Quraysh

[30]Kashf al Ghummah fi Ma’rifat al A’immah vol. 2 pg. 80 with translation of al Manaqib (Persian) – The chapter of the final virtues of Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha

[31]Hayat al Qulub vol. 2 pg. 728 ch. 52 – The chapter concerning the number of daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[32]Hayat al Qulub vol. 2 pg. 718 ch. 51 – The chapter concerning the biographies of the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[33]Hayat al Qulub vol. 2 pg. 719 ch. 51 – The chapter concerning the biographies of the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[34] Al Anwar al No’maniyyah vol. 1 pg. 367

[35]  a) Tanqih al Maqal vol. 3 pg. 73 – The section of women, chapter al Hamzah; Umm Kulthum bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

  1. b) Muntaha al Maqal 434 – chapter his wives; Khadijah bint Khuwaylid radiya Llahu ‘anha

[36]Muntakhab al Tawarikh vol. 1 pg. 23 ch. 1 sec. 5 – The chapter concerning the offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[37]Muntaha al Amal vol. 1 pg. 108 sec. 8 – The chapter concerning the biographies of the offspring of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[38]Tanqih al Maqal fi ‘Ilm al Rijal vol. 3 pg. 79 – chapter 7, 8, 9 – Section of women; Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[39]Al Mamaqani vol. 3 pg. 79 – Section of women; Zainab bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[40]  a) Rijal al Najashi pg. 188, 189

  1. b) Rijal al Tafrishi 226 – ‘Ali ibn Ahmed
  2. c) Jami’ al Ruwat 1 pg. 553
  3. d) Muntaha al Maqal fi ‘Ilm al Rijal pg 275, 276 – ‘Ali ibn Ahmed Abu al Qasim al Kufi
  4. e) Tanqih al Maqal fi Ahwal al Rijal 2 pg. 265 – The chapter of ‘Ayn ‘Ali ibn Ahmed al Kufi
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