Her Rectification of few Sahabah

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August 6, 2021
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August 6, 2021

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Her Rectification of few Sahabah

 

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha rectified the senior Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in a number of rulings. Authors have compiled a few books on the rectifications of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. Abu Mansur ‘Abdul Muhsin ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al Baghdadi[1] (411 – 489 A.H.) listed 15 ahadith. Badr al Din al Zarkashi (745 –794 A.H.) listed 47 ahadith in al Ijabah li Irad ma istadrakathu Aisha ‘ala al Sahabah. Al Suyuti condensed it and made few additions, titling it ‘Ayn al Isabah fi ma istadrakathu Aisha ‘ala al Sahabah.

Majority of her corrections were targeted at four senior Companions viz. Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, Sayyidina Abu Hurairah, and Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

She is correct in some of her corrections and has erred in others. Here is a list of her rectifications of these distinguished Companions:

  • She corrected Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu concerning:
    • The family mourning over the deceased.
    • Ghusl after intercourse.
    • The permissibility of giving charity to the wife.
    • The permissibility of applying perfume after shaving for the Haji.
    • Applying perfume for the muhrim.
    • Those who are allowed to enter a female’s grave.
    • The two rak’at after ‘Asr.
    • Males and females entering a spa.[2]

 

  • She corrected Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma concerning:
    • The deceased being punished because of his family crying over him.
    • Applying perfume for the muhrim.
    • The ‘Umrah of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Rajab.
    • The reward of one who follows a janazah.
    • Cutting the leather socks for women.
    • Wudu’ after kissing.
    • His statement regarding sudden death.
    • The sequence of the Adhan of Bilal and Ibn Umm Maktum radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.
    • His statement: a month is twenty-nine days.
    • His report of the incident of those thrown into the deserted well and them hearing the speech of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[3]

 

  • She corrected Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu concerning:
    • Fasting of one in major impurity.
    • Evil omen in three things.
    • A woman being punished due to a cat.
    • The illegitimate child.
    • The one who does not perform Witr has no salah.
    • Speaking quickly.
    • The one who despises meeting Allah.
    • A woman breaking her salah.
    • Walking with one shoe.[4]

 

  • She corrected Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma concerning:
    • Him prohibiting the one who sent sacrificial animals from those things forbidden upon the Haji.
    • Coming out of ihram being a condition before tawaf.
    • Praying while lying down.
    • The two rak’at after ‘Asr.
    • The shroud of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
    • The Witr of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[5]

 

The Principles upon which her Corrections are Founded

The object here is not to prove Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha correct in all her views or to give preference to her over those she corrected. This is not the place for that. Moreover, we do not claim infallibility for anyone besides the Prophets ‘alayh al Salam. The object here is simply to understand her fiqh.

 

  1. Authenticating ahadith from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the principles upon which her corrections were based. Among them are:

She felt that she remembered the words of the hadith of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; hence, she corrected someone else. For example, her correction of Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma for his report from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

الشهر تسع وعشرون

The month is twenty-nine days.

 

They mentioned this to Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha who remarked:

 

يرحم الله أبا عبد الرحمن وهل هجر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نساءه شهرا فنزل لتسع وعشرين فقيل له فقال إن الشهر قد يكون تسعا وعشرين

May Allah have mercy upon Abu ‘Abdur Rahman. Did the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not stay away from his wives for a month before coming down after twenty-nine days? When he was asked about this he explained, “A month is sometimes twenty-nine days.”[6]

 

Another example is the issue of the deceased being punished by the wailing of the family over him:

 

فعن عبد الله بن عبيد الله بن أبي مليكة قال توفيت ابنة لعثمان رضي الله عنه بمكة وجئنا لنشهدها وحضرها ابن عمر وابن عباس رضي الله عنهم وإني لجالس بينهما أو قال جلست إلى أحدهما ثم جاء الآخر فجلس إلى جنبي فقال عبد الله بن عمر رضي الله عنهما لعمرو بن عثمان ألا تنهى عن البكاء فإن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال إن الميت ليعذب ببكاء أهله عليه فقال ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قد كان عمر رضي الله عنه يقول بعض ذلك ثم حدث قال صدرت مع عمر رضي الله عنه من مكة حتى إذا كنا بالبيداء إذا هو بركب تحت ظل سمرة فقال اذهب فانظر من هؤلاء الركب قال فنظرت فإذا صهيب فأخبرته فقال ادعه لي فرجعت إلى صهيب فقلت ارتحل فالحق أمير المؤمنين فلما أصيب عمر دخل صهيب يبكي يقول واأخاه واصاحباه فقال عمر رضي الله عنه يا صهيب أتبكي علي وقد قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إن الميت يعذب ببعض بكاء أهله عليه قال ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما فلما مات عمر رضي الله عنه ذكرت ذلك لعائشة رضي الله عنها فقالت رحم الله عمر والله ما حدث رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إن الله ليعذب المؤمن ببكاء أهله عليه ولكن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال إن الله ليزيد الكافر عذابا ببكاء أهله عليه وقالت حسبكم القرآن وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرىٰ قال ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما عند ذلك والله هو أضحك وأبكى قال ابن أبي مليكة والله ما قال ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما شيئا

A son of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed away in Makkah. We, as well as Ibn ‘Umar and Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhum, attended the funeral. I was sitting between them—or he said: I sat next to one of them and the other came and sat by my side.

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma said to ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman, “Will you not prohibit crying for indeed the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared, ‘Certainly, the deceased is punished due to the crying of his family over him.’”

Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma said, “‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu would make a similar statement. He then narrated: I returned with ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu from Makkah. When we were at Bayda’, we spotted a caravan under the shade of a lotus tree[7]. ‘Umar told me, ‘Go and see who this group are?’ I went to check and found Suhayb. I informed ‘Umar of this who told me to call him. I returned to Suhayb and said, ‘Mount and join up with Amir al Mu’minin.’ After ‘Umar was injured, Suhayb entered and cried, lamenting, ‘O my brother! O my companion!’ ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu said, ‘O Suhayb, are you crying over me whereas the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: Indeed, the deceased is punished by some of the crying of his family over him.’ Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma continues: After ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed away, I mentioned this to Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha who remarked, ‘May Allah shower mercy upon ‘Umar. By Allah, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam never said: Indeed, Allah will punish a believer by the crying of his family over him. Instead, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: Certainly, Allah will increase the punishment of a disbeliever by the crying of his family over him.’ She then said, ‘The Qur’an is sufficient for you [as proof]: And no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another.[8]

At this, Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma exclaimed, “Allah is the one who makes

laugh and weep.”

Ibn Abi Mulaykah observes, “By Allah, Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma never uttered a word.”[9]

 

  1. Citing the Qur’an as evidence emphasising her correction:

Have a look at the previous hadith. Coupled with her belief that she had correctly memorised the hadith of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, she emphasised her narration with Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala words:

وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرىٰ

And no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another.[10]

 

  1. Ijtihad in the fiqh and understanding of Hadith:

One example of this is the narration of ‘Alqamah:

 

كنا عند عائشة فدخل أبو هريرة فقالت أنت الذي تحدث أن امرأة عذبت في هرة لها ربطتها فلم تطعمها ولم تسقها فقال سمعته منه يعني النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال عبد الله كذا قال أبي فقالت هل تدري ما كانت المرأة إن المرأة مع ما فعلت كانت كافرة وإن المؤمن أكرم على الله عز وجل من أن يعذبه في هرة فإذا حدثت عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فانظر كيف تحدث

We were by Aisha when Abu Hurairah entered. She confronted him, “Are you the one who narrates that a woman was punished due to her cat which she tied up and did not feed and give water to.”

He said, “I heard it from him, i.e. the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.” ‘Abdullah said: This is what my father said.

She said, “Do you know what the woman was? The woman, coupled with her evil action, was a disbeliever. Undoubtedly, a believer is more honoured in the sight of Allah—the Mighty and Majestic—than him being punished because of a cat. When you narrate from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, then check properly how you are narrating.”[11]

 

  1. Personal Awareness

It is a well-known fact that the wife is the most acquainted with the statements and actions of her husband. She is likewise most cognisant and informed of the laws specific to women. One example of this is that Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al ‘As[12] radiya Llahu ‘anhuma would issue a verdict that when women take a ghusl, they should open their hair. This verdict reached the ears of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha who remarked:

 

يا عجبا لابن عمرو هذا يأمر النساء إذا اغتسلن أن ينقضن رؤوسهن أفلا يأمرهن أن يحلقن رؤوسهن لقد كنت أغتسل أنا ورسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من إناء واحد ولا أزيد على أن أفرغ على رأسي ثلاث إفراغات

How astonishing is this Ibn ‘Amr! He commands women to open their plaits when having a ghusl. Why does he not command them to shave their heads? The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and I would have a ghusl from one container. I would not do more than simply pour water over my head thrice.[13]

 

  1. Strong Memory and Exceptional Retention

One example of this is that after Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed away, Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha requested that his janazah be brought to the Masjid where Salat al Janazah may be performed upon him. The people disallowed this upon which she exclaimed:

 

ما أسرع ما نسي الناس ما صلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على سهيل ابن البيضاء إلا في المسجد

How quickly people forget! The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not perform the Salat al Janazah upon Suhayl ibn al Bayda’ except in the Masjid.[14]

 

It is possible to attribute these corrections to one of the upcoming reasons:

  1. An error on the part of selected narrators among the Sahabah.
  2. A few Sahabah forgetting.
  3. Misunderstanding of certain ahadith.
  4. Not comprehending the reason for the hadith.
  5. Not knowing that the hadith is abrogated.
  6. The Sahabi not being aware of the hadith.

 

At the end, it is imperative to emphasise yet again that there is an angle of jurispruduc judgement to the corrections of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha which could be right or could be wrong. Whichever the case, Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha founded academic principles upon which the ‘Ulama’ treaded thereafter, the rules of the science of ‘ilal was established, and the rules of al jarh and al ta’dil (crediting or discrediting a narrator) were formed.[15]

 

NEXT⇒ Aisha’s Influence in Inviting towards Allah and her Methodologies


[1] He is ‘Abdul Muhsin ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, Abu Mansur al Baghdadi. The Jurist, the Maliki, the wayfaring Muhaddith. He was a man of culture and refinement, sublime, intelligent, and reliable. He was born in 421 A.H. and passed away in 489 A.H. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 19 pg. 152; Tarikh al Islam, vol. 33 pg. 301.

[2] Al Ijabah li Irad ma istadrakathu Aisha ‘ala al Sahabah, pg. 76 – 84.

[3] Al Ijabah li Irad ma istadrakathu Aisha ‘ala al Sahabah, pg. 102 – 110.

[4] Al Ijabah li Irad ma istadrakathu Aisha ‘ala al Sahabah, pg. 112 – 126.

[5] Al Ijabah li Irad ma istadrakathu Aisha ‘ala al Sahabah, pg. 87 – 101; al Sayyidah Aisha wa Tawthiquha li al Sunnah, pg. 85.

[6] Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 5182. Ahmed Shakir classified the isnad sahih in Tahqiq Musnad Ahmed, vol. 7 pg. 142 and so did al Albani in al Silsilah al Sahihah, vol. 7 pg. 1456.

[7] Al samurah: tree. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 2 pg. 399.

[8] Surah al Isra’: 15.

[9] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1287, 1288; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 927, 929.

[10] Surah al Isra’: 15.

[11] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 2 pg. 519, Hadith: 10738; Musnad Abi Dawood al Tayalisi, vol. 3 pg. 66, Hadith: 1503. Al Haythami said in Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 1 pg. 121, “His narrators are the narrators of Sahih al Bukhari.”

[12] He is ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al ‘As, Abu Muhammad al Qurashi al Sahmi radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. The eminent Sahabi, the Imam, the ocean, the worshipper. He embraced Islam before his father. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam allowed him to write down ahadith. He witnessed Siffin alongside Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu but did not participate in the fighting. He passed away in 65 A.H. or thereafter. Al Isti’ab, vol. 1 pg. 292; al Isabah, vol. 4 pg. 192.

[13] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 331.

[14] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 973. For further information study: Sirat al Sayyidah Aisha, pg. 250.

[15] Al Sayyidah Aisha wa Tawthiquha li al Sunnah, pg. 84.

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