Aisha’s Influence in Inviting towards Allah and her Methodologies

Her Rectification of few Sahabah
August 6, 2021
Chapter 3 – The Excellences of Aisha and Comparing her with the Nobles of the Household of Nubuwwah and her Father
August 6, 2021

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Aisha’s Influence in Inviting towards Allah and her Methodologies

 

I have never seen anyone more eloquent than Aisha.

-Musa ibn Talhah

Her Influence in Inviting towards Allah

 

1. Her Influence in Da’wah during the Madani Period

The life of Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha in the Madani Period was characterised with learning and memorising the pristine Sunnah, both verbal and practical forms of his salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam extraordinary life, in compliance with Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala command:

 

وَاذْكُرْنَ مَا يُتْلىٰ فِيْ بُيُوْتِكُنَّ مِنْ آيَاتِ اللهِ وَالْحِكْمَةِ

And remember what is recited in your houses of the verses of Allah and wisdom.[1]

 

This important mission presented itself it the following manner:

  1. Her memorisation and interest in the verbal and practical Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam life, particularly his private life with his wives.
  2. Dissemination of Shar’i knowledge—everything she learnt from him. In this way, becoming the best conveyer of this enormous prophetic legacy to the Ummah.
  3. She was the best medium between him and the believing women who asked questions about their Din, especially to elucidate on some detailed Islamic law specific to women.

An example of this:

 

أن امرأة سألت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عن غسلها من المحيض فأمرها كيف تغتسل قال خذي فرصة من مسك فتطهري بها قالت كيف أتطهر قال تطهري بها قالت كيف قال سبحان الله تطهري فاجتبذتها إلي فقلت تتبعي بها أثر الدم

A woman asked the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam about cleaning herself after menstruation. He explained to her how to clean herself saying, “Take a piece of wool[2] dipped in musk and purify yourself with it.”

“How should I purify myself,” she asked.

“Purify yourself with it.”

“How?”

“Glorified be Allah. Purify yourself with it.”

I pulled her to me and explained, “Wipe the traces of blood with it.”[3]

  1. She was an excellent leader and an exemplary model for Muslim women in avenues of goodness and inviting towards Allah.
  2. The revelation of some Qur’anic verses and Islamic laws concerning her. The effect and advantage of this to the Ummah cannot be concealed. For example, the revelation of the Verse of Tayammum, behind which Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha was the reason.
  3. The manifestation of her excellence and Allah’s selection of her, when she chose Allah, His Messenger, and the Abode of the Hereafter over the world and its fleeting benefits. The mark of this is apparent in supporting, aiding, and remaining steadfast with him salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the highway of iman and virtuous deeds.[4]

 

2. Her Influence in Da’wah during the Era of the Rightly Guided Khalifas

This historic period of Da’wah is from the most significant periods after the era of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for it was the chain to join his generation with the consequent generations. The influence of Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha in Da’wah during this period became apparent in the following ways:

  1. Her aspiration to disseminate knowledge among the Muslims. The Muslims have acquired plenty teachings of Din from her, particularly those Sunnah practices of their Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which only those family members living in his home would be acquainted with.
  2. She was an authority in expressing her opinion and lending advice to the Rightly Guided Khalifas and majority of the senior Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.
  3. She was a specialist in majority of Fiqhi rulings which were obscure to many ‘Ulama’ among the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.
  4. She was an expert in Tafsir of the Glorious Qur’an for everyone who asked her, from the senior Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum to others.
  5. She clarified many aspects of authentic accurate ‘aqidah. She was the best commentator and elucidator on these aspects.
  6. She observed the most wonderful model of asceticism, benefitting very little from the world, and not inclining towards it. She was the best leader in this regard.[5]

 

3. Her Influence in Da’wah from the First Generation to the Umawi Reign

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala prolonged the life of Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. She lived up to the first leg of the Umawi reign. As she was recognised from long before to possess pleasant behaviour and enjoy a lofty status among the believers, she emerged as an authority for many ‘Ulama’, scholars, and leaders of the Ummah. We will condense her influence during this reign in the following lines:

  1. Her advice and guidance to everyone who visited her or enquired her opinion and consultation, from the general masses to the elite, the ‘Ulama’ and leaders.
  2. Her splendid effort to acquire more taqwa and virtuous deeds, in preparation for the hereafter.
  3. Her spending generously of whatever was in her possession in addition to the stipends allocated to her in avenues of virtue. She would obtain the stipends out of kindness shown to her, maintaining ties with her, and protecting the right of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in respect of her.
  4. Her correction of some statements and verdicts which occurred in her time and reached her, elucidating on them, and supporting them with knowledge, without any flattery or fear.
  5. Her imminence, the strength of her proofs, and her beautiful substantiation with the ahadith of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, together with her clarification of some obscure fiqhi rulings and explaining it thoroughly to the questioner.
  6. Leaving the greatest effect on the Ummah. This became apparent during her final days before departure towards the hereafter. The whole of Madinah’s anxiety at bidding her farewell and their fervour to attend her janazah before she joined up with the Highest Companion, and her bequest to the ummah to follow the Sunnah.[6]

 

Her Methodologies in Inviting towards Allah

 

  1. Wisdom

The Da’wah of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha was marked with wisdom, in compliance with Allah—the Mighty and Majestic—command:

 

ادْعُ إِلىٰ سَبِيْلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ

Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom.[7]

 

She learnt this practically from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She reports that the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told her:

 

يا عائشة لولا أن قومك حديث عهد بجاهلية لأمرت بالبيت فهدم فأدخلت فيه ما أخرج منه وألزقته بالأرض وجعلت له بابين بابا شرقيا وبابا غربيا وفي رواية فأخاف أن تنكر قلوبهم

O Aisha, had it not been for your people’s recent conversion from Jahiliyyah, I would have ordered that the Ka’bah be demolished. I would have added what was taken out, attached the door to the earth, and placed two doors—an eastern door and western door.

 

In one narration: I feared that their hearts would reject.

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam refrained from demolishing the Ka’bah so that some people do not fall prey to something more catastrophic: denial and disbelief.

One form of Sayyidah Aisha’s radiya Llahu ‘anha wisdom was her enquiry and research of matters. A Jewess came to her to ask for something to eat. The Jewess said:

 

أطعموني أعاذكم الله من فتنة الدجال ومن فتنة عذاب القبر فما زالت عائشة تحبسها حتى جاء رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فسألته فقام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فرفع يديه مدا يستعيذ بالله من فتنة الدجال ومن فتنة عذاب القبر

“Feed me, may Allah protect you from the fitnah of Dajjal and the fitnah of the punishment of the grave.”

This stuck in Aisha’s mind. As soon as the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam arrived, she asked him about it. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lifted his hands high and supplicated for protection from the fitnah of Dajjal and the fitnah of the punishment of the grave.[8]

 

The Ummah benefitted tremendously from the wisdom of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha in Da’wah and learnt from the composure of her intelligence in many stances.[9]

 

  1. Good Instruction

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha followed the path of good instruction in inviting towards Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, utilising encouragement at times and caution at times. Here is an example of her warning the believing women to veil themselves, using the method of caution and warning them of Allah’s punishment and wrath. She tells them:

سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول ما من امرأة تضع ثيابها في غير بيت زوجها إلا هتكت الستر بينها وبين ربها

I heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, “No woman takes off her clothes in a house other than her husband’s except that she tears the veil between her and her Rabb.”[10]

 

She counsels Abu Salamah ibn ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf who had a dispute with some people:

 

يا أبا سلمة اجتنب الأرض فإن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول من ظلم قيد شبر من أرض طوقه من سبع أرضين

O Abu Salamah, discard the land for I have heard the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declaring, “Whoever usurps a piece of land amounting to a handspan, [his neck] will be girdled with it with seven earths.”[11]

 

She turns the attention to take care of the Book of Allah, to perfect its recitation, and to recite it in great abundance by quoting the hadith of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

مثل الذي يقرأ القرآن وهو حافظ له مع السفرة الكرام ومثل الذي يقرأ القرآن وهو يتعاهده وهو عليه شديد فله أجران

The example of one who recites the Qur’an and masters it by heart will be with the eminent scribes. And the example of one who recites the Qur’an and exerts himself, despite it being difficult for him, will receive double reward.

 

The narration of Muslim reads:

الماهر بالقرآن مع السفرة الكرام البررة والذي يقرأ القرآن ويتتعتع فيه وهو عليه شاق له أجران

One proficient in the Qur’an will be with the scribes—noble and righteous—whereas one who recites the Qur’an and falters in it and finds it difficult, will obtain double reward.[12]

 

She proffers good instruction for everyone who gains authority over the affairs of the Muslims and enlightens them on the magnitude of responsibility.

 

فعن عبد الرحمن بن شماسة قال أتيت عائشة رضي الله عنها أسألها عن شيء فقالت ممن أنت فقلت رجل من أهل مصر فقالت كيف كان صاحبكم لكم في غزاتكم فقال ما نقمنا منه شيئا إن كان ليموت للرجل منا البعير فيعطيه البعير والعبد فيعطيه العبد ويحتاج إلى النفقة فيعطيه النفقة فقالت أما إنه لا يمنعني الذي فعل في محمد بن أبي بكر أخي أن أخبرك ما سمعت من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول في بيتي هذا اللهم من ولي من أمر أمتي شيئا فشق عليهم فاشقق عليه ومن ولي من أمر أمتي شيئا فرفق بهم فارفق به

‘Abdur Rahman ibn Shumasah reports:

I came to Aisha to enquire about something from her. She investigated, “Where are you from?”

I replied, “From the people of Egypt.”

She probed, “How did your leader treat you in this war?”

I replied, “We did not disapprove any action of his. If any of our men’s camel died, he would give him a camel. If a slave died, he would give him a slave. If anyone needed money, he would give him the same.”

She said, “Harken! His treatment of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, my brother, will not prevent me from informing you of what I heard from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which he pronounced in this house of mine, ‘O Allah, whoever gains authority of any portion of my Ummah and is harsh towards them, then display harshness towards him. And if anyone gains authority of any portion of my Ummah and treats them compassionately, then treat him with compassion.”[13]

 

Examples of this are plenty.

Her era was manifest with Da’wah towards Allah with good instruction. What made her worthy of this is what she memorised from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam coupled with her expressiveness in speech, eloquence in communication, and potency of lecturing which are—together with good instruction—considered the most recognised methodologies of Da’wah to Allah. Al Ahnaf ibn Qais says:

 

سمعت خطبة أبي بكر الصديق وعمر بن الخطاب وعثمان بن عفان وعلي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنهم والخلفاء هلم جرا إلى يومي هذا فما سمعت الكلام من فم مخلوق أفخم ولا أحسن منه من في عائشة

I heard the sermons of Abu Bakr al Siddiq, ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhum, and the Khalifas thereafter until this day. However, I have not heard a speech from the mouth of any creation more magnificent and beautiful than from the mouth of Aisha.[14]

 

Musa ibn Talhah says:

ما رأيت أحدا أفصح من عائشة

I have not seen anyone more articulate than Aisha.[15]

 

Muawiyah asked Ziyad[16]:

 

أي الناس أبلغ قال أنت يا أمير المؤمنين قال أعزم عليك قال إذا عزمت علي فعائشة فقال معاوية ما فتحت بابا قط تريد أن تغلقه إلا أغلقته ولا أغلقت بابا قط تريد أن تفتحه إلا فتحته

“Who is the most profound and eloquent?”

“You are, O Amir al Mu’minin,” he answered.

“I take an oath over you.”

“Now that you have sworn on oath, then Aisha.”

Muawiyah observed, “She never ever opened a door which she intended to close, except that she closed did. Nor did she ever close a door which she intended to open except that she opened it.”[17]

 

She gave preference to the methodology of good instruction in Da’wah towards Allah from the prophetic ahadith which contain warning, cautioning, and reminding of the horrors of the Day of Qiyamah, as well as advocating asceticism in the world, benefitting little from its provisions, etc.[18]

She would advise and guide the callers towards Allah. One example of this is when ‘Ubaid ibn ‘Umair came to her.

 

سألت من هذا فقال أنا عبيد بن عمير قالت عمير بن قتادة قال نعم يا أمتاه قالت أما بلغني أنك تجلس ويجلس إليك قال بلى يا أم المؤمنين قالت فإياك وتقنيط الناس وإهلاكهم

She asked, “Who is this?”

He said, “I am ‘Ubaid ibn ‘Umair.”

“‘Umair ibn Qatadah?”

“Yes, O my beloved mother.”

“Harken, it has reached me that you sit and people sit by you.”

“Yes, O mother of the believers.”

“Beware of creating despondency in people and destroying them thereby.”[19]

 

  1. Good Leadership

The life of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha is proverbial in iman, virtuous deeds, and excellent character like preferring others [over oneself], sacrifice, patience, asceticism, etc. which elevated her to be a leader of the Muslims who emulate and follow her way. The greatest lessons of patience, reliance upon Allah, bearing hardships, and having good thoughts about Allah; a Muslim will find in her behaviour in the Slander Incident. The magnitude of the calamity and the severity of the mishap is evident. She acknowledged:

والله ما أعلم أهل بيت دخل عليهم ما دخل على آل أبي بكر في تلك الأيام

By Allah, I do not know of any household who were afflicted like the household of Abu Bakr during those days.[20]

 

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha became a role model for the Muslims in asceticism and bearing the hardships[21] of a constrained life. She says:

 

إن كنا آل محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم لنمكث شهرا ما نستوقد نارا إن هو إلا التمر والماء

We—the household of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—would survive for a month without lighting fire [for cooking]. It was only dates and water.[22]

 

توفي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وما في بيتي شيء يأكله ذو كبد إلا شطر شعير في رف لي فأكلت منه حتى طال علي فكلته ففني

When the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away, there was nothing in my home which a living being could survive on besides some barley kept in my shelf from which I ate for a long period. After measuring it, it came to an end.[23]

Sayyidah Aisha’s radiya Llahu ‘anha marital life with the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is the perfect model for Muslim women to live blissful marital lives[24] in addition to serving their husbands. Her statement in this regard points this out:

 

كان يكون علي الصوم من رمضان فما أستطيع أن أقضيه إلا في شعبان الشغل من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أو برسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

Fasts from Ramadan would be mandatory upon me. I would not be able to complete them except in Sha’ban due to my preoccupation in serving the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[25]

 

She turned the Ummah’s attention to emulate the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in all his affairs. Just to mention an example, she directs the believers to emulate the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in beginning with the right saying:

 

كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يعجبه التيمن في تنعله وترجله وطهوره وفي شأنه كله

It would bring great join to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to begin with the right when wearing shoes, combing the hair, cleansing himself, and in all other affairs.[26]

 

She steered the Muslims to the correct etiquette of conversation and speech, not to speak quickly and hastily:

 

ما كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يسرد الكلام كسردكم ه ولكنه كان يتكلم بكلام بين فصل يحفظه من جلس إليه

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would not speak hastily like you. Instead, he would speak with clarity and pauses, facilitating its memorisation by those who sat by him.[27]

 

There are other ahadith as well.[28]

Some of her Finest Statements

Some of her fine statements and pearls of wisdom are listed hereunder:[29]

1.

لا تطلبوا ما عند الله من عند غير الله بما يسخط الله

Do not seek what is by Allah from others besides Allah with what angers Allah.[30]

2.

كل شرف دونه لؤم فاللؤم أولى به وكل لؤم دونه شرف فالشرف أولى به

Every honour which is followed by depravity, depravity is more befitting for it. And every depravity which is followed by honour, then honour is more befitting for it.[31]

3.

إن لله خلقا قلبوهم كقلوب الطير كلما خفقت الريح خفقت معها فأف للجبناء فأف للجبناء

Some of the creation of Allah is such that their hearts are like the hearts of birds, whenever the winds blow their hearts start to tremor. So, woe be to the cowards, woe be to the cowards.[32]

4.

من أسخط الناس برضى الله كفاه الناس ومن أرضى الناس بسخط الله وكله الله إلى الناس

Whoever displeases people with the pleasure of Allah, He will suffice him against them. On the other hand, whoever pleases people with what displeases Allah is handed over to the people by Allah.[33]

5.

أقلوا الذنوب فإنكم لن تلقوا الله عز وجل بشيء أفضل من قلة الذنوب

Sin less, for you will not meet Allah—the Mighty and Majestic—with anything superior to scarcity of sins.[34]

6.

إنكم تغفلون أفضل العبادة التواضع

You are indeed negligent of the most superior form of worship: humility.[35]

7.

إن العبد إذا عمل بمعصية الله عاد حامده من الناس ذاما

When a servant disobeys Allah, the one who would praise him begins to condemn him.[36]

8.

أفضل النساء التي لا تعرف عيب المقال ولا تهتدي لمكر الرجال فارغة القلب إلا من الزينة لبعلها والإبقاء في الصيانة على أهلها

The most superior woman is the one who is not aware of the defects of speech, nor cognisant of the schemes of men. Her heart is devoid of everything besides beautification for her husband and maintaining the preservation of her family.

9.

التمسوا الرزق في خبايا الأرض

Search for sustenance in natural resources.[37]

10.

رأت رجلا متماوتا فقالت ما هذا فقيل لها زاهد قالت كان عمر بن الخطاب زاهدا ولكنه كان إذا قال أسمع وإذا مشى أسرع وإذا ضرب في ذات الله أوجع

She saw a man feigning weakness and asked, “What is this?”

“An ascetic,” she was told.

She affirmed, “‘Umar ibn al Khattab was an ascetic. Yet when he spoke, he conveyed his message; when he walked, he hastened; and when he hit in the path of Allah, he delivered pain.”[38]

11.

علموا أولادكم الشعر تعذب ألسنتهم

Teach your children poetry, their tongues will become sweet.[39]

12.

لله در التقوى ما تركت لذي غيظ شفاء

Congratulations to Taqwa! It never left a cure for the infuriated one.[40]

13.

لا سهر إلا لثلاثة مصلى أو عروس أو مسافر

Staying awake is observed for only three reasons: performing salah, intimacy with the spouse, or travel.[41]

14.

إنكم لن تلقوا الله بشيء خير لكم من قلة الذنوب فمن سره أن يسبق الدائب المجتهد فليكف نفسه عن كثرة الذنوب

You will not meet Allah with anything better for you than lack of sins. Whoever is pleased to surpass the devoted hard worker, should prevent himself from plenty sins.[42]

15.

وقيل لها إن قوما يشتمون أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالت قطع الله عنهم العمل فأحب الله ألا يقطع عنهم الأجر

She was told that few people are reviling the Companions of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, upon which she remarked, “Allah terminated their actions, yet desired to perpetuate their reward.[43]

16.

وقالت أيضا أمروا أن يستغفروا لأصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فسبوهم

She also declared, “They were commanded to seek forgiveness for the Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but instead vilified them.”[44]

 

NEXT⇒ Chapter 3 – The Excellences of Aisha and Comparing her with the Nobles of the Household of Nubuwwah and her Father


[1] Surah al Ahzab: 34.

[2] Al firsah: piece of wool, cotton, or rag. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 3 pg. 431.

[3] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 314; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 332.

[4] Khalid al ‘Ilmi: al Sayyidah Aisha bint Abi Bakr Radiyallahu ‘anha, pg. 13 with slight variation.

[5] Al Sayyidah Aisha bint Abi Bakr Radiyallahu ‘anha, pg. 14, with slight variation.

[6] Al Sayyidah Aisha bint Abi Bakr Radiyallahu ‘anha, pg. 17.

[7] Surah al Nahl: 125.

[8] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 139, Hadith: 25133; Sharh Mushkil al Athar, vol. 13 pg. 197. Ibn Jarir in Musnad ‘Umar, vol. 2 pg. 592; al Mundhiri in al Targhib wa al Tarhib, vol. 4 pg. 278; and al Wadi’i in al Sahih al Musnad, Hadith: 1558 authenticated the isnad.

[9] Al Sayyidah Aisha bint Abi Bakr Radiyallahu ‘anha, pg. 137.

[10] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 2803; Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 3036. Al Tirmidhi labels it hassan. Al Shawkani says in Nayl al Awtar, vol. 1 pg. 320, “His narrators are the narrators of Sahih al Bukhari.” Al Albani labels it sahih in Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 2803.

[11] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 2253; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1612.

[12] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4937; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 798.

[13] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1828.

[14] Al Mustadrak, vol. 4 pg. 12; Sharh I’tiqad Ahlus Sunnah, vol. 8 pg. 1522, Hadith: 2767. The isnad of the narration contains Ahmed ibn Sulaiman al Faqih and ‘Ali ibn ‘Asim. They are truthful. The latter has been classified da’if by some. Mizan al I’tidal, vol. 1 pg. 101; al Kashif, vol. 2 pg. 42; Taqrib al Tahdhib, pg. 403.

[15] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3884; Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. 2 pg. 876, Hadith: 1646; al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 23 pg. 182, Hadith: 19246; al Mustadrak, vol. 4 pg. 12. Al Tirmidhi labels it hassan sahih gharib. Al Haythami remarks in Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 246, “The narrators are the narrators of Sahih al Bukhari.” Al Albani classified it sahih in Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi.

[16] He is Ziyad ibn ‘Ubaid, Abu al Mughirah al Thaqafi. He was born in the year of hijrah and embraced Islam in the reign of al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He is proverbial in nobility and sovereignty. He was a scribe for Abu Musa al Ash’ari radiya Llahu ‘anhu during his rule over Basrah. He is the first to join the two Iraqs (Kufah and Basrah) and died in 106 A.H.—there are other views as well. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 3 pg. 494; Wafiyyat al A’yan, vol. 6 pg. 313.

[17] Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 19 pg. 196.

[18] Al Sayyidah Aisha bint Abi Bakr Radiyallahu ‘anha, pg. 146.

[19] Musannaf ‘Abdur Razzaq, vol. 3 pg. 219.

[20] Tarikh Ibn Shabbah, vol. 1 pg. 328; Tarikh al Tabari, vol. 2 pg. 112. Al Albani classified it sahih in Fiqh al Sirah, Hadith: 288.

[21] Shazf al ‘aysh: the hardship and poverty of living. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 2 pg. 476.

[22] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 6458; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2972.

[23] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3097; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2973.

[24] Taba’’ul al mar’ah: blissful marital life. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 1 pg. 141.

[25] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1950; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1146.

[26] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 168; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 268.

[27] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3639. Al Tirmidhi labelled it hassan. Al Baghawi classified it sahih in Sharh al Sunnah, vol. 7 pg. 46 while al Albani classified it hassan in Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3639.

[28] Al Sayyidah Aisha bint Abi Bakr Radiyallahu ‘anha, pg. 157.

[29] For further details: ‘Ali ibn Nayif al Shuhud: Mashahir al Nisa’ al Muslimat, pg. 56.

[30] Al Mujalasah wa Jawahir al ‘Ilm, vol. 5 pg. 22.

[31] Al Jahiz: al Bayan wa al Tabyin, vol. 2 pg. 67; al Mubrad: al Fadil, pg. 7.

[32] Al Nuwayri: Nihayat al Arab, vol. 3 pg. 318.

[33] Ahmed: al Zuhd, Hadith: 164.

[34] Al Zuhd, Hadith: 165.

[35] Al Zuhd, Hadith: 164.

[36] Al Zuhd, Hadith: 165.

[37] Musnad Abi Ya’la, vol. 7 pg. 347, Hadith: 4384; al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 1 pg. 274, Hadith: 895; Shu’ab al Iman, vol. 2 pg. 87, Hadith: 1233.

[38] Mansur al Abi: Nathr al Durr, vol. 4 pg. 14.

[39] Ibn ‘Abd Rabbihi: al ‘Aqd al Farid, vol. 6 pg. 9.

[40] Nathr al Durr, vol. 4 pg. 15; Tafsir al Khazin, vol. 1 pg. 298; Ibn Hamdun: al Tadhkirah al Hamduniyyah, vol. 1 pg. 145.

[41] Ibn Qutaybah: ‘Uyun al Akhbar, vol. 1 pg. 226.

[42] Abu Dawood: al Zuhd, Hadith: 326.

[43] Nathr al Durr, vol. 4 pg. 14.

[44] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 3022.

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