Factors Leading to Extinction

The Extinct Fiqhi Mazhabs
September 29, 2023
2. Taqiyyah and its impact on the extinction of the Jafari School
October 12, 2023

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Factors Leading to Extinction

 

In a concise statement, al Suyuti has attributed the extinction of the ancient Sunni Fiqhi Mazhabs, excluding the four, to the following:

  • Demise of the scholars affiliated to these Mazhabs without being replaced by someone equal to them or someone that would carry the Mazhab from them.
  • Lack of determination in guarding the Mazhab by teaching and referencing it.

 

Actually, these two factors are common in all the extinct Mazhabs except the School of Jafar al Sadiq which was enveloped, together with these two factors, by other factors too.

The Mazhab of Imam al Awza’i spread in Syria and Spain, and then it weakened in Syria against the Shafi’i Mazhab that spread there through the intense effort of Imam Shafi’i’s followers. Similarly, it weakened against the Maliki Mazhab which was transferred to Spain by his followers. Thus, the only remains of Imam Awza’i’s Mazhab presently, are the transmissions and views scattered in various books.

Here is Imam Sufyan al Thawri (d. 161 AH). He is among the Mujtahid Imams. He had no supporters for his Mazhab. Thus, it breathed its last early, and it had no resilience or continuity.

There is Imam al Layth ibn Sa’d (d. 175 AH). He was the jurist and the most prominent Imam of Egypt. His followers destroyed his Mazhab due to lack of enthusiasm in spreading it. Imam Shafi’i indicated to this reality by saying:

 

الليث أفقه من مالك إلا أن أصحابه لم يقوموا به

Al Layth was more knowledgeable than Malik; however, his followers did not hold on to him.[1]

 

Meaning they destroyed his Fiqh.

Hence, presently, one would only find some Fiqhi views of al Awza’i, al Layth ibn Sa’d, Ishaq ibn Rahawayh, and Sufyan al Thawri, scattered in books without it being collectively recorded by a school.

As for Jafar al Sadiq, he experienced certain factors that led to the extinction of his Mazhab which other Mazhabs, most likely, did not experience. We will summarise some of those main factors.

 

Factors that led to the extinction of the Jafari School

 

1. Excessive lies attributed to the Ahlul Bayt

Jafar al Sadiq was born in Madinah and he resided there throughout his life. He did not enter Iraq, according to one version,[2] except at the end of his life when Abu Jafar al Mansur summoned him. Thereafter he returned to Madinah where he eventually passed away.

Regarding this, Dr Zuhayr Ghazzawi[3] states:

 

عاش الإمام حياة بالغة الغني والتنوع رغم استقراره في المدينة المنورة لم يبارحها إلا رحلات قصيرة إلي العراق ويبق أبرز ما أثر عنها مواجهاته مع أبي جعفر المنصور ثاني خلفاء بني عباس

The Imam lived a very content and diverse life, despite remaining in al Madinah al Munawwarah. He did not leave Madinah except for a few short trips to Iraq. The most prominent impact of these trips remains his confrontation with Abu Jafar Al Mansur, the second Abbasid khalifah.[4]

 

Narrations are contradictory pertaining to the place of this meeting. Some mention Madinah while others mention al Hirah,[5] which is close to Kufah.

For a long time, I have searched the Sunni and the old translated Imami books of Jafar, and I did not come across any evidence, not even a weak one that proves Jafar’s residence in Kufah to teach and spread his school. Throughout his life, as mentioned previously, he lived in Madinah. He passed away there and his grave is popular in al Baqi (graveyard of Madinah).[6]

I have not come across any narration (in my knowledge) that mentions Jafar al Sadiq’s entry into Kufah when Abu Jafar al Mansur summoned him, except the narration of Abu al Faraj al Asbahani (d. 356 AH) in Maqatil al Talibiyyin through his chain of narrators,[7] from Jafar al Sadiq who states:

 

لما قتل إبراهيم بن عبد الله بن الحسن بباخمرى حسرنا عن المدينة  ولم يترك فيها منا محتلم حتي قدمنا الكوفة فمكثنا فيها شهرا نتوقع فيها القتل ثم خرج إلينا الربيع الحاجب فقال أين هؤلاء العلوية أدخلوا علي أمير المؤمنين رجلين منكم من ذوي الحجي قال فدخلنا إليه أنا والحسن بن زيد فلما صرت بين يديه قال لي أنت الذي تعلم الغيب قلت لا يعلم الغيب إلا الله قال أنت الذي يجبى إليك هذا الخراج قلت إليك يجبى يا أمير المؤمنين الخراج قال أتدرون لم دعوتكم قلت لا قال أردت أن أهدم رباعكم وأروع قلوبكم وأعقر نخلكم وأترككم بالسراة لا يقربكم أحد من أهل الحجاز وأهل العراق فإنهم لكم مفسدة فقلت له يا أمير المؤمنين إن سليمان أعطي فشكر وإن أيوب ابتلي فصبر وإن يوسف ظلم فغفر وأنت من ذلك النسل قال فتبسم وقال أعد علي فأعدت فقال مثلك فليكن زعيم القوم وقد عفوت عنكم ووهبت لكم جرم أهل البصرة حدثني الحديث الذي حدثتني عن أبيك عن آبائه عن رسول الله قلت حدثني أبي عن آبائه عن علي عن رسول الله صلة الرحم تعمر الديار وتطيل الأعمار وإن كانوا كفارا فقال ليس هذا فقلت حدثني أبي عن آبائه عن علي عن رسول الله قال الأرحام معلقة بالعرش تنادي اللهم صل من وصلني واقطع من قطعني قال ليس هذا فقلت حدثني أبي عن آباثه عن علي عن رسول الله أن الله  يقول أنا الرحمن خلقت الرحم وشققت لها اسما من اسمي فمن وصلها وصلته ومن قطعها بتتهه قال ليس هذا الحديث قلت حدثني أبي عن آبائه عن علي عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أن ملكا من الملوك في الأرض كان بقي من عمره ثلاث سنين فوصل رحمه فجعلها الله ثلاثين سنة فقال هذا الحديث أردت أي البلاد أحب إليك فوالله لأصلن رحمي إليكم قلنا المدينة فسرحنا إلي المدينة وكفي الله مؤنته

When Ibrahim ibn ‘Abdullah ibn al Hassan was killed in Bakhamra,[8] we were barred from Madinah. There was no adult left in Madinah. We came to Kufah and stayed there for a month anticipating war. Then al Rabi’, the janitor, came to us and said, “Where are these ‘Alawis? Send two intelligent people from amongst you to Amir al Mu’minin.”

He (Jafar) states, “Myself and al Hassan ibn Zaid went to him. When I came in front of him, he asked, “Are you the one who knows the unseen?”

I replied, “No one knows about the unseen except Allah.”

He asked, “Are you the person for who these land taxes are collected?”

I replied, “The taxes are collected for you, O Amir al Mu’minin.”

He asked, “Do you know why I summoned you?”

I replied, “No.”

He said, “I intend destroying your dwellings, frightening your hearts, uprooting your palm trees, and leave you in Sarat, where none of the people of Hijaz or Iraq can be close to you as they will spoil you”

I said to him, “O Amir al Mu’minin, Sulaiman ‘alayh al Salam was bestowed so he was grateful, Ayub ‘alayh al Salam was tested then he was patient, Yusuf ‘alayh al Salam was oppressed and he forgave and you are from the same progeny.”

He smiled and said, “Repeat for me.”

So I repeated it. Thereafter he said, “Someone of your calibre should be the leader of the people. I have forgiven you and I grant you the date harvests of the people of Basrah as a gift. Narrate a hadith to me which you narrate from your father, who narrates from his forefathers, who narrate from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

I said, “My father narrated to me, from his forefathers, who narrated from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who narrates from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who said, “Joining kinship populates homes and prolongs lives even if they are disbelievers.”

He said, “Not this one.”

Then I said, “My father narrated to me, from his forefathers, who narrated from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who narrates from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who said, “Kingship is attached to the Throne of Allah proclaiming, ‘O Allah, join who joins me and cut off those who cut me off.’”

He said, “Not this one.”

Then I said, “My father narrated to me, from his forefathers, who narrated from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who narrates from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that Allah says, “I am the most gracious. I created kinship and derived a name for it from my name. Thus, whoever joins it, I will join him and whoever cuts it off, I will cut him off.”

He said, “Not this hadith.”

I said, “My father narrated to me from his forefathers, who narrate from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who narrates from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that one of the kings of this world had three years of his life remaining. He joined kinship; as a result, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala increased it to 30 years.”

Thereafter he said, “This is the hadith I intended. Which place is most beloved to you? By Allah, I will definitely join kinship with you.”

We replied, “Madinah.”

He then sent us to Madinah. Allah Ta’ala was sufficient for him.[9]

 

This narration—despite being very weak—states that Jafar al Sadiq did not stay in Kufah longer than a month and that also in fear and anxiety. In fact, the manner of his summoning along with the other ‘Alawis, confirms that he was arrested with them and he did not arrive in Kufah willingly, let alone assuming that such difficult circumstances which befell upon them and compelled them to go to Iraq forcibly, would enable Jafar al Sadiq to sit for teaching and narrating Hadith to the people or welcoming his followers and the elite in a special gathering. Hence, this narration mentions that when he was given the choice as to which place he desired to reside in, he chose to return to Madinah[10] and not to remain in Iraq.

However; the narration of al Zubair ibn Bakkar (d. 256 AH), which he narrates through his chain[11] from al Rabi’, the janitor of Abu Jafar al Mansur, confirms that this summons was in Madinah. This can only be possible if we assume that there were two summonses. One was in Madinah, due to the slandering of some malicious people and another after the martyrdom of Ibrahim ibn ‘Abdullah ibn al Hassan.

Al Rabi’ states:

 

قدم المنصور المدينة فأتاه قوم فوشوا بجعفر بن محمد وقالوا إنه لا يرى الصلاة خلفك وينتقصك ولا يرى التسليم عليك فقال لهم وكيف أقف علي صدق ما تقولون قالوا تمضي ثلاث ليال فلا يصير إليك مسلما قال إن في ذلك لدليلا فلما كان في اليوم الرابع قال يا ربيع ايتني بجعفر بن محمد فقتلني الله إن لم أقتله قال الربيع فأخذني ما قدم وما حدث  فدافعت بإحضاره يومي ذلك  فلما كان من غد قال يا ربيع أمرتك بإحضار جعفر بن محمد فوريت عن ذلك آتني به فقتلني الله إن لم أقتله وقتلني الله إن لم أبدأ بك إن أنت لم تأتني به قال الربيع فمضيت إلي أبي عبد الله فوافيته يصلي إلى جنب أسطوانة التوبة فقلت يا أبا عبد الله أجب أمير المؤمنين للتي لا شوى لها فاوجز في صلاته وتشهد وسلم وأخذ نعله ومضى معي وجعل يهمس بشيء أفهمم بعضه وبعضا لم أفهم فلما أدخلته علي أبي جعفر سلم عليه بالخلافة فلم يرد له وقال يا مرائي يا مارق منتك نفسك مكاني فوريت علي ولم تر الصلاة خلفي والتسليم علي فلما فرغ من كلامه رفع جعفر رأسه إليه فقال يا أمير المؤمنين إن داود النبي أعطي فشكر وإن أيوب ابتلي فصبر وإن يوسف ظلم فغفر وهؤلاء صلوات الله عليهم أنبياؤه وصفوته من خلقه وأمير المؤمنين من أهل بيت النبوة وإليهم يؤول نسبه  واحق من أخذ بآداب الأنبياء من جعل الله له مثل حظك يا أمير المؤمنين يقول الله جل ثناؤه يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن جَاءَكُم فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَإٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَن تُصِيبُوا قَوْمًا بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَىٰ مَا فَعَلْتُم نَادِمِينَ (الحجرات: ٦‏) فتثبت يا أمير المؤمنين يصح لك اليقين قال فسري عن أبي جعفر وزال الغضب عنه وقال أنا أشهد أبا عبد الله أنك صادق وأخذ بيده فرفعه وقال أنت أخي وابن عمي وأجلسه معه على السرير وقال سلني حاجتك صغيرها وكبيرها

قال يا أمير المؤمنين قد أذهلني ما كان من لقائك وكلامك عن حاجاتي ولكني أفكر وأجممع حوائجي إن شاء الله

Al Mansur came to Madinah; some people came to him and slandered Jafar ibn Muhammad stating that he does not permit Salah behind you, detracts from you and does not recognise submission to you.

He said to them, “How do I discover the truth of your statement?”

They replied, “Wait for three days. He will not come to you in submission.”

He said, “Definitely there would be evidence in this.”

On the fourth day, al Mansur said, “O Rabi’, bring Jafar ibn Muhammad to me. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala destroy me if I do not kill him.”

Al Rabi’ states, “What happened and what was happening overwhelmed me. On that day, I defended him from being summoned.”

The next day he said to me, “O Rabi’, I instructed you to summon Jafar ibn Muhammad and you hid away from it. Bring him to me. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala destroy me if I do not kill him and may I be destroyed if I do not begin with you, if you do not bring him.”

Al Rabi’ further states, “So, I went to Abu ‘Abdullah and found him performing Salah by the pillar of repentance.[12]

I said to him, “O Abu ‘Abdullah, come to the Amir al Mu’minin for a gruelling matter.”[13]

He curtailed his Salah, sat in Tashahhud,[14]and completed his Salah. Thereafter he took his shoes and proceeded with me. He kept whispering something, part of which I understood and part of it I did not. When I presented him in the presence of Abu Jafar, he greeted him with the greeting of the Caliphate, to which Jafar al Sadiq did not reply.

Al Mansur declared, “O hypocrite, O rogue, your ego made you conceited so you eluded me. You do not permit performing Salah behind me and submitting to me?”

When he completed speaking, Jafar raised his head towards him and said, “O Amir al Mu’minin, verily the Prophet Dawood ‘alayh al Salam was bestowed so he was grateful, Ayub ‘alayh al Salam was tested and he persevered and Yusuf ‘alayh al Salam was oppressed and he forgave. These are the prophets of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His choicest creation. The Amir al Mu’minin is from the household of the prophets and he is attributed to them. The most worthy of adopting the attributes of the prophets are those whom Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has favoured like you, O Amir al Mu’minin. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala states in the Qur’an:

O you, who have believed, if there comes to you a disobedient one with information, investigate, lest you harm a people out of ignorance and become, over what you have done, regretful.[15]

O Amir al Mu’minin, investigate and you will attain true conviction.”

This pleased Abu Jafar and his anger subsided. Then he said, “I give testimony O Abu ‘Abdullah, that you are correct.”

Al Mansur held his hands, raised them and said, “You are my brother and cousin.”

Thereafter he made him sit on the throne and said, “Ask whatever you need, small or big.”

Jafar al Sadiq replied, “O Amir al Mu’minin, meeting you and speaking to you has distracted me from my needs. However, I will ponder and gather my need, if Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala wills.”[16]

 

Whether the summons was in Madinah in 140 AH; when Abu Jafar al Mansur performed Hajj, then went to Madinah, Bayt al Muqaddas, and then al Hirah in Iraq,[17]or whether it was in Iraq for a period of one month, the matter is nothing more than a spontaneous occurrence, through which neither any doctrine can be established nor any school be founded.

This is besides what we have mentioned previously that there is not a single piece of historical evidence regarding Jafar al Sadiq’s residence outside his hometown, i.e. Madinah. However, an observer in the narrative and Fiqhi legacy of the Imamiyyah will be surprised to see that all the narrators of this school, who are considered to be reliable according to them and narrate excessively, who are the basis of this school,[18] are from Kufah, Iraq.

It is a matter that baffles the mind and thought, and creates doubt in the heart about the credibility of this great narrative legacy which is transmitted from Jafar al Sadiq.[19]

They have mentioned that the number of narrators that narrate from Jafar al Sadiq individually, reach close to 4000.[20] Al Hafiz Ibn ‘Uqdah (d. 333 AH) has mentioned them in his book regarding narrators that narrate from Jafar al Sadiq. Sheikh al Ta’ifah al Tusi enumerated them and their number reaches to more than three thousand (3050). Similarly, al Shabastari—from the contemporaries—enumerated them and reached the number of 3759.

It is noticeable that most of those from this large number of narrators are from Kufah.

Those who are specified to be from Kufah are more than 1800, whilst narrators from Madinah are about 150 only.[21]

One of the narrations in this regard is what al Najashi (d. 450 AH) mentioned in his book Rijal, that al Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Ziyad al Washsha’ —who is one of the companions of al Rida—used to say:

 

أدركت في هذا المسجد (الكوفة) تسعمائة شيخ كل يقول حدثني جعفر بن محمد

I found 900 scholars in this masjid (in Kufah), all of them used to say, “Jafar ibn Muhammad narrated to me.”[22]

 

From this the legitimacy of Imam Abu Talib al Haruni’s[23], the spokesman of truth, statement becomes evident wherein he states:

 

إن كثيرا من أسانيد الاثني عشرية مبنية على أسام لا مسمي لها من الرجال قال وقد عرفت من رواتهم المكثرين من كان يستحل وضع الأسانيد للأخبار المنقطعة إذا وقعت إليه وحكي عن بعضهم أنه كان يجمع روايات بزرجمهر وينسبها إلي الأئمة بأسانيد يضعها فقيل له في ذلك فقال ألحق الحكمة بأهلها

Many of the Ithna ‘Ashari chains are based on names that have no men to it. I know many of their narrators that consider it permissible to fabricate chains for sporadic incidents that occur. It is narrated from some of them that they would gather transmissions of Bozorgmehr[24] and attribute it to the Imams through fabricated chains. When he was questioned about it, he said, “I am attaching wisdom to its people.”[25]

 

Al Kashshi—he is one of the early Imami scholars—has quoted from Yahya ibn ‘Abdul Hamid al Hammani who says:

 

قلت لشريك إن أقواما يزعمون أن جعفر بن محمد ضعيف الحديث فقال أخبرك القصة كان جعفر بن محمد رجلا صالحا مسلما ورعا فاكتنفه قوم جهال يدخلون عليه ويخرجون من عنده ويقولون حدثنا جعفر بن محمد ويحدثون بأحاديث كلها منكرات كذب موضوعة على جعفر ليستأكلوا الناس بذلك ويأخذوا منهم الدراهم كانوا يأتون من ذلك بكل منكر فسمعت العوام بذلك فمنهم من هلك ومنهم من أنكر

I told Sharik[26] that people claim that Jafar ibn Muhammad is weak in Hadith, so he said, “I will tell you the story. Jafar ibn Muhammad was a righteous and pious Muslim man, but ignorant people surrounded him. They would come to him and then go to the people and say that Jafar ibn Muhammad narrated to us. They would narrate reprehensible reports which were lies and fabricated upon Jafar, to eat from the people and take their Dirhams (money). In this manner, they would bring all evil. The masses would hear it. Subsequently some would perish while others would reject it.[27]

 

Jafar al Sadiq would complain about excessive lies against him. He would say:

 

إنا أهل بيت لا يزال الشيطان يدخل فينا من ليس منا ولا من أهل ديننا فإذا رفعه ونظر إليه الناس أمره الشيطان فيكذب علينا وكلما ذهب واحد جاء آخر

We, the Ahlul Bayt are such that Shaitan always sends people to us who are neither from amongst us nor from our din. When he gets elevated and people start noticing him, Shaitan instructs him to lie upon us. Whenever one goes, another one comes.[28]

 

He would also say:

 

إن الناس أولعوا بالكذب علينا إن الله افترض عليهم لا يريد منهم غيره وإني أحدث أحدهم بالحديث فلا يخرج من عندي حتى يتأوله علي غير تأويله وذلك أنهم لا يطلبون بحديثنا وبحبنا ما عند الله وانما يطلبون به الدنيا وكل يحب أن يدعي رأسا

Verily, people have started lying against us. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has only obliged them to convey and nothing else.[29] I narrate a Hadith to someone, and as soon as they leave from me, they misinterpret it. This is so because they do not aspire through our Hadith and love, that which is by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. They only desire this world. Everyone likes to be called a leader.[30]

 

In this same context, Sheikh Hussain al Radi al ‘Abdullah states:

 

فإن كثيرا من الرواة كان يدخل علي الإمام الصادق ويسمع الحديث منه  ثم يخرج ويحدث بخلاف ذلك من المعجزات وخوارق العادات أو الأمور الخرافية وهو ينسبها إلى الإمام فلما يسمعها الآخرون يكذبها فريق ويصدقها فريق آخر وينحرف عن المذهب فريق ثالث ان النتيجة التي استفادها الأعداء من هذه الهجمة والحرب الكفرية والإعلامية على مدرسة أهل البيت هو خلط الأوراق واختلاف الأخبار والتعارض بينها فاوجبت الإرباك لكثير من الأتباع

Many of the narrators would go to Jafar al Sadiq and listen to Hadith from him. Then he would come out and narrate contrary to that. He would narrate miracles, supernatural occurrences, and superstitious things while attributing it to Jafar al Sadiq. When the others would hear it, some would reject it whilst others would verify it. A third group would avert from the school. The result, which the enemies took advantage of—from this attack and the war of blasphemy and propaganda on the school of the Ahlul Bayt—is muddling of pages, confusing transmissions, and contradictions amongst them, which generated confusion amongst the followers.[31]

 

However, Jafar al Sadiq—as reported by the Imamiyyah—did not provide a decisive solution for the problem, as much as he contributed in its continuation and plunging the followers in another problem.

Abu Jafar al Saffar (d. 290 AH) —one of the followers of al Hassan al ‘Askari— narrates from Sufyan ibn al Samat who states:

 

قلت لأبي عبد الله جعلت فداك يأتينا الرجل من قبلكم يعرف بالكذب فيحدت بالحديث فنستبشعه فقال أبو عبد الله يقول لك إني قلت  الليل أنه نهار والنهار أنه ليل قلت لا قال فإن قال لك هذا أني قلته فلا تكذب به فإنك إنما تكذبني

I told Abu ‘Abdullah, “May I be sacrificed for you. Sometimes a person comes from you and narrates hadith and we dislike it.”

Abu ‘Abdullah asked, “Does he claim that I said that day is night and night is day?”

I replied, “No.”

He then said, “If this person says to you that that I have said this, then too, do not falsify him, as this (falsifying him) would be falsifying me.”[32]

 

Jafar al Sadiq does not suffice—according to the Imami narrations—on justifying these disgusting narrations; rather, he laid the foundations for it by saying:

 

إن حديثنا صعب مستصعب شريف كريم ذكوان ذكي وعر لا يحتمله ملك مقرب ولا نبي مرسل ولا مؤمن ممتحن

Indeed, our Ahadith are difficult, complex, honourable, noble, astute, intelligent[33] and rugged. No close angel, sent prophet, or a tested believer can bear them.[34]

 

Al Majlisi has reported one these narrations in Bihar al Anwar, pg. 16, in a chapter which he titled:

 

باب: أن حديثهم صعب مستصعب  وأن كلامهم ذو وجوه كثيرة وفضيلة التدبر في أخبارهم والتسليم لهم والنهي عن رد أخبارهم

Chapter with regards to their Hadith being difficult and complex, and that their speech has many dimensions to it, and the virtue of pondering in their transmissions and submitting to them, and prohibition of refuting their transmissions.[35]

 

One can see that the narrations of Jafar al Sadiq have become, according to those who follow it, similar to the narrations of the People of the Book (Israelite narrations) which can neither be rejected on the assumption that it would lead to rejecting Jafar al Sadiq, nor can it be verified, due to its hideousness and the fear that it could be lies attributed to Jafar. However, from the narrations—specifically the above mentioned narration pertaining to considering day as night and vice versa—it can be assumed that these narrations give a stamp of approval for accepting lies, no matter how clear they may be, even if it reaches to the extent of considering night as day and vice versa.

It can be said that this is just an over exaggeration in exemplification; however, Shari’ah does not approve of impossibilities that are contrary to reason and are senseless. It is possible that the Shari’ah instructs towards something which is difficult to comprehend or understand the wisdom behind it. Perhaps this meaning can be understood from the second narration (our Hadith are difficult and complex). There is a clear difference in the mind between difficult and impossible, and between ambiguous and senseless. A Prophet is not permitted to contradict the truth and he does not inform of what the intellect regards as impossible and denies it, rather he informs of that which the intellect is incapable of comprehending. Thus, he informs of the mazes of the mind and not the impossibilities of the mind.[36]

Hence, such examples should not be introduced in the Shari’ah which leaves the door wide open to accept myths, slanders, and extremist information. We will soon see the effects of this in some of the Imami scholar’s statements when endorsing narrations of this kind, by considering it as secrets of the Imam which leaves the mind perplexed. Thus, they made, that which necessitates criticism in a narration and rejecting its narrator, a cause for endorsing it. In the light of such narrations, all criterions for differentiating between authentic and unauthentic narrations lose its value and authority. Subsequently, there remains no applicable value, in attempting to establish criterion for accepting and rejecting narrations such as presenting it to the Qur’an, opposing the masses etc., for the different narrations from the Imams.

Hence, the burden on the reformers of this school is heavy, indeed very heavy. It is sufficient to live and read the hurricane that the late Shia scholar of reference, Sayed Muhammad Hussain Fadl Allah (d. 1431 AH) faced, with regards to beliefs and history, which reached the point of doubt in his loyalty, in fact his faith too.

Doubting in narrations pertaining to the virtues of the Imams and other narrations considered to be well known, is regarded as blasphemy, whose perpetrators are branded with Nasb, disbelief, and apostasy, as expressed by Sheikh Jafar al Shakhuri when he states:

 

والمشكلة هنا أن كثيرا من البسطاء عندما يسمعون حديثا في فضل أهل البيت حتى ولو كان مرويا من طرق الغلاة والمنحرفين عن التشيع صدقوا به واتهموا من ينكره أو يشكك فيه بانه لا يؤمن بالغيب ودخلوا في دراسة طويلة عريضة عن الإيمان بالغيب بطريقة توحي بان الآخر لا يؤمن بالغيب أصلا أو لا يرتاح إلي سماع فضائل أهل البيت وكراماتهم

The problem here is that when many of the simple people hear a hadith pertaining to the virtues of the Ahlul Bayt, even though it is narrated by extremist and deviants from the Shia, they validate it and accuse those who reject or doubt it of not believing in the unseen. They start a long broad study of belief in the unseen in a way that would suggest that the other person does not believe in the unseen at all and that he is not comfortable with listening to the virtues and the miracles of the Ahlul Bayt.[37]

 

If we select a Fiqhi ruling such as Mutah (temporary marriage), we find that all the Islamic sects have clearly forbidden Mut’ah with women except the Ithna ‘Ashari Shia.

The Zaidis, who are part of the Shia, narrate from the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt that which indicates to the forbiddance of Mut’ah, and they emphasise that this is the school of the Ahlul Bayt.

It is reported in the Musnad of Zaid ibn Ali, who narrates from his father, ‘Ali ibn al Hussain, from his grandfather al Hussain, who narrates from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum who says:

 

نهي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن نكاح المتعة عام خيبر

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prohibited from Mut’ah marriage in the year of (battle) of Khaybar.[38]

 

Similarly, it is reported in the same book, with the same chain from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu who said:

 

لا نكاح إلا بولي وشاهدين ليس بالدرهم ولا بالدرهمين ولا اليوم ولا اليومين شبه السفاح ولا شرط في نكاح

There is no marriage except with (the permission of) a guardian and two witnesses. Marriage can neither take place with one or two dirhams, nor for one or two days like fornication. There are no conditions in marriage.[39]

 

In this context, Hafiz Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al ‘Alawi al Kufi (d. 445 AH) quotes in his book al Jami al Kafi fi Fiqh al Zaidi,[40] from al Qasim ibn Ibrahim al Rassi (d. 246 AH),[41] Ahmed ibn ‘Isa ibn Zaid ibn Ali (d. 247 AH),[42] Jurist of Iraq al Hassan ibn Yahya ibn Zaid (3rd century)[43], and Muhammad ibn Mansur al Muradi (d. 290 AH)[44] that they were asked about Mut’ah with women. Is it permissible or not? They replied:

 

متعة النساء منسوخة  نسختها آية المواريث الربع والثمن ولا نكاح عندنا إلا بولي وشاهدي عدل

Mut’ah with women is abrogated. The verses pertaining to inheriting quarter or one eighth abrogated this rule. According to us, there is no marriage except with a guardian and two reliable witnesses.[45]

 

Imam al Hadi ila al Haq Yahya ibn al Hussain, (d. 298 AH)[46] states:

 

حدثني‏ أبي عن أبيه أنه سئل عن نكاح المتعة فقال لا يحل نكاح المتعة لأن المتعة إنما كانت في سفر سافره النبي صلى الله عليه وعلي آله وسلم  ثم حرم الله ذلك علي لسان رسول الله صل الله عليه وعلي آله وسلم وقد روي لنا عن أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب بما قد صح أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم نهي عنه واما من احتج بهذه الآية ممن استحل الفاحشة من الفرقة المارقة في قول الله تعالى فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُم بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً فالإستمتاع هو الدخول بهن على وجه النكاح الصحيح وإيتاؤهن أجورهن فهو إعطاؤهن مهورهن إلا ما وهبن بطيب من أنفسهن والتراضي فهو التعاطي هذا الذي ذكرنا وذكر جدي رحمة الله عليه في المتعة هو الحق لا ما يأتون به ويقولون به في المتعة من شروطهم زعموا واشتراطهم مما هو خلاف الكتاب والسنة وإحلال ما حرم الرحمن وإطلاق ما خُظر في منزل الفرقان

My father narrated to me from his father that he was asked about Mut’ah marriage, to which he replied, “Mut’ah marriage is not permissible as it was only allowed when the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was travelling. Thereafter, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala prohibited it through the tongue of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. It has been authentically narrated to us from Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prohibited it.

As for those who make immorality permissible from amongst the rogue sects, and use the verse ‘Give those you have consummated marriage with their due dowries.[47]as proof, they should understand that consummation here refers to consummating through correct marriage, and giving them their dues, refers to giving their dowries, except those who give up their dowries willingly. Mutual consent is actually an engagement. This is what we and my grandfather say regarding Mut’ah and that is the truth, not what they come up with and claim regarding the conditions for Mut’ah, not their stipulation of what is contrary to the Qur’an and Sunnah, permitting what Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has forbidden and liberating what was forbidden in the Qur’an.[48]

 

‘Allamah Sharf al Din al Sayyaghi (1221 AH)[49] has quoted, in his book al Rawd al Nadir, consensus of the Ahlul Bayt on the prohibition of Mut’ah, refuting the claim attributed to al Baqir and al Sadiq that they permitted it. He states:

 

وأما‏ الباقر وولده الصادق فنقل في الجامع الكافي عن الحسن بن يحي بن زيد فقيه العراق انه قال أجمع آل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم علي كراهية المتعة والنهي عنها وقال أيضا أجمع آل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على أنه لا نكاح إلا بولي وشاهدين وصداق بلا شرط في النكاح وقال محمد يعني ابن منصور سمعنا عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وعن علي وابن عباس وأبي جعفر يعني الباقر وزيد بن علي وعبد الله بن الحسن وجعفر بن محمد أنهم قالوا لا نكاح إلا بولي وشاهدين

As for al Baqir and his son al Sadiq, it has been quoted in al Jami al Kafi from al Hassan ibn Yahya ibn Zaid—the jurist of Iraq—that he said, “The family of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is unanimous on the resentment and prohibition of Mut’ah.”

He also said, “The family of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is unanimous that there is no marriage except with a guardian, two witnesses and dowry, without any conditions in marriage.”

Muhammad, i.e. ibn Mansur, states, “We heard from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, ‘Ali, Ibn ‘Abbas, Abu Jafar i.e. al Baqir, Zaid ibn Ali, ‘Abdullah ibn al Hassan, and Jafar ibn Muhammad that they said that there is no marriage except with a guardian and two witnesses.”[50]

 

Al Sayyaghi has refuted the claim that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not prohibit Mut’ah and that it was ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu who prohibited it, by saying:

 

فكان نهي عمر عن نكاح المتعة موافقا لسنة رسول الله  فاخذنا به ويبين أن عمر إنما نهي عن نكاح المتعة  لأنه علم نهي النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عنه ما روي من طريق سالم بن عبد الله عن أبيه عن عمر بن الخطاب قال صعد عمر المنبر فحمد الله وأثنى عليه ثم قال ما بال رجال ينكحون هذه المتعة وقد نهي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عنها ألا أوتى بأحد نكحها إلا رجمته … وما روي عنه في الصحيح أنه قال متعتان كانتا علي عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أنا أنهي عنهما

الحديث معناه أنا أؤكد النهي عنهما وأبينه للناس إذ يبعد أنه أراد التشريع بخلاف ما عليه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كما لا يخف

The prohibition by ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu of Mut’ah marriage was in conformity with the Sunnah of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, thus we attest to it, and he clarifies that ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu prohibited from Mut’ah marriage because he was aware that that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prohibited it as narrated through Salim ibn ‘Abdullah from his father, from ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he ascended the pulpit, praised Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and then said, “What is the matter with some men that they practice Mut’ah marriage, whereas the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prohibited it. If anyone, who gets married in this manner, is brought to me, I will stone him.”

And as narrated in al Sahih that he said, “There were two types of Mut’ah during the era of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. I prohibit them.”

The meaning of the Hadith is that I emphasise its prohibition and clarify it for the people as it is farfetched that he would pass any legislation of Shari’ah contrary to the teachings of Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[51]

 

As for the Ismailis[52]—they are part of the Imami Shia who hold the view of infallibility and Imamah for Jafar al Sadiq—they narrate from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Muhammad al Baqir and Jafar al Sadiq[53] that which indicates to the prohibition of Mut’ah marriage.

Here is al Qadi Abu Hanifah al No’man al Maghribi[54]( d. 363 AH), for who the contemporary Shia scholar of reference, Sheikh Jafar al Subhani bore testimony regarding his careful consideration in narrating from al Baqir and al Sadiq,[55] who states in his book Daa’im al Islam:

 

عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أنه حرم نكاح المتعة وعن علي أنه قال لا نكاح إلا بولي وشاهدين وليس بالدرهم والدرهمين واليوم واليومين ذلك السفاح ولا شرط في النكاح وعن جعفر بن محمد أن رجلا سأله عن نكاح المتعة قال صفه لي قال يلقي الرجل المرأة فيقول أتزوجك بهذا الدرهم والدرهمين وقعة أو يوما أو يومين قال هذا زنا وما يفعل هذا إلا فاجر

He reports from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that he prohibited from Mut’ah marriage.

From ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he said, “There is no marriage except with (the permission of) the guardian and two witnesses. Marriage can neither take place with one or two dirhams, nor for one or two days. That is fornication. There are no conditions in marriage.”

Similarly, he reports from Jafar ibn Muhammad that a person asked him regarding Mut’ah marriage. He said, “Describe it to me.”

The person said, “A person meets a woman and says that I marry you in lieu of this dirham or two dirhams, or for one or two days.”

He replied, “This is adultery. Only an open sinner would do this.”[56]

 

Then al No’man commented on it by saying:

 

وإبطال نكاح المتعة موجرد في كتاب الله تعالٰى لأنه يقول سبحانه وتعالى وَالَّذِينَ هُم لِفُرُوجِهِم حَافِظُونَ إِلَّا عَلَىٰ أَزوَاجِهِم أَو مَا مَلَكَت أَيْمَانُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُم غَيْرُ مَلُومِينَ فَمَنِ ابتَغَىٰ وَرَاءَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ العَادُونَ (المؤمنون:) ‎٧-٥‏ ( فلم يطلق النكاح إلا على زوجة أو ملك يمين وذكر الطلاق الذي يجب به الفرقة بين الزوجين وورث الزوجين بعضهما من بعض وأوجب العدة علي المطلقات ونكاح المتعة علي خلاف هذا إنما هو عند من أباحه أن يتفق الرجل والمرأة علي مدة معلومة فإذا انقضت المدة بانت منه بلا طلاق ولم تكن عليها عدة ولم يلحق به ولد إن كان منها ولم يجب لها عليه نفقة ولم يتوارثا وهذا هو الزنا المتعارف الذي لا شك فيه

The invalidity of Mut’ah marriage is found in the Qur’an. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:

And they who guard their private parts. Except from their wives or those their right hands possess, for indeed, they will not be blamed. But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors.[57]

Marriage was mentioned only to a wife and a slave and divorce was mentioned which necessitates separation between the spouses. The spouses inherit from each other and Iddah (waiting period after divorce) is necessary for a divorced woman. However, Mut’ah marriage is contrary to this. According to those who permit it, Mut’ah is that a man and a woman agree to a stipulated time. When the time expires, she is separated from him without divorce, without sitting for ‘Iddah, if a child is born then that child will not be attributed to him, no spousal support is obligatory on him and they do not inherit from each other. This is undoubtedly the commonly known adultery.[58]

 

Meanwhile, the Jafaris quote from al Baqir and al Sadiq that which is completely different to what has just been mentioned. They do not suffice on merely permitting Mut’ah with women; in fact, they recommend it and claim strange and exaggerated rewards for practicing it.

Hence, they narrate from Abu Jafar al Baqir that he said:

 

إن النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم لما أسري به إلي السماء قال لحقني جبرئيل فقال يا محمد إن الله تبارك وتعالى يقول إني قد غفرت للمتمتعين من أمتك من النساء

When the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was taken to the heavens, Jibril ‘alayh al Salam met him and said, “O Muhammad, indeed Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says that I have forgiven the women of your Ummah who practice Mut’ah.”[59]

 

They narrate from Salih ibn ‘Uqbah, who narrates from his father, from Abu Jafar al Baqir wherein he states:

 

قلت له للمتمتع ثواب قال إن كان يريد بذلك وجه الله تعالي وخلافا علي من أنكرها لم يكلمها كلمة إلا كتب الله تعالي له بها حسنة ولم يمد يده إليها إلا كتب الله له حسنة فإذا دنا منها غفر الله تعالي له بذلك ذنبا فإذا اغتسل غفر الله له بقدر ما مر من الماء على شعره قلت بعدد الثعر قال نعم بعدد الشعر

I said to him (Abu Jafar al Baqir), “Is there reward for a person practicing Mut’ah?”

He replied, “If he intended the pleasure of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala through it (then he will be rewarded), contrary to the one who rejects it. He does not speak a word with that woman except that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala writes a good deed for him. When he stretches his hand towards her, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala writes a good deed for him. When he goes close to her, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala forgives one of his sins because of it. When he takes a bath, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala forgives him to the extent of water that passes over his hair.”

I asked, “According to the number of hairs?”

He replied, “Yes, according to the number of hairs.”[60]

 

They narrate from Bakr ibn Muhammad, who narrates from Jafar al Sadiq, this statement:

 

سألته عن المتعة فقال إني لأكره للرجل المسلم أن يخرج من الدنيا وقد بقيت عليه خلة من خلال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم لم ياتها فقلت فهل تمتع رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم قال نعم وقرأ هذه الآية وَإِذ أَسَرَّ النَّبِيُّ إِلَىٰ بَعضِ أَزوَاجِهِ حَدِيثًا إلى قوله ثَيِّبَاتٍ وَأَبكَارًا

I asked him (Jafar al Sadiq) about Mut’ah. He replied, “I dislike that a Muslim man leaves this world and without fulfilling one of the traits of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

I asked, “Did the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam practice Mut’ah?”

He replied, “Yes.”

Thereafter he recited the verses of the Qur’an:

Remember when the Prophet had once confided something to one of his wives … till previously married or virgins.[61][62]

 

Similarly, they narrate from Jafar al Sadiq this statement:

 

ليس منا من لم يؤمن بكرتنا ويستحل متعتنا

He is not of us, who does not believe in our return and does not consider our Mut’ah permissible.[63]

 

Commenting on this, Sheikh al Mufid (d. 413 AH) states:

 

واختص بإباحتها جماعة أئمة الهدى من آل محمد فلذلك أضافها الصادق إلي نفسه بقوله متعتنا

The guided Imams of the Ahlul Bayt have specifically permitted it, which is the reason al Sadiq attributed it to himself by saying ‘our Mut’ah’.[64]

 

From this it becomes clear that the two sects[65] believe in the infallibility and Imamah of al Baqir and Jafar al Sadiq and share the narrators from them, but differ in transmitting from them in such an apparent manner that it is not possible to reconcile or interpret them except acknowledging the fact that there are abundant forgeries in the legacy which is transmitted from the two Imams, al Baqir and al Sadiq.

How would this be possible if one includes the contradictory narrations from Jafar al Sadiq in the Jafari Schools itself, which indicate towards the prohibition of Mut’ah with women in such a distinct and clear manner that it cannot be interpreted otherwise? Like the narration reported by Ahmed ibn ‘Isa al Ash’ari in Nawadir and al Hurr al ‘Amili in Wasa’il al Shia from Hisham ibn al Hakam who narrates from Jafar al Sadiq that he said regarding Mut’ah:

 

ما تفعلها عندنا إلا الفواجر

According to us, only open sinners practice on it.[66]

 

That which Sheikh al Ta’ifah al Tusi reported in Tahdhib al Ahkam and al Istibsar, and al Hurr al ‘Amili in Wasa’il al Shia from Zaid ibn Ali, who narrates from his forefathers, who narrates from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he said:

 

حرم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله لحوم الحمر الأهلية ونكاح المتعة

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prohibited the meat of domestic donkeys and Mut’ah marriage.[67]

 

Al Tusi felt embarrassed in front of these explicit narrations regarding the prohibition of Mut’ah. Hence, he contented himself with commenting on these narrations by saying:

 

فإن هذه الرواية وردت مورد التقية وعلي ما يذهب إليه مخالفوا الشيعة والعلم حاصل لكل من سمع الأخبار أن من دين أئمتنا إباحة المتعة فلايحتاج إلى الإطناب فيه

These narrations were mentioned as Taqiyyah and according to the view of the opposition of the Shia. Anyone who has heard the transmissions is well aware that the view of our Imams is permissibility of Mut’ah. Therefore, there is no need for exaggeration in it.[68]

 

Where did all these differences come from? How is it possible to differentiate the authentic transmissions from al Baqir and al Sadiq amongst the contradictory narrative legacy, which attracts all the sects to raise the banner of Shi’ism for the Ahlul Bayt and claim to care for al Baqir and al Sadiq’s legacy and transmit it from whom they consider trustworthy?

Another issue is that of Khums. Narrations from the Ahlul Bayt have differed amongst the Shia groups, let alone others.

Here is Sharif al Murtada, who clearly states in his book al Intisar about his Imami group’s isolation from the rest of the Islamic sects in stipulating Khums (one fifth) in a person’s earnings in general, during war and in peace, from businesses, agriculture, industries etc. He states:

 

ومما انفردت به الإمامية القول بأن الخمس واجب في جميع المغانم والمكاسب ومما استخرج من المعادن والغوص والكنوز ومما فضل من أرباح التجارات والزراعات والصناعات بعد المؤنة والكفاية في طول السنة على اقتصاد

From amongst the isolated views of the Imamiyyah is the view that Khums (one fifth) is obligatory on all spoils of war, earnings, that which is extracted from mines, though diving, in treasures and in the surplus profits of trade, agriculture and industries, over and above expenses and moderate sufficient supplies for the duration of one year.[69]

 

Meanwhile, Khums according to the Zaidis is obligatory in spoils of war attained from the people of war or rebels, wealth collected from land tax, levies from land that was taken in peace, everything that comes from the sea like pearl and sapphire, everything that is extracted from mines and all that is hunted.[70]

Thus, according to them, Khums is not obligatory on the surplus of a person’s earnings such as profits of business, agriculture, industries, rentals and other landholdings, as is the case according to the Ithna ‘Ashariyyah.[71]

Moreover, the Zaidis narrate from Zaid ibn Ali ibn al Hussain that when he was asked about Khums, he replied by saying:

 

هو لنا ما احتجنا إليه فإذا استغنينا فلا حق لنا فيه ألم تر أن الله قرننا مع اليتامي والمساكين وابن السبيل فإذا بلغ اليتيم واستغنى المسكين وأمن ابن السبيل فلا حق لهم وكذلك نحن إذا استغنينا فلا حق لنا

We only have right to it as long as we have a need for it. When we become self-sufficient, we have no right in it. Have you not seen that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has joined us with the orphans, poor, and the travellers? When an orphan matures, a poor becomes self-sufficient, and a traveller becomes secure, then they have no rights. Similarly, when we become self-sufficient then there is no right for us.[72]

 

Moreover, some Imami narrations indicate that Khums is obligatory in spoils of war specifically. Thus, it is reported in the Sahih[73] of ‘Abdullah ibn Sinan that he said:

 

ليس الخمس إلا في الغنائم خاصة

Khums is in spoils of war specifically.[74]

 

Al Hurr al ‘Amili commented on this narration by saying:

 

المراد ليس الخمس الواجب بظاهر القرآن إلا في الغنائم فإن وجوبه فيما سواها إنما ثبت بالسنة

The meaning of this narration is that the obligatory Khums, which is established through the apparent meaning of the Qur’an, is only in spoils of war. As for its obligation in other things, this is established through Sunnah.[75][76]

 

This is acknowledgement that the verse pertaining to Khums in the Qur’an:

 

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُم مِّن شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ إِن كُنتُمْ آمَنتُم بِاللَّه وَمَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Know that whatever spoils you take, one-fifth is for Allah and the Messenger, his close relatives, orphans, the poor, and needy travellers, if you truly believe in Allah and what We revealed to Our servant on that decisive day when the two armies met at Badr. And Allah is Most Capable of everything.[77]

does not denote in any way, close or far, to the Imami Ithna ‘Ashariyyah’s view regarding Khums.

 

Ayatollah Muhammad Asif Muhsini acknowledged the ambiguity surrounding Khums according to the Imamiyyah, as he states:

 

واعلم أن وجوب الخمس في الفوائد وأرباح المكاسب كما هو المشهور في أعصارنا لا يخلو من غموض وإيراد ومن المطمئن به أن أخذه شرع من زمان الهادي والعسكري في الجملة  وأما الجواد فهو وإن أخذ بعضه لكن في إثبات كونه من الخمس المصطلح نظر ثم على فرض وجوبه- بعيدا- في تقسيمه إلى سهم الإمام والسادة أيضا نظر بل منع بل هو كله حق الإمام  وتحقيقه في محله

Know well that the obligation of Khums in surplus and profits of earnings, which is well known in our times, is not devoid of ambiguity and complications. What is assured is that collecting Khums started during the era of al Hadi and al ‘Askari in brief. As for al Jawad, even though he collected some; however, proving it to be the conventional Khums is problematic. Then, assuming it to be obligatory, which is farfetched, distributing it by allocating shares for the Imam and the elite is also problematic, rather prohibited. In fact, it is all the right of the Imam. Its research is in its place.[78]

 

Is it possible to say that the Imami view regarding the obligation of paying Khums from the profits of earnings is the school of the Ahlul Bayt or school of Jafar al Sadiq?

If I have to enumerate the various aspects of differences and contradictory transmissions which these groups transmit from the Ahlul Bayt, in all issues (beliefs and Fiqh), the discussion would become too lengthy and that would fill up tens, in fact hundreds of pages.

From amongst these topics, the most heated one is the topic of distortion taking place in the Qur’an, which has been the catalyst for much religious debate. Hence, books were written about it and lengthy discussions took place wherein some reject it while others acknowledge it.

Although we overlooked the contents of these records, we stop at the most important aspect of this research, which the acknowledgement by a group of Imami scholars of consecutive narrations of distortion and that they are definite in proof and in indication.[79] Then we see those scholars who refute the occurrence of distortion in the Qur’an, proceed to falsify these consecutively narrated transmissions, without feeling embarrassed. In fact, they regard the view of distortion in the Qur’an as some kind of a myth, as expressed by the Shia scholar of reference Sayed Abu al Qasim al Khu’i (d. 1413 AH), in his book al Bayan:

 

ومما ذكرناه قد تبين للقاري أن حديث تحريف القرآن حديث خرافة وخيال لا يقول به إلا من ضعف عقله أو من لم يتأمل في أطرافه حق التأمل أو من ألجأه إليه يحب القول به والحب يعمي ويصم وأما العاقل المنصف المتدبر فلا يشك في بطلانه وخرافته

And from what we have mentioned, it becomes clear that the Hadith about distortion in Qur’an is a myth and fiction. Only a person with weak intellect[80] will accept it, or one who did not ponder on the various aspects of the Hadith as he ought to, or one who is compelled to it because of his love for that view, and love blinds and deafens a person. As for a sane, just, and prudent person; he will have no doubt in its invalidity and superstition.[81]

 

This is despite al Khu’i’s admission that some of the narrations about the distortion of the Qur’an are reliable according to him, as he states while criticising those narrations:

 

إن كثيرا من الروايات وإن كانت ضعيفة السند فإن جملة منها نقلت من كتاب أحمد بن محمد السياري الذي اتفق علماء الرجال على فساد مذهبه وأنه يقول بالتناسخ ومن علي بن أحمد الكوفي الذي ذكر علماء الرجال أنه كذاب وأنه فاسد المذهب إلا أن كثرة الروايات تورث القطع بصدور بعضها عن المعصومين ولا أقل من الاطمئنان بذلك وفيها ما روي بطريق معتبر فلا حاجة بنا إلى التكلم في سند كل رواية بخصوصها

Indeed, many of the narrations, although their chains are weak, a number of them are transmitted from the book of Ahmed ibn Muhammad al Sayyari, concerning who, the scholars of narrators are unanimous about the corruption of his beliefs and that he believes in reincarnation. Some are transmitted from ‘Ali ibn Ahmed al Kufi. The scholars of narrators mention that he is a liar and his beliefs are corrupt. However, the large number of narrations creates conviction that some of them might emanate from the infallible Imams and that is nothing less than reassuring. Some of these narrations are transmitted through reliable sources; therefore, there is no need to discuss the chain of each narration specifically.[82]

 

From this, we can sense the extent of embarrassment the schools’ scholars fell into on account of these converging and consecutively narrated transmissions, which eventually compelled them to falsify them to protect the Book of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala from being adulterated or to protect the water of their faces from drying.

It is religiously and morally obligatory to discard these false narrations, to protect the status of the Book of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala being affected and receive such heinous accusations; however, the intention of presenting this example is to indicate the excessive lies attributed to the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt, as well as various fundamental and subsidiary topics; in such subsidiary rulings that are regarded to be from the characteristics of the Jafari School, as previously mentioned regarding Mut’ah and Khums. In fact, in fundamentals of din too, to such an extent that it reached the most fundamental and basis of din, which is the Qur’an, where the false narrations regarding distortion in the Qur’an reached this huge number and to such a degree that the leader of al Hawzah al Ilmiyyah (scientific seminary), in Najaf at that time—who happens to be the one who wrote the encyclopaedia Mujam Rijal al Hadith (dictionary of narrators of Hadith) in the field of narrators of Hadith—stood perplexed in front of them. He was unable, despite making all the effort, to weaken most of them except by acknowledging that some of them are reliable according to the chain of narrators.

Meanwhile al Majlisi declares that discarding the consecutively narrated transmissions about distortion in the Qur’an will necessitate discarding all the Sh’i’ narrations, primarily the narrations of the texts regarding the Imams.

Al Majlisi states:

 

ولا يخفي أن هذا الخبر وكثير من الأخبار الصحيحة صريحة في نقص القرآن وتغييره وعندي أن الأخبار في هذا الباب متواترة معني وطرح جميعها يوجب رفع الاعتماد عن الأخبار رأسا بل ظني أن الأخبار في هذا الباب لايقصر عن أخبار الإمامة فكيف يثبتونها بالخبر

It is no secret that this transmission and other authentic transmissions are explicit regarding omission and distortion in the Qur’an. According to me, the transmissions in this chapter are consecutive in meaning and discarding all of them would necessitate removing confidence from these transmissions completely. In fact, I think that the transmissions in this chapter are not less than the transmissions regarding Imamah, then how will they establish it through transmissions.[83]

 

The late Shia scholar of reference Abu al Qasim al Khu’i (d. 1413 AH) paid attention to this in Mujam Rijal al Hadith, wherein he states:

 

إن أصحاب الأئمة وإن بذلوا غاية جهدهم واهتمامهم في أمر الحديث وحفظه من الضياع والاندراس حسبما أمرهم به الأئمة إلا أنهم عاشوا في دور التقية ولم يتمكنوا من نشر الأحاديث علنا فكيف بلغت هذه الأحاديث حد التواتر أو قريبا منه

Although, the companions of the Imams exerted all their efforts and care in the matter of Hadith and its preservation from destruction and extinction as instructed by the Imams; however, they lived in the era of Taqiyyah; as a result, they were unable to spread the ahadith openly. Then how did these narrations reach the level of Tawatur (consecutively narrated) or close to it?[84]

 

Much falsehood has been attributed to Jafar al Sadiq, owing to which the trusted scholars avoided narrating a large number of Aahadith from him; as a result, his fiqh was lost.

What is found presently amongst us, which can be trusted from Jafar, are various snippets that cannot constitute a school. Other than that, are many lies attributed to him, that is avoided by reliable books.

The differences of majority of the Muslims with the leaders of the Jafari School in this issue is not confined to excessive lies on Jafar al Sadiq only, but also on the views of the school’s scholars about lies and giving it a status of Shari’ah, if this expression is correct.

How amazed I was with Abu al Qasim al Khu’i, who, while writing the biography of the narrator, ‘Abdullah ibn Bukayr in his encyclopaedia of narrators (Mujam Rijal al Hadith) stated the following:

 

وأما ما ذكره الشيخ في الاستبصار فلا ينافي الحكم بوثاقته غايته أن الشيخ احتمل كذب عبد الله بن بكير في هذه الرواية بخصوصها نصرة لرأيه ومن المعلوم أن احتمال الكذب لخصوصية في مورد خاص لا ينافي وثاقة الراوي في نفسه

As for what the Sheikh mentioned in al Istibsar, this does not contradict the verdict of his trustworthiness. The point is that the Sheikh tolerated the lies of ‘Abdullah ibn Bukayr in this narration specifically to support his opinion. It is well known that tolerating lies for a specific reason in a specific occasion does not contradict the trustworthiness of the narrator himself.[85]

 

My amazement increased when I saw al Khu’i state the following in the biography of Ahmed ibn Hammad al Marwazi:

 

إن ظهور الكذب أحيانا لا ينافي حسن الرجل فإن الجواد قد يكبو

The appearance of lies sometimes is not contrary to a person’s goodness as a good horse can also stumble.[86]

 

If lying is a stumble which could be overlooked then what is left for us to discuss?

If lying is not a valid reason for passing a verdict of weakness for narrator, then to combine the interest of the school with lies to the opposition is something that should not be doubted or desisted from, according to al Khu’i.

Abu al Qasim al Khu’i was asked:

هل يجوز الكذب على المبتدع أو مروج الضلال في مقام الاحتجاج عليه إذا كان الكذب يدحض حجته ويبطل دعاويه الباطلة

فأجاب إذا توقف رد باطله عليه جاز

Is it permissible to lie to an innovator or a promoter of deviation when raising objection against him, if this lying refutes his argument and invalidates his false claims?

He replied, “If he anticipates refuting his false claims against him then it is permissible.”[87]

 

 

NEXT⇒ 2. Taqiyyah and its impact on the extinction of the Jafari School


[1] Siyar Alam al Nubala’, 8/156.

[2] This is because the chain of all the narrations pertaining to his summoning to Baghdad or confronting Abu Hanifah in the presence of al Mansur, are unauthentic, according to the sciences of Hadith, be it from the Ahlus Sunnah or the Imamiyyah. The view of Ayatollah Muhammad Asif Muhsini regarding this will come in due course.

[3] Zuhayr Ghazzawi: He is a Palestinian Shia author and writer of story books. He was born in Haifa in 1941 CE. He holds a doctorate in education and is a member of the Story and Novel Association. He authored many books. Some of them are:

  1. Al Imam Jafar ibn Muhammad al Sadiq bayn al Haqiqah wa al Nafi.
  2. Al Imam Musa ibn Jafar al Kazim Madrasat Ahlul Bayt fi Marhalat al Iktimal.

[4] Al Imam Jafar ibn Muhammad al Sadiq bayn al Haqiqah wa al Nafi, pg. 26-27.

[5] Ibn ‘Adi states in al Kamil fi al Duafa’, 2/358:

حدثنا ابن سعيد  أي ابن عقدة  حدثنا جعفر بن محمد بن حسين بن حازم  قال حدثنا إبراهيم بن محمد الرماني أبو نجيح قال  سمعت حسن بن زياد قال سمعت أبا حنيفة  وسئل من أفقه من رأيت فقال ما رأيت أحدا أفقه من جعفر بن محمد لما أقدمه المنصور الحيرة بعث إلي …

Ibn Sa’id, i.e. Ibn ‘Uqdah, narrated to us from Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Hussain ibn Hazim, who said that Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al Rumani Abu Najih said that I heard Hassan ibn Ziyad saying that he heard Abu Hanifah saying (when he was asked as to who is the most knowledgeable person that you have seen), “I have not seen anyone more knowledgeable that Jafar ibn Muhammad. When al Mansur summoned him at Hirah, he called me…”

The chain of this narration is very weak. It contains unknown men. They are:

Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Hussain ibn Hazim and Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al Rumani. Similarly Ibn ‘Uqdah narrates it isolated and his religious inclinations correspond to it.

Al Hirah was a city situated 3 miles from Kufah, in a region known as Najaf. (Mujam al Buldan, 2/328.)

[6] Jafar al Sadiq is buried with his father and grandparents in al Baqi’. His grave is with his grandfather, al Hassan ibn ‘Ali’s grave. ‘Allamah Abu Hamid al Ghazali (d. 505 AH) states in al Ihya’, 1/260:

ويستحب أن يخرج كل يوم إلى البقع بعد السلام على رسول الله ويزور قبر عثمان وقبر الحسن بن علي وفيه أيضا قبر علي بن الحسين ومحمد بن علي وجعفر بن محمد

It is recommended that every day, a person should go to al Baqi’ after greeting the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and visit the graves of ‘Uthman and al Hassan ibn ‘Ali. The graves of ‘Ali ibn al Hussain, Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, and Jafar ibn Muhammad are also there.

Testament to this statement of al Ghazali is that the grave of Jafar is popular and visited. Thus, one should greet him and supplicate for his forgiveness, mercy and pleasure of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala be pleased with Jafar and have mercy on him.

Al Mas’udi (d. 346 AH) has indicated to the location of their graves with their grandmother, Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha in Muruj al Dhahab, 3/285, by stating:

وعلي قبورهم في هذا الموضع من البقيع رخامة عليها مكتوب بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم الحمد لله مبيد الأمم ومحي الرمم هذا قبر فاطمة بنت رسول الله سيدة نساء العالمين وقبر الحسن بن علي بن أبي طالب وعلي بن الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب ومحمد بن علي وجعفر بن محمد

There is a marble placed on their graves in al Baqi’, with the following inscription:

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. All praise is for Allah, destroyer of nations and reviver of ruins. This is the grave of Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the leader of the women of the universe, and the graves of al Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, and Jafar ibn Muhammad.

[7] Abu al Faraj states:

حدثنا علي بن الحسين قال حدثني الحسين بن علي السلولي قال حدثنا أحمد بن زيد قال حدثنا عمي أبو معمر سعيد بن خثيم (في المطبوع خيثم وهو خطا) قال حدثني يونس بن أبي يعقوب قال حدثنا جعفر بن محمد من فيه إلى أذني، ثم ذكره

Ali ibn al Hussain narrated to us, who says that al Hussain ibn ‘Ali al Saluli narrated to me and said that Ahmed ibn Zaid narrated to us, who says that my uncle Abu Ma’mar Sa’id ibn Khuthaym (printed as Khaytham which is an error) narrated to us, who says that Yunus ibn Abi Yaqub narrated to me, who states that Jafar ibn Muhammad narrated to me, from his mouth to my ear. He then mentions the narration.

The chain of this narration is very weak. This chain contains the following narrators:

Ahmed ibn Zaid: As mentioned in the original print, however it is a misprint of Ahmed ibn Rushd (or Rashid) ibn Khuthaym al Hilali. Scholars have mentioned a Hadith which he fabricated out of ignorance. (Refer to Lisan al Mizan, 1/459.)

Al Hussain ibn Ali al Saluli: His condition is unknown.

Said ibn Khuthaym al Hilali: Scholars have differed regarding him. Ibn Ma’in regards him to be reliable. Al Azdi states that his ahadith are Munkar (contradictory). Ibn ‘Adi states in al Kamil fi al Duafa’, 4/468:

أحاديث ليست بمحفوظة من رواية أحمد بن رشد عنه وسعيد بن خثيم عم أحمد بن رشد

Those ahadith are not preserved which Ahmed ibn Rushd narrates from him. Sa’id ibn Khuthaym is the uncle of Ahmed ibn Rushd.

[8] Bakhamra is a place situated between Kufah and Wasit, closer to Kufah. Al Tabari states in Tarikh, 7/645, that it is at a distance of 16 Farsakh from Kufah, which is approximately 80 km.

[9] Maqatil al Talibiyyin, pg. 300-301.

[10] There is another important consideration which persuaded Jafar al Sadiq to make this choice, and that is, that Madinah is the land of his Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and forefathers, and the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam granted virtue to the land, Masjid, and al Baqi’(graveyard).

[11] Al Zubair states:

حدثني علي بن صالح قال سمعت الفضل بن الربيع يحدث عن أبيه الربيع فذكر الحديث

‘Ali ibn Salih narrated to me from ‘Amir ibn Salih who says that I heard al Fadl ibn al Rabi’ narrating from his father, al Rabi’, then he mentions the report.

[12] It is the pillar where Abu Lubabah tied himself, hence, the name ‘Pillar of Repentance’. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used to perform most of his optional prayers by this pillar.

[13] Al Shawa refers to and easy matter.

[14] Tashahhud: The sitting posture before the completion of Salah.

[15] Surah al Hujurat: 6

[16] Al Akhbar al Muwaffiqiyyat, pg. 134-136, research, Sami Makki al ‘Ani, ‘Alam al Kutub 2nd edition, 1416 AH.

[17] Tarikh al Tabari, 8/37; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 13/334.

[18]Take note that I did not say ‘all the schools’ narrators. I mentioned those on whom the school is dependent on, not those who narrate one or two narrations.

[19] Particularly when there is no evidence stating that theses narrators resided in Madinah in order to learn and study. They only resided in Kufah. Then how is it possible to transmit and narrate such a large number of narrations that contradict the nature of things? We know that those who narrate excessively and are associated to the class of a certain scholar or Muhaddith, are generally from his town (people of the town) or they travelled and stayed in his company to acquire from him. Critics have always scrutinized transmissions when there is a difference in the towns of narrators and their teachers and regard it as lack of competence of the narrator.

[20] Al Mufid states in al Irshad, 2/179:

ونقل الناس عنه من العلوم ما سارت به الركبان وانتشر ذكره في البلدان ولم ينقل عن أحد من أهل بيته العلماء ما نقل عنه ولا لقي أحد منهم من أهل الآثار ونقلة الأخبار ولا نقلوا عنهم كما نقلوا عن ابي عبد الله  فإن اصحاب الحديث قد جمعوا أسماء الرواة عنه من الثقات على اختلانهم في الآراء والمقالات فكانوا أربعة آلاف رجل

People transmitted so much knowledge from him that his fame spread far and wide. His name became well known in all regions. Scholars did not transmit from any of his household as much as they transmitted from him. None of the writers and narrators met and transmitted from any of the Ahlul Bayt as they narrated from Abu ‘Abdullah. Experts of Hadith compiled the names of authentic narrators that transmit from him, despite their differences in opinion and statements; they reached up to 4000 men.

[21]Article of Yahya Muhammad, Hadith according to the Shia- its historical development, objections and situations, published in the Majallat Nusus Muasirah (Journal of Contemporary Texts).

[22] Rijal al Najashi, pg. 40.

[23] He is Yahya ibn al Hussain ibn Harun ibn al Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn Harun ibn Muhammad ibn al Qasim ibn al Hassan ibn Zaid ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. One of the senior scholars of the Zaidis. He was born in Amal Tabaristan. Allegiance to Imamah was taken for him in Daylam. He passed away when he was over 80 years old. (Alam al Muallifin al Zaidiyyah, pg. 1121.)

[24] Bozorgmehr ibn al Bakhtkan was a minister of Anushirwan. He was a wise scholar. Lots of wisdom and proverbs are attributed to him. His name is mentioned in some important works of Persian literature, particularly in al Shahnamah.

[25] Nashwan al Hamiri: al Hurr al Ayn, pg. 307, 2nd edition, Dar Azal, Beirut.

[26] Sharik ibn ‘Abdullah al Nakha’i al Kufi, was initially the judge of Wasit and then Kufah. He was amongst the early [political] Shia.

[27] Rijal al Kashshi, 2/616.

[28] Tuhaf al Uqul ‘an Al al Rasul, pg. 31 -311; Bihar al Anwar, 75/289; Mustadrak al Wasa’il, 9/91.

[29] The original text appears like this. Perhaps there is some text missing or there is an implied meaning in the original text. The intended meaning is: ‘Obliged on them to convey.’

[30] Rijal al Kashshi, 1/347.

[31] Al Mu’amarah l-Kubra ala Madrasat Ahlul Bayt, pg. 9-10.

[32] Mukhtasar Basa’ir al Darajat, pg. 77; Bihar al Anwar, 2/211.

[33] Al Majlisi states:

الذكاء التوقد والالتهاب أي ينور الخلق دائما

Dhaka’ means, burning and inflammation, i.e. something that always enlightens a person.

[34]Basa’ir al Darajat, pg. 42; Bihar al Anwar, 2/191.

[35] Bihar al Anwar, 2/192, and thereafter.

[36] Dar’ Taarud al Aql wa al Naql, 5/296 – 297.

[37] Marjaiyyat al Marhalah wa Ghubar al Taghyir, pg. 148.

[38] Musnad Zaid ibn Ali, pg. 304.

[39] Ibid.

[40] This book holds a special status amongst the Fiqhi books of the Zaidis, being the most ancient Fiqhi book which compiled majority of the fiqh of the former Imams from the household of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Companions radiya Llahu ‘anhum, and their successors. ‘Allamah Sarim al Din al Wazir (d. 914 AH) states in al Falak al Dawwar, pg. 59 -60:

ومن أكثرها جمعا وأجلها نفعا كتاب الجامع الكافي  المعروف ﺑ جامع آل محمد الذي صنفه السيد الإمام أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن عبد الرحمن الحسني وهو ستة مجلدات ويشتمل من الأحاديث والآثار وأقوال الصحابة والتابعين ومذاهب العترة الطاهرين على ما لم يجتمع في غيره واعتمد فيه على مذهب القاسم بن إبراهيم عالم آل محمد  وأحمد بن عيسي فقيههم والحسن بن بحي بن حسين بن زيد وهو في الشهرة بالكوفة في العترة كأبي حنيفة في فقهائها ومذهب محمد بن منصور علامة العراق وإمام الشيعة بالاتفاق  وإنما خص صاحب الجامع ذكر مذهب هؤلاء قال  لانه راى الزيدية بالعراق يعولون علي مذاهبهم وذكر انه جمعه من نيف وثلاثين مصنفا من مصنفات محمد بن منصور  وانه اختصر أسانيد الأحاديث مع ذكر الحجج فيما وافق وخالف

From amongst the most comprehensive and beneficial books is al Jami al Kafi , popularly known as Jami Al Muhammad, which is authored by Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdur Rahman al Hassani. It comprises of 6 volumes and contains ahadith, transmissions, views of the Companions radiya Llahu ‘anhum, their successors and the schools of the pure household of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, in a manner that no other book has compiled. In it, he relied on the school of al Qasim ibn Ibrahim, the scholar of the household of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; Ahmed ibn ‘Isa, their jurist; al Hassan ibn Yahya ibn Hussain ibn Zaid, whose fame in Kufah amongst the household resembles the fame of Abu Hanifah amongst their jurists and the school of Muhammad ibn Mansur, the great scholar of Iraq and the unanimous Imam of the Shia. The author mentioned these scholar’s schools only, because he realised the Zaidis in Iraq depend on their schools. He states that he compiled it from more than 30 books of Muhammad ibn Mansur. He merely condensed the chains of ahadith and mentioned the proofs where there is conformity and differences.

[41] He is Imam al Qasim ibn Ibrahim (Tabataba) ibn Ismail ibn Ibrahim ibn al Hassan ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, famously known as al Qasim al Rassi. He was one of the supporters of his brother Muhammad ibn Ibrahim during the reign of the Abbasid al Ma’mun. After his brother passed away in Kufah in 218 AH, al Qasim rose to the post of leadership in 220 AH during the era of the Abbasid al Mu’tasim. However, he could not resist the attacks of the Abbasid army. Subsequently he relocated to al Rass during his final days. It is said that al Rass is a piece of land behind Mount ‘Ir close to Dhu al Hulayfah. He bought it and built the residence for himself and his offspring. He passed away in 246 AH at the age of 77. (Alam al Mu’allifin al Zaidiyyah, pg. 759–760)

[42] He is Ahmed ibn ‘Isa ibn Zaid ibn Ali ibn al Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhum. He has a dictated a book known as Ulum Al Muhammad. Imam al Mansur bi Allah named it Bada’i al Anwar. His book al Amali has been published with the name Ra’b al Sad’ in 3 parts with the research of ‘Allamah ‘Ali ibn Ismail ibn ‘Abdullah al Muayyid al San’ani and released by Dar al Nafa’is, Beirut, in 1410 AH. The researcher states:

إنه كصحيح البخاري عند أهل البيت النبوي الشريف وقد أخرج المؤلف فيه ‎٢٧٩٠‏ حديئا عن الرسول وائمة أهل البيت والباقر والصادق  توفي وقد جاوز الثمانين سنة ٢٤٧ﻫ  وقد كان حبسه الرشيد ثم أخرجه الله تعالي وبقي في البصرة إلى أن توفي

It is like Sahih al Bukhari according to the Ahlul Bayt. The author has produced 2790 ahadith from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt, al Baqir and al Sadiq. He was over 80 years of age when he passed away in 247 AH. Al Rashid had imprisoned him, then Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala granted him freedom. He remained in Basrah till his death. (Refer to al Mu’ayyidi: al Tuhaf Sharh al Zulaf, pg. 40.)

[43] I did not come across any biography for him despite the effort in researching these scholars’ biography. I assume he is Abu Muhammad al Hassan ibn Yahya ibn Zaid ibn al Hussain ibn Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussain ibn Abi Talib. This is how he is mentioned in al Dhurriyyah al Tahirah of al Dulabi.

[44] He is the Muhaddith, Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Mansur ibn Zaid al Muradi al Kufi, one of the special Zaidi students of Imam al Qasim ibn Ibrahim. He was born in Kufah and grew up there. He accompanied Imam al Qasim for 25 years. He performed Hajj more than 20 times with Imam Ahmed ibn ‘Isa. He passed away in the year 290 AH. (Alam al Mu’allifin al Zaidiyyah, pg. 1000.)

[45] Al Jami al Kafi fi Fiqh al Zaidi, 2/423.

[46] He is Imam Yahya ibn al Hussain ibn al Qasim ibn Ibrahim ibn Ismail ibn Ibrahim ibn al Hassan ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhum, nicknamed al Hadi ila al Haqq (guide to the truth). He is the founder of the Zaidi School in Yemen and is regarded as the second highest authority in the school after Zaid ibn ‘Ali. He was born and grew up in al Rass, then relocated to Yemen and fought against the Qarmatians. He passed away in Sa’dah. Refer to Sirat al Hadi ila al Haqq, ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al ‘Alawi’s narration with the research of Suhayl al Zakkar; Alam al Mu’allifin al Zaidiyyah, pg. 1103; Article titled Yahya al Rassi — la Alaqah lahu bi al Rass—al Qasimiyyah by Hussain ibn ‘Abdur Rahman al ‘Adhl, al Riyad newspaper, Friday 22 Muharram 1431 AH, 8 January 2010 CE, no. 15173.

[47] Surah al Nisa’: 24.

[48] Al Ahkam fi al Halal wa al Haram, 1/351 -353.

[49] He is al Hussain ibn Ahmed ibn al Hussain al Sayyaghi al Yemani al San’ani, the Muhaddith, skilful, preserver of Hadith and a Mujtahid. He was born in San’a and passed away there. (Alam al Mu’allifin al Zaidiyyah, pg. 362.)

[50] Zaid ibn ‘Ali: al Rawd al Nadir Sharh al Majmu al Fiqhi al Kabir, 4/218.

[51] Zaid ibn ‘Ali: al Rawd al Nadir Sharh al Majmu al Fiqhi al Kabir, 4/219.

[52] Sayed Hassan al Amin—one of the contemporary Ithna ‘Ashari scholars—while responding to the Encyclopaedia of contemporary religions and schools, states:

وفقه الإسماعيليين الفاطميين لم يكن في يوم من الأيام حليفه الغموض ولو قرأ المشرفون على الموسوعة كتاب دعائم الإسلام للنعمان قاضي الفاطميين وهو كتاب مطبوع في مصر نفسها عام ١٣٧٠ﻫ  ١٩٥١م ‏ لعلموا أن الفقه الإسماعيلي الفاطمي من الوضوح والظهور في درجة لا يزيد عليه فيها فقه آخر

The Fatimid Ismaili fiqh was never an ally of ambiguity. If the moderators of the encyclopaedia read the book Daa’im al Islam of al No’man, the Fatimid judge—it is a book that was published in Egypt itself in 1370 AH, 1952 CE—they would have realised that the Fatimid Ismaili fiqh is so explicit and clear that no other fiqh can surpass it. (al Ismailiyyun wa al Maghul, pg. 95.)

[53] The Ismailis claim that after Jafar al Sadiq, Imamah was transferred to his eldest son Ismail, then his sons and continued till today. Meanwhile the Ithna ‘Asharis claim that it was transferred to his son Musa al Kazim and it was confined to 12 men of the Ahlul Bayt, ending with Muhammad ibn al Hassan al ‘Askari.

[54] He is al No’man ibn Muhammad ibn Mansur ibn Ahmed ibn Hayyun al Tamimi, one of the pillars of inviters to the Fatimids and their school in Egypt. He was known as al Qadi al No’man. He became popular with the name of Abu Hanifah, so that the Fatimids could emulate Imam Abu Hanifah, the Sunni jurist through him. He studied Maliki fiqh but turned to the Ismaili School in 333 AH aspiring leadership. He wrote a book called Ibtida’ al Dawah and many other books for the Ismailis, most important one being Daa’im al Islam in fiqh. Al Zahir al Fatimi ordered the inviters to the Ismailis to memorise this book and rewarded whoever memorised it. He passed away in Egypt. Thereafter his son took over the kingdom’s judiciary. (Refer to Tarikh al Islam, 8/221; al Siyar, 16/150-151; al Zirkili: al Alam, 8/41.)

[55] He states in his book al Milal wa al Nihal, volume 8, the Ismaili, pg. 301:

نرى في كتاب الدعائم أن قاضي القضاة حفظ السنة المروية عن طريق أئمة أهل البيت وانه أكثر الرواية عن الصادقين أي الباقر والصادق غير أنه لم تكن له صلة بعلماء المذهب الاثني عشري ولذلك خالفهم في نفس كتاب الإرث في موارد عديدة

We see in al Daa’im that the chief justice has preserved the Sunnah narrated through the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt and that he narrates excessively from the two truthful ones, i.e. al Baqir and al Sadiq. However, he did not have any association with the scholars of the Ithna ‘Ashari School; as a result, he contradicted them in the actual book of the legacy in various instances.

[56] Daa’im al Islam, 2/228-229.

[57] Surah al Mu’minun: 5-7.

[58] Daa’im al Islam, 2/228-229.

[59] Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih, 3/463; Wasa’il al Shia, 21/13, Hadith: 26391.

[60] Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih, 3/463; Wasa’il al Shia, 21/13, Hadith: 26390; Mustadrak al Wasa’il, 14/452.

[61] Surah al Tahrim: 2-5.

[62] Wasa’il al Shia, 21/13; Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih, 3/463, summarised.

[63] Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih, 3/458.

[64] Al Masa’il al Sarawiyyah, pg. 32.

[65] That is the Ithna ‘Ashari (Imamiyyah) and the Ismaili.

[66] Al Nawadir, pg. 87; Wasa’il Shia, 21/30, Hadith: 26441.

[67] Tahdhib al Ahkam, 7/251; al Istibsar, 3/142; Wasa’il al Shia, 21/12.

[68] Tahdhib al Ahkam, 7/251.

[69]Al Intisar, pg. 225.

[70] Al Tajrid fi Fiqh al Imamayn al Azamayn, pg. 98, book regarding Khums.

[71] Refer to al Marja’ al Ruhani: Minhaj al Salihin, 1/352; al Marja’ Muhammad Sa’is al Hakim: Minhaj al Salihin, 1/406; al Marja’ Muhammad Ishaq al Fayad: Minhaj al Salihin, 2/58.

[72] Musnad Zaid ibn Ali, pg. 356.

[73] The following scholars regard this Hadith as authentic: The late Shia scholar of reference Abu al Qasim al Khu’i in Mustanad al Urwah, book regarding Khums, pg. 35; the contemporary Shia scholar of reference Muhammad Ishaq al Fayad in al Aradi, pg. 218; the late Shia scholar of reference Muntaziri in Nizam al Hukm fi al Islam, pg. 458. Sheikh al Hassan ibn Zain al Din, regarded it as authentic or correct in Muntaqa al Juman, 2/436

[74] Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih, 2/40, Hadith: 1646; Tahdhib al Ahkam, 4/123; Wasa’il al Shia, 9/485.

[75] Refers to the Sunnah which this sect narrates from their Imams.

[76] Wasa’il al Shia, 9/485

[77] Surah al Anfal: 41.

[78] Mashraah Bihar al Anwar, 2/456.

[79] Ni’mat Allah al Jaza’iri in al Anwar al No’maniyyah, 2/357; Muhammad Baqir al Majlisi in Mir’at al Uqul, 12/525 and Adnan al Bahrani in Mashariq al Shumus al Durriyyah, pg. 126.

[80] He is in reality criticising the intellect of some of the geniuses and theorists of the school obliviously.

[81] Al Bayan fi Tafsir al Qur’an, pg. 256.

[82] Al Bayan fi Tafsir al Qur’an, pg. 2623.

[83] Mir’at al Uqul, 12/525.

[84] Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 1/22 (narrations from the four books are not definite sources).

[85] Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 11/132.

[86] Ibid., 2/113.

[87] Sirat al Najah, 1/447, ruling: 1245.