The Third Discussion – The Loci of Nasb

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The Third Discussion

The Loci of Nasb

 

Usually people prefer to settle in places where they know their needs will be secured, whether those needs are financial, social, religious or otherwise.

This, over the passage of time, plays a role in the people of a particular society assimilating and developing shared interests which they all agree upon and distinctions which distinguish them from all else, as the proverb goes ‘people are naturally inclined toward sameness and similarity’.

Thus, for example, Kufah was infamous for being the hub of Shi’ism, to the extent that Ma’mar ibn Rashid[1] would say:

 

عجبت من أهل الكوفة كأن الكوفة إنما بنيت على حب علي، ما كلمت أحدا منهم إلا وجدت المقتصد منهم الذي يفضل عليا على أبي بكر وعمر

I am amazed at the people of Kufah. It is as if Kufah was established upon the love of ‘Ali. I have not spoken to any of them but I have found that their moderate people give preference to ‘Ali over Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.[2]

 

Hence it is recorded that only two people specifically went against the norm of Kufah and gave preference to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu over ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[3] Likewise it was completely normal when referring to someone who was a Shia as one who held ‘the Kufi dogma’.[4]

Similar was the situation of Basrah which had become popular for being the birth place of the innovation of Qadr (the denial of pre-destiny).[5] It was in fact the hub of Qadr, adopting which was a fitnah which had gripped the people of Basrah.[6]

As for Sham, it was the epicentre of Nasb, as will be discussed ahead.

When Nasb came about, there were several factors which contributed to it prevailing amongst the people. Its spread across different was linked to the strength of these factors or their weakness. Thus as a result, some places unanimously accepted Nasb, whereas in other areas it was only embraced by a few individuals or small groups.

Several scholars have alluded to the proliferation of Nasb in certain areas to an extent that only a handful of people were free from it. Al Ruhani[7] says the following when enumerating the virtues of Sijistan:[8]

 

وأجل من هذا كله أنه لعن علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه على منابر الشرق والغرب ولم يلعن على منبرها إلا مرة، وامتنعوا على بني أمية حتى زادوا في عهدهم إلا يلعن على منبرهم أحد… وأي شرف أعظم من امتناعهم من لعن أخي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على منبرهم، وهو يلعن على منابر الحرمين مكة والمدينة

Greater than all of this is that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib was being cursed upon the pulpits of the east and the west but he was not cursed upon its pulpit except once. They refused to pledge their allegiance to the Banu Umayyah unless they assured them that no one will be cursed upon their pulpit. Can there be any accolade greater than them refusing to curse the brother of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam upon their pulpit when at that time he was being cursed upon the pulpits of Makkah and Madinah.[9]

 

Even though this statement is not free of exaggeration, as is apparent; however, the spread of Nasb to various places is a fact that cannot be denied. Also, the fact that only ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was cursed and that they added to their pact that he will not be cursed on their pulpits suggests that cursing him was promoted by the ruling empire.

However, it should also be clear that there is a very big difference between what the ruling empire promotes and what the general subjects do, for there is no relation of necessity between the two; even though the influence yielded by the empire cannot be denied.

Nonetheless, we will analyse the loci of Nasb according to the following method:

First of all, I have relied purely upon the sources of the Ahlus Sunnah in identifying and expounding upon the areas of Nasb, and not upon the sources of the Imami Shia. This is because the latter has extended the definition of Nasb to include anyone who is not an Imami, even if he be a Shia, let alone him being from the Ahlus Sunnah; hence according to them all the lands of the Ahlus Sunnah are lands of Nasb. A person who studies their literature will be appalled at the accusations he will come across, for not even Makkah and Madinah, the two most sacred lands of the Muslims, have been spared.[10]

Secondly, the discussion will include everyone upon who the definition of Nasb fits. It is well-known that the Nawasib are not all of the same level in their Nasb. Hence the Khawarij are the most staunch amongst them, and besides them there are other groups who hold variant views and positions regarding ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu with the common factor in all of them being the non-excommunication of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Thirdly, what is intended by the loci of Nasb is areas which the Nawasib made their base and wherein they openly proclaimed their Nasb, irrespective of whether they were alone or not, and whether they inhabit them today or not.

As for areas besides the aforementioned, like places which they made their military base[11] or where they fought battles[12]  and which they took control of for a short period,[13] or to which some of them fled,[14] there is no real reason to mention them.

These loci can be categorised into two categories:

 

The first category: Areas where the excommunicating Nawasib existed, i.e. the Khawarij

 

The Khawarij in the East

 

Iraq

It is fact that the Khawarij first emerged in Iraq[15] when they rebelled against Amir al Muʾminin ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu after the famous incident of arbitration. Therefrom they spread to many areas according to impending situations and due to their strength or weakness.[16]

After the Umayyad dynasty cracked down on them, many of them were forced to flee from Iraq and search for other locations which would guarantee more safety for them and a better environment to propagate their views.[17] Their history is one filled with great events for whose documentation many books have been dedicated.[18]

Even though in the west the only groups of the Khawarij that existed were the Ibadiyyah and the Sufriyyah, but in the east there were many more groups which continued to sub-divide into more groups.[19]

 

Kufah and Basrah

Although the Khawarij had a presence there for a while,[20] they did not remain there for long. With the Umayyads killing, imprisoning, and banishing them, they encountered overwhelming pressure, and were thus compelled to flee to various places. Hence, for example, during the reign of Ziyad ibn Abihi[21] and his son ‘Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad[22] thirteen thousand of them were killed in Kufah and Basrah. Likewise during the time of ‘Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad alone four thousand of them were imprisoned.[23]

However, these pressures did not deter them, for whenever they would find a chance they would launch their attack.[24]

 

‘Umman (Oman)

In ‘Umman the Khawarij were found at a very early stage, the exact time of their arrival there, however, is unknown. It is alleged that the first people to introduce this dogma to ‘Umman were some of the survivors of the battle of Nahrawan, just as it is alleged that Nasb entered these lands with two men, one of who was Ibn Ibad.[25]

Yaqut al Hamawi[26] has made mention of their presence there, he states:

 

أكثر أهلها في أيامنا خوارج إباضية، ليس بها من غير هذا المذهب إلا طارئ غريب وهم لا يخفون ذلك

Most of its people in our days are Khawarij belonging to the Ibadi sect. Besides this sect there is not anyone belonging to any other sect with the exception of a temporary traveller. And they do not conceal that.[27]

 

This is also recorded by Ibn al Jawzi[28] and Ibn al Athir.[29]

Likewise:

وقد قامت للإباضية دولة مستقلة في عمان، وتعاقب على الحكم فيها إلى العصر الحديث أئمة إباضيون

An autonomous dynasty has emerged for the Ibadiyyah in ‘Umman. Up to the present day Ibadi leaders have successively ruled over it.[30]

 

The early scholars have made specific reference to two cities in ‘Umman:

 

Qalhat (Qalhat):[31]

Yaqut al Hamawi has made mention of it and said:

 

أهلها كلهم خوارج إباضية إلى هذه الغاية، يتظاهرون بذلك ولا يخفونه

Its people are all Ibadi Khawarij to this extent, they openly proclaim that and do not conceal it.[32]

 

Nazwah (Nizwa):[33]

It is also mentioned by Yaqut al Hamawi who says:

فيها قوم من العرب كالمعتكفين عليها، وهم خوارج إباضية

Therein are Arab people who are semi-based there. And they are Ibadi Khawarij.[34]

 

Hadramawt (Hadhramaut)[35]

Several scholars have alluded to it. Hence al Mas’udi[36] says the following:

 

أكثرها إباضية إلى هذا الوقت، وهو سنة اثنتين وثلاثين وثلاثمائة، ولا فرق بينهم وبين من بعمان من الخوارج في هذا المذهب

Most of them are Ibadiyyah up to the present day, which is the year three hundred and thirty two. There is no difference between them and the Khawarij of ‘Umman in this dogma.[37]

 

Similarly, Ibn Khaldun has stated that most of them hate ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu due to the incident of arbitration.[38]

 

Al ‘Aramah (Al Armah)[39]

Al Mubarrid has pointed toward their existence there.[40]

 

Zanjibar (Zanzibar)[41]

The Ibadi Khawarij existed there. This dogma had entered this area after some people of ‘Umman migrated to it and increased, to the extent that:

 

إن قبائل زنجبار فروع من عمان، قل أن توجد فبيلة في عمان إلا وقسم منها في زنجبار

The tribes of Zanjibar are offshoots of ‘Umman. There is hardly a tribe in ‘Umman but that a portion of it is based in Zanjibar.[42]

 

Ardku[43]

Ahmed ibn Fudlan[44] has made mention of the presence of the Khawarij there in his famous letter:

 

وبها قرية على يوم، يقال لها: أردكو أهلها يقال لهم: الكردلية، كلامهم أشبه بيفيق الضفدع، وهم يتبروؤؤن من أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب في دبر كل صلاة.

In Khawarizm[45] there is a village till today which is known as Ardku and its people are known as the Kardaliyyah. Their language is very similar to the croaking of the frogs. After every Salah they disassociate themselves from Amir al Muʾminin ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib.[46]

 

Sijistan (Sistan)

Yaqut al Hamawi has made mention of their presence there. He states:

 

بسجستان كثير من الخوارج يظهرون مذهبهم ولا يتحاشون منه، ويفتخرون به عند المعاملة… وهم يتزيون بغير زي الجمهور، فهم معروفون مشهورون.

In Sijistan there are many Khawarij who openly proclaim their dogma and do not shy away from doing so. They actually boast about it before the common people…They wear an attire other than the attire of the majority, and hence they are well known and famous.[47]

 

Likewise Ibn al Jawzi[48] has alluded to their presence therein. And al Dhahabi and al Dawoodi[49] have also recorded reports which suggests their presence there.[50]

 

Karkuyah[51]

Yaqut al Hamawi has referred to it saying:

 

وبها بليدة يقال لها كركوية كلهم خوارج، وفيهم الصوم والصلاة والعبادة الزائدة، ولهم فقهاء وعلماء على حدة

In Sijistan there is a small town called Karkuyah all of whose inhabitants are Khawarij. They observe fasting, salah and engage in additional worship. They also have scholars and jurists who are unique.

 

Kurink[52]

Yaqut al Hamawi has made mention of it and has stated that all its people are Khawarij.[53]

 

Quzdar[54]

Yaqut al Hamawi has made mention of their presence there.[55]

 

The Khawarij in the West[56]

The Khawarij spread in the West during some patches of history and settled in some of its cities and villages. When exactly did this dogma infiltrate their circles and how, this is what we will try to discover briefly.

Droves of people had accepted Islam after it had reached the west. However, full attention was not paid to instructing them in the Din so as to firmly ground it in their hearts. Hence it is not strange to learn that many of the Berber tribes remained confused and hesitant regarding fully accepting it, and thus apostatised, up to twelve times, as is alleged.[57]

‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz[58] had thus tried to remedy this situation and sent ten jurists to the people of the west to instruct them in the Din.[59] As noble as his endeavour was, it did not produce the desired results due to him passing away before it could fully bear its fruits.

Analysed from another perspective, the Berber Muslims are generally described as ‘the best people in terms of peace and obedience’, but due to their governors ruling exclusively over them and oppressing them their hearts became overwhelmed with hatred for the Caliphate itself and they began to assume that it does not represent the actual Islam.

At precisely this time the Bid’ah of the Khawarij began to spread gradually, i.e. during the initial period of the second century of Hijrah, via the Khawarij of Iraq who were fleeing from the Umayyad Empire after having failed to stand their ground against it. These people did not fall short of exploiting the recent and fairly new Islam of these people to spread their dogma within them.

As a result, the actual emergence of the Khawarij to the surface collectively was in the year 123 A.H.[60]

There were two primary reasons which had paved the way for the Berbers to accept the Khariji propaganda:

Firstly, the suppression they were encountering from the Umayyad Empire and the oppression they were suffering from some of its governors.[61] This was in spite of their recent Islam and their ignorance regarding its tenets. Hence the more appropriate approach toward them should have been winning their hearts by being good to them and dealing with them with kindness.

In this environment they became exposed to the propaganda of the Khawarij which entailed the importance of justice without any distinction between Arab and Non-Arab, and that the Caliphate is not necessarily confined to the Quraysh; rather any person who is most fearing of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala is deserving of it even if he be an Abyssinian slave. These ideas touched these weak hearts and influenced them very heavily.

Secondly, they observed how passionately the Khawarij were immersed in worship and how greatly disinclined they were from this world and how firmly grounded they were in the Din. This gave them the impression that the Din of the Khawarij is the actual Din, not the oppression and suppression they were suffering at the hands of their rulers.

Hence in the years to follow the dogma of the Khawarij spread profusely in the west[62] and it gained a lot of prominence and strength.

In order to get an idea of the extent to which their influence had reached it is enough to note that in some of their battles they had reached four hundred thousand.[63] Likewise, the battles that had ensued between them and the Arabs after they had revolted against ‘Umar ibn Hafs reached three hundred and seventy five battles.[64] They were thus successful in overthrowing the governors of the Caliphate and establishing an autonomous dynasty for themselves.[65]

The Khawarij in the West were either Ibadiyyah or Sufriyyah.[66]

And in the West two Khariji dynasties came about:[67]

  1. The Midrariyyah dynasty, which was Sufriyyah.[68]
  2. The Rustumiyyah dynasty, which was Ibadiyyah.[69]

 

However, in a very short time they became extremely weak and their innovations almost vanished in the time of Yazid ibn Hatim[70] who reconquered the West and continuously subdued its people till they became obliging. At the same time he had done away with many of the leaders of the Khawarij.[71] His brother[72] had continued in his footsteps after his demise. Despite all of this, a group of the Khawarij still managed to subsist, but not like before in terms of strength and public appearance.[73]

Ibn Khaldun says:

ثم لم يزل أمرهم في تناقض إلى أن اضمحلت ديانتهم وافترقت جماعتهم، وبقيت آثار نحلتهم في أعقاب البربر الذين دانوا بها أول الأمر

Thereafter they continued retrogressing till eventually their dogma faded away and their people became scattered. The effects of their dogma only then remained in the progenies of those Berbers who had initially embraced it.[74]

 

Now, hereunder I am going to briefly highlight some of the loci of Nasb in the West, for covering all of them is extremely difficult; especially when considering that Yaqut al Hamawi has stated that around Sarus[75] alone there were more than three villages all of which were Khawarij.[76]

 

Tahirt (Tiaret)[77]

Al Maqdisi,[78] Yaqut al Hamawi,[79] Ibn al Athir,[80] Ibn Khaldun,[81] Abu al ‘Abbas al Nasiri[82] all have alluded to the Khawarij building this city and residing therein.

 

Jabal Nafusah (Nafusa Mountains)[83]

Al Idrisi[84] has made mention of the Khariji existence there. He says:

 

وأهل جبل نفوسة كلهم أهل الإسلام، لكنهم خوارج.

The people of the mountain of Nafusah are all Muslims, but they are Khawarij.[85]

 

Ibn ‘Asakir,[86] al Ayubi[87] and others[88] have also suggested the same.

 

The Island of Jarbah[89]

Ibn Khaldun states:

 

إن القبائل الذين بها البربر لم يزالوا يدينون لدين الخارجية، ويتدارسون مذاهبهم مجلدات تشتمل على تآليف لائمتهم في قواعد ديانتهم وأصول عقائدهم وفروع مذاهبهم، يتناقلونها ويعكفون على دراستها قراءتها

The tribes which populate it are Berbers. They still follow the dogma of the Kharijis; they study their dogma and views from volumes of books authored by their scholars elaborating upon the fundamentals of dogma and secondary day to day issues. They impart these books and dedicate their lives to studying them.[90]

 

Damar[91]

Al Ayubi has made mention of the existence of the Khawarij there.[92]

 

Ruzayqa[93]

Al Ayubi has made mention of the Khariji existence there.[94]

 

Zanzaqa[95]

Al Ayubi has made mention of the Khariji presence there.[96]

 

The Zizwa Island[97]

Al Idrisi has made mention of the Khariji presence there. He says:

 

هذه الجزيرة عامرة بأهلها، وهم قوم نكار خوارج عن الإسلام… وكذلك جيمع الحصون والقصورالتي تلي هاتين الجزيرتين يعني جربة وزيزوا يتمذهبون بمثل ذلك.

This island is fully populated and its people are strange and are Khawarij. Likewise all the forts and palaces which are near these two islands, Jarbah and Zizwa, also subscribe to the same dogma.[98]

 

Sarus

Al Hamawi has indicated that its people are Khawarij. He says:

 

أهلها إباضية خوارج، ليس بها جامع ولا فيما حولها من القرى

Its people are Ibadi Khawarij. Therein there is no central Masjid, nor in any of its surrounding villages.[99]

 

The author of al Rawd al Mi’tar has also suggested the same.[100]

 

Sijilmasah[101]

Ibn al Athir has made mention of the Khariji presence there.[102] And Ibn Khaldun says:

 

كان أهل مواطن سجلماسة من مكناسة يدينون لأول الإسلام بدين الصفرية من الخوارج

The people of Sijilmasah who belonged to the Miknasah tribe subscribed to the Sufriyyah branch of the Khawarij.[103]

 

Al Nasiri also says:

 

اجتمعت الصفرية من مكناسة بناحية المغرب الأقصى… واختطوا مدينة سجلماسة سنة أربعين ومائة من الهجرة، ودخل سائر مكناسة من إهل تلك الناحية في دينهم.

The Sufriyyah of Miknasah gathered in the furthest part of the West and planned the city of Sijilmasah in the year 140 A.H. Thereafter all the people of Miknasah living in those lands entered into their dogma.[104]

 

The Tarabulus (Tripoli) of the West[105]

Ibn Khaldun has referred to their presence there. He says:

 

وكذلك في جبال طرابلس أثر باق من تلك النحلة

Likewise in the mountains of Tarabulus there remains the effects of that dogma.[106]

 

‘Arban[107]

Al Ayubi has made mention of the Khawarij there.[108]

 

Qabis[109]

Ibn al Athir[110] and al Ayubi[111] have alluded to the presence of the Khawarij there.

This city is the oldest city in which the Khawarij existed, for they made it their base during the Umayyad Empire; and very frequently wars would break out between them and Hisham ibn ‘Abdul Malik.[112]

 

Matmatah[113]

Al Ayubi has made mention of the Khariji presence there.[114]

 

Maqrah[115]

Al Ayubi has made mention of the Khariji presence there.[116]

 

Malaqah[117]

Al Ayubi has made mention of the Khariji presence there.[118]

 

Al Andalus (Andalusia)

The dogma of the Khawarij first reached it by way of the Ibadi Berbers who migrated to it from Morocco after it had proliferated there.[119] Hence they had a few forts and they had also fought a few battles against the Umayyads in Andalus.[120] Several scholars have alluded to their presence in al Andalus: hence Ibn Hazm[121] has alluded to their existence there during his era and has also gone on to state some of their ideas and beliefs. He says:

وشاهدنا الإباضية عندنا بالأندلس

We saw the Ibadiyyah by us in Andalus.[122]

 

Ibn Khaldun has also asserted the same.[123]

 

The Second Category: Areas where Nawasib other than the Khawarij existed.

These places are the following:

 

The Nawasib in the East

 

Sham

Sham was the epicentre of Nasb and the actual abode of the Nawasib. The following distinguished it from other places:

Firstly, Nasb was the dominant idea there. Hence most of the Shamis were hesitant to concede the virtue of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu from after the Battle of Siffin.[124] Their hatred was such that they would call every ‘Ali ‘Ulay (doing so denigratingly).[125] Nasb had also influenced some of the scholars of Sham, something unprecedented anywhere else where the Nawasib existed. The people of Sham were known to be the enemies of the Talibiyyin.[126] It was assumed that the only household which they knew was the household of Abu Sufyan and the only obedience which they knew was being obedient to the Banu Marwan.[127] They had reached in their adherence to their Khalifas a level which later became proverbial. It would thus be said ‘obedience like the Shamis’.[128] Some historians even go on to falsely allege that Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu delayed the Jumu’ah Salah when marching toward Siffin and only performed it with the people on Saturday, and they followed.[129]

Muthanna ibn ‘Abdullah al Ansari[130] states:

 

قال لي رجل، كنت بالشام فجعلت لا أسمع عليا ولا حسنا، إنما أسمع معاوية، يزيد، الوليد، فمررت برجل على بابه، فقال: اسقه يا حسن. فقلت أسميت حسنا. فقال: أولادي حسن وحسين وجعفر، فإن أهل الشام يسمون أولادهم بأسماء خلفاء الله ثم يلعن الرجل ولده ويشتمه. قلت: ظننتك خير أهل الشام، وإذا ليس في جهنم شر منك.

A person said to me, “I was in Sham. I would hardly hear the names ‘Ali and Hassan, I would only hear Muawiyah, Yazid, and al Walid. Then I passed by a person who was standing at his door. So he said, ‘Give him water, O Hassan.’ I asked him, ‘Did you name your son Hassan?’ to which he replied, ‘My sons are Hassan, Hussain, and Jafar, because the people of Sham name their children after the Khalifas of Allah and thereafter curse them and swear them.’ I said to him, ‘I thought you were from the best people of Sham, but seems as if there is not in Jahannam anyone worse than you.’”[131]

 

Whether this narration is authentic or not, the fact that Sham was a locus of Nasb is undisputable. However, this does not mean that the entire population of Sham was tainted with Nasb, rather amongst them there were those who condemned it.[132] But the majority was still affected by Nasb, for people always follow the creed of their rulers, especially if they love them and believe that they are on the truth, as was the case of the people of Sham. Hence many of them would hate ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and revile him.[133]

Secondly, the extended period of time in which Nasb prevailed in Sham. For it was already conceived when rumours reached the people of the Sham that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu played some sort of role in the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This became evident after the Battle of Siffin.[134]

Similarly its prevalence was not limited to the presence of the Umayyad empire, as was the case in many places where it took rise due to pressure from the dynasty, rather it remained even after the fall of the Umayyad empire, although it had become very weak.

Imam al Nasaʾi who passed away in 303 A.H.[135] took note of the huge presence of the Nawasib in Sham when he visited it. He says:

 

دخلت دمشق والمنحرف بها عن علي كثير

I entered Dimashq and the detractors of ‘Ali therein were many.[136]

 

That is close to a hundred and seventy years after the fall of the Umayyad Empire.

What is more surprising is that al Dhahabi, who was from the eighth century, has alluded to their presence in Dimashq during his time. He says:

 

أما نواصب وقتنا فقليل

As for the Nawasib of our time, there are few.[137]

 

The presence of Nasb in Sham to this extent can be attributed to two reasons:

  1. An internal and personal cause which was born out of the conflict which had ensued between ‘Ali and Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. The Battle of Siffin was hence considered a distinctive sign of the Nawasib; they would say ‘we are the followers of Muawiyah in Siffin’.[138]

In this type of an aura it was obviously necessary for them to mentally prepare themselves for this conflict by believing that they were upon the truth and that they were demanding revenge from the murderers of the oppressed Khalifah, and by averring that ‘Ali played a role in what had happened and therefore was tainted with the blood of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[139]

As a result, naturally enmity for him would settle in the hearts of many of them and thereby the circle of his detractors would gradually increase. It was thus completely normal for their children to inherit this hatred from them.

 

  1. An external cause which was mostly the role played by the Umayyad rulers in giving birth to and perpetuating the problem of Nasb.

Despite Nasb being prevalent in all of Sham, two cities however were more effected than the rest. And they are:

Dimashq:

No oddity in this, for it was the capital of the Umayyad Empire, one of whose policies was openly proclaiming hatred for ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in order to subdue their rivals. Thus Nasb was the dogma of the people of Dimashq.[140] It became entrenched in them to an extent that some narrators of Dimashq are reported to have heavily adopted the dogma of the people Dimashq and to have severely hated ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[141] To it many of the prominent Nawasib like Khalid al Qasri[142] and others would be attributed.

In addition, probably the greatest evidence of Nasb being the dominant dogma of Dimashq and it being deeply entrenched in the hearts of its people is the fate al Nasaʾi had met at the hands of its Nawasib.[143]

Likewise, al Dhahabi found it perplexing that Abu Hatim al Razi[144] described Muhammad ibn Rashid[145] by saying, ‘He was a Rafidi.’ And asked the question, “How can a Dimashqi who settled in Basrah be a Rafidi?”[146]

Two things had caused the confusion of al Dhahabi:

Firstly, he knew that Nasb was widespread in Dimashq and thus that would demand the impossibility of a Rafidi coming about in a purely Nasibi circle.

Secondly, he moved to Basrah which was also popularly known for being an abode of the detractors of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Hims:

The people of Hims would denigrate ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[147] It is said that the staunchest people against ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu on the Day of Siffin and those who incited the people most against him were the people of Basrah.[148]

Hence when Hajjaj[149] became angry with Kumayl ibn Ziyad[150] due to his Shi’ism he said to him:

 

والله لأبعثن إليك من يبغض عليا أكثر مما تحبه أنت

By Allah, I will send to you someone who hates ‘Ali more than you love him.

 

He thereafter sent to him a person from the people of Hims.[151]

In order to ascertain that Nasb was deeply entrenched in them it would be sufficient to note that every Shami narrator who has been identified with Nasb is from the people of Hims.

 

Furthermore, the scholars’ texts from a very early stage are suggestive of the fact that Sham and its people were popular for being deeply grounded in Nasb. Hence Sufyan al Thawri who passed away in 161 A.H.[152] says:

 

إذا كنت في الشام فاذكر مناقب علي رضي الله عنه

When you are in Sham then talk of feats of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[153]

 

And Abu Zur’ah al Razi states:

إذا رأيت الشامي يطعن على مكحول والأوزاعي فلا تشك أنه ناصبي

When you see a Shami impugning Makhul and Awza’i then do not doubt that he is a Nasibi.[154]

 

This text of Abu Zur’ah which is vague in terms of the link between impugning these two scholars and Nasb becomes abundantly clear when considering the aspect of detraction from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

That is to say that these two scholars were from the most prominent scholars of Sham and were held in the highest of esteem by its people. They had realised their merit and no none had ever criticised them, nor in their knowledge and nor in their practice. Hence despite all of this if a Shami still impugned them it was primarily because of their positive position regarding ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

In addition, Abu Bakr al Khallal,[155] Ibn Taymiyah,[156] al Dhahabi,[157] Ibn Kathir,[158] and Ibn Hajar[159] have also alluded to the presence of the Nawasib in Sham.

 

Iraq

Iraq was the epicentre of events that unfolded after the martyrdom of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Hence lots of disputes ensued between its people. And upon its lands were where the Shia and the Khawarij born.

Iraq was not really different from Sham in terms of the causes which led to the inception of Nasb. Yes with the exception of the direct influence of the Umayyad rulers. As for their governors, they were keener on consolidating the rule of the Umayyads there and doing away with their enemies. They would do so at times by vilifying ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu upon the pulpits[160] and at times by tracking down his partisans.[161]

The staunchest of the governors and those who were most steeped in Nasb were the ones who governed over Iraq, the likes of Ziyad ibn Abihi, his son ‘Ubaidullah, Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, and Khalid al Qasri.

As for the common factors, they are the following:

  1. The various wars, as has been alluded to by Limazah ibn Zabbar al Basri.[162]
  2. Inheritance, although much less than what it was like in Sham due to Nasb relatively being less in Iraq. Al Zubair ibn Bakkar[163] has stated the following in the biography of Samah ibn Luʾay:

 

له ذرية في العراق يبغضون عليا، ومنهم علي بن الجعد. كان يشتم أباه لكونه سماه عليا

His descendants in Iraq despise ‘Ali, amongst who is ‘Ali ibn al Ja’d[164] who would revile his father due to naming him ‘Ali.[165]

 

Ibn Taymiyah has alluded to the presence of the Nawasib in Iraq in the following statement:

 

كان بالعراق طائفة ناصبة من شيعة عثمان تبغض عليا والحسين

In Iraq there was a group of Nawasib who were the partisans of ‘Uthman and who hated ‘Ali and Hussain.[166]

 

Furthermore, because ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had made Kufah the capital of his Caliphate, and he had stayed there for approximately five years, in which many events occurred, majority of its inhabitants had naturally become his partisans.[167] Hence it was very rare to find a person who was not a Shia, let alone coming across a Nasibi, as stated by al Dhahabi:

 

يندر أن تجد كوفيا إلا وهو يتشيع

It is very rare that you will find a Kufi but that he will be a Shia.[168]

 

Likewise he describes one of the Kufis with the following:

 

من عجائب الزمان: كوفي ناصبي

From the oddities of time: A Kufi Nasibi.[169]

 

He also says the following regarding another person:

لون آخر، كوفي ناصبي

Another colour, a Kufi Nasibi.[170]

 

In contrast, the people of Basrah were more inclined toward Talhah and Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Probably this was one of the many reasons why they headed for Basrah when they embarked on their journey to Iraq.[171] However, after the Battle of Jamal the matter had progressed from mere inclination toward them to detraction from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, thereby yielding the opposition between the two integral cities of Iraq.

Likewise what had further fuelled the detraction of the Basris from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the role their governors played in subduing the Iraqis in general and demanding that they completely comply with the whims of the Umayyads and their fantasies;[172] especially when the environment was conducive for that as well.

Muhammad ibn ‘Ali[173] has alluded to this reality when he sent his campaigners to the various cities saying:

 

أما الكوفة وسوادها فهناك شيعة علي وأولاده، والبصرة وسوادها فعثمانية

As for Kufah and its people, there lives the partisans of ‘Ali and his children. And as for Basrah, there are the partisans of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[174]

 

Actually, mere affiliation to Basrah was considered a sign of being free from Shi’ism. Hence it was one of the proofs Abu al ‘Aynaʾ[175] had used before the Khalifah al Mutawakkil[176] when he said to him, “It has reached me that you are a Rafidi,” to which he replied by saying:

 

يا أمير المؤمنين، وكيف أكون رافضيا وبلدي البصرة

O Amir al Muʾminin, how can I be a Rafidi when my city is Basrah.[177]

 

Therefore, when some of the scholars like al Thawri would enter Basrah they would expound on the virtues of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[178]

Considering the aforementioned details it was completely natural that most of the people of Iraq who were tainted with Nasb, with the exception of the Khawarij, were from Basrah.

In conclusion, several scholars have alluded to Nasb being prevalent amongst them. Hence al Dhahabi says:

 

إنهم عثمانية فيهم انحراف عن علي رضي الله عنه

They are the partisans of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and in them is detraction from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[179]

 

And Ibn Hajar mentions:

النصب معروف في كثير من أهل البصرة

Nasb is known to be the dogma of many of the people of Basrah.[180]

 

Nawasib in the West

Al Andalus

Even if it is established that Nasb existed in al Andalus, there is no doubt that it was not Nasb in the real sense of the word. Rather it was a sort of Ijtihad (application of oneself and knowledge in reaching a plausible conclusion) in which the people of al Andalus unwittingly agreed with the Nawasib. In other words, it was narrated regarding many of the Umayyad rulers of al Andalus and its preachers that they would not concede the Caliphate of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, but would rather consider Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu to be the fourth Khalifah.[181]

Hence when the judge Mundhir ibn Sa’id[182] studied a book in which was contained a poem of Ibn ‘Abd Rabbihi,[183] which detailed the Khalifas and deemed Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu the fourth of them, he was enraged. He thus wrote the following verses in the footnotes:

 

أوما علي لا برحت ملعنا يابن الخبيثة عندكم بإمام

رب الكساء وخير آل محمد داني الولاء مقدم الإسلام

Is not ‘Ali, may you always remain cursed, O the son of the wretched woman, a leader according to you?

The owner of the shawl, the best of the household of Muhammad, the one who enjoyed an intimate relationship (with Rasul Allah) and the forerunner of Islam.[184]

 

Nonetheless, denying the Caliphate of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is a prominent viewpoint of Nasb. However Ibn Taymiyah was of the opinion that for some of the scholars of al Andalus not to deem ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu the fourth Khalifah was not due to discrediting his Caliphate and rejecting his merits, but was because the leaders intended were those whom the Muslims had unanimously acknowledged, which was not the case regarding ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[185]

He also asserts:

 

كان بالأندلس كثير من بني أمية يذهبون إلى هذا القول ويترحمون على علي ويثنون عليه، لكن يقولون لم يكن خليفة، وإنما الخليفة من اجتمع الناس عليه، ولم يجتمعوا على علي

In Andalus there were many people who held this viewpoint; they would invoke the mercy of Allah for ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and would praise him, but would assert that he was not a Khalifah, because a Khalifah is one upon who all people unite, whereas they did not unite upon ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[186]

 

Based on this, it would be admissible to aver that their denial of his Caliphate was a minor form of Nasb due to it indirectly implying it. As for the actual Nasb which entails disillusionment and hatred, it was very rare. Hence I have not come across anyone of this nature amongst the people of al Andalus, with the exception of one person who would revile ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his son Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[187]

 

NEXT⇒ 


[1] Ma’mar ibn Rashid al Azdi, their client, Abu ‘Urwah al Basri. He eventually settled in Yemen. He was one of the prominent reliable scholars. He was born in 95 A.H. and was one of the vessels of knowledge. He was a truthful person and was an ascetic and pious man. He has made mistakes which have been overlooked due to his immense transmissions which he overall mastered and perfected. He passed away in 153 A.H. His narrations appear in the six canonical works. See: Tahdhib al Kamal 28/303; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 7/5; Mizan al I’tidal 6/480; Tahdhib al Tahdhib 10/218.

[2] Tarikh Madinah Dimashq 42/530; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 8/11.

[3] They are Talhah ibn Musarrif and ‘Abdullah ibn Idris. See: al Sunnah of al Khallal: 2/395; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 9/438.

[4] Mizan al I’tidal 2/426.

[5] Bayan Talbis al Jahmiyyah 1/274; Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah 2/231.

[6] Mizan al I’tidal 5/114.

[7] Muhammad ibn Bahr al Shaybani, Abu al Hussain al Ruhani. An expert genealogist and historian who was well versed in jurisprudence and who authored many books. Ruhnah is one of the villages of Kirman. He would revise eight hundred thousand narrations, but was infamous for paying special attention to strange ones. Some have described him as a fanatic Shia. He passed away after 408 A.H. See: Mujam al Udabaʾ 5/236; Mujam al Buldan 3/108; Nawabigh al Ruwat fi Rabi’ah al Miʾat 1/248.

[8] Sijistan: situated north of Hirat and between them is a distance of ten days. Its land is described as being sandy and rocky and as always having strong winds and storms. See: Mujam al Buldan 3/19; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 13/220; ‘Umdah al Qari 24/224. Sijistan today is situated on the west of Afghanistan and the east side of Iran. This area of Iran currently is known as Sistan.

[9] Mujam al Buldan 3/191.

[10] Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al Nu’mani quotes the following narration on p. 309 of his book al Ghaybah:

ثلاث عشرة مدينة وطائفة يحارب القائم أهلها ويحاربونه: أهل مكة، وأهل المدينة، وأهل الشام، وبنو أمية، وأهل البصرة، وأهل دست ميسان، والأكراد، والأعراب، وضبة، وغنى، وباهلة، والأزد، وأهل الري.

Thirteen cities and groups will fight the Mahdi and he will fight them: the people of Makkah, the people of Madinah, the people of Sham, the Banu Umayyah, the people of Basrah, the people of Dast Misan, the Kurds, the Bedouins, Dabbah, Ghina, Bahilah, Azd, and the people of Ray.

Similarly, Abu Jafar al Iskafi states the following, as appears in the Sharh Nahj al Balaghah of Ibn Abi al Hadid 4/103:

 

كان أهل البصرة كلهم يبغضونه، وكثير من أهل اكوفة، وكثير من أهل المدينة. وأما أهل مكة فكلهم كانوا يبغضونه قاطبة

All the people of Basrah hated him. Likewise many of the people of Kufah and many of the people of Madinah. As for the people of Makkah, they all hated him.

 

Furthermore, the Shia have considered the following places to be the loci of Nasb: Asfahan, Khawarizm, Sijistan, Qazwin, Ray, Shanshat, Andalus, Sham, Harran, Dimashq, Hims, Mawsil and Wasit. See: al Mu’allim: al Nasb wa al Nawasib p. 229-243.

[11] Like the valley of Ᾱl al Akhnas which is known as the valley of the Khawarij due to Najdah al Haruri basing himself there the year he performed Hajj. See: Akhbar Makkah of al Azraqi 2/287.

[12] Like Sala, Sillabri, Kazar, Khuzistan Faris, and Karnaba. See: Mujam al Buldan 3/232, 4/429, 438, 457.

[13] Like Kirman and Mawsil. See: al Muntazam 6/193, al Kamil fi al Tarikh 4/181, 5/257.

[14] Like Sadhur, a place to which the Khawarij resorted under the leadership of ‘Ubaidah ibn Hilal after the death of Qatari ibn al Fujaʾah in Tabrastan. Sufyan had subsequently besieged them there till he eventually managed to banish them. See: Mujam al Buldan 3/202.

[15] Fath al Bari 13/536.

[16] Al Badʾ wa al Tarikh 6/27.

[17] Al Firaq al Islamiyyah fi al Shimal al Afriqi p. 144.

[18] Like the book Akhbar al Khawarij of al Mas’udi and Tarikh al Khawarij of Muhammad ibn Qudamah. See: Kashf al Zunun 1/26, 1/293.

[19] Tarikh al Ya’qubi 2/339.

[20] Al Ma’rifah wa al Tarikh 3/81; al Wafi bi al Wafayat 17/359.

[21] Ziyad ibn ‘Ubaid al Thaqafi. The governor of Iraq who was known as Ziyad ibn Abihi or Ziyad ibn Sufyan or Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan. He was born in the year of Hijrah. He accepted Islam during the era of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and was a genius and master mind. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu used him and thereafter Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He earned acclaim for his prolific oratory and for his sternness against those who opposed him. He passed away in 53 A.H. in a plague. See: Tarikh Madinah Dimashq 19/162; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 3/494; al Wafi bi al Wafayat 15/6; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 8/61.

[22] ‘Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad al Thaqafi. The governor of Iraq after his father. He was born in 39 A.H. and his mother was from the daughters of the Persian kings. He took charge of Basrah at the age of twenty two and was intimidating. He dared to do things which were not permissible, like his order to summon Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu before him, even if they were forced to murder him whilst intercepting him. He was killed in 67 A.H. See: Tarikh Madinah Dimashq 19/162; Tarikh al Islam 5/175; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 3/545; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah8/283.

[23] Tarikh al Tabari 3/375; Tarikh al Ya’qubi 2/275; Simt al Nujum al ‘Awali 3/220.

[24] Tarikh al Ya’qubi 2/264.

[25] Al Khawarij Tarikhuhum wa Ᾱraʾuhum al I’tiqadiyyah p. 163; al Harakah al Ibadiyyah fi al Mashriq al ‘Arabi p. 152. ‘Abdullah ibn Ibad al Maqa’isi al Murri al Tamimi. The eponym of the Ibadiyyah and their leader. Historians have differed as to his life and the year of his demise. He had, as is alleged, repented from his innovation and thus his followers disassociated from him, but their attribution to him still remained. He died in the era of ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan. See: Lisan al Mizan 3/248; ‘Umdah al Qari 24/85; al Zarkali: al A’lam 4/61.

[26] Yaqut ibn ‘Abdullah al Rumi. A grammarian and historian. He was born in the lands of Rome in 575 A.H. He would earn a living by writing manuscripts. He was very ambitious in acquiring information. He eventually settled in Halab. He passed away in 621 A.H. Some of his books are: Mujam al Buldan, Mujam al Udabaʾ, al Mushtarak Wad’an al Mukhtalif Siq’an. See: Wafayat al A’yan 6/127; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 22/312; Shadharat al Dhahab 5/121.

[27] Mujam al Buldan 4/150.

[28] Al Muntazam 7/324. Ibn al Jawzi is ‘Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al Qurashi, Abu al Faraj al Baghdadi. A Hanbali jurist who was an expert in many sciences. His lineage ends at Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He was born in 510 A.H. He became very popular for his oratory skills and his immense influence on the people, to the extent that he was invited to the court of the Khalifah al Mustadiʾ a few times. He has authored many books. He passed away in 597 A.H. Some of his works are: Zad al Masir, al Muntazam, and al ‘Ilal al Mutanahiyah. See: Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 21/365; al Wafi bi al Wafayat 18/109; al Maqsid al Arshad 2/93; Shadharat al Dhahab 4/329.

[29] Al Kamil fi al Tarikh 5/93, 185.

[30] Al Mawsu’ah al Muyassrah fi al Adyan wa al Madhahib wa al Ahzab al Mu’asirah 1/62.

[31] Qalhat: One of the oldest coastal cities of ‘Umman. It was its capital even before Islam. Its name remains the same up to the present day. See: Mujam al Buldan 4/393.

[32] Mujam al Buldan 4/393. However what draws ones attention is the report of Ibn Batutah, who passed away some time after Yaqut al Hamawi, wherein he suggests that the Khawarij there would conceal their dogma. This is recorded in his famous Rihlah 1/296, “Most of them are Khawarij, but cannot display their religion due to them being subjects of Qutb al Din Tamahtun who is from the Ahlus Sunnah.”

[33] A mountain in ‘Umman which is not coastal. Around it are many villages which are all known by this name. See: Mujam al Buldan 5/281.

[34] Mujam al Buldan 5/281.

[35] Hadramawt: a very vast stretch of land on the eastern side of ‘Adan, situated near the ocean. Around it are many sand dunes which are known as Ahqaf. In Hadramawt there are two famous cities: Tarim and Shiyam. As for in our time, it is situated in Yemen. See: Mujam al Buldan 2/270.

[36] ‘Ali ibn Hussain ibn ‘Ali al Mas’udi, Abu al Hassan al Baghdadi. A historian with interesting facts and strange stories. It is said that he was from the progeny of Ibn Mas’ud. He was born in Iraq and travelled expansively to various places. He thereafter settled in Egypt and passed away there in 345 A.H. Some of his books are: Akhbar al Zaman, al Awsat, Muruj al Dhahab. See: Mujam al Udabaʾ 4/48; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 15/569; al Wafi bi al Wafayat 21/5; Lisan al Mizan 4/224.

[37]  Muruj al Dhahab 4/82.

[38] Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 4/287.

[39] A mountain series which expands across the eastern side of al ‘Ᾱrid and shares boundaries with al Dahnaʾ. Its eastern side is next to al Sahbaʾ and its northern side starts at the Mujazzal Mountain. Up to the present day it holds the same name. See: Mujam al Buldan 4/110; al Asfahani: Bilad al ‘Arab p. 305 (footnote no. 3); Sahih al Akhbar ‘Amma fi Bilad al ‘Arab min al Ᾱthar 2/87; al Mubaddil: al Muntazahat al Barriyyah p. 13. As for al Mubarrid, he is Muhammad ibn Yazid ibn ‘Abdul Akbar ibn ‘Umair al Azdi, Abu al ‘Abbas al Thumali. One of the leading scholars of Basrah in language and literature. He became famous by the name al Mubarrid and was very reliable in what he quoted. He was the rival of Tha’lab who was the leading scholar of Kufah during the same era. He passed away in 281 A.H. after the age of seventy. Some of his books are: al Kamil, al Muqtadab fi al Nahw, Ma’ani al Qurʾan. See: Mujam al Udabaʾ 5/479; Wafayat al A’yan 4/313; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 13/576; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 11/79.1

[40] Mujam al Buldan 4/110.

[41] Zanjibar refers to a group of islands which are under Tanzania but enjoy independent and autonomous rule. It is made up of two big islands: Zanjibar and Bamba, and twenty seven small islands which are all scattered around Bamba and are about thirty five kilometres away from the eastern African shores.

[42] Is’af al A’yan fi Ansab Ahl ‘Umman: p. 22.

[43] I have not found a detailed description of this place in the books I have at my disposal. However, Ibn Fudlan and al Hamawi have mentioned that it is one of the villages of Khawarizm. Rihlah Ibn Fudlan 1/113; Mujam al Buldan 2/397.

[44] Ahmed Ibn Fudlan ibn al ‘Abbas ibn Rashid ibn Hammad. One of the freed slaves of the Abbasid Khalifah al Muqtadir. He earned acclaim because of his famous travels to the lands of the Turks, Khazr (in present day Kazakhstan), Russia and Saqalibah. Al Muqtadir had sent him to the dynasty of the Saqalibah (which was at the side of the Volga River) with a group of commanders and an army after accepting the request of the Bulgarians of the Volga who had accepted Islam and wanted someone to instruct them in their Din. He passed away in 310 A.H. See: al A’lam 1/195; Mujam al Matbu’at al ‘Arabiyyah 1/205.

[45] Khawarizm is a historical location situated in Transoxiana, in Central Asia, upon the banks of the Amu River. It is presently situated in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Its lands are plain and flat. For more details see: Mujam ma Ustu’jim 2/515.

[46] Rihlah Ibn Fudlan 1/113. Yaqut al Hamawi 2/397 (with reference to Rihlah Ibn Fudlan). Yaqut al Hamawi has many a times cited quotations from the Rihlah of Ibn Fudlan and has then at times falsified them, commented disapprovingly regarding them and has deemed them strange. However, here what he has cited is very different to what Ibn Fudlan has actually said; Ibn Fudlan has mentioned the Khariji dogma as a feature of Ardku specifically, whereas Yaqut al Hamawi has mentioned it as a feature of Khawarizm in general. In addition, Hassan al Amin, a contemporary Shia scholar, raised questions regarding this quotation and eventually concluded that they were not Khawarij but Nawasib from the followers of the Banu Umayyah. See: Mujam al Buldan 2/397, 3/79; Kitab Nasir al Din al Tusi p. 67.

[47] Mujam al Buldan 3/19.

[48] Al Muntazam 8/164.

[49] Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Ahmed al Dawoodi. A Shafi’i hadith scholar (some have suggested that he was Maliki). He was considered the leading hadith scholar of his time. He was the student of Jalal al Din al Suyuti. He passed away in Cairo in 945 A.H. Some of his books are: Tabaqat al Mufassirin, Dhayl Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, Tarjamah al Hafiz al Suyuti. See: Shadharat al Dhahab 8/264; al A’lam 6/291; Mujam al Muʾallifin 10/304.

[50] Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 9/447; al Dawoodi: Tabaqat al Mufassirin p. 30.

[51] Karkuyah: An old town in Sijistan wherein existed a firehouse of the fire worshippers. It was conquered by al Rabi’ ibn Ziyad al Harithi. See: Futuh al Buldan 1/385; Mujam al Buldan 4/453; Ᾱthar al Bilad wa Akhbar al ‘Ibad p. 246.

[52] Kurink: A town three Farsakhs (14 km) away from Sijistan. See: Mujam al Buldan 4/457. Presently it is situated in Iran and still carries the same name.

[53] Mujam al Buldan 4/457.

[54] Quzdar is on one of the sides of Sindh and is also known as Qusdar. Between it and Bust is 80 Farsakhs (386 km). It was conquered by al Mundhir ibn al Jarud al ‘Abdi. See: Futuh al Buldan p. 422; al Ansab 4/493; Mujam a-Buldan 4/341; Ᾱthar al Bilad wa Akhbar al ‘Ibad p. 104.

[55] Mujam al Buldan 4/341.

[56] West here refers to the northern shores of Africa, the entire area beyond Egypt westwards.

[57] Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 6/144; Muqaddamah Ibn Khaldun p. 164; al Istiqsa li Akhbar Duwal al Maghrib al Aqsa 1/156.

[58] ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz ibn Marwan al Umawi, Abu Hafs al Madani al Dimashqi. The rightly guided Khalifah. He was born in 61 A.H. He was appointed as the Khalifah by his cousin Sulaiman ibn ‘Abdul Malik. His conduct and mannerisms were similar to those of his grandfather ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Unfortunately he was not blessed with a long period of rulership. He passed away in Dayr Sam’an in 101 A.H. His narrations are narrated in the six books. Tarikh Madinah Dimashq 45/126; Tahdhib al Kamal 21/432; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 5/114; al Bidayah wa al—Nihayah 9/192.

[59] Tahdhib al Tahdhib 1/424, 2/68, 6/74, 153; al Istiqsa li Akhbar Duwal al Maghrib al Aqsa 1/157.

[60] Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 3/213.

[61] Ibid. 4/241; al Istiqsa li Akhbar Duwal al Maghrib al Aqsa 1/162.

[62] Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 18/429; al ‘Ibar fi Akhbar Man Ghabar 1/219; al Istiqsa li Akhbar Duwal al Maghrib al Aqsa 1/186.

[63] Al Badʾ wa al Tarikh 6/87; al Muntazam 8/166; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 15/156.

[64] Al Istiqsa li Akhbar Duwal al Maghrib al Aqsa 1/188. ‘Umar ibn Hafs ibn ‘Uthman al Azdi, Abu Jafar. From the progeny of Qabisah ibn Abi Sufrah, the brother of Muhallab. Abu Jafar al Mansur had appointed him over Africa in 150 A.H after dismissing him from Sindh. He became occupied with fighting the Khawarij and thus managed to rule for only three years. Thereafter they united against him and defeated him and killed him in mid Dhu al Hijjah in 154 A.H. See: Al Badʾ wa al Tarikh 6/87; al Muntazam 8/166; al Kamil fi al Tarikh 5/195; al Istiqsa li Akhbar Duwal al Maghrib al Aqsa 1/186.

[65] Al Istiqsa li Akhbar Duwal al Maghrib al Aqsa 1/184.

[66] Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 15/153; Al Istiqsa li Akhbar Duwal al Maghrib al Aqsa 1/164.

[67] For details regarding these two dynasties see: Al Istiqsa li Akhbar Duwal al Maghrib al Aqsa 1/179.

[68] The Sufriyyah: one of the sub-sects of the Khawarij which is attributed to Ziyad ibn al Asfar. The following are some of their beliefs: Every major sin constitutes disbelief and every disbelief equates to Shirk. They would not approve of killing the women and children of the opposition, nor would they excommunicate those who did not participate in warfare as long as they agreed with them in belief. Likewise they did not do away with the capital punishment of lapidation and at times have allowed the practice of Taqiyyah in speech, not in action. See: Maqalat al Islamiyyin p. 118; al Tanbih wa al Radd ‘ala Ahl al Ahwaʾ wa al Bida’ p. 52; al Farq Bayn al Firaq p. 70; al Milal wa al Nihal 1/137.

[69] The Ibadiyyah are also one of the sub-sects of the Khawarij and are attributed to ‘Abdullah ibn Ibad. From it many sub-sects have emerged as well. Some of their beliefs are the following: Those who oppose them are disbelievers, in terms of being ungrateful for the bounty Allah; their abode is the abode of Islam with the exception of the military base of their ruler; their testification is acceptable; their blood is inviolable even in secrecy, unless evidence is established against them and they openly proclaim their deviance; it is permissible to marry into them and establish mutual inheritance between the two groups. See: Maqalat al Islamiyyin p. 102; al Farq Bayn al Firaq 82; al Tabsir fi al=Din wa Tamyiz al Firqah al Najiyah p. 58; al Mawaqif 3/693.

[70] Yazid ibn Hatim ibn Qabisah al Azdi. A leader from the children of al Muhallab ibn Abi Sufrah. He was well known for his generosity and bravery and was the governor of Jafar al Mansur over Egypt for a period of seven years. Thereafter when the problem of the Khawarij intensified in the West, Mansur sent him as the governor where he subsequently ruled for fifteen years and three months. He passed away during the era of Harun al Rashid in 170 A.H. See: Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 8/233; al Wafi bi al Wafayat 28/48; Mirʾat al Jinan 1/361; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 10/111.

[71] Al Kamil fi al Tarikh 5/197; al ‘Ibar fi Akhbar man Ghabar 1/224; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 10/113; Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 7/18.

[72] Ruh Ibn Hatim. See: al Kamil fi al Tarikh 5/282.

[73] Midmar al Khalaʾiq 1/54.

[74] Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 3/213.

[75] Sarus or Sharus is a great city which is in the centre of the Nafusah mountain range (which are today known as the Western mountain range). In fact it is the central village therein and is very large and populated. See: Mujam al Buldan 3/217; al Rawd al Mi’tar fi Khabar al Aqtar p. 216.

[76] Mujam al Buldan 3/217.

[77] Tahirt is the name of two cities facing one another in the central west (currently in Algeria). The first one is known as the Old Tahirt, which is beyond our discussion. The second one is the New Tahirt, which is a city where it frequently rains and is always fogy. It is five miles away from the Old city. It was founded by the Ibadi Khawarij in the West and thereafter became of the capital of the Rustumi dynasty. See: Mujam al Buldan 2/7; Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 6/147. Now it is known as Tiaret and is 300 km on the southern western side of Algeria.

[78] Al Badʾ wa al Tarikh 4/73. Maqdisi is Mutahhar ibn Tahir al Maqdisi. A historian who hails from Bayt al Maqdis. He passed away in 355 A.H. See: al A’lam 7/253; Mujam al Muʾallifin 12/294.

[79] Mujam al Buldan 2/8.

[80] Al Kamil fi al Tarikh 6/461. Ibn al Athir is ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad al Shaybani, Abu al Hassan al Jazari. A Shafi’i hadith expert. He became well-known for his vast knowledge in Arabic literature, history and genealogy. He was born in 555 A.H. He moved from place to place maintaining his grandeur and esteem. He passed away in 630 A.H. Some of his works are: al Kamil fi al Tarikh, Usd al Ghabah, Tahdhib al Ansab. See: Wafayat al A’yan 3/348; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 22/354; Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah al Kubra 8/299; Shadharat al Dhahab 5/137.

[81] Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 4/51, 6/147, 159.

[82] Al Istiqsa li Akhbar Duwal al Maghrib al Aqsa 1/184. Al Nasiri is Ahmed ibn Khalid ibn Hammad al Nasiri, Abu al ‘Abbas al Salawi. A great research scholar of the West. He became famous for his work in history. He was born in 1250 A.H. He is from the progeny of Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He shifted from position to position in the government and thereafter he went into seclusion in order to complete his works. He passed away in Sala in Morocco in 1315. Some of his works are: al Istiqsa, Zahr al Afnan min Hadiqah ibn al Wannan; Tul’ah al Mushtari fi al Nasab al Jafari. See: Mujam al Matbu’at al ‘Arabiyyah 1/104; al A’lam 1/120, Mujam al Muʾallifin 1/214.

[83] This is a range of high mountains in the west. There are many villages in and around it. Between it and Tarabulus is a distance of three days, and between it and Qayrawan is a distance of six days. See: Mujam al Buldan 3/217. This mountain now falls part of Libya and is famously known as the western mountain, although the old name still stands.

[84] Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah al Idrisi, Abu ‘Abdullah al Hussaini. A historian, geographer, Traveller and expert in literature. He was born in 493 A.H. He grew up and studied in Qurtubah and thereafter travelled to Sicily. He settled there by its ruler Roger the second. He passed away in 560 A.H. Some of his works are: Nuzhah al Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al Ᾱfaq, al Jamiʾ li Sifat Ashtat al Nabat, Rawd al Uns wa Nuzhah al Nafs. See: al A’lam 7/24; Mujam al Muʾallifin 11/236.

[85] Nuzhah al Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al Ᾱfaq 1/299.

[86] Tarikh Madinah Dimashq 26/238. Ibn ‘Asakir is ‘Ali ibn al Hassan ibn Hibat Allah ibn ‘Asakir al Dimashqi, Abu al Qasim. A Shafi’i scholar and a great hadith retainer. He was born in 499 A.H. He heard hadith from more than one thousand three hundred scholars. He was very bright, a perfectionist and used to engage in a lot of worship. He was disinclined from positions. He passed away in 571 A.H. Some of his works are: Tarikh Madinah Dimashq, Tabyin Kadhib al Muftari, Gharaʾib Malik. See: Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 20/554; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 12/294; Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah al Kubra 7/215; Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah of Ibn Shuhbah 2/13.

[87] Masadir al Haqaʾiq wa Sirr al Khalaʾiq 1/54. Ayubi is Muhammad ibn ‘Umar ibn Shahanshah. The governor of Humat who was accorded the title al Mansur. He was brave, loved scholars and a man who read and researched a lot. He collected innumerable books and more than 200 hundred scholars of various sciences always accompanied him. His dynasty remained for thirty years and he passed away in 617 A.H. Some of his works are: Midmar al Haqaʾiq wa Sirr al Khalaʾiq, Tabaqat al Shu’araʾ. See: Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 22/146; al Wafi bi al Wafayat 4/182; al Nujum al Zahirah 6/250; Shadharat al Dhahab 5/77.

[88]Al Rawd al Mi’tar fi Khabar al Aqtar p. 316.

[89] This is an island which is situated between Tarabulus and Qabus. It was named after the Berber tribe that populated it. See: Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 6/161; Nuzhah al Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al Ᾱfaq 1/305.

[90] Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 6/161, also see: 6/447, 543.

[91] I have not come across a description of Damar in the references I have at my disposal, but the Damar Mountain is the first range of mountains amongst many which connect each other. It starts from Qabus and Tarabulus and ends at Fas and Safaqus in the West. It is as lengthy as seven Marahil (560 km approx.) and between it and the mountain range of Nafusah is three Marahil (150 km approx.). See: Mujam al Buldan 1/378, 2/463; Mujam ma Ustu’jim 2/556; Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 6/187; Nuzhah al Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al Ᾱfaq 1/299.

[92] Midmar al Haqaʾiq wa Sirr al Khalaʾiq 1/54.

[93] I have not come across any definition of this place in the references at my disposal.

[94] Midmar al Haqaʾiq wa Sirr al Khalaʾiq 1/54.

[95] I have not come across any definition of this place in the references at my disposal.

[96] Midmar al Haqaʾiq wa Sirr al Khalaʾiq 1/54.

[97] A small island adjacent to the Jarbah Island to its east. See: Nuzhah al Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al Ᾱfaq 1/306.

[98] Nuzhah al Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al Ᾱfaq 1/306 (with a little of difference).

[99] Mujam al Buldan 3/316.

[100] Al Rawd al Mi’tar fi Khabar al Aqtar p. 316. Its author is Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdul Mun’im ibn ‘Abdul Nur al Himyari, Abu ‘Abdullah. A jurist, linguistic, geographer and historian from the people of Sabtah. He passed away 727 A.H. some of his works are: al Rawd al Mi’tar. See: al A’lam of al Zarkali: 7/53; Mujam al Muʾallifin 11/238; the introduction of al Rawd al Mi’tar of Ihsan ‘Abbas.

[101] Sijilmasah: A city which is situated on the western side of the great desert and is currently part of Morocco. Through it passes the valley of Isli. It was one of the most important cities for commerce in the Islamic era due to caravans passing through it to West Africa. Today it is part of the Risani city and is about 325 km from Fas. See: Mujam al Buldan 3/192; Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 6/147; al Istiqsa li Akhbar Duwal al Maghrib al Aqsa 1/180.

[102] Al Kamil fi al Tarikh 5/208, 258.

[103] Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 6/171.

[104] Al Istiqsa li Akhbar Duwal al Maghrib al Aqsa 1/180 (with a little difference).

[105] A big city which is situated upon the shores of the Mediterranean ocean. It was conquered at the hands of ‘Amr ibn al ‘Ᾱs radiya Llahu ‘anhu in 32 A.H. Mujam al Buldan 4/25.

[106] The author of al Istiqsa has narrated this from him 1/189; Mujam al Buldan 3/55; Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 4/246, 6/146; Futuh Misr wa Akhbaruha p. 373.

[107] I have not found any reference to it in the books I have at my disposal.

[108] Midmar al Khalaʾiq wa Sirr al Khalaʾiq 1/54.

[109] Qabis is a Tunisian city which is situated at the gulf of gabes, south of the city of Madiyyah and west of the island of Jarbah. It is approximately 400 km away from the capital of Tunisia. It was conquered with Qayrawan in 72 A.H. See: Mujam al Buldan 4/289; al Ansab 4/421; al Mu’jab 1/349.

[110] Al Kamil fi al Tarikh 4/417, 5/195.

[111] Midmar al Khalaʾiq wa Sirr al Khalaʾiq 1/54.

[112] Futuh Misr wa Akhbaruha p. 365; Nafh al Tib 3/20. Hisham ibn ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan al Qurashi, Abu al Walid al Umawi al Dimashqi. He ascended the throne after his brother Yazid in 105 A.H. He was very bright and firm in his views, was a man of tolerance and forbearance, and an amasser of wealth and miserly. Likewise he hated to shed blood. He passed away in 125 A.H. See: Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 5/351; al ‘Ibar fi Khabar man Ghabar 1/160; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 9/351; Shadharat al Dhahab 1/163.

[113] A mountainous area which currently is in the south of Tunisia. It was named after one of the Berber tribes which populated it. See: Mujam al Buldan 1/368; al Kattani: Fihris al Faharis 2/1099.

[114] Midmar al Khalaʾiq wa Sirr al Khalaʾiq 1/54.

[115] A village which is situated on the eastern side of the Algerian Masilah, about 30 km away from it. Mujam al Buldan 5/175; Ibn Nasir: Tawdih al Mushtabih 8/245; al Rawd al Mi’tar fi Khabar al Aqtar p. 556.

[116] Midmar al Khalaʾiq wa Sirr al Khalaʾiq 1/54.

[117] I have not found any description of it in the books I have at my disposal.

[118] Midmar al Khalaʾiq wa Sirr al Khalaʾiq 1/54.

[119] Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 6/155.

[120] Al ‘Ibar fi Akhbar Man Ghabar 2/120.

[121] ‘Ali ibn Ahmed ibn Sa’id ibn Hazm al Umawi, Abu Muhammad al Andalusi. The spear header of the literalist school and a great jurist and hadith expert. He was born in Qurtubah in 384 A.H. He earned acclaim for having vast knowledge and a strong grasp of matters. He has been criticised for his sharp criticism of his opponents. He went into seclusion from the people in a place called Lablah, which is near Ishbiliyyah. He passed away in 456 A.H. It is said that his works exceed four hundred, some of which are: al Muhalla, al Fisal, al Ihkam. See: Nafh al Tib 2/77; Wafayat al A’yan 3/325; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 18/184; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 12/91.

[122] Al Fisal fi al Milal wa al Nihal 4/144.

[123] Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 6/155. Note: the Ibadiyyah still currently exist in Oman to a very large extent. Likewise they still have a presence in Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, the Western Desert, and Zanzibar which has been recently added to Tanzania. See: al Mawsu’ah al Muyassarah fi al Adyan wa al Madhahib wa al Ahzab al Mu’asirah 1/62.

[124] Mizan al I’tidal 6/153.

[125] Al Thiqat 7/454; Fath al Mughith 3/285; Tadreeb al Rawi 2/331.

[126] Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 3/240; Simt al Nujum al ‘Awali 4/171.

[127] Mujam al Buldan 2/352.

[128] Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah 6/431.

[129] Tarikh Madinah Dimashq 1/366. Ibn ‘Asakir commenting upon this narration mentions, “As for what the commonality narrate regarding Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu delaying the Jumu’ah Salah till Saturday and the people of Sham agreeing with him in doing so, it is an incident which is fabricated. Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his contemporaries from amongst the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and the successors were too pious and cautious regarding the fulfilment of the obligatory prayer to be unaware of delaying the Salah being impermissible.

[130] Have not come across his biography in the books I have at my disposal.

[131] Mujam al Udabaʾ 4/222; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 10/402; Tarikh al Islam 16/290.

[132] Tarikh al Islam 12/72; Tahdhib al Tahdhib 8/415.

[133] Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah 6/431.

[134] Mizan al I’tidal 6/153.

[135] Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 14/133.

[136] Wafayat al A’yan 1/78; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 14/129; Tadhkirah al Huffaz 2/699; Tahdhib al Tahdhib 1/33.

[137] Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 5/374.

[138] Fath al Bari 13/537.

[139] Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah 7/452.

[140] Mizan al I’tidal 1/205.

[141] Al Kamil fi al Du’afaʾ al Rijal 1/310; Tarikh Madinah Dimashq 7/281; Tahdhib al Tahdhib 1/159.

[142] Khalid ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Yazid al Qasri, Abu al Haytham al Dimashqi. The governor of Iraq. He presided over Makkah during the era of al Walid and Sulaiman ibn ‘Abdul Malik. Subsequently he was appointed as the governor of Iraq by Hisham. He was an eloquent orator and was deemed to be from the noblemen. He was also famous for his generosity. He died after suffering severe punishment in 126 A.H. His narrations appear in Khalq Af’al al ‘Ibad of al Bukhari and Sunan Abi Dawood. See: Tarikh Madinah Dimashq 16/135; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 5/425; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 10/17; Tahdhib al Tahdhib 3/88.

[143] Wafayat al A’yan 1/78; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 14/129; al Wafi bi al Wafayat 6/257; Mirʾat al Jinan 2/241.

[144] Muhammad ibn Idris ibn al Mundhir ibn Dawood al Hanzali, Abu Hatim al Razi. One of the senior retainers of hadith and the leaders in the field of approbating and impugning narrators. He was a contemporary of al Bukhari and Muslim. He passed away in 277 A.H. in Ray at the age of eighty two. His narrations appear in Sunan Abi Dawood, Sunan al Nasaʾi and Sunan Ibn Majah. Some of his works are: Tabaqat al Tabi’in and Kitab al Zinah. See: Tarikh Baghdad 2/73; Tahdhib al Kamal 24/381; Tarikh al Islam 20/430; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 11/59.

[145] Muhammad ibn Rashid al Makhul al Khuza’i, Abu Yahya (and it said Abu ‘Abdullah) al Dimashqi. He settled in Basrah. He was always endeavoured to speak the truth but was accused of the innovations of Shi’ism, denial of destiny, and being of the opinion of the sword. Thus al Nasaʾi and others deemed him weak. ‘Abdul Razzaq said about him, “I have not seen a person more cautious in hadith than him.” He passed away in 160 A.H. and his narrations appear in the four Sunan. See: Tarikh Madinah Dimashq 53/4; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 7/343; al Kashif 2/170; Tahdhib al Tahdhib 9/140.

[146] Mizan al I’tidal 6/143. This perplexity was later solved by al Dhahabi. Refer to the reference.

[147] Bughyah al Talab fi Tarikh Halab 4/1731; Wafayat al A’yan 4/130; Tarikh al Islam 12/72; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 8/148.

[148] Mujam al Buldan 2/304.

[149] Hajjaj ibn Yusuf ibn al Hakam ibn Abi ‘Aqil al Thaqafi. The governor of Iraq. He was born in 40 A.H. He ruled over Hijaz for three years and thereafter over Iraq for twenty years. In that time he managed to consolidate the Umayyad rule in Iraq and he penalised its people severely. He was brave, a master-mind and a person thirsty for blood. He was also very famous for his eloquence. He passed away in 95 A.H. See: Tarikh Madinah Dimashq 12/113; Wafayat al A’yan 2/29; al ‘Ibar fi Khabar man Ghabar 1/112; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 9/117.

[150] Kumayl ibn Ziyad ibn Nuhayk al Nakha’i. One of the notables of Kufah and its warriors. He heard narrations from a number of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. He was from the partisans of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu who participated with him in the Battle of Siffin. He was an ascetic and was disinclined from this world. Hajjaj ordered that he be murdered in front of him in 82 A.H. Ibn Ma’in and others have deemed him reliable whilst Ibn Hibban has impugned him. His narration appears in Sunan al Nasaʾi. See: al Tabaqat al Kubra 6/179; Tarikh Madinah Dimashq 50/247; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 9/46; Tahdhib al Tahdhib 8/402.

[151] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 9/47.

[152] Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 7/279.

[153] Hilyah al Auliyaʾ 7/27.

[154] Tabaqat al Hanabilah 1/200; al Maqsid al Arshad 2/70.

[155] Kitab al Sunnah 2/410. Al Khallal is Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Harun al Baghdadi, Abu Bakr al Khallal. The leading scholar of the Hanbali School and a great jurist and scholar of hadith. He became famous for gathering the knowledge of Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal and codifying it. As a result of his strenuous efforts the Hanbali School was born. He passed away in 311 A.H. at approximately eighty. Some of books are: Kitab al Sunnah, Kitab al ‘Ilal, and Kitab al Jami’. See: Tarikh Baghdad 5/112; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 14/297; Tadhkirah al Huffaz 3/785; Tabaqat al Huffaz 1/331.

[156] Minhaj al Sunnah 4/146.

[157] Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 3/128.

[158] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 6/198, 229.

[159] Fath al Bari 13/537.

[160] Tarikh al Tabari 3/170; al Kamil fi al Tarikh 3/278; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 9/327.

[161] Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 3/495.

[162] Tarikh Khalifah ibn Khayyat p. 186; Tarikh Dimashq 50/306; Tahdhib al Kamal 24/251; Tarikh al Islam 6/538.

[163] Al Zubair ibn Bakkar ibn ‘Abdullah al Qurashi al Zubairi, Abu ‘Abdullah al Madani. The judge of Makkah, a historian and a genealogist. He was born in 172 A.H. al Daraqutni has deemed him reliable and al Khatib has praised him. Some people have without evidence criticised him. He passed away in 256 A.H. His narrations appear in Sunan al Tirmidhi. Some of his books are: Ansab Quraysh wa Akhbaruha, Akhbar al ‘Arab wa Ayyamuha, Wufud al Nu’man ‘ala Kisra. See: Tarikh Baghdad 8/467; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 12/311; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 11/24; Tahdhib al Tahdhib 3/269.

[164] This is the name which appears in the copy of al Bidayah wa al Nihayah published by Maktabah al Ma’arif 2/204 and Dar Hajar 3/228. Probably this is a mistake and the correct name is ‘Ali ibn al Jahm, the famous poet. This is for the following reasons: Firstly, ‘Ali ibn al Jahm was from the children Samah ibn Luʾay, as opposed to ‘Ali ibn al Ja’d who was a client of the Banu Hashim. See: Tarikh Baghdad 7/240; al ‘Ibar fi Khabar man Ghabar 1/406; Tawdih al Mushtabih 7/301. Secondly, the above quoted text is in accordance with what Ibn Hajar has mentioned in Lisan al Mizan 4/210 in the biography of ‘Ali ibn al Jahm. Hence he says, “It is said that he would curse his father for naming him ‘Ali. Thirdly, I have not found any scholar who has mentioned this in the biography of Ibn al Ja’d. All that they have mentioned is that he would at time revile some Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum like ‘Uthman and Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma; and normally a person who reviles them would not revile ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. See: Tarikh Baghdad 11/360; al Muntazam 11/160.

[165] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 2/204.

[166] Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah 8/148.

[167] Al Masar al Fikri Bayn al Mu’tazilah wa al Shia p. 27.

[168] Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 5/374.

[169] Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 5/374

[170] Mizan al I’tidal 7/46.

[171] Al Kamil fi al Tarikh 3/120.

[172] Tarikh al Dawlah al ‘Arabiyyah: the Rashidi and the Umayyad era: p. 171.

[173] Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdullah ibn al ‘Abbas al Hashimi. The father of the Abbasids, the first person to raise the slogan of the Abbasid dynasty, and the first person on whose hands people were invited tp pledge allegiance. This was in 89 A.H. during the Caliphate of al Walid ibn ‘Abdul Malik. It is said that he was only fourteen years younger than his father and resembled him the most. He passed away in 125 A.H. See: Tarikh al Tabari 4/215; al Muntazam 7/244; al ‘Ibar fi Khabar man Ghabar 1/160; al Zarkali: al A’lam 6/271.

[174] Al Muntazam 7/56; Mujam al Buldan 2/352.

[175] Muhammad ibn al Qasim ibn Khallad al Basri, Abu al ‘Aynaʾ al Darir. A linguist and a historian. He was born in Ahwaz and grew up in Basrah. In Basrah he studied hadith and literature. He was the most intelligent of people, the most eloquent and a person with the most retentive memory. He earned acclaimed due to the interesting tales which were narrated from him, just as he became popular for his silencing answers. He died in 283 A.H. after having reached ninety. See: Tarikh Baghdad 3/17; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 13/309; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 11/73; Shadharat al Dhahab 2/180.

[176]Jafar ibn al Mu’tasim ibn al Rashid al Hashimi, Abu al Fadl al Mutawakkil. The Abbasid Khalifah who was born in 205 A.H. He was acknowledged as the Khalifah after his brother al Wathiq in 232. After assuming power he proclaimed the Sunnah and it was discussed in his gathering. He wrote to all the places that the inquisition be eliminated and he spread the Sunnah and revered its people. He was loved by his subjects. He was killed on Wednesday night on the fourth of Shawwal in 247 A.H. in al Mutawakkliyyah. See: Tarikh Baghdad 7/165; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 12/30; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 10/349; Tarikh al Khulafaʾ p. 346.

[177] Mujam al Buldan 1/97; al Wafi bi al Wafayat 5/230.

[178] Hilyah al Auliyaʾ 7/27.

[179] Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 11/47.

[180] Lisan al Mizan 4/439.

[181] Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah 4/162, 401.

[182] Mundhir ibn Sa’id ibn ‘Abdullah al Baluti, Abu al Hakam al Andalusi. The supreme judge of Qurtubah. He was born in 265 A.H. He was a brilliant debater, a prolific orator, and an excellent poet. He was inclined toward the school of the Zahiriyyah (the literalist) and was a person who always proclaimed the truth. Throughout his tenure not one case of oppression is recorded against him. He passed away in 355 A.H. He has written: Kitab al Ahkam and al Nasikh wa al Mansukh. See: Tarikh al ‘Ulamaʾ bi Al Andalus 2/142; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 16/173; al Bulghah of al Firoz Abadi p. 226; Nafh al Tib 1/372.

[183] Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Rabbihi ibn Habib al Umawi, their client, Abu ‘Umar al Qurtubi. One of the great masters of literature of Andalus and its historians. He was born in 246 A.H. Ibn Kathir has said the following regarding him, “Much of his statements suggest that he had Shia tendencies and the propensity to denigrate the Banu Umayyah. He passed away in 328 A.H. Some of his books are: al ‘Iqd al Farid, al Lubab fi Ma’rifah al ‘Ilm wa al ʾᾹdab, Akhbar Fuqahaʾ al Qurtubah. See: Tarikh al ‘Ulamaʾ bi Al Andalus 1/49, Wafayat al A’yan 1/110, Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ 15/283; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah 11/193.

Note: What Ibn Kathir has stated is indeed strange. For the incident of al Mundhir ibn Sa’id suggests the complete opposite. Yes a person who reads al ‘Iqd al Farid will surely find basis to what Ibn Kathir has said in terms of him denigrating the Umayyads in general and Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu in specific. Hence, ostensibly, he would just collect all the reports without verifying them, as was the wont of many of the historians and masters of literature, without intentionally intending to denigrate anyone. For more details see: al Dawlah al Umawiyyah al Muftara ‘Alayha p. 74.

[184] Nafh al Tib 2/984; al Takmilah li Kitab al Silah 1/239 (with a little bit of difference)

[185] Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah 4/163.

[186] Ibid. 4/401.

[187] Lisan al Mizan 5/58.