Najashi

Salim Mawla Abi Hudhayfah
May 20, 2019
‘Ammar ibn Yasir
May 20, 2019

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Najashi

 

The first three personalities we discussed were either slaves or sons of slaves. Despite their humble beginnings, they rose to the heights of dignity in Islam. Now we speak about a king, recognised for his justice, who earned a rare distinction in history; the king of Abyssinia, al Najashi.

Al Najashi is the title given to the kings of Abyssinia just as Amir al Mu’minin is the title of the khalifah of the Muslims; Kisra is the title of the King of Persia, and Qaisar is the title of the Roman Emperor.[1] Ashamah was his real name. An African name which meant gift[2], and most definitely he was a gift to the Muslims who immigrated to Abyssinia.

People who assume positions of authority are generally afflicted with the disease of pride and arrogance and are in the habit of oppressing their subordinates. But this was not the case with Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He was an embodiment of humbleness and justice. His fairness in dealing with his citizens had become the talk of the day in different countries of the world.

Sayyidina Najashi’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu father was the king of Abyssinia. He passed away leaving only one small son behind, Ashamah. He bequeathed the throne to his brother, stipulating that after his son reaches puberty, he will become king. His brother, however, grew greedy and sold Ashamah to some traders. Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala system works in amazing ways. That night, the brother passed away. So the Abyssinians brought Ashamah back, seated him on the throne, and placed the crown upon his head.[3]

Meanwhile, in Makkah al Mukarramah, the Muslims were being mercilessly persecuted by the kuffar. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was in search for a base for Islam, or at least a sanctuary for the Muslims. He examined the different kingdoms of the world at that time, but found no place suitable for his Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum besides Abyssinia. Therefore, he told them to immigrate to this African country informing them, “Lives therein a king, by whom no one is oppressed.”[4] This alone is a great accolade for Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was cognisant of his integrity and fairness and instructed his Companions to travel to his land.

Another peculiar accolade of Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu is that he was the first to assist the Muslims and grant them refuge. While the entire world plotted against the Muslims, he defended them. Imagine the amount of sincere prayers he earned from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The honour that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala bestowed upon him is sufficient testimony to this. On the Day of Qiyamah, you will see him seated in the company of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Rightly Guided Khulafa’ under the shade of Allah’s Throne. The first of the seven categories promised divine shade on that dreadful day is a just ruler.[5]

While the Muslims enjoyed peace and safety and the opportunity to worship Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala without restrictions in Abyssinia, the Quraysh burnt with malice. They sent two of their envoys with exquisite gifts of the finest hide of Makkah for the king to convince him to return the Muslims back to Makkah. The Qurayshi envoys first met with the patricians of the king and won them over, brain-washing them into believing that the new immigrants had invented a false new religion and must be returned back to Makkah for the people of their land know them best. The two thought that their trick will work with the king as well. However, they were in for a nasty surprise.

They presented superb gifts to Najashi before complaining about the Muslims and requesting him to return them immediately. The patricians supported their case, but Najashi on the other hand became upset at this unfair conduct and determined that he will not decide anything until he hears their side of the story. His justice had saved him from making a terrible blunder. The Muslims were thus summoned to his court together with the king’s bishops. The Muslims were resolute on speaking nothing but what Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam taught them.

The Muslims’ spokesperson, Sayyidina Jafar ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, gave Najashi a detailed account of the unfolding of events. He firstly mentioned the wicked lives they were living, followed by the special blessing Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala conferred upon them, His beloved Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He listed the outstanding characteristics of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and enumerated his salient and significant teachings which they follow. Finally, he spoke about the persecutions of their own people which forced them to take sanctuary in his country, highlighting the fact that no one in his land is oppressed. Najashi requested the speaker to recite some of the new revelation. The opening verses of Surah Maryam were recited before him. Totally captivated by the words of the Qur’an, Najashi and his bishops listened attentively in silence. Tears began their journey of descent down their faces. When the reciter completed his recitation, he looked up and found that Najashi’s beard was soaked with tears and that the bishops had wet their manuscripts opened before them with their tears. These verses of the Qur’an correctly describe them:

 

وَإِذَا سَمِعُوْا مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ تَرَىٰ أَعْيُنَهُمْ تَفِيْضُ مِنَ الدَّمْعِ مِمَّا عَرَفُوْا مِنَ الْحَقِّۚ   يَقُوْلُوْنَ رَبَّنَا أٰمَنَّا فَاكْتُبْنَا مَعَ الشَّاهِدِيْنَ وَمَا لَنَا لَا نُؤْمِنُ بِاللّٰهِ وَمَا جَاءَنَا مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَنَطْمَعُ أَن يُدْخِلَنَا رَبُّنَا مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الصَّالِحِيْنَ فَأَثَابَهُمُ اللّٰهُ بِمَا قَالُوْا جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِيْ مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِيْنَ فِيْهَاؕ   وَذٰلِكَ جَزَآءُ الْمُحْسِنِيْنَ

And when they hear what has been revealed to the Messenger, you see their eyes overflowing with tears because of what they have recognized of the truth. They say, “Our Lord, we have believed, so register us among the witnesses. And why should we not believe in Allah and what has come to us of the truth? And we aspire that our Lord will admit us [to Paradise] with the righteous people.” So Allah rewarded them for what they said with gardens [in Paradise] beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally. And that is the reward of doers of good.[6]

 

“By Allah, certainly this and what Musa `alayh al-Salam brought come from the same spring,” he exclaimed. The Qur’an had penetrated deep into the recesses of his heart. The manifestation was to be witnessed very soon. He allowed the Muslims to live in his country and practice their religion openly and freely, assuring them that no one will harm them.

One of the envoys devised a scheme that he felt will definitely work. He decided to play on sentiments and disclose the belief the Muslims held regarding Sayyidina ‘Isa `alayh al-Salam, which was contrary to what many Christians believed, thinking that this will bring the king’s wrath upon them. The Muslims were summoned for a second time to court and were more apprehensive this time round. However, they maintained their composure and explained to Najashi what the Qur’an had to say about Maryam radiya Llahu ‘anha and Sayyidina ‘Isa `alayh al-Salam. He was the Messenger and slave of Allah, His soul and word which He cast into the virgin Maryam radiya Llahu ‘anha. Najashi confirmed what the Muslims believed, as it was verbatim the words of Sayyidina ‘Isa `alayh al-Salam, despite the bishops making a hue and cry over this. Again, he promised the Muslims safety, warning that anyone who troubles them shall face punishment. He then had the gifts of the Qurayshi envoys returned to them and dismissed them from his court.[7]

Among the Muhajirin to Abyssinia was the third Khalifah of Islam, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his wife—the beloved daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha—two of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam future wives, Sayyidah Umm Salamah and Sayyidah Umm Habibah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, his dear cousin, Sayyidina Jafar ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Sayyidina Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam, and Sayyidina ‘Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Auf―two of the ten promised Jannat, Sayyidina Mus’ab ibn ‘Umair radiya Llahu ‘anhu―the young lad brought up in the lap of luxury, who sacrificed everything for the sake of his religion, and many other early Muslims.[8]

Not long thereafter, a man from Abyssinia rebelled against him, contesting with him for his kingdom. The Muslims were anxious over this, fearing that he might be overpowered. They thus implored Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala seeking aid for Najashi. Sayyidina Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam radiya Llahu ‘anhu surfed on the Nile on a blown up water skin to witness the epic battle between Najashi and his rival. Through the prayers of the Muslims, Najashi was victorious and his opponent was killed.  “By Allah, we never felt such joy upon anything as the joy we felt upon Najashi’s victory,” they explain.[9]

He might have lived hundreds of miles away from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, but was continuously in his supplications. Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu had the great fortune of receiving two epistles from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The first correspondence was sent with Sayyidina ‘Amr ibn Umayyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu to Najashi calling him to Islam. The translation of the letter is reproduced below:

In the name of Allah, the Exceedingly Compassionate, Excessively Merciful. From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah to al Najashi, king of Abyssinia. I praise Allah before you, the Sovereign, the Holy One, Giver of Peace, and the Protector. I testify that ‘Isa ibn Maryam is the spirit of Allah and His word which He cast into Maryam, the chaste virgin, which resulted in her giving birth to ‘Isa. I invite you to one Allah, without any partner and that you follow me and believe in what has been revealed to me, for indeed I am the Messenger of Allah. I have sent to you my cousin Jafar. With him are a group of Muslims. Peace be upon those who follow the guidance.[10]

Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu held the letter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and placed it on his eyes; a gesture of reverence and appreciation. He then descended from his throne and sat humbly on the earth. Thereafter, he embraced Islam and recited the proclamation of truth. He submitted, “Had I possessed the ability to go to him, I would have.”[11] He wrote to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam his response, filled with love and admiration:

 

In the name of Allah, the Exceedingly Compassionate, Excessively Merciful. To Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah from al Najashi. Peace be upon you, O Messenger of Allah, and Allah’s mercy and His blessings. The being besides whom there is no deity, Who guided me to Islam. After praising Allah, indeed your epistle has reached me, O Messenger of Allah. What you have mentioned about ‘Isa―by the Rabb of the heavens and the earth―’Isa ibn Maryam `alayh al-Salam did not increase on what you said to the extent of the pericarp of a date. Indeed, the reality is as you have declared. We know of the people you sent to us; your cousin and his companions have come here.

I testify that you are the Messenger of Allah. I have pledged allegiance to you and to your cousin and I have embraced Islam at his hands, for the pleasure of Allah, the Lord of the Universe. I have sent my son to you. If you desire that I come personally, I will comply, O Messenger of Allah, for I testify that what you say is the truth. And peace be upon you, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings.[12]

 

On one side, arrogance and love for authority proved an impediment for other kings, while on the other side, Sayyidina Najashi’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu humbleness and search for the truth bore the fruits of devoutness. He was one of the very few kings who had the great fortune to embrace Islam.

The verses which speak favourably of the adherents of Christianity and Judaism (Ahl al kitab) most definitely include Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu for he is one of them to answer the call of Islam after having faith in a previous divine faith. Some of these verses are quoted hereunder:

 

وَإِنَّ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَمَنْ يُّؤْمِنُ بِاللّٰهِ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ خَاشِعِيْنَ لِلّٰهِ لَا يَشْتَرُوْنَ بِأٰيَاتِ اللَّهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيْلًاؕ   أُولٰئِكَ لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْؕ   إِنَّ اللّٰهَ سَرِيْعُ الْحِسَابِ

And indeed, among the People of the Scripture are those who believe in Allah and what was revealed to you and what was revealed to them, [being] humbly submissive to Allah. They do not exchange the verses of Allah for a small price. Those will have their reward with their Lord. Indeed, Allah is swift in account.[13]

 

الَّذِينَ أٰتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِهٖ هُم بِهٖ يُؤْمِنُوْنَ وَإِذَا يُتْلٰى عَلَيْهِمْ قَالُوْا أٰمَنَّا بِهٖٓ إِنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَّبِّنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا مِنْ قَبْلِه مُسْلِمِيْنَ أُولٰئِكَ يُؤْتَوْنَ أَجْرَهُمْ مَّرَّتَيْنِ بِمَا صَبَرُوْا وَيَدْرَءُوْنَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ السَّيِّئَةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُوْنَ

Those to whom We gave the Scripture before it – they are believers in it. And when it is recited to them, they say, “We have believed in it; indeed, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed we were, [even] before it, Muslims [submitting to Allah].” Those will be given their reward twice for what they patiently endured and [because] they avert evil through good, and from what We have provided them they spend.[14]

 

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ كَانَ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللّٰهِ وَكَفَرْتُمْ بِهٖ وَشَهِدَ شَاهِدٌ مِّنْۢ بَنِيْ إِسْرَائِيْلَ عَلٰى مِثْلِهٖ فَأٰمَنَ وَاسْتَكْبَرْتُمْؕ  إِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِيْنَ

Say, “Have you considered: if the Qur’an was from Allah, and you disbelieved in it while a witness from the Children of Israel has testified to something similar and believed while you were arrogant… ?” Indeed, Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.[15]

 

لَيْسُوا سَوَاءً مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ أُمَّةٌ قَائِمَةٌ يَّتْلُوْنَ أٰيَاتِ اللّٰهِ أٰنَاءَ اللَّيْلِ وَهُمْ يَسْجُدُوْنَ

They are not [all] the same; among the People of the Scripture is a community standing [in obedience], reciting the verses of Allah during periods of the night and prostrating [in prayer].[16]

 

وَلَوْ أَنَّ أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ أٰمَنُوْا وَاتَّقَوْا لَكَفَّرْنَا عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَلَأَدْخَلْنَاهُمْ جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيْمِ

And if only the People of the Scripture had believed and feared Allah, We would have removed from them their misdeeds and admitted them to Gardens of Pleasure.[17]

 

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala attests to their faith, devoutness, and humbleness in these verses and promises them double reward coupled with forgiveness and gardens of eternity.

In the second letter, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ordered him to marry Sayyidah Umm Habibah bint Abi Sufyan radiya Llahu ‘anhuma to him and to send all the Sahabah on a ship back to him. Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu complied with these requests. Sayyidah Umm Habibah radiya Llahu ‘anha had immigrated to Abyssinia with her husband, ‘Ubaidullah ibn Jahsh. He turned Christian but she remained firm upon her faith. After her ‘iddah was completed, Sayyidina Najashi’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu messenger, Abrahah, came to her and informed her that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had written to him ordering him to get them married. Sayyidah Umm Habibah radiya Llahu ‘anha appointed Sayyidina Khalid ibn Sa’id ibn al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu her representative.

Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu summoned all the Muslims. After they gathered, he recited the khutbah and conducted the marriage of Umm Habibah radiya Llahu ‘anha to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He gave her 400 gold coins as dowry on behalf of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He then prepared a feast for the Muslims.

The king ordered the women to send perfume to Sayyidah Umm Habibah radiya Llahu ‘anha with which she adorned herself and presented herself to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent her with Shurahbil ibn Hassanah radiya Llahu ‘anhu to Madinah.[18]

These are just few glimpses of how well he treated the Muslims in Abyssinia. “We lived with the best neighbour in the best country,” Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha states―one of the immigrants to Abyssinia.[19]

Although Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not meet, they had a close relationship. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wrote him two letters, the details of which appeared previously, and Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent two gifts for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The first gift was a pair of leather socks, which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wore and made masah upon during wudu’.[20] The other was a garment coupled with a gold ring studded with an Abyssinian rock. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave the ring to Sayyidah Umamah bint Abi al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anha—his granddaughter—to wear.[21]

Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent his son with sixty men from Abyssinia in a ship towards Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala selected them to be martyrs in His path. The ship sank and they all drowned.[22]

Notwithstanding his major responsibilities as a king, Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu kept tabs upon the happenings in Arabia. After the Battle of Badr, he sent for Sayyidina Jafar and his comrades radiya Llahu ‘anhum and gave them glad tidings of the victory at Badr. At the time, he was sitting on the floor, without anything under him. Upon enquiry he said, “We find in what has been revealed to ‘Isa. It is binding upon the bondsmen of Allah that they display humility before Allah when He favours them with His bounties. Now that Allah has favoured me with assisting His Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, I have displayed this form of humility to Him.”[23] A king with this level of humility is exceptional and unique.

Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu arranged for 40 men of his country to travel to Madinah and accept Islam at the hands of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. These men were fortunate to participate in the Battle of Uhud. They were injured during this battle, although none of them lost their lives.

In 6 A.H., the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum who were still by Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu requested him to allow them to immigrate to Madinah, explaining to him that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was victorious against his enemies. With a hard heart, Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu acceded to their request. Their stay in his country had come to an end. His hospitality and generosity, however, were still ongoing. He made all necessary arrangements for their transport to Arabia and supplied them with provisions for the way. He also sent one of his men with them. Before they could leave, he expressed one desire, “Let your Messenger know that I have accepted Islam and request him to seek forgiveness on my behalf.”

The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum thus returned from the land of safety, on the rough seas, until they reached Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who was at Khaybar at the time. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was elated by their return. Sayyidina Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu gave a detailed report to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam of the welcoming and munificent behaviour of Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu towards them, not forgetting his farewell request. The man who gave sanctuary to his Companions, was asking him a favour. The only favour he ever asked from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stood up, performed wudu’, and supplicated thrice in his favour, “O Allah, forgive al Najashi.” While the Sahabah chanted, “Amin”. How splendid a request and how superb a fulfilment.[24]

And the love and appreciation was mutual. When a delegation of Sayyidina Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu came to meet Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he began serving them personally. The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum said that they will do the serving, but Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam insisted that he will personally serve them stating, “Indeed, they honoured my Companions. So I desire to pay them back the favour.”[25]

The love and friendship they shared was astonishing. He passed away in a foreign land in Rajab 9 A.H, yet Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announced his obituary to the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, referring to him as their brother, the righteous man of Abyssinia, Ashamah. On the exact day he passed on, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum to seek forgiveness for him and perform his Salat al Janazah. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam proceeded to the musalla for an amazing spectacle, never seen before and never to be seen thereafter. He ordered the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum to form rows and from hundreds of miles away he led the Salat al Janazah on Sayyidina al Najashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu. A speciality exclusive to him.[26]

Sayyidah ‘Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha says, “After al Najashi passed away, we were told that light would be seen perpetually upon his grave.”[27]

Managing a kingdom with justice and humbleness was a special characteristic of Sayyidina Ashamah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the king of Abyssinia. May Allah be pleased with him and make him happy.

 

NEXT⇒ ‘Ammar ibn Yasir


[1]Raf’ Sha’n al Hubshan, pg. 222; Tanwir al Ghabash, pg. 104.

[2]Raf’ Sha’n al Hubshan, pg. 219; Tanwir al Ghabash, pg. 104.

[3]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 3 pg. 82.

[4]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 3 pg. 73; Sirah Ibn Ishaq, pg. 154.

[5]Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 504; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2248.

[6]  Surah al Ma’idah: 83 – 85.

[7]Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 1676; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 3 pg. 79 – 81.

[8]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 3 pg. 72, 73.

[9]Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 1676; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 3 pg. 81.

[10]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 3 pg. 90, 91 [referenced to Dala’il al Nubuwwah, vol. 2 pg. 309]; Tanwir al Ghabash, pg. 105; Raf’ Sha’n al Hubshan, pg. 227, 228 with slight variation [referenced to Tarikh al Tabari, vol. 2 pg. 652; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 1 pg. 258, 259.]

[11]Tanwir al Ghabash, pg. 107.

[12]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 3 pg. 90, 91 [referenced to Dala’il al Nubuwwah, vol. 2 pg. 309]Tanwir al Ghabash, pg. 106; Raf’ Sha’n al Hubshan, pg. 228, 229. [Referenced to Tarikh al Tabari, vol. 2 pg. 652, 653; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 1 pg. 259; al Sirah of Ibn Kathir, vol. 2 pg. 43.]

[13]  Surah Al ‘Imran: 199. Raf’ Sha’n al Hubshan, pg. 226 [Referenced to al Suyuti: Azhar al ‘Urush, pg. 72, 73.]

[14]  Surah al Qasas: 52 – 54.

[15]  Surah al Ahqaf: 10.

[16]  Surah Al ‘Imran: 113.

[17]  Surah al Ma’idah: 65.

[18]Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 2102, 2103, 2081; Sunan al Nasa’i, Hadith: 3352.

[19]Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 1676.

[20]Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 155; Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 2820. Grade: hassan.

[21]Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 4223; Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 3644. Grade: hassan.

[22]Tanwir al Ghabash, pg. 106; Raf’ Sha’n al Hubshan, pg. 229. [Referenced to Usd al Ghabah, vol. 1 pg. 76.]

[23]Munasarat al Sahabah al Afariqah, pg. 45; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 42.

[24]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 3 pg. 78, 79; Hayat al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 431. Contains some narrators who have been deemed weak. Munasarat al Sahabah al Afariqah, pg. 45; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 1 pg. 42.

[25]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 3 pg. 85; [referenced to Dala’il al Nubuwwah, vol. 2 pg. 307. Grade: da’if.]

[26]Sahih al Bukhari, Book 23, Hadith: 417; Book 58, Hadith: 217, 220; Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith: 2077.

[27]Sunan Abi Dawood, Book 14, Hadith: 2517; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 3 pg. 83; Raf’ Sha’n al Hubshan, pg. 237, [referenced to Sirat Ibn Ishaq, pg. 201; al Isabah, vol. 1 pg. 109.]

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