Misconception: Sayyidah Aisha and the other wives of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are not from the Ahlul Bayt

Misconception: Sayyidah Aisha prevented Sayyidah Fatimah from inheriting from Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam
February 28, 2018
Misconception: Fitnah originated from Aisha’s house
February 28, 2018

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Misconception: Sayyidah Aisha and the other wives of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are not from the Ahlul Bayt[1]

 

The Shia ludicrously claim that the noble wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were not of his Ahlul Bayt (household). They constrict the Ahlul Bayt to Sayyidina ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hassan, Hussain, and the sons of Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum, who number 12 in total. They exclude all others besides them to the extent that even the other children of Sayyidina ‘Ali and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma are dismissed. As a result, they do not regard the other sons of Sayyidina ‘Ali rahimahu Llah from the Ahlul Bayt like Muhammad ibn al Hanafiyyah, Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Abbas, Jafar, ‘Abdullah, ‘Ubaidullah, and Yahya; similarly, their 12 sons, and 18 or 17 daughters – according to different narrations. In the same way, they exclude the daughters of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, viz. Zainab, Umm Kulthum, and their children from the Ahlul Bayt.

In fact, they attribute lying, open transgression, and sin, not to mention kufr and riddah (apostasy) to the children of Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Similarly, they condemn and label the children of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam paternal uncles and aunts and their children as kuffar including the children of Abu Talib besides Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. In the same way, they disregard and exclude the other three daughters of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam besides Fatimah, their husbands, and children from the Ahlul Bayt.[2]

 

The accurate view

The accurate view regarding the purport of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Ahlul Bayt are those upon whom Zakat is prohibited, viz. his wives, children, and every Muslim male and female from the progeny of ‘Abdul Muttalib which include the sons of Hashim ibn ‘Abd Manaf. The hadith that Muslim records bears testimony that his paternal uncles’ sons are included in his Ahlul Bayt.

 

عن عبد المطلب بن ربيعة بن الحارث بن عبد المطلب أنه ذهب هو و الفضل بن عباس إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يطلبان منه أن يوليهما على الصدقة ليصيبا من المال ما يتزوجان به فقال لهما صلى الله عليه و سلم إن الصدقة لا تنبغي لآل محمد إنما هي أوساخ الناس ثم أمر بتزويجهما و إصداقهما من الخمس

‘Abdul Muttalib ibn Rabi’ah ibn al Harith ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib reports that he and Fadl ibn ‘Abbas went to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to request him to appoint them as collectors of Zakat so that they may acquire some wealth in order to get married. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told them, “Zakat is not befitting for the family of Muhammad. It is nothing but people’s dirt.” He then ordered that they be married and their dowry be paid from the khums (fifth of the booty).[3]

 

Some of the ‘Ulama’ like al Shafi’i and Ahmed have combined the sons of al Muttalib ibn ‘Abd Manaf with the sons of Hashim in the prohibition of Zakat upon them since they both receive shares from fifth of the fifth (of the booty). This is substantiated by a hadith reported by al Bukhari[4] from Jubayr ibn Mut’im radiya Llahu ‘anhu which mentions that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam only gave the Banu Hashim and Banu al Muttalib and not their brothers, Banu ‘Abd Shams and Nawfal owing to the fact that Banu Hashim and Banu al Muttalib were one.

 

Evidences that the Ummahat al Mu’minin are from the Ahlul Bayt

Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declaration is sufficient evidence to include his wives radiya Llahu ‘anhunna in his Ahlul Bayt:

 

وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوْتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُوْلىٰ ۖ وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِيْنَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيْدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيْرًا (33) وَاذْكُرْنَ مَا يُتْلىٰ فِيْ بُيُوْتِكُنَّ مِنْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَالْحِكْمَةِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ لَطِيْفًا خَبِيْرًا

And abide in your houses and do not display yourselves as [was] the display of the former times of ignorance. And establish prayer and give Zakat and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet’s] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification. And remember what is recited in your houses of the verses of Allah and wisdom. Indeed, Allah is ever Subtle and Acquainted [with all things].[5]

 

This verse confirms their definite inclusion since the verses prior and after it are addressed to them. This in no way contradicts what appears in Sahih al Muslim:

 

عن عائشة رضي الله عنها أنها قالت خرج النبي صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم غداة و عليه مرط مرحل من شعر اسود فجاء الحسن بن على فأدخله ثم جاء الحسين فدخل معه ثم جاءت فاطمة فأدخلها ثم جاء علي فأدخله ثم قال إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا

On the authority of Aisha who relates, “Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam left in the morning wearing a woollen garment, with pictures of camel saddlebags, made from black hair. Hassan ibn ‘Ali came and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam covered him [in his garment], followed by Hussain who entered with him. Fatimah then came and he took her in, and then ‘Ali came and he took him under. He thereafter recited: ‘Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet’s] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification.’[6][7]

 

The verse is sufficient testimony for the wives’ inclusion since they are addressed therein while this hadith indicates to the inclusion of Sayyidina ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum in the verse. Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam choice of these four personalities in this hadith does not indicate to the term’s exclusiveness to them to the exclusion of his other family members. It only shows that they are his choicest family members.

An example of the verse referring to Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wives and the hadith of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha referring to Sayyidina ‘Ali- Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum is:

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares:

لَّمسْجِدٌ أُسِّسَ عَلَى التَّقْوىٰ مِنْ أَوَّلِ يَوْمٍ

A mosque founded on righteousness from the first day.[8]

 

This verse attests that the purport is Masjid Quba’. While on the other hand, the hadith recorded in Sahih Muslim[9] indicates that the purport is Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Masjid.

Ibn Taymiyyah has mentioned this example or similarity.[10]

The wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are included in the word Al (family) in his statement:

 

إن الصدقة لا تحل لمحمد و لا لآل محمد

Verily, Zakat is not permissible for Muhammad and his family.

 

This is supported by the fact that they were given from the khums and is further reinforced by Ibn Abi Mulaykah’s report:

 

أن خالد بن سعيد بعث إلى عائشة ببقرة من الصدقة فردتها و قالت إنا آل محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم لا تحل لنا الصدقة

Khalid ibn Sa’id sent a cow from Zakat to Aisha who returned the same explaining, “Zakat is not permissible for us, the family of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[11]

 

How amazing! Do the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not feature in the following hadith:

 

اللهم اجعل زرق آل محمد قوتا

O Allah, make the sustenance of Muhammad’s family just sufficient.[12]

 

And his supplication for his udhiyyah (sacrifice):

 

اللهم هذا عن محمد و آل محمد

O Allah, this is on behalf of Muhammad and his family.[13]

 

And Sayyidah Aisha’s radiya Llahu ‘anha report:

 

ما شبع آل رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من خبز بر

Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam family never ate wheat flour to their fill.[14]

 

And in the musalli’s supplication:

اللهم صلى على محمد و على آل محمد

O Allah, send salutations upon Muhammad and the family of Muhammad.[15]

 

Do they not feature in his statement?

إن الصدقة لا تحل لمحمد و لا لآل محمد

Verily, Zakat is not permissible for Muhammad and his family.[16]

 

Zakat is the filth of people and his wives are more deserving to be protected therefrom.[17]

 

A thorough rebuttal of their sinister scheme to exclude Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wives from his Ahlul Bayt

 

Firstly, from a grammatical angle:

Al Ahl of a house refers to its residents. From here we get Ahl al Qura: residents of a village; al ahl of a religion: its adherents and followers.

Its figurative expression: a man’s ahl refers to his wife, and his children are also included. The tafsir of Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala statement has appeared accordingly:

وَسَارَ بِأَهْلِهِ

He was traveling with his family.[18] i.e. his wife and children.

 

Just as the word ahlah with a ta’ provides this meaning.

Al Ahl of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam refers to his wives, daughters, son-in-law Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

It is said, his ahl are the men who form part of his family. His grandchildren and his progeny are included in this. Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala command provides this meaning:

وَأْمُرْ أَهْلَكَ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَاصْطَبِرْ عَلَيْهَا ۖ

And enjoin prayer upon your family [and people] and be steadfast therein.[19]

 

Similarly, Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala statement:

 

إِنَّمَا يُرِيْدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ

Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet’s] household[20]

 

And His statement:

رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ ۚ إِنَّهُ حَمِيْدٌ مَّجِيْدٌ

May the mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, people of the house. Indeed, He is Praiseworthy and Honourable.[21]

 

Al Ahl of every Nabi refers to his ummah and the adherents of his faith. This meaning is provided in Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala statement:

 

وَكَانَ يَأْمُرُ أَهْلَهُ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ

And he used to enjoin on his people prayer and Zakat.[22]

 

Al Raghib[23] has mentioned, and al Munawi[24] has concurred with him: The ahl of a man include all those who are of the same lineage or religion or who are alike with regards to occupation, house, or city. So the ahl of a man originally are all those who live in the same home. Thereafter, it was used figuratively and said his Ahlul Bayt: those who share the same lineage or the aspects mentioned above. Thereafter, it became acquainted with the family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when used in unrestricted.[25]

 

Secondly, from the Qur’an Karim:

The incident of Khalil Allah ‘alayh al Salam mentioned in the Qur’an further strengthens the inclusion of wives in the term al ahl. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala while relating the incident of the messengers coming to Sayyidina Ibrahim ‘alayh al Salam with glad tidings says:

 

وَامْرَأَتُهُ قَائِمَةٌ فَضَحِكَتْ فَبَشَّرْنَاهَا بِإِسْحَاقَ وَمِنْ وَرَاءِ إِسْحَاقَ يَعْقُوْبَ (71) قَالَتْ يَا وَيْلَتىٰ أَأَلِدُ وَأَنَا عَجُوْزٌ وَهٰذَا بَعْلِيْ شَيْخًا ۖ إِنَّ هٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عَجِيْبٌ (72) قَالُوْا أَتَعْجَبِيْنَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ ۖ رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ ۚ إِنَّهُ حَمِيْدٌ مَّجِيْدٌ

And his Wife was standing, and she smiled. Then We gave her good tidings of Ishaq and after Ishaq, Ya’qub.

She said, “Woe to me! Shall I give birth while I am an old woman and this, my husband, is an old man? Indeed, this is an amazing thing!”

They said, “Are you amazed at the decree of Allah? May the mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, people of the house. Indeed, He is Praiseworthy and Honourable.”[26]

 

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala used this word on the tongue of His angels to address the wife of Ibrahim ‘alayh al Salam, and no one else. Shia scholars and commentators have acknowledged this as well. For example al Tabarsi[27] in Majma al Bayan and al Kashifi in Manhaj al Sadiqin.

 

Similarly, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala relates the incident of Sayyidina Musa ‘alayh al Salam:

 

فَلَمَّا قَضىٰ مُوسَى الْأَجَلَ وَسَارَ بِأَهْلِهِ آنَسَ مِنْ جَانِبِ الطُّوْرِ نَارًا قَالَ لِأَهْلِهِ امْكُثُوْا إِنِّيْ آنَسْتُ نَارًا

And when Musa had completed the term and was traveling with his family, he perceived from the direction of the mount a fire. He said to his family, “Stay here; indeed, I have perceived a fire. [28]

 

The purport of Sayyidina Musa’s ‘alayh al Salam ahl is his wife. Shia commentators have attested to this.

Furthermore, Al Tabarsi comments on the verse in Surah al Naml:

 

أي امرأته و هي بنت شعيب عليه السلام إِذْ قَالَ مُوسىٰ لِأَهْلِهِ

[Mention] when Musa said to his family[29] i.e. his wife, the daughter of Shu’ayb ‘alayh al Salam.[30][31]

 

The word Ahlul Bayt has followed the same pattern and meaning when it was used to refer to Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam household in Surah al Ahzab:

إِنَّمَا يُرِيْدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ

Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet’s] household.[32]

 

This verse addresses the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The verses before it and after it are addressed to them specifically. It begins with Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala statement:

 

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُلْ لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ

O Prophet, say to your wives

Until:

وَإِنْ كُنْتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُوْلَهُ

But if you should desire Allah and His Messenger

 

Thereafter, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala repeats:

يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ

O wives of the Prophet

 

He then addresses them:

وَمَنْ يَقْنُتْ مِنْكُنَّ لِلَّهِ وَرَسُوْلِهِ

And whoever of you devoutly obeys Allah and His Messenger

 

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala then says:

يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ

O wives of the Prophet, you are not like anyone among women.

 

He mentions thereafter:

 

وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُوْلىٰ ۖ وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِيْنَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُوْلَهُ ۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيْدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيْرًا

And abide in your houses and do not display yourselves as [was] the display of the former times of ignorance. And establish prayer and give Zakat and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet’s] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification.

 

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala then commands them:

 

وَاذْكُرْنَ مَا يُتْلىٰ فِيْ بُيُوْتِكُنَّ

And remember what is recited in your houses.[33]

 

Whoever reads these verses understands that they were revealed concerning Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wives since they address no one besides them.

 

Thirdly, from the Ahadith:

It appears in Sahih al Bukhari:

 

أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم دخل إلى حجرة عائشة فقال السلام عليكم أهل البيت و رحمة الله فقالت و عليك السلام و رحمة الله

Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam entered Aisha’s room and greeted, “May peace be upon you, O Ahlul Bayt, and the mercy of Allah.”

She replied, “And may peace and Allah’s mercy be upon you.”[34]

 

Hadith al Kisa’

عن صفية بنت شيبة قالت قالت عائشة خرج النبي صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم غداة و عليه مرط مرحل من شعر اسود فجاء الحسن بن على فادخله ثم جاء الحسين فدخل معه ثم جاءت فاطمة فادخلها ثم جاء على فادخله ثم قال إِنَّمَا یُرِيْدُ اللهُ لِیُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَ یُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيْرًا

Safiyyah bint Shaybah relates that Aisha said, “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam left in the morning wearing a striped cloak made from black (camel’s) hair. Hassan ibn ‘Ali came and Rasulullah wrapped him under it, followed by Hussain who entered with him. Then Fatimah came and he took her under it, then came ‘Ali and he also took him under it. He thereafter recited:

إِنَّمَا یُرِيْدُ اللهُ لِیُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَ یُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيْرًا

Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophets] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification.[35]

 

‘Umar ibn Abi Salamah, Nabi’s step son, reports:

 

لما نزلت هذه الآية على النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم إِنَّمَا یُرِيْدُ اللهُ لِیُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَ یُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيْرًا في بيت أم سلمة فدعا فاطمة و حسنا و حسينا فجللهم بكساء و علي خلف ظهره فجللهم بكساء ثم قال اللهم هؤلاء أهل بيتي فأذهب عنهم الرجس و طهرهم تطهيرا قالت أم سلمة و أنا معهم يا نبي الله قال أنت على مكانك و أنت على خير

When this ayah was revealed upon Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the house of Umm Salamah:

Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophets] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification.

He summoned Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain and covered them with a sheet. ‘Ali was behind them. He covered them with a sheet and prayed, “O Allah! These are my family. Remove impurity from them and grant them extensive purification.”

Umm Salamah submitted, “Am I with them, O Prophet of Allah!”

He explained, “You are on your place and you are upon goodness.”[36]

 

عن أم سلمة أم المؤمنين رضي الله تعالى عنها أن النبي صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم جلل على الحسن و الحسين و علي و فاطمة رضي الله تعالى عنهم كساء ثم قال اللهم هؤلاء أهل بيتي و خاصتي أذهب عنهم الرجس و طهرهم تطهيرا فقالت أم سلمة رضي الله تعالى عنها و أنا معهم يا رسول الله قال إنك إلى خير

Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam covered Hassan, Hussain, ‘Ali, and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhum with a sheet and then prayed, “O Allah! These are my family and close ones. Remove impurity from them and grant them extensive purification.”

Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha submitted, “Am I with them, O Messenger of Allah!”

The Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied, “You are upon goodness.”[37]

 

Al Mubarakpuri has explained:

 

قالت أم سلمة و أنا معهم يا نبي الله بتقدير حرف الاستفهام أنت على مكانك و أنت على خير يحتمل أن يكون معناه أنت على خير و على مكانك من كونك من أهل بيتي و لا حاجة لك في الدخول تحت الكساء كأنه منعها عن ذلك لمكان علي

Umm Salamah said, “I am with them O prophet of Allah?” the interrogative phrase is hidden.

“You are upon your place and you are upon goodness.” It is possible that it means: you are upon goodness on your place as you are already from my Ahlul Bayt. There is no need for you to enter under the shawl. As if he prevented her due to ‘Ali’s presence.[38]

 

Muhammad al Tahir ibn ‘Ashur al Tunisi rahimahu Llah has mentioned while commentating on Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala statement, Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophets] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification.

 

و قد تلقف الشيعة حديث الكساء فغصبوا وصف أهل البيت و قصروا على فاطمة و زوجها و ابنيهما عليهم الرضوان و زعموا أن أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم لسن من أهل البيت و هذه مصادمة للقرآن بجعل هذه الآية حشوا بين ما خوطب به أزواج النبي و ليس في لفظ حديث الكساء ما يقتضي قصر هذا الوصف على أهل الكساء إذ ليس في قوله هؤلاء أهل بيتي صيغة قصر كقوله تعالى إن هؤلاء ضيفي ليس معناه ليس لي ضيف غيرهم و هو يقتضي أن تكون هذه الآية مبتورة عما قبلها و ما بعدها

The Shia have misused Hadith al Kisa’ and have usurped the title Ahlul Bayt and constricted it to Fatimah, her husband, and their two sons radiya Llahu ‘anhum. They believe that the wives of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are not included in the Ahlul Bayt. This is in stark conflict to the Qur’an by making this portion a parenthesis between the address to Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wives. There is no word or indication in Hadith al Kisa’ making this quality specific to them since there is no word of qasr (restriction) in his statement:

هؤلاء أهل بيتي

O Allah! These are my family

This is similar to Allah’s statement:

إِنَّ هَٰؤُلَاءِ ضَيْفِي

Indeed, these are my guests[39]

The meaning of this is not: I do not have any guests besides them.

Moreover, this demands this this verse be unconnected to the verses preceding it and after it.

 

Regarding ‘Umar ibn Abi Salamah’s report:

 

قالت أم سلمة و أنا معهم يا نبي الله قال أنت على مكانك و أنت على خير

Umm Salamah submitted, “Am I with them, O Prophet of Allah!”

He explained, “You are on your place and you are upon goodness.”

 

The Shia have misunderstood this text. They think that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prevented her from being among the Ahlul Bayt whereas this is glaring ignorance. Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam knew that she had already acquired the virtue since the verse was revealed addressing her and her co-wives. Therefore, there was no need to add her to the four. Which follows that supplicating for removal of impurity from her and her total purification is asking for the acquired which is against the etiquettes of du’a’. This has been explained by Shihab al Din al Qarafi when discussing the difference between permissible and impermissible du’a’s. Hence, Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam answer was to teach her.

It appears in some narrations that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to Sayyidah Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

إنك من أزواج النبي

You are among the wives of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[40]

 

This address explains the purport of you are upon goodness more clearly.[41]

 

Another Misconception:

The Shia assert that the feminine pronoun features in the verses prior to Ayat al Tathir (the verse of purification) and the verses after it. While to the contrary, the masculine pronoun features in Ayat al Tathir itself. Therefore, its purport is only ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain since they are masculine.

 

Answer

The Shia’s claim that the masculine pronouns which feature in ankum (from you) and wayutahhirakum (purify you) in the verse: Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophets] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification prevents the Ummahat al Mu’minin from being included among the Ahlul Bayt is erroneous.

The rule of grammar is that when both masculine and feminine combine in a situation, then the masculine pronoun is given preference. And the verse includes all of the Ahlul Bayt as mentioned previously. Therefore, it was appropriate for the masculine pronoun to be utilised.[42]

Examples of this have appeared in the glorious Qur’an.

The incident of the wife of Sayyidina Ibrahim ‘alayh al Salam:

 

وَامْرَأَتُهُ قَائِمَةٌ فَضَحِكَتْ فَبَشَّرْنَاهَا بِإِسْحَاقَ وَمِنْ وَرَاءِ إِسْحَاقَ يَعْقُوْبَ قَالَتْ يَا وَيْلَتىٰ أَأَلِدُ وَأَنَا عَجُوْزٌ وَهٰذَا بَعْلِيْ شَيْخًا ۖ إِنَّ هٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عَجِيْبٌ قَالُوْا أَتَعْجَبِيْنَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ ۖ رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ ۚ إِنَّهُ حَمِيْدٌ مَّجِيْدٌ

And his Wife was standing, and she smiled. Then We gave her good tidings of Ishaq and after Ishaq, Ya’qub.

She said, “Woe to me! Shall I give birth while I am an old woman and this, my husband, is an old man? Indeed, this is an amazing thing!”

They said, “Are you amazed at the decree of Allah? May the mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, people of the house. Indeed, He is Praiseworthy and Honourable.”[43]

 

The verse includes the feminine pronouns in words like fabasharnaha (We gave her good tidings), qalat (she said), yawaylata (woe to me), and atajabin (are you amazed). It then shifts to the masculine pronoun in the portion:

 

رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ

May the mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, people of the house.

 

We see the same shifting of pronouns in the verses addressed to Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wives.

Secondly, if we agree that shifting from the feminine to the masculine pronoun in Ayat al tathir has excluded the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from the Ahlul Bayt as the Shia claim, then this would result in the exclusion of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha from the verse of Qurʾan as well. However, the Shia do not agree to this since she is the foundation according to them. Therefore, this is a very strong proof against their false assertions.

Had Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not added Sayyidina ‘Ali, Fatimah, and their children radiya Llahu ‘anhum, the verse would have been specific to the wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam just as is the case with the wife of Nabi Ibrahim ‘alayh al Salam and Nabi Musa ‘alayh al Salam. The Qur’an has emphatically declared the wives of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as his Ahlul Bayt. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam added to this Sayyidina ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum. This is harmonious with Arabic dictionaries and the terminology of people and is in direct polarity to what the Shia claim.

Thirdly, the question arises as to why the shifting from masculine to feminine pronoun concerning the household of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Sayyidina Ibrahim ‘alayh al Salam?

Answer: Since the house belongs to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. So if anything evil happens therein, it negatively effects the owner of the house himself before the residents of the house. The one whose honour will be disparaged is Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Therefore, his wives are his household and it is necessary for them to be free from all impurity and to be purified extensively.

For this reasoning, the address was to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his noble wives, coupled with Sayyidina Ali, Fatimah, Hassan, Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum due to the hadith. This Arabic pronoun which refers to masculine, may also refer to both masculine and feminine. It is known as a taghlibiyyah (overpowering) pronoun. And the Qur’an is replete with this. For example, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says over and over again:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا

O you who have believed[44]

This address includes both believing males and females.[45]

 

NEXT ⇒ Misconception: Fitnah  originated from Aisha’s house


[1] Mawqif al Shia al Ithna Ashariyyah min al Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum of ‘Abdul Qadir Muhammad ‘Ata Sufi pg. 1234 – 1240

[2] Study their reliable books for reference: Firaq al Shia pg. 39 – 40; Ayan al Shia of al Sayed Muhsin al Amin vol. 1 pg. 11 (discussion one); al Shia fi Aqa’idihim wa Ahkamihim of al Sayed Amir Muhammad al Kazimi al Qazwini pg. 16

[3] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1072

[4] Sahih al Bukhari Hadith: 3140

[5] Surah al Ahzab: 32 – 34

[6] Surah al Ahzab: 33

[7] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 2424

[8] Surah al Tawbah: 108

[9] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1398

[10] Article: Fadl Ahlul Bayt wa Huquqihim of Ibn Taymiyyah pg. 20

[11] Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah vol. 3 pg. 214; Tarikh Baghdad vol. 8 pg. 38 – The hadith of Sayyidina Muawiyah ibn Haydah radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[12] Sahih al Bukhari Hadith: 6460; Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1055 – the hadith of Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[13] Musnad Ahmed vol. 6 pg. 391 Hadith: 27234; Musnad al Bazzar vol. 9 pg. 318 Hadith: 3867; Mujam vol. 1 pg. 311 Hadith: 920; al Mustadrak vol. 2 pg. 425; al Bayhaqi vol. 9 pg. 259 Hadith: 19482 – the hadith of Sayyidina Abu Rafi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Al Hakim comments, “The isnad is sahih, but al Bukhari and Muslim have not recorded it.” Al Haythami declared its isnad as Hassan in Majma al Zawa’id vol. 4 pg. 24. Al Albani says in Silsilat al Ahadith al Da’ifah Hadith: 6461, “Munkar with this whole.”

[14] Sahih al Bukhari Hadith: 5423; Sahih Muslim Hadith: 2970

[15] Sahih al Bukhari Hadith: 3370; Sahih Muslim Hadith: 406 – the hadith of Sayyidina Ka’b ibn ‘Ujrah radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[16] Tarikh Baghdad vol. 8 pg. 38 – The hadith of Sayyidina Muawiyah ibn Haydah radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[17] Jila’ al Afham of Ibn al Qayyim pg. 218; Fadl Ahlul Bayt wa Uluw Makanatihim ind Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah of ‘Abdul Muhsin ibn Hamd al ‘Ibad al Badr pg. 6 – 12

[18] Surah al Qasas: 29

[19] Surah Taha: 132

[20] Surah al Ahzab: 33

[21] Surah Hud: 73

[22] Surah Maryam: 55

[23] Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn al Mufaddal, Abu al Qasim al Asbahani, commonly known as al Raghib. The proficient ‘Allamah and deep researcher. He was one of the intelligent mutakallimin. He became so famous that he was likened to Imam al Ghazali. Some of his books are: Mufradat Alfaz al Qur’an al Karim and al Dhari’ah ila Makarim al Shari’ah. He passed away in 502 A.H. (Siyar Alam al Nubala’ vol. 18 pg. 120; al Alam vol. 2 pg. 255)

[24] ‘Abdul Ra’uf ibn Taj al ‘Arifin ibn ‘Ali al Munawi. The Hafiz, Faqih, and Shafi’i. Born in 952, he lived in seclusion to author and study. He would eat very little and stay awake at night. Some of his works are: Fayd al Qadir Sharh Jami al Saghir and Sharh al Shama’il li al Tirmidhi. He passed away in 1031 A.H. (al Alam vol. 6 pg. 204; Hadyat al ‘Arifin vol. 5 pg. 510

[25] Taj al ‘Urus vol. 28 pg. 41. Ibn Manzur said, “The ahl of a man are the closest of people to him. The Ahlul Bayt of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are his wives, daughters, and son-in-law i.e. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. It is said: the wives of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the men of his family. (Lisan al Arab vol. 11 pg. 29)

[26] Surah Hud: 71 – 73

[27] Al Fadl ibn al Hassan ibn al Fadl, Abu ‘Ali al Tabarsi. He is a Mufassir and Linguist and one of the Shia scholars. Some of his books are: Majma al Bayan fi Tafsir al Qur’an wa al Furqan and Mukhtasar al Kashaf. He died in 548 A.H. (al Alam vol. 5 pg. 148)

[28] Surah al Qasas: 29

[29] Surah al Naml: 7

[30] Majma al Bayan vol. 4 pg. 211

[31] Tafsir al Qummi vol. 2 pg. 139; Nur al Thaqalayn of al ‘Urus al Huwayzi; Manhaj al Sadiqin

[32] Surah al Ahzab: 33

[33] Surah al Ahzab: 28 – 34

[34] Sahih al Bukhari Hadith: 4793; Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1428

[35] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 2424

[36]Sunan al Tirmidhi Hadith: 3205; al Tabarani vol. 9 pg. 25 Hadith: 8311. Al Tirmidhi says, “Gharib.” Al Albani declared it sahih in Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi

[37]Sunan al Tirmidhi Hadith: 3871; Musnad Ahmed vol. 6 pg. 304 Hadith: 26639; al Tabarani vol. 23 pg. 333 Hadith: 768; Musnad Abi Yala vol. 12 pg. 451 Hadith: 7021 – the hadith of Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

Al Tirmidhi categorized it as Hassan and said, “This is the best which has been narrated in this chapter.” Ibn Hajar says in Tahdhib al Tahdhib vol. 2 pg. 297, “It has many turuq.” Al Albani has categorized it sahih li ghayrihi in Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi Hadith: 3871. It is reported from another tariq, al Mustadrak vol. 3 pg. 158; al Sunan al Kubra vol. 2 pg. 150 Hadith: 2975; Sharh al Sunnah of al Baghawi vol. 7 pg. 204 with slight variations in some words – the hadith of Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Al Hakim declared its isnad as sahih in al Sunan al Kubra of al Bayhaqi vol. 2 pg. 150 and said, “His narrators are reliable.” Al Baghawi concurs. Al Dhahabi said in al Muhadhab vol. 2 pg. 597, “Its isnad is salih (good) but there is some nakarah (objectionableness) in it.” Al Shawkani comments in Fath al Qadir vol. 4 pg. 392, “It is appropriate to be used as evidence. And it has many turuq.”

[38] Tuhfat al Ahwadhi bi Sharh Jami al Tirmidhi of al Mubarakpuri vol. 9 pg. 48

[39] Surah al Hijr: 68

[40]

عن أبي سعيد الخدري أن أم سلمة حدثته أن هذه الآية نزلت في بيتها إِنَّمَا یُرِيْدُ اللهُ لِیُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَ یُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيْرًا الآية قالت و أنا جالسة عند الباب قالت قلت يا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ألست من أهل البيت قال إنك على خير أنك من أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قالت و رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في البيت و علي و فاطمة و حسن و حسين رضي الله عنهم

Abu Sa’id al Khudri radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that Umm Salamah informed him that the following verse was revealed in her house, “Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet’s] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification. She explains, “I was sitting by the door. I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam! Am I not from the Ahlul Bayt?’ He explained, ‘Indeed you are upon goodness. You are among the wives of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.’” She says, “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was in the house with ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum.” (Marifat al Sahabah of Abu Nuaym vol. 6 pg. 3222 Hadith: 7418; Sharh Mushkil al Athar vol. 2 pg. 238)

[41] Al Tahrir wa al Tanwir vol. 22 pg. 17; Bayan Mawqif Sheikh al Islam al Imam al Akbar Muhammad al Tahir ibn Ashur al Tunisi min al Shia min Khilal Tafsirih al Tahrir wa al Tanwir of Khalid ibn Ahmed al Shami

[42] Mawqif al Shia al Ithna Ashariyyah min al Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum pg. 1240; Fadl Al al Bayt of Maqrizi pg. 32 – 35

[43] Surah Hud: 71 – 73

[44] Surah Baqarah: 104

[45] Article: Ummuna Aisha Malakat al Afaf of Shahatah Muhammad Saqar (unpublished article)

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