Misconception: Sayyidah Aisha prevented Sayyidah Fatimah from inheriting from Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Misconceptions about Sayyidah Aisha concerning the Ahlul Bayt – Aisha harboured enmity for ‘Ali
February 28, 2018
Misconception: Sayyidah Aisha and the other wives of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are not from the Ahlul Bayt
February 28, 2018

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Misconception: Sayyidah Aisha prevented Sayyidah Fatimah from inheriting from Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

 

The Shia claim that Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha claimed Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam inheritance whereas she was the one to report that Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is not inherited from which resulted in depriving Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha from her share of inheritance. They substantiate their claim with what al Mufid mentioned:

 

حدثني أبو الحسن علي بن محمد الكاتب قال حدثني الحسن بن علي الزعفراني قال حدثنا سفيان عن فضيل بن الزبير قال حدثني فروة بن مجاشع عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي عليهما السلام قال جاءت عائشة إلى عثمان فقالت له أعطني ما كان يعطيني أبي و عمر بن الخطاب فقال لها لا أجد له موضعا في الكتاب و لا في السنة و إنما كان أبوك و عمر بن الخطاب يعطيانك بطيبة من أنفسهما و أنا لا أفعل قالت له فأعطني ميراثي من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال لها أولم تجيئي أنت و مالك ابن أوس النصري فشهدتما أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لا يورث حتى منعتما فاطمة ميراثها و أبطلتما حقها فكيف تطلبين اليوم ميراثا من النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم فتركته و انصرفت

Abu al Hassan ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al Katib narrated to me saying, al Hassan ibn ‘Ali al Za’farani narrated to me saying, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al Thaqafi narrated to us saying, al Hassan ibn al Hussain al Ansari narrated to us saying, Farwah ibn Mujashi’ narrated to me from Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn ‘Ali rahimahu Llah who reports:

Aisha came to ‘Uthman and said to him, “Give me what my father and ‘Umar ibn al Khattab would give me.”

He answered, “I neither find it in the Qur’an nor in the Sunnah. However, your father and ‘Umar ibn al Khattab would give you out of the goodness of their hearts. But I will not.”

“So give me my inheritance from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam,” she cried.

He retorted, “Did you together with Malik ibn Aws al Nasri not come and bear witness that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is not inherited from thereby depriving Fatimah from her inheritance and destroying her right? So today, how can you claim inheritance from Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam?”

Upon this, she left him and walked away.[1]

 

Answer

This narration is utterly baseless and false. They rely upon a narration al Bukhari quotes in his al Sahih from Nafi’ that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma informed him:

 

أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم عامل خيبر بشطر ما يخرج منها من ثمر أو زرع فكان يعطي أزواجه مائة وسق ثمانون وسق تمر و عشرون وسق شعير فقسم عمر خيبر فخير أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أن يقطع لهم من الماء و الأرض أو يمضي لهن فمنهن من اختار الأرض و منهن من اختار الوسق و كانت عائشة اختارت الأرض

Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made a treaty with (the people of) Khaibar upon half of its produce, whether fruits or produce. He would give his wives 100 wasaq – 80 wasaq dates and 20 wasaq barley. Later on, ‘Umar divided Khaibar and gave the wives of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam a choice between apportioning land and water for them or leaving it as is (i.e. giving them 100 wasaq). Some of them chose the land while others chose the wasaq. Aisha was among those who chose land.[2]

 

This was from Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam expenditure upon his wives. And this continued after his demise due to his statement:

 

لا يقتسم ورثتي دينارا ما تركت بعد نفقة نسائي و مئونة عاملي فهو صدقة

My heirs should not distribute a single gold coin. Whatever I leave behind after my wives’ expenditure and my workers’ wages is charity.[3]

 

After his wives chose Allah, His Messenger, and the Life Hereafter sustenance and support for them was necessary. However, it did not translate in the form of inheritance. It is for this reason that no one disputed with them over their dwellings since this was a portion of their expenditure which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam allocated for them from what he owned during his lifetime. Accordingly, he made the above statement.

This is supported by the fact that their heirs did not inherit their dwellings from them. Had they owned these dwellings, it would have fallen into their heirs’ share after their demise. Therefore, their heirs not claiming their right is proof for the above. Owing to the very same reason, their dwellings were incorporated in the Masjid after their demise for the general benefit of the Muslims just as was done with the expenditure given to them. And Allah knows best![4]

Accordingly, his wives did not inherit a single coin from him. Al Bukhari and Muslim report from Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

أن أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم حين توفي رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أردن أن يبعثن عثمان إلى أبي بكر يسألنه ميراثهن فقالت عائشة أليس قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لا نورث ما تركنا صدقة

After Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam demise, his wives intended sending ‘Uthman to Abu Bakr to ask for their inheritance. Aisha said, “Did Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not say, ‘We are not inherited from. Whatever we leave is charity.’”[5]

 

With regards to depriving Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha of her inheritance, it is established that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

لا نورث ما تركنا صدقة

We are not inherited from. Whatever we leave is charity.[6]

 

Ibn Taymiyyah says:

 

كون النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم لا يورث ثبت بالسنة المقطوع بها و بإجماع الصحابة و كل منهما دليل قطعي

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not being inherited from is established by the Sunnah which is categorical and the consensus of the Sahabah. And both these are dalil qati (categorical proofs).[7]

 

The incident of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha approaching Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu and claiming her inheritance in Fadak and his response to this by providing the above hadith which angered her; the reason was that they had different views when it came to understanding the statement of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as Ibn Hajar has clarified[8]. However, this was settled after Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu went to her home to win her happiness as recorded by al Baihaqi via his sanad from al Sha’bi who reports:

 

لما مرض فاطمة أتاها أبو بكر الصديق فاستأذن عليها فقال علي يا فاطمة هذا أبو بكر يستأذن عليك فقالت أتحب أن آذن له قال نعم فأذنت له فدخل عليها يترضاها فقال والله ما تركت الدار و المال و الأهل و العشيرة إلا ابتغاء مرضاة الله و مرضاة رسوله و مرضاتكم أهل البيت ثم ترضاها حتى رضيت

When Fatimah fell ill, Abu Bakr al Siddiq came to visit her. He sought permission to enter.

‘Ali said, “O Fatimah, it is Abu Bakr who is seeking permission to enter your presence.”

She asked, “Do you want me to grant him permission?”

“Yes,” replied ‘Ali.

Accordingly, she gave permission and he entered to win her happiness.

Abu Bakr said, “By Allah, I did not abandon my home, wealth, family, and tribe except seeking the pleasure of Allah, His Messenger, and your pleasure O Ahl al Bayt.”

He then appeased her until she became pleased.[9]

 

Hafiz Ibn Kathir comments:

 

و هذا إسناد جيد قوي و الظاهر أن عامر الشعبي سمعه من علي أو ممن سمعه من علي اه

This isnad is jayyid and strong. It is apparent that ‘Amir al Sha’bi heard it directly from ‘Ali or from the student of ‘Ali.”[10]

 

When Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu assumed the post of khilafah, he did exactly the same thing Sayyidina al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu did with the charity of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and did not take ownership of anything from it.[11]

 

Concerning the hadith which al Mufid reported, Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al Thaqafi appears in the isnad. It is said about him in Lisan al Mizan:

Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al Thaqafi

  • Ibn Abi Hatim says, “He is majhul (unknown).”
  • Al Bukhari comments, “His hadith are not sahih.”
  • Ibn ‘Adi remarks, “His hadith are not sahih.”
  • Abu Nuaim says in Tarikh Asbahan, “He was extreme in rafd. His ahadith are rejected.”[12]
 

Hassan ibn al Hussain al Ansari is al Hassan ibn al Hussain al ‘Urni al Kufi. It is mentioned in Lisan al Mizan about him:

Hassan ibn al Hussain al Ansari al Urni al Kufi

  • Abu Hatim says, “He was not saduq (truthful) in their sight. He was among the leaders of the Shi”
  • Ibn ‘Adi remarks, “His ahadith do not resemble the ahadith of reliable narrators.”
  • Ibn Hibban comments, “He makes additions to accepted traditions and he narrates convoluted narrations.”[13]
 

Add to this the unknown narrators in the isnad to Abu Jafar rahimahu Llah. And do not forget that the one who narrates from Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu never ever met him. How was this meeting possible when he was born in the year 56 or 57 A.H. – according to different views – many years after Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu martyrdom? These facts show the unreliability of this narration. And all praise belongs to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.[14]

 

NEXT ⇒ Misconception: Sayyidah Aisha and the other wives of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are not from the Ahlul Bayt 


[1] Al Amali of al Mufid Hadith: 3; Bihar al Anwar

[2] Sahih al Bukhari Hadith: 2328; Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1551

[3] Sahih al Bukhari Hadith: 2776; Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1760

[4] Fath al Bari, chapter concerning the dwellings of Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wives vol. 6 pg. 211 and chapter concerning Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam statement: We are not inherited from. Whatever we leave is charity vol. 12 pg. 7

[5] Sahih al Bukhari Hadith: 4034; Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1758

[6] Sahih al Bukhari Hadith: 6730; Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1758

[7] Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah vol. 4 pg. 220

[8] Fath al Bari vol. 6 pg. 202

[9] Al Bayhaqi vol. 6 pg. 301 Hadith: 12515. Al Bayhaqi says, “This is Hassan’s mursal with a sahih isnad.”

[10] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 8 pg. 196

[11] Sharh Muslim of al Nawawi vol. 12 pg. 73

[12] Lisan al Mizan vol. 1 pg. 43

[13] Ibid vol. 1 pg. 199

[14] Discussion: Aisha Umm al Mu’minin of Hani Muhammad ‘Iwadayn (Unpublished discussion)

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