Chapter Four – The Canonical Books of the Rawafid – Section One: The eight collections

Section Two – Documentation according to the Rawafid
October 1, 2021
Section Two – General Comments regarding the Eight Collections
October 1, 2021

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Chapter Four

The Canonical Books of the Rawafid

 

Hereunder there will be four sections:

Section One: The eight collections

Section Two: General comments on the eight collections

Section Three: A brief study of al Kafi, the greatest book of the Rawafid

Section Four: The four-hundred principal sources

 

Section One

The Eight Collections

 

The reliable and supreme books which are deemed the sources of the Rafidi narrations are eight; they are dubbed ‘the eight collections’[1].[2] The Rawafid claim that these are the primary sources for the narrations which are narrated from the Imams.[3]

Their contemporary scholar Muhammad Salih al Jaza’iri says:

 

وأما صحاح الإمامية فهي ثمانية، أربعة منها للمحمدين الثلاثة الأوائل، وثلاثة بعدها للمحمدين الثلاثة الأواخر، وثامنها لمحمد حسين المرحوم المعاصر النوري

As for the authentic books of the Imamiyyah, they are eight. Four of them are the books of the first three Muhammads, the next three are the books of the later three Muhammads, and the eighth is of Muhammad Hussain al Marhum al Nuri the contemporary.[4]

 

The aforementioned collections are: the four early collections, popularly known as the four books. They are: al Kafi, Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih, Tahdhib al Ahkam, and al Istibsar.

‘Abdul Hussain Sharaf al Din says:

 

ومن جملة المصنفات المشهورة لدى علماء الإمامية: الأصول الأربعمائة، وهو أربعمائة مصنف لأربعمائة مصنف، كتبت من فتاوى الصادق عليه السلام على عهده، فكان عليها مدار العلم والعمل من بعده، حتى لخصها جماعة من أعلام الأمة، وسفراء الأئمة في كتب خاصة، تسهيلا للطالب، وتقريبا على المتناول، وأحسن ما جمع منها: الكتب الأربعة التي هي مرجع الإمامية في أصولهم وفروعهم، من الصدر الأول إلى هذه الزمان، وهي: الكتب الأربعة التي هي مرجع الإمامية في أصولهم وفروعهم من الصدر الأول إلى هذا الزمان وهي الكافي والتهذيب والاستبصار ومن لا يحضره الفقيه، وهي متواترة ومضامينها مقطوع بصحتها والكافي أقدمها وأعظمها وأحسنها وأتقنها، وفيه ستة عشر ألف ومائة وتسعة وتسعون حديثا، وهي أكثر مما اشتملت عليه الصحاح الستة بأجمعها، كما صرح به الشهيد في الذكرى وغير واحد من الأعلام

And from the acclaimed collections according to the Imami scholars are: the four hundred primary books authored by four-hundred individuals. They were collected from the legal verdicts of al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam in his time, and, thereafter, became the basis of knowledge and practice. Then, they were condensed by a group of the notables of the Ummah and the ambassadors of the Imams in dedicated works in order to simplify them for the readers and facilitate accessibility for the one willing to benefit. The best of these collected works are the four books to which the Imamiyyah resort in their principle and secondary matters from the first century to this time. They are: al Kafi, al Tahdhib, al Istibsar, Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih. They are transmitted by way of mass-transmission and their content is categorically authentic. Al Kafi is the oldest, greatest, best and most meticulously compiled book of them all. In it there are 16199 narrations, more than what is contained in all the six canonical works (of the Sunnis), as is stated by al Shahid in al Dhikra and by other giants.[5]

 

And Hassan al Sadr says:

اعلم أن المحمدين الثلاث الأوائل، هم أرباب الجوامع الأربعة، وهم: أبو جعفر محمد بن يعقوب الكليني صاحب الكافي المتوفى سنة ثمان وعشرين وثلثمئائة هجرية أخرج فيه ستة عشر ألف وتسع وتسعين حديثا بإسنادها. ومحمد بن علي بن الحسين بن موسى بن بابويه القمي، المتوفى سنة 381 ه، وهو المعروف بأبي جعفر الصادق، ألف أربعمائة كتاب في علم الحديث، أجلها كتاب من لا يحضره الفقيه، وأحاديثه تسعة آلاف وأربعة وأربعون حديثا في الأحكام والسنن. ومحمد بن الحسن الطوسي شيخ الطائفة صاحب كتاب تهذيب الأحكام بوبه على ثلاثمائة وثلاثة وتسعين بابا، وأخرج فيه ثلاثة عشر ألف وخمسمائة وتسعين حديثا، وكتابه الآخر هو الاستبصار وأبوابه تسعمائة وعشرون بابا، أخرج فيه خمسة آلاف وخمسمائة وأحد عشر حديثا، وهذه هي الكتب الأربع التي عليها المعول، وإليها المرجع للشيعة

Know that the first three Muhammads are the authors of the four collections. They are: Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Yaqub al Kulayni, the author of al Kafi, who died in 328 A.H. Therein he has recorded 16099 narrations with their chains of transmission. And Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ibn Musa ibn Babawayh al Qummi who died in 381 A.H. He is known as Abu Jafar al Sadiq. He authored four-hundred books in the science of hadith, the greatest of which is his book Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih. It comprises of 9044 narrations regarding laws and commendable practices. And Muhammad ibn al Hassan al Tusi, Sheikh al Ta’ifah, the author of Tahdhib al Ahkam. Therein he has established 393 chapters and has quoted 13590 narrations. His other book is: al Istibsar which comprises of 920 chapters containing 5511 narrations. These four books are relied upon, and to them do the Shia have recourse.[6]

 

And Muhsin al Amin says:

 

الكتب الأربعة المؤلفة في الحديث من المائة الرابعة إلى المائة الخامسة: الأول: الكافي لأبي جعفر محمد بن يعقوب الكليني جمعه في ثلاثين سنة عدد أحاديثه 16099 حديثا بأسانيد في الأصول والفروع، ت 328. الثاني كتاب من لا يحضره الفقيه لأبي جعفر محمد بن علي بن بابويه القمي المعروف بالصدوق ألفه نظيرا لكتاب من لا يحضره الطبيب، عدد أحاديثه 9044 حديثا وله أربعمائة كتاب في الحديث، ت 381. الثالث تهذيب الأحكام للشيخ أبي جعفر محمد بن الحسن الطوسي، بوبه على 393 بابا عدد أحاديثه 13590 حديثا، ت 460. الرابع: الاستبصار في الجمع بين ما تعارض من الأخبار له أيضا، أبوابه 920 بابا أحاديثه 5511 حديثا وهذه الثلاثة في الفروع خاصة فيكون مجموع أحاديث الكتب الأربعة 44244 حديثا

The four books compiled in hadith from the fourth century to the fifth century are the following: The first is: al Kafi of Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Yaqub al Kulayni (d. 328 A.H.). He compiled it in thirty years. Its total narrations are 16099 pertaining to principle and secondary matters with their chains of transmission.[7] The second is: Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih of Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Babawayh al Qummi, famously known as al Saduq, (d. 381 A.H.). He replicated therein the format of Man la Yahduruhu al Tabib. Its total narrations are 9044. He authored four hundred books in hadith. The third is: Tahdhib al Ahkam of Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn al Hassan al Tusi (d. 460 A.H.). He established therein 393 chapters and cited therein 13590 narrations. The fourth is: al Istibsar fi al Jam’ bayn Ma Ta’arada min al Akhbar authored by him as well. Its total chapters are 920 and total narrations are 5511. The latter three books are specifically regarding secondary matters. And the sum-total of all the narrations of all the books is 44244 narrations.[8]

 

As a note, I would like to cite here the statement of Jafar al Najafi (d. 1227 A.H.), the supreme scholar of the Imamiyyah and the leader of the sect in his time, regarding the authors of the four books:

 

والمحمدون الثلاثة كيف يعول في تحصيل العلم عليهم، وبعضهم يكذب رواية بعض.. ورواياتهم بعضها يضاد بعضا. ثم إن كتبهم قد اشتملت على أخبار يقطع بكذبها كأخبار التجسيم والتشبيه وقدم العالم، وثبوت المكان والزمان

The three Muhammads, how can they be trusted in the acquisition of knowledge when some of them belied the narrations of the others, and the narrations of some contradict the narrations of others. Furthermore, their books comprise of narrations which can definitely be deemed lies, like the narrations of anthropomorphism and similitude (between creation and creator) and the establishing of place and time (for the creator).[9]

 

A Brief Summary of these Books

The Earlier Collections

1. Al Kafi of Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Yaqub al Kulayni

 

Introduction to the Author

He is Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Yaqub ibn Ishaq al Kulayni (d. 329 A.H.) and his title is Thiqat al Islam (the authority of Islam). He is one of the outstanding jurists and hadith experts according to the Shia and a giant from their giants. He is, thus, the nucleus centre of the narrations of the Shia, and the excelling scholar in its field. Someone who can never be surpassed and for who no flaw or slip is known. He is according to them the leaders of the hadith scholars and the jurists, a person who enjoys prominence over his comrades and equals, whose leadership is undisputedly accepted and whose greatness is agreed upon.

Al Najashi says:

 

محمد بن يعقوب بن إسحاق أبو جعفر الكليني. وكان خاله علان الكليني الرازيي. شيخ أصحابنا في وقته بالري ووجههم، وكان أوثق الناس في الحديث، وأثبتهم. صنف الكتاب الكبير المعروف بالكليني يسمى الكافي في عشرين سنة…ومات أبو جعفر الكليني ببغداد، سنة تسع وعشرين وثلاثمائة

Muhammad ibn Yaqub ibn Ishaq Abu Jafar al Kulayni. His uncle ‘Allan al Kulayni al Razi was the teacher of our scholars in his time in Rayy and their supreme scholar and was the most reliable of people in hadith. He (Abu Jafar) wrote the book which is popularly known as al Kulayni and is dubbed al Kafi in twenty years… Abu Jafar al Kulayni died in Baghdad in 329 A.H.[10]

 

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Introduction to the Book

This book is considered to be one of the four early canonical collections of the Shia, and is most relied upon after the Qur’an. Hence it is, according to them, reliable without doubt; It shines bright in their horizon like a star, just as Sahih al Bukhari shines bright in the horizon of the Ahlus Sunnah. What is appalling though is that this celebrated book contains such narrations that one wonders how did their intelligent people accept them, and how did their jurists practice upon them; for they make a person laugh and cry and the same time, and they are filled with falsities and reprehensible content. These narrations have falsely been attributed to the notables of the pious Ahlul Bayt and to the progeny of the pure Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[11]

‘Abbas al Qummi says:

الكافي هو أجل الكتب الإسلامية وأعظم المصنفات الإمامية، والذي لم يعمل للإمامة مثله

Al Kafi is the greatest of Islamic books, and the supreme most collection of the Imamiyyah, a book the like of which has not been written for Imamiyyah.[12]

 

And Agha Buzurg al Tahrani says:

 

هو أجل الكتب الأربعة الأصول المعتمدة عليها، لم يكتب مثله في المنقول من آل الرسول

This is the greatest of the four primary books which are relied upon. A book of its kind has not been written regarding the narrations of the Ahlul Bayt.[13]

 

And al Mazindarani says:

 

كتاب الكافي أجمع الكتب المصنفة في فنون علوم الإسلام وأحسنها ضبطا، وأضبطها لفظا، وأتقنها معنى، وأكثرها فائدة، وأعظمها عائدة، حائز ميراث أهل البيت وقمطر علومهم، فهو بعد القرآن الكريم أشرف الكتب

The book al Kafi is the most comprehensively written book regarding the sciences of Islam. It is the best of them in precision, the most precise in its wording, the most meticulous in its meaning, and the book with most benefits and returns. It has secured the legacy of the Ahlul Bayt and the bulk of their knowledge. So, it is after the Qur’an the best of books.[14]

 

And Jafar al Subhani says:

لو لا الكافي وأضرابه لما بقي الدين، ولضاعت السنة.

Had it not been for al Kafi and its kind, Din would not have remained and the Sunnah would have vanished.[15]

 

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Number of Narrations of the Book

The author of Fa’iq al Maqal says:

 

جميع أحاديث الكافي ستة عشر ألفا ومائة وتسعة وتسعون حديثا، فالصحيح منها بالاصطلاح الجديد خمسة آلاف واثنان وسبعون، والحسن مائة وأربعة وأربعون، والموثق ألف ومائة وثمانية عشر، والقوي ثلاثمائة واثنان، والضعيف تسعة آلاف وأربعمائة وخمسة ثمانون

The total narrations of al Kafi are 16199 narrations. Of them, according to the new terminology, 5070 are Sahih, 144 are Hassan, 1118 are Muwaththaq, 302 are Qawi, and 9485 are Da’if.[16]

 

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The Methodology of al Kulayni in the Chain of Transmission

The author of Fa’iq al Maqal says:

 

دأب أبي جعفر محمد بن يعقوب الكليني في كتاب الكافي أن يأتي في كل حديث بجميع سلسلة السند إلى المعصوم غالبا، أو البعض ويحيل في الباقي على ما سبق. مثاله: عدة من أصحابنا عن أحمد بن محمد البرقي، عن أبيه، عن أبي عبد الله ويذكر الحديث، ثم يقول:  وبهذا الإسناد عن أبيه. والضمير عائد إلى أحمد بن محمد البرقي فيكون في الحقيقة كالمذكور

The methodology of Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Yaqub al Kulayni in his book al Kafi is that he mostly cites in every hadith the chain of transmission to the infallible. At times he will cite it in some narrations and in others he will refer to what has passed. For example, ‘a few of our narrators narrate from Ahmed ibn Muhammad al Barqi, from his father, from Abu ‘Abdullah’ and then he will cite the hadith. Thereafter he will say, “And with this chain of transmission from his father,” wherein the pronoun is referring back to Ahmed ibn Muhammad al Barqi. So, in reality it is as though he is mentioned.[17]

 

And Jafar al Subhani says:

ويذكر جميع السند عالبا إلا قليلا، اعتمادا على ما ذكره في الأخبار السابقة

In most instances he mentions the entire chain of transmission, except in a few instances due to relying upon what he mentioned in the previous narrations.[18]

 

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The methodology of al Kulayni in the Book

  1. Al Kulayni has divided the book into three sections: Usul (principles), Furu’ (secondary issues), and Rawdah (lit. orchard). In the section of Usul he has gathered all the narrations of belief, in the section of Furu’ he has gathered all the narrations related to jurisprudential matters, and in the section of al Rawdah he has cited all the narrations of conduct and its like.
  2. Al Kulayni has in al Kafi deployed the Sunnah, as per its understanding according to him, to establish his belief in Imamah and his ideologies regarding the Imams and their characteristics. He also establishes thereby the deviance of others besides the Jafariyyah who do not hold his specific belief of Imamah. He establishes that in spite of their excessive worship they will be doomed to Hell-Fire due to their worship being unaccepted according to him. On the other hand, the Jafariyyah will all enter Jannat without any exception and the fire will not touch them in spite of the destructive sins they commit, and despite their errors in the rights of Allah or his bondsmen.

Because of this we find that al Kulayni fabricates thousands of narrations and attributes them to the Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and to the pure Ahlul Bayt.

  1. He also deploys the Sunnah as a means to interpolate the Qur’an, its wording and its purport. In this, he has followed the methodology of his teacher Ibrahim al Qummi, the author of the Tafsir, who was a deviant as well as a deviator. He also adopted his methodology to impugn the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, the transmitters of the Shari’ah and the bearers of the message of Islam after Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He has specifically denigrated those who assumed the Caliphate before the fourth Khalifah ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, may Allah be pleased with all them and may he please them as well.
  2. He also embarks on doing that which is no less heinous than belief in the interpolation of the Qur’an. I.e., he forges lies against Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. He avers that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed books from the heavens in divine writing which support the Jafariyyah.
  3. Al Kulayni also includes some historical events in his book and relates them based on his leanings. He interprets them as he fancies with interpretations which satiate his deviance.
  4. The belief of Imamah ostensibly has a very great impact on the jurisprudential laws which are mentioned in Furu’ al Kafi.[19]

 

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The Table of Contents of the Book

This book has been organized by its author in 34 chapters and 326 sub-chapters. Hereunder is a list of its chapters:

  1. Intelligence and Ignorance.
  2. Virtue of Knowledge.
  3. Oneness of Allah.
  4. Evidence.
  5. Iman and Kufr.
  6. Du’a’ (Supplication).
  7. Virtues of the Qur’an.
  8. Social etiquette.
  9. Taharah (purity).
  10. Menstruation.
  11. Jana’iz (burial rites).
  12. Salah.
  13. Zakat.
  14. Fasting.
  15. Hajj.
  16. Jihad.
  17. Livelihood.
  18. Nikah.
  19. ‘Aqiqah.
  20. Talaq.
  21. Emancipation (of slaves), Tadbir  and Mukatabah.
  22. Hunting.
  23. Slaughtered Animals.
  24. Laws of Edibles.
  25. Laws of Drinks.
  26. Attire, Beautification and Dignity.
  27. Tame Animals.
  28. Bequests.
  29. Shares of inheritance.
  30. Capital Punishments.
  31. Laws of Blood-wite.
  32. Testimonies.
  33. Judicial law.
  34. Oaths, Vows, and Expiations.

 

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A Brief Comment

Al Tusi (d. 460 A.H.) says:

كتاب الكافي يشتمل على ثلاثين كتابا

The book al Kafi comprises of thirty chapters.[20]

 

This is the first century Hijri, so how many chapters are there in the book in the eleventh century?

Their scholar Hussain ibn Haydar al Karaki al ‘Amili (d. 1076 A.H.) says:

 

إن كتاب الكافي خمسون كتابا بالأسانيد التي فيه لكل حديث متصل بالأئمة عليهم السلام

The book al Kafi has fifty chapters with its chains of transmission for every hadith which consistently reach the Imams ‘alayhim al Salam.[21]

 

From the aforementioned it is clear that between the fifth century and the eleventh century twenty chapters were added to the book. And every chapter necessarily has many sub-chapters. So, who added these twenty chapters to al Kafi? Can he be a person of integrity? And is it one person or many people who successively added over the centuries? Also, does al Kafi still remain authorised by the infallible who does not err and make mistakes?

 

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The Commentaries of the Book

  1. Jami’ al Ahadith wa al Aqwal of Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Jawad ibn al Wandi (d. 1100 A.H.
  2. Al Durr al Manzum min Kalam al Ma’sum of ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al Hassan ibn Zayn al Din, popularly known as al Shahid al Thani, (d. 1104).
  3. Sharh al Mulla Sadra al Shirazi (d. 1050 A.H.)
  4. Mir’at al ‘Uqul fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul of Muhammad Baqir al Majlisi (d. 1110).

Al Majlisi has made sure to grade the narrations of al Kafi in terms of authenticity or weakness. He has deemed Sahih many of its forged narrations and lies, narrations whose content is Kufr according to the consensus of the Muslims, like the narrations of the interpolation of the Qur’an and the deification of the Imams.

  1. Sharh of Mawla Muhammad Salih al Mazindarani (d. 1081 A.H)
  2. Al Wafi of al Fayd al Kashani (d. 1091 A.H)

 

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The Annotations on the Book

Several Shia scholars and Jurists have written annotations on this book. Here are some:

  1. Muhammad Baqir al Majlisi.
  2. Abu al Hassan Sharif al Fatawi al ‘Amili (d. 1138 A.H.)
  3. Al Sayed Mir Abu Talib ibn al Mirza Bek Fandarski. A prominent scholar of the twelfth century.
  4. Zayn al Din Abu al Hassan ‘Ali ibn Hassan, the author of al Ma’alim.
  5. Muhammad ibn al Hassan ibn Zayn al Din al Shahid al Thani, known as Muhammad al Sibt al ‘Amili (d. 1030 A.H.)

 

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Studies about the Book

  1. Rumuz al Tafasir al Waqi’ah fi al Kafi wa al Rawdah of Khalil ibn Ghazi al Qazwini.
  2. Jami’ al Ruwat of Muhammad al Ardabili, a student of al Majlisi.
  3. Al Fawa’id al Kashifah of Muhammad Hussain al Tabataba’i al Tabrizi.
  4. Al Bayan al Badi’ of Hassan al Sadr.
  5. Rijal al Kafi of Hussain al Tabataba’i al Barujardi.

 

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The Publications of the Book

The most popular print of al Kafi is the print of al Manshurat al Islamiyyah with the research of ‘Ali Akbar al Ghifari and the introduction of Hussain ‘Ali Mahfuz. It was printed and published several times.

The Usul of al Kafi was published in its first lithographic print in Iran in 1281 A.H. with the writing of Muhammad Shafi’ al Tabrizi. Its Furu’ was printed in 1315 A.H. Thereafter, it has repeatedly been published in both lithographic and letterpress printings.

And one of its famous Persian translations is the translation of Muhammad Baqir Kamar’i and the translation of Jawad al Mustafawi.

 

2. Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih of Ibn Babawayh al Qummi, famously known as al Sheikh al Saduq

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Introduction to the Author

Ibn Dawood al Hilli says:

 

محمد بن علي بن الحسين بن بابويه، أبو جعفر جليل القدر، حفظة، بصير بالفقه والاخبار، شيخ الطائفة وفقيهها ووجهها بخراسان، كان ورد بغداد سنة خمس وخمسين وثلاثمائة، سمع منه شيوخ الطائفة وهو حديث السن، له مصنفات كثيرة لم ير في القميين مثله في الحفظ وفي كثرة علمه، له نحو من ثلاثمائة مصنف، مات بالري سنة إحدى وثمانين وثلاثمائة

Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ibn Babawayh Abu Jafar. A scholar of high stature, an outstanding retainer, and one who had a good grasp of jurisprudence and narrations; the leader of the sect, its jurist and its prominent scholar in Khurasan. He came to Baghdad in 355 A.H. The scholars of the sect heard from him when he was young. He has authored many books. In the Qummis no one like him has been seen in his retention and abundant knowledge. He has written about three hundred books. He died in Rayy in 381 A.H.[22]

 

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Introduction to the Book

This book is deemed one of the most crucial of the four books in matters of jurisprudence and legal rulings.

Jafar al Subhani says:

من أصح الكتب الحديثية وأتقنها بعد الكافي، وهي في الاشتهار والاعتبار كالشمس في رابعة النهار

From the most authentic books of hadith and the most meticulously compiled after al Kafi. In its popularity and prominence, it is like the sun during mid-day.[23]

 

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The Number of Narrations in the Book

The author of Fa’iq al Maqal says:

 

 يشتمل الكتاب على أربع مجلّدات ، تحتوى على ستمائة وستّة وستّين بابا : الأوّل منها ينطوي على سبعة وثمانين بابا ، والثاني على مأتين وثمانية وعشرين بابا ، والثالث على ثمانية وسبعين بابا ، والرابع على مائة وثلاثة وسبعين بابا. وجميع ما في المجلّد الأوّل : ألف وستمائة وثمانية عشر حديثا . وما في الثاني : ألف وستمائة وسبعة وثلاثون حديثا . وما في الثالث : ألف وثمانمائة وخمسة أحاديث . وما في الرابع : تسعمائة وثلاثة أحاديث .وجميع مسانيد الأوّل : سبعمائة وسبعة وسبعون . ومراسيله : واحدٌ وأربعون وثمانمائة . ومسانيد الثاني : ألف وأربعة وستّون . ومراسيله : ثلاثة وسبعون وخمسمائة. ومسانيد الثالث : ألف ومائتان وخمسة وتسعون . ومراسيله : خمسمائة وعشرة . ومسانيد الرابع : سبعة وسبعون وسبعمائة . ومراسيله : مائة وستّة وعشرون .فالمسندة : ثلاثة آلاف وتسعمائة وثلاثة. والمرسلة : ألفان وخمسُون

The book comprises of 4 volumes which comprise of 666 chapters. The first volume consists of 87 chapters, the second of 228 chapters, the third of 78 chapters, and the fourth of 173 chapters.

The sum total of narrations in the first volume is 1618; narrations of the second volume are 1637; narrations of the third volume are 1805 narrations; and narrations of the fourth volume are 903 narrations.

Furthermore, the total amount of Masanid (consistent narrations up to the infallibles) in the first volume is 777, and the Marasil (narrations with a missing link between the infallibles and those who narrate from them) are 841. The Masanid of the second volume are 1064 and its Marasil are 573; the Masanid of the third volume are 1295, and its Marasil are 510; and Masanid of the fourth volume are 777, and its Marasil are 126. So, the total number of Masanid is 3903 and the total number of Marasil is 2050.[24]

 

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The Methodology of the Author in the Chain of Transmission

The author of Fa’iq al Maqal says:

 

ودأب أبي جعفر محمد بن بابويه القمي في كتاب من لا يحضره الفقيه أن يترك أكثر السند غالبا من أوله ويكتفي بذكر الراوي الذي أخذ عن المعصوم فقط، ثم يذكر الطرق المتروكة في آخر الكتاب مفصلة متصلة، ولم يخل بذلك إلا نادرا. مثاله: ” سأل عمار الساباطي أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام) عن كذا، ويذكر الحديث، ثم يقول في آخر الكتاب: ” كلما كان في هذا الكتاب عن عمار بن موسى الساباطي فقد رويته عن أبي ومحمد بن [الحسن بن] أحمد بن الوليد – رضي الله عنهما – عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد بن الحسن بن علي بن فضال، عن عمرو بن سعيد المدائني، عن حصد بن صدقة، عن عمار بن موسى الساباطي. وهذا في الحقيقة أيضا كالمذكور

The style of Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Babawayh al Qummi in his book Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih is that in most instances he leaves most of the chain from its beginning and suffices on mentioning the narrator who narrated from the infallible only. Thereafter, he mentions the omitted chains at the end of the book with detail in their unbroken and consistent forms. Very rarely does he fall short of doing so. For example: ‘Ammar al Sabati asked Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam regarding such and such—thereafter he will cite the narration—and at the end of the book he will say, “Every narration in this book from ‘Ammar ibn Musa al Sabati, I have narrated it from my father and Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn al Walid, from Sa’id ibn ‘Abdullah, from Ahmed ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Fadal, from ‘Amr ibn Sa’id al Mada’ini, from Musaddiq ibn Sadaqah, from ‘Ammar al Sabati.” So, in reality it is as though it is mentioned.[25]

 

And Jafar al Subhani says:

 

سلك ابن بابويه القمي في كتابه هذا مسلكا غير ما سلكه الكليني، فإن ثقة الإسلام كما عرفت جرى في الكافي على طريقة السلف من ذكر جميع السند غالبا، وترك أوائل السند ندرة اعتمادا على ما ذكره في الأخبار المتقدمة عليها، وأما الشيخ الصدوق فإنه بنى في الفقيه من أول الأمر على اختصار الأسانيد، وحذف أوائل السند، ووضع مشيخة في آخر الكتاب يعرف بها طريقه إلى من روى عنه، فهي المرجع في اتصال إسناده في أخبار هذا الكتاب، وربما أخل بذكر الطريق إلى بعض فيكون السند باعتباره معلقا

Ibn Babawayh al Qummi has in his book treaded a path other than the one treaded by al Kulayni. Because the authority of Islam, as you know, treaded in al Kafi the path of the predecessors in mentioning the entire chain mostly and omitting its beginning rarely due to relying upon what he mentioned in the preceding narrations. As for al Sheikh al Saduq he has based his book al Faqih upon condensing the chains, omitting their beginnings, and placing at the end of the book a Mashikhah[26] wherein he introduces his chains to those from who he narrates. Hence, it (the Mashikhah) is the reference for the consistency of the chains of the narrations of the book. At times, he falls short of enlisting the chain to some narrators. That is probably because according to him it is Mu’allaq (a suspended transmission).[27]

 

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The Methodology of the Author in the Book and the Reason for its Compilation

The author has mentioned the following in the introduction of his book:

 

 لما ساقه القضاء إلى بلاد الغربة ونزل أرض بلخ، وردها الشريف الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن الحسن المعروف بنعمة، فدام سروره بمجالسته، وانشرح صدره بمذاكرته، وقد طلب منه أن يصنف كتابا في الفقه والحلال والحرام ويسميه ب‍من لا يحضره الفقيه   كما صنف الطبيب الرازي محمد بن زكريا كتابا في الطب وأسماه من لا يحضره الطبيب فأجاب مسؤوله وصنف هذا الكتاب له. ويصف هذا الكتاب بقوله: ولم أقصد فيه قصد المصنفين في إيراد جميع ما رووه، بل قصدت إلى إيراد ما أفتي به، وأحكم بصحته، وأعتقد فيه أنه حجة فيما بيني وبين ربي تقدس ذكره، وتعالت قدرته وجميع ما فيه مستخرج من كتب مشهورة عليها المعول،، وإليها المرجع، مثل كتاب حريز بن عبد الله السجستاني، وكتاب عبيد الله بن علي الحلبي، وكتب علي بن مهزيار الأهوازي، وكتب الحسين بن سعيد، ونوادر أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، وكتاب نوادر الحكمة تصنيف محمد بن أحمد بن يحيى بن عمران الأشعري، وكتاب الرحمة لسعد بن عبد الله الأشعري، وجامع شيخنا محمد بن الحسن بن الوليد رضي الله عنه ونوادر محمد بن أبي عمير، وكتب المحاسن لأحمد بن أبي عبد الله البرقي، ورسالة أبي رضي الله عنه إلي وغيرها من الأصول والمصنفات التي طرقي إليها معروفة في فهرس الكتب التي رويتها عن مشايخي وأسلافي رضي الله عنهم وبالغت في ذلك جهدي مستعينا بالله ومتوكلا عليه، ومستغفرا من التقصير، وما توفيقي إلا بالله عليه توكلت وإليه أنيب، وهو حسبي ونعم الوكيل

When destiny drove him to strange lands and he settled in Balkh, Sharif al Din Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad ibn al Hassan, who was known as Ni’mat, visited there. Hence, his happiness was continuous due to sitting with him and his heart opened up to revise knowledge with him. The latter requested him to write a book regarding the matters of jurisprudence, Halal, Haram, laws, and rulings, and name it Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih; just as al Tabib al Razi Muhammad ibn Zakariyya wrote a book on medicine and named it Man la Yahduruhu al Tabib. Hence, he responded to his request and wrote this book.

He describes the book saying, “I have not intended therein the intention of authors who normally would compile everything they narrate. Rather my objective was to only cite that according to which I pass legal verdicts, which I deem authentic, and which I believe is evidence between me and my Lord (pure is his mention and high is his power). Everything cited in it appears in the popular relied upon books and authentic references, like the book of Hariz ibn ‘Abdullah al Sijistani, the book of ‘Ubaidullah ibn ‘Ali al Halabi ‘Ali, the books of ‘Ali Mihziyar al Ahwazi, the books of Hussain ibn Sa’id, the Nawadir of Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa, the book Nawadir al Hikmah of Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn Yahya ibn ‘Imran al Ash’ari, Kitab al Rahmah of Sa’d ibn ‘Abdullah, the Jami’ of our teacher Muhammad ibn al Hassan ibn al Walid, the Nawadir of Muhammad ibn Abi ‘Umair, the al Mahashin of Ahmed ibn Abi ‘Abdullah al Barqi, the letter of my father to me, and many other principle books to which my chains of transmission are known in the list of books which I have narrated from my teachers and predecessors. I have exerted myself as much as possible seeking the help of Allah, relying upon him, seeking his forgiveness for any shortcoming. And My inspiration is only from Allah, upon him I rely, to him I return, he is enough for me, and the best of helpers.[28]

 

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The Table of Contents of the Book

The book comprises of the following subjects:

  1. Taharah.
  2. Salah.
  3. Zakat.
  4. Khums.
  5. Fasting.
  6. Hajj.
  7. Ziyarah (visiting of the Shrines).
  8. Judicial laws and Rulings.
  9. al Shuf’ah (right of first purchase for a neighbor).
  10. Appointing an Agent in Business Transactions.
  11. Assuming Responsibility of Paying the Debt of a Debtor.
  12. Ruling according to Lots.
  13. Referring a Debt to a Third Party.
  14. Emancipation.
  15. Livelihood.
  16. Debt.
  17. Commerce.
  18. Business Transactions.
  19. Profit and Loss Sharing Partnership.
  20. Reviving Barren Lands.
  21. Partnership in Farming and Leasing.
  22. Daman (Responsibility).
  23. al Salaf.
  24. Price Control.
  25. Miscellaneous Rulings of Business and its Etiquettes.
  26. Usury.
  27. Exchange of Currency for Currency.
  28. Lost and Found Items.
  29. Borrowed Items.
  30. Trusts.
  31. Mortgage.
  32. Hunting and Slaughtered Animals.
  33. Vessels of Gold and Silver.
  34. Oaths and Vows.
  35. Expiations.
  36. Nikah.
  37. Rulings of Children.
  38. Divorce.
  39. Capital Punishments.
  40. Bequest.
  41. Endowments.
  42. Inheritance.

 

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Publications of the Book

This book has been printed lithographically in Iran in 1325 A.H. Thereafter it was published several times is both lithographic and letterpress printings.

 

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A Brief Note

Al Saduq is accused by some Rafidah of not being reliable, despite his book being considered a primary work.

Abu al Huda al Kilbasi says:

 

ذكر بعض علماء الرجال في حق الصدوق المجمع على عدالته: من أن توقف بعض في اعتبار روايته لعله لعدم ثبوت ضبطه

Some scholars of Transmitter-biographies have stated regarding al Saduq whose integrity is unanimously established that the hesitation of some in considering his narrations is owing to his retaining ability not being established.[29]

 

و العجب من بعض القاصرين أنه كان يتوقف في توثيق الشيخ الصدوق ويقول: إنه غير ثقة لأنه لم يصرح بتوثيقه أحد من علماء الرجال، وهو من أظهر الأغلاط الفاسدة، و أشنع المقالات الكاسدة، وأفزع الخرافات الباردة فإنه أجل من أن يحتاج إلى التوثيق وليت شعري  من صرح بتوثيق أول هؤلاء الموثقين الذين اتخذوا توثيقهم لغيرهم حجة في الدين؟

Astonishing indeed is the case of a deficient who would hesitate in approbating al Saduq and would say, “He is not reliable, because not a single scholar of transmitter-biographies has deemed him reliable.” This is the most blatant of all corrupt mistakes, the most heinous of all valueless statements, and the most despicable of all excessive fallacies. For he is greater than requiring authentication, as is not hidden to the scholars of research and nuances. Tell me, who emphatically approbated these approbators whose approbation of others has been deemed as evidence in Din?[30]

 

3. Tahdhib al Ahkam fi Sharh al Muqni’ah of Abu Jafar al Tusi, popularly known as Sheikh al Ta’ifah (the leader of the sect)

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Introduction to the Book

Al Najashi says:

 

محمد بن الحسن بن علي الطوسي أبو جعفر جليل في أصحابنا ،ثقة، عين ، من تلامذة شيخنا أبي عبد الله له كتب ، منها : كتاب تهذيب الاحكام وهو كتاب كبير

Muhammad ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Ali al Tusi Abu Jafar. A great person of our scholars, reliable and prominent. He is from amongst the students of Abu ‘Abdullah. He has written several books, one of which is Tahdhib al Ahkam, a huge book.[31]

 

And Ibn Dawood al Hilli says:

 

محمد بن الحسن بن علي الطوسي أبو جعفر شيخنا شيخ الطائفة وعمدتها ، قدس الله روحه ( لم ) أوضح من أن يوضح حاله ، ولد في شهر رمضان سنة خمس وثمانين وثلاثمائة ، وقدم العراق سنة ثمان وأربعمائة، وتوفي ليلة الإثنين ثاني عشري المحرم من سنة ستين وأربعمائة بالمشهد الشريف الغروي ودفن بداره

Muhammad ibn al Hassan al Tusi Abu Jafar: Our teacher and the leader of the sect and its authority, may Allah sanctify his soul. His status is more obvious than requires explanation. He was born in Ramadan 358 A.H. He came to Iraq 408 A.H. and passed away on the twelfth of Muharram 460 A.H. in the Garawi Shrine and was thereafter buried in his house.[32]

 

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Introduction to the Book

This book is basically a commentary of the book al Muqni’ah of al Sheikh al Mufid which comprises of an array of jurisprudential topics from Taharah to laws of Bloodwite. Furthermore, the book al Muqni’ah does not include all the laws of jurisprudence, which is why at the end of every chapter al Tusi adds miscellaneous rulings under the title: ‘addenda’. It is from the primary books of the Rawafid.

Al Majlisi says, deeming the books of al Tusi reliable:

 

وكتب المحقق الطوسي روح الله روحه القدوسي، ومؤلفها أشهر من الشمس في رابعة النهار

And the books of the researcher al Tusi, may Allah keep his pure soul at ease, and their author are more well-known than the sun during mid-day.[33]

 

And al Tahrani says:

أحد الكتب الأربعة المجاميع القديمة المعول عليها عند الأصحاب من لدن تأليفها حتى اليوم

One of the four old collections which are relied upon according to the scholars from the time of their compilation till today.[34]

 

And Jafar al Subhani says:

 

من أعظم كتب الحديث منزلة وأكثرها منفعة، وقد شرع الشيخ في تأليف هذا الكتاب لما بلغ سنه ستا وعشرين، وهذا من خوارق العادة

From the greatest of hadith books in stature and the one with most benefits. The Sheikh started writing this book when he was twenty-six years of age. This is something extraordinary.[35]

 

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The Number of Narrations in the Book

The number of narrations in the book is 13590 narrations regarding jurisprudence and legal rulings, and the of number chapters in it is 393.

The author of Fa’iq al Maqal says:

 

والتهذيب لا يحضرني حصر أحاديثه ولا تفرغت له، إذ ليس ذلك من المهم، ولكني أظن عدم قصرها عن أحاديث الكافي، والله أعلم بالخوافي

And al Tahdhib, at present the count of his narrations does not occur to me, nor did I free myself for that. However, I assume that they will not be less than the narrations of al Kafi, and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala knows best the hidden matters.[36]

 

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The Methodology of the Author in the Chain of Transmission

The author of Fa’iq al Maqal says:

 

دأب شيخ الطائفة أبي جعفر محمد بن الحسن الطوسي في كتابي التهذيب والاستبصار أن يذكر جميع السند حقيقة أو حكما، وقد يقتصر على البعض فيذكر أواخر السند دون أوائله رعاية الاختصار، ثم يذكر في آخرهما بعض الطرق الموصلة إلى تلك الأبعاض لتخرج الروايات عن حد المراسيل وتدخل في المسندات، وأحال الباقي على فهرسته. مثاله: أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن فلان-إلى آخر السند، ثم يقول: وما ذكرته عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى فقد رويته عن الحسين بن عبيد الله، عن أحمد بن محمد بن يحيى العطار، عن أبيه محمد بن يحيى، عن محمد بن علي ابن محبوب، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، وهكذا في بواقي الطرق

The methodology of Sheikh al Ta’ifah Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn al Hassan al Tusi in his two books al Tahdhib and al Istibsar is that he mentions the entire chain, in reality or in an equivalent manner. And at times he suffices on mentioning some of the chain and thus only mentions the end of the chain, not its beginning for reasons of brevity. Thereafter at the end of both the books he will mention some of the ways which lead to those half-cited chains so that the narrations come out from being Marasil to being Masanid. The rest of the chains he has referred to his al Fihrist.[37] For example: Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa, from so and so (till the end of the chain), whereafter he says, “Whatever I have cited from Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa I have narrated it from Hussain ibn ‘Ubaidullah, from Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya al ‘Attar, from his father Muhammad ibn Yahya, from Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Mahbub, from Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa. And like this in the remaining transmissions.[38]

 

And Jafar al Subhani says:

 

 إن طريقة الشيخ في نقل الأحاديث في هذا مختلفة،  قد ذكر السيد الأجل بحر العلوم مسلكه فيهما وقال : إنّه قد يذكر في التهذيب و الاستبصار جميع السند كما في الكافي، وقد يقتصر على البعض بحذف الصدر كما في الفقيه ولكنّه استدرك المتروك في آخر الكتابين ، فوضع له مشيخته المعروفة ، وهي فيهما واحدة غير مختلفة ، قد ذكر فيهما جملة من الطرق إلى أصحاب الأُصول والكتب ممن صدّر الحديث بذكرهم وابتدأ بأسمائهم ولم يستوف الطرق كلّها ولا ذكر الطريق إلى كلّ من روى عنه بصورة التعليق بل ترك الأكثر لقلّة روايته عنهم ، وأحال التفصيل إلى فهارس الشيوخ المصنّفة في هذا الباب ، وزاد في التهذيب الحوالة على كتاب الفهرست الذي صنّفه في هذا المعنى

The style of the scholar in citing the narrations is different. The great leader Bahr al ‘Ulum mentions his style saying, “At times in al Tahdhib and al Istibsar he mentions the entire chain, as in al Kafi, and at times he suffices on mentioning some of it by omitting its beginning, as in al Faqih. However, he has made up for the discarded at the end of both the books by placing for them his popular Mashikhah’; it is one in both of them and not different. Therein he has made mention of a number of chains to the authors of the principle works and books, i.e., those with whom he started the citing of the narrations. He has not encompassed all the transmissions, nor has he mentioned the chain to each person from who he narrates in the form of a suspended transmission. For he has discarded most of them due to him narrating very little from them. He has referred all the details to the list of narrators of the scholars who have authored in this regard. And in al Tahdhib he has added a reference to his book al Fihrist which he has authored in this regard.[39]

 

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The Reason for Writing the Book

Abu Jafar al Tusi wrote this book to deal with the contradiction and disparity which is found in their narrations. He says in the introduction of his book:

وقع فيها من الاختلاف والتباين والمنافاة والتضاد حتى لا يكاد يتفق خبر إلا وبإزائه ما يضاده ولا يسلم حديث إلا وفي مقابلة ما ينافيه حتى جعل مخالفونا ذلك من اعظم الطعون على مذهبنا، وتطرقوا بذلك إلى إبطال معتقدنا، وذكروا أنه لم يزل شيوخكم السلف والخلف يطعنون على مخالفيهم بالاختلاف الذي يدينون الله تعالى به، ويشنعون عليهم بافتراق كلمتهم في الفروع، ويذكرون أن هذا مما لا يجوز أن يتعبد به الحكيم، ولا يبيح العمل به العليم، وقد وجدناكم أشد اختلافا من مخالفيكم، وأكثر تباينا من مباينيكم، ووجود هذا الاختلاف منكم مع اعتقادكم بطلان ذلك دليل على فساد الأصل

… such disparity, difference, contradiction, and conflict has occurred in them that there is hardly a narration except that it is contradicted by another. Not a single hadith is sound except that there is another opposing it. To the extent that our opponents have deemed this to be the greatest of flaws in our dogma and thereby have tried to nullify our beliefs. They state that your early and later scholars continuously criticize their opponents of differences which they worship Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala with, and condemn them because of their disunity in secondary issues. They state that this is something which a wise person cannot be devoted to, nor can a knowledgeable person consider practicing upon such permissible; (they say) we have found you to differ more than your opponents, and more disparate than your detractors, and this type of differing, coupled with your belief of it being invalid, is evidence of the actual creed being false.[40]

 

He has also acknowledged that some Shia abandoned the dogma when the issue of contradiction and conflict became clear to him. He says:

 

سمعت شيخنا أبا عبد الله أيده الله يذكر أن أبا الحسين الهاروني العلوي كان يعتقد الحق ويدين بالإمامة فرجع عنها، لما التبس عليه الأمر في اختلاف الأحاديث، وترك المذهب ودان بغيره، لما لم يتبين له وجوه  المعاني فيها

I heard our teacher Abu ‘Abdullah (may Allah aid him) mention that Abu al Hussain al Haruni al ‘Alawi would believe in the truth and was devoted to Imamah, but he gave it up when the contradiction in the narrations became confusing to him; he discarded it and became devoted to something else when the ways of the interpretations did not become clear to him.[41]

 

Nonetheless, whoever studies the methodology of al Tusi in resolving this contradiction will find that he linked much of their contradicting narrations to Taqiyyah without any evidence other than the hadith or the other agreeing with the standpoint of the Ahlus Sunnah.

And the reality is that by way of this approach he has further embedded the conflict and has shut many doors of guidance upon the people of his sect.

 

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The Table of Contents of the Book

  1. Taharah.
  2. Salah.
  3. Zakat.
  4. Fasting.
  5. Hajj.
  6. Visiting the Shrines.
  7. Jihad.
  8. Judicial and Legal Rulings.
  9. Different types of Earnings.
  10. Businesses.
  11. Nikah.
  12. Divorce.
  13. ‘Itq, Tadbir, and Mukatabah.
  14. Oaths, Vows, and Expiations.
  15. Hunting and Slaughtering.
  16. Endowments and Charities.
  17. Bequests.
  18. Shares of Inheritance.
  19. Blood-wite.

 

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A Brief Note

Agha Buzurg al Tahrani has stated in his book al Dhari’ah that the narrations of al Tahdhib are 13590 narrations. He states:

 

وأحصيت أحاديثه في ثلاثة عشر ألف وخمسمائة وتسعين حديثا

I enumerated its narrations which were 13590 narrations.[42]

 

Whereas we find that al Tusi himself, the author of the book, informs, as in ‘Uddah al Usul, that the narrations of al Tahdhib are a mere five thousand. He says:

في تهذيب الأحكام ما يزيد على خمسة آلاف حديث

In Tahdhib al Ahkam there are more than five thousand narrations.[43]

 

Hence, his statement ‘more than five thousand narrations’ suggests that in no way can they be more than six thousand narrations. So, who increased this appalling number of narrations in the book which is double the actual number of narrations initially found therein?

Furthermore, Yusuf al Bahrani says:

 

إنه لا يخفى على من راجع التهذيب وتدبر أخباره ما وقع للشيخ من الحريف والتصحيف في الأخبار سندا ومتنا، وقلما يخلو حديث من أحاديثه من علة في سند أو متن

It is not unclear to someone who studies al Tahdhib and contemplates over its narrations the distortions and misspellings that have occurred from the Sheikh in its chains and wordings. There is barely a narration of its narrations which is not free from a defect in its chain or wording.[44]

 

And he says in another place:

وما وقع له فيه من التحريف والتصحيف مما لا يعد ولا يحصى

The amount of adulteration and misspelling that has occurred therein is innumerable.[45]

 

And al Hurr al ‘Amili says regarding Sheikh al Ta’ifah:

 

إنه يقول هذا ضعيف لأن راويه فلان ضعيف، ثم نراه يعمل برواية ذلك الراوي بعينه، بل برواية من هو أضعف منه في مواضع لا تحصى، وكثيرا ما يضعف الحديث بأنه مرسل، ثم يستدل بالحديث المرسل، بل كثيرا ما يعمل بالمراسيل، وبرواية الضعفاء، ويرد المسند ورواية الثقات

He says that this narration is weak because its narrator is weak and, thereafter, we see him practicing on the narration of that exact narrator, in fact, even the narration of he who is weaker than him in innumerable places. Many a times he will deem a narration weak due to it being Mursal and, thereafter, he advances a Mursal narration as proof. Rather, many a time he practices upon Mursal narrations, the narrations of weak narrators, and rejects Musnad narrations and the narrations of reliable narrators.[46]

 

And Abu al Qasim al Khu’i says:

 

ان الشيخ الطوسي كان يكثر عليه الخطأ فقد كان يذكر شخصاً واحداً في باب واحد مرتين ، أو يترجم شخصاً واحداً في فهرسته مرتين ، وأما خطأه في كتابيه التهذيب والاستبصار فكثير

Sheikh al Tusi, many mistakes would occur from him. For, sometimes, he mentions one person in one chapter two times, or enlists the biography of one person two times in his al Fihrist. As for his mistakes in his books al Tahdhib and al Istibsar, they are many.[47]

 

Therefore, I will not be surprised at the statement of Hashim Ma’roof al Hussaini in his book al Mawdu’at fi al Athar wa al Akhbar:

 

وبعد التتبع في الأحاديث المنتشرة في مجامع الحديث كالكافي والوافي وغيرهما نجد أن الغلاة والحاقدين على الأئمة الهداة لم يتركوا بابا من الأبواب إلا ودخلوا منه لإفساد أحاديث الأئمة والإساءة إلى سمعتهم

After doing a thorough study of the narrations which are scattered in the hadith collections like al Kafi, al Wafi and others we find that the extremist and the haters of the guiding Imams did not leave a single door but that they entered from it to corrupt the narrations of the Imams and tarnish their reputation.[48]

 

Hence, this is an acknowledgment from al Hussaini of the existence of false narrations in the greatest hadith collection of the Shia.

 

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The Publications of the Book

This book has been printed several times in both letterpress and lithographic printings.

 

4. Al Istibsar fima Ukhtulifa min al Akhbar of Abu Jafar al Tusi

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Introduction to the Author

This book has been authored by Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn al Hassan al Tusi. His Introduction has already passed under the discussion of the previous book Tahdhib al Ahkam.

 

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Introduction to the Book

In this book, the author has compiled selected narrations of the controversial narrations of the previous book Tahdhib al Ahkam and has detailed the manners of reconciliation between them in another collection titled, al Istibsar fima Ukhtulifa min al Akhbar.

So, this book is basically an abridgement of Tahdhib al Ahkam, but despite that the Shia have deemed it to be one of their primary sources. Hence, the sectarian propaganda is clear in this action of theirs.

The author says in the introduction of the book:

 

أما بعد فاني رأيت جماعة من أصحابنا لما نظروا في كتابنا الكبير الموسوم بتهذيب الأحكام  ورأوا ما جمعنا فيه من الاخبار المتعلقة بالحلال والحرام، ووجدوها مشتملة على أكثر ما يتعلق بالفقه من أبواب الأحكام، وانه لم يشذ عنه في جميع أبوابه وكتبه مما ورد في أحاديث أصحابنا وكتبهم وأصولهم ومصنفاتهم إلا نادر قليل وشاذ يسير ، وانه يصلح أن يكون كتابا مذخورا يلجأ إليه المبتدى في تفقهه ، والمنتهي في تذكره، والمتوسط في تبحره، فإن كلا منهم ينال مطلبه، ويبلغ بغيته-تشوقت نفوسهم إلى أن يكون ما يتعلق بالأحاديث المختلفة مفردا على طريق الاختصار يفزع إليه المتوسط في الفقه لمعرفته والمنتهي لتذكره

I saw a group of our comrades, when they studied our huge book titled Tahdhib al Ahkam and they saw therein the narrations which we compiled regarding Halal and Haram, and they found them to be inclusive of most of that which is related to jurisprudence of the legal chapters, and that nothing except a rare little or a meagre anomalous has missed it in all its chapters of what has featured in the narrations of our scholars, their books, their principal sources, and their compilations; they considered it to be a book worthy of being treasured, to which a beginner can have recourse to develop understanding, and a master to remember, and an amateur to reach depths, for each one of them will attain his objective and reach his goal. Their hearts, thus, yearned that whatever is related to the various narrations be exclusively written with brevity so that an amateur in jurisprudence can resort to it for knowledge and an expert for revision.[49]

 

And al Tahrani says:

 

هو أحد الكتب الأربعة والمجاميع الحديثية التي عليها استنباط الأحكام الشرعية حتى اليوم، يقع في ثلاثة أجزاء، جزآن منه في العبادات، والثالث في بقية أبواب الفقه من العقود والإيقاعات والأحكام إلى الحدود والديات. أوله: الحمد لله ولي الحمد ومستحقه. مشتمل على عدة كتب تهذيب الأحكام غير أن هذا مقصور على ذكر ما اختلف فيه من الأخبار، وطريق الجمع بينها، والتهذيب جامع للخلاف والوفاق

It is one of the four books and hadith collections wherefrom legal rulings are derived till today. It is in three volumes, two are regarding worship and the third is regarding various chapters of jurisprudence like transactions, judgements, and laws, to capital punishments and blood-wite. It begins with: “All praise is for Allah the one deserving of all praise.” It comprises of several chapters of Tahdhib al Ahkam but is confined to enlisting only the narrations wherein differences have occurred and how to reconcile between them, whereas al Tahdhib combines both narrations of differences and narrations of agreement.[50]

 

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The Methodology of the Author in the Chain of Transmission

The same as was mentioned under the discussion of Tahdhib al Ahkam.

 

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The Number of Narrations in the Book

The author of Fa’iq al Maqal says:

 

هذا الكتاب عبارة عن ثلاثة أجزاء : فالجزء الأوّل : يشتمل على ثلاثمائة باب ، يحتوي جميعُها على ألف وثمانمائة وتسعة وتسعين حديثا . والثاني : على مأتين وسبعة عشر بابا ، ينطوي جَميعُها على ألف ومائة وسبعة وسبعين حديثا . وهما يتعلّقان بما يتعلّق بالعبادات . والثالث : يشتمل على ثلاثمائة وثمانية وتسعين بابا ، يحتوي جَميعُها على ألفين وأربعمائة وخمسة وخمسين حديثا . وهو يتعلّق بالمعاملات وغيرها من أبواب الفقه .فالأبواب : تسعمائة وخمسة وعشرون بابا ، ينطوي جَميعُها على خمسة آلاف وخمسمائة وأحد عشر حديثاً . كذا حصرها الشيخ في أواخر الاستبصار

This book comprises of three volumes. The first chapter comprises of 300 chapters, all of which comprise of 1899 narrations. The second volume consists of 217 chapters, all of which comprise of 1177 narrations; both these volumes pertain to laws of worship. The third volume consists of 398 chapters, all of which consists of 2455 narrations. This volume is related to laws pertaining commercial transactions and other chapters of jurisprudence. So, the sum total of chapters is 925 chapters, all of which comprise of 5511 narrations. This is as per the enumeration of the Sheikh at the end of al Istibsar.[51]

 

And al Tahrani says:

 

وقد أحصى بعض العلماء عدة أبوابه في تسعمائة وخمسة وعشرين أو خمسة عشر بابا، وأحصرت أحاديثه في ستة آلاف وخمسمائة وأحد وثلاثين حديثا، ولعله اشتبه في العدد لأن الشيخ نفسه حصرها في آخر الكتاب في خمسة آلاف وخمسمائة وأحد عشر حديثا، وقال: حصرتها لئلا تقع فيها زيادة ونقصان

Some scholars have enumerated its chapters to be 925 or 915 chapters. And its narrations are confined to 6531 narrations. Probably the total number was unclear to him, for al Sheikh has enumerated them at the end of the book to be 5511 narrations and has said, “I have enumerated them so that no increase or decrease occurs therein.”[52]

 

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The Publications of the Book

This book has been printed in both lithographic and letterpress printings.

 

The Later Collections

These are the major collections which collated whatever was scattered in the early collections, or covered what they missed, or collated the narrations of the previous collections and covered what they missed simultaneously, or they are books some of which cover what the others missed.[53]

 

5. Bihar al Anwar al Jami’ah li Durar Akhbar al A’immah al Athar[54] of Muhammad Baqir al Majlisi

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Introduction to the Author

Al Tahrani says:

المجلسي المولى محمد باقر بن محمد تقي الأصفهاني المولود سنة 1037 ه… والمتوفى كما قيل سنة 1111 ه

Al Majlisi is the benefactor Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad Taqi al Asfahani. He was born in 1037 A.H. and died, as is alleged, in 1111 A.H.[55]

 

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Introduction to the Book

This book is basically a collection of the early books of their scholars.

Al Tahrani says:

هو الجامع الذي لم يكتب قبله ولا بعده جامع مثله لاشتماله مع جمع الأخبار على تحقيقات دقيقة وبيانات وشروح لها غالبا لا توجد في غيره

It is a collection the like of which was not written before nor after due to it comprising of nuanced research, explanations, and commentaries which cannot be found in other works, together with it being a compilation of narrations.[56]

 

And he also says:

 

وقد صار (بحار الأنوار) مصدراً لكل من طلب باباً من أبواب علوم آل محمد صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، وقد استعان بهذا الكتاب القيم جلَّ مَنْ تأخَّر عن مؤلِّفه، وذلك لأن أكثر مآخذ البحار من الكتب المعتمدة والأصول المعتبرة القليلة الوجود التي لا يسهل التناول عنها لكل أحد

And Bihar al Anwar has become a reference for every person seeking a chapter from the chapters of the knowledge of the household of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Hence, most scholars who came after its author benefitted from it. This is because most of the primary sources of al Bihar are the reliable books and rare credible principal sources, procuring which is not easy for every person.[57]

 

However, al Majlisi has in this book compiled all sorts of narrations and reports which are (allegedly) attributed to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Imams, doing so without any expurgation or research. His book contains content which criticizes Islam, the Qur’an, the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, the Ummah, and even many members of the Ahlul Bayt. Added to that, its texts are without a chain of transmission. And they, mostly, revolve around their beliefs and views regarding Imamah, the Imams, the history of Fatimah and the twelve Imams, their biographies, their merits, the advises and etiquettes which have been transmitted from them, and the visiting of their shrines… And noteworthy is also the fact that it cites very little from the four early primary collections.[58]

Likewise, al Majlisi’s intention was to collate everything attributed to the Imamiyyah, irrespective of whether it was authentic or not. To the extent that he included in his references a book by the name al Fiqh al Ridwi which the Shia do not know and whose credibility they deny.

Lastly, this book is made up of 25 huge volumes, each volume consisting of several volumes. The sum total of them all is 111 volumes, owing to which the Shia consider this book to be a Shia encyclopedia.

 

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The Contents of the Book

This is the following table contents which appears in the introduction of his book:

  1. Intelligence, knowledge, and ignorance.
  2. Oneness of Allah.
  3. Justice and Afterlife.
  4. Arguments, Debates, and Comprehensive Aspects of knowledge.
  5. Stories of the Ambiya’.
  6. The history of our Nabi and his Conditions salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
  7. Chapter of Imamah. In it is stated their comprehensive biographies.
  8. Fitan (trials). In it is discussed the usurpation of the Caliphate which occurred after Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the battles of Amir al Mu’minin.
  9. The History of Amir al Mu’minin his Merits and his Conditions.
  10. The History of Fatimah, al Hassan, and al Hussain, their Merits and their Miracles.
  11. The History of ‘Ali ibn al Hussain, Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al Baqir, Jafar ibn Muhammad al Sadiq, Musa ibn Jafar al Kazim, their Merits and Miracles.
  12. The History of ‘Ali ibn Musa al Rida, Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al Jawwad, ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al Hadi, al Hassan ibn ‘Ali al ‘Askari, their Conditions and Miracles.
  13. Occultation and the Biography of the Hujjah (evidence) ‘alayh al Salam.
  14. The Heavens and the Universe. This chapter comprises of: the description of the ‘Arsh, the Kursi, the heavenly bodies, the basic elements, the Mawalid, the angels, the jinn, the humans, the wild animals, the birds, and all the animal; also included are the laws of hunting and animal slaughter and medicine.
  15. Iman, Kufr, and good conduct.
  16. Etiquettes, Sunnats, Injunctions, Prohibitions, Major Sins and Minor Sins; and the laws of capital punishments.
  17. Rawdah. Therein is included admonishments, wisdoms, and sermons.
  18. Taharah and Salah.
  19. Qur’an and Du’a’.
  20. Zakat and Sawm. In it is included the prescribed actions of the Sunnah.
  21. Hajj.
  22. The Shrines.
  23. Transactions and Judgements.
  24. Rulings.
  25. Chapter of Authorizations. This is the last chapter of the book which consists of our chains of transmission to all the books and the Authorizations of the great scholars.

 

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The Publications of the Book

This book has been printed lithographically in Iran in 1303 A.H.-1315 A.H. in twenty-five volumes as per the distribution of the author. Thereafter it was printed in letterpress printing in 110 volumes, the last three of which contain the detailed list of narrators of the author titled: Hidayah al Akhyar ila Fihris Bihar al Anwar written by al Sayed Hidayat Allah al Mustarhimi al Asfahani.

It has many contemporary prints as well.

And recently two computer programs have been released regarding Bihar al Anwar. One of them from Markaz al Buhuth al Kambyutariyyah li al ‘Ulum al Islamiyyah and the other from the Nashr al Hadith Institute. Both these programs consist of various possibilities.

 

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Some of the Deviances of Bihar al Anwar

Al Majlisi has in his book accumulated oceans of ignorance and falsities which he attributes to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the prominent members of the Ahlul Bayt, and has thereby laid the foundations of the Shia Rafidi beliefs. Hence, in his book, the interpolation of the Qur’an, the deification of the Imams, and the excommunication of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum are completely apparent. Hereunder, we will suffice on citing some of the falsities and lies which this book contains:

 

1. Al Majlisi says:

 

اعلم أن إطلاق لفظ الشرك والكفر على من لم يعتقد إمامة أمير المؤمنين والأئمة من ولده عليهم السلام، وفضل عليهم غيرهم يدل على أنهم كفار مخلدون في النار

Know that the usage of the terms ‘Kufr’ and ‘Shirk’ for he who does not believe in the Imamah of Amir al Mu’minin and the Imams from his posterity and gives preference to others over them indicates that they are disbelievers who will be doomed to Hell-fire forever.[59]

 

  1. Abu Hamzah narrates from Abu Jafar ‘alayh al Salam that he said:

 

والله يا أبا حمزة إن الناس كلهم أولاد بغايا ما خلا شيعتنا

By Allah, O Abu Hamzah, all the people are the children of prostitutes besides our Shia.[60]

 

  1. As for content pertaining to the deification of the Imams and conferring upon them divine attributes, there is much of that in the book. We will just indicate to a few sub-chapters.
    • Sub-chapter: Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala raises for the Imam a pillar through which he can see the actions of the bondsmen.[61]
    • Sub-chapter: They possess all the knowledge of the angels and the prophets.[62]
    • Sub-chapter: They know when they will die and their death occurs with their choice.[63]
    • Sub-chapter: They have the ability to revive the dead, cure the born-blind and the leper, and have all the miracles of the Ambiya’ ‘alayhim al Salam.

 

  1. Commenting on the story of wife of Lut ‘alayh al Salam and the wife of Nuh ‘alayh al Salam which is referred to in the Qur’an, in his Bihar, al Majlisi says:

لا يخفى على الناقد البصير والفطن الخبير ما في تلك الآيات من التعريض بل التصريح بنفاق عائشة وحفصة وكفرهما

They hint to, rather the explicit mention of the hypocrisy of Aisha and Hafsah and their disbelief is not unclear to a master analyzer and an intelligent expert.[64]

 

  1. Al Majlisi has narrated the following in his book from Ibn ‘Abdul Hamid:

 

دخلت على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فأخرج إلى مصحفا، قال: فتصفحته فوقع بصري على موضع منه، فإذا فيه مكتوب: هذه جهنم التي كنتما تكذبان، فاصليا فيها لا تموتان فيها ولا تحييان. قال المجلسي: يعني الأولين-أبا بكر وعمر-

I entered upon Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam and he took out before me a Mushaf. He says, “I paged through it and my eye fell on one place wherein it was written, ‘This is Jahannam which you (two) belied. So, burn in it, for you will not die therein nor will you live.’” Al Majlisi says, “Referring to the first two, i.e., Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.[65]

 

It is clear that al Majlisi here has brought a statement which he alleges is from the Qur’an and has been concealed or omitted, as is the belief of the Shia. And thereby he claims that Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma will be doomed to the fire forever.

 

  1. Bihar al Anwar comprises of micro-organisms, germs, and content which is dubious and ambiguous. Muhammad Asif Muhsini says in his book Mashra’ah Bihar al Anwar:

 

ليعلم أهل العلم المتوسطون أن في بحار العلامة المجلسي رضوان الله عليه مع كونها بحار الأنوار جراثيم مضرة لشاربها ومواد غير صحية لا من الاجتناب عنهما، وأشياء مشكوكة ومشتبهة وجب التوقف فيها

The mediocre people of knowledge should know that in Bihar al Anwar of al Majlisi, may Allah be pleased with him, despite it being oceans of light, there are harmful germs for the consumer and unhealthy elements which are necessary to avoid. There are also doubtful and unclear things in which hesitance from accepting is paramount.[66]

 

And he also says:

 

كتاب البحار كتاب مهم لكن لا يجوز الأخذ بكل ما فيه ولأجله بينا له مشرعة حتى يؤخذ منها من مكان مخصوص لا يغرق الآخذ ولا يشرب ماء فيه الجراثيم والمكروبات المضرة

The book al Bihar is an important book. But it is not permissible to accept everything in it. Hence, we have mentioned a water-hole for it so that benefit is derived from it from a specific place which does not drown the receiver and so that he does not drink water which has germs and harmful micro-organisms.[67]

 

Is it not the duty of the Shia scholars to burn these books in order to do away with these micro-organisms and germs?

And the worst of calamities are those which make one laugh, for the researcher and the commentator of the book Bihar al Anwar says:

 

ومن خصائص كتاب بحار الأنوار أنه تزداد شهرته واعتباره، ويظهر قدره وعظمته، إذا قام القائم من آل محمد صلى الله عليه وآله بعدما ينظر فيه، ويحكم بصحته من الأول إلى الآخر

From the specialties of the book Bihar al Anwar is that its popularity and worth will increase, and its stature and greatness will become apparent when the Qa’im (the Mahdi) of the household of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam emerges and judges after studying it that it is authentic from beginning to end.[68]

 

Here from we see that the book Bihar al Anwar is an extension of the movement of misguiding and creating doubt in the Book of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, and represents some of the extremism and fanaticism of the Rawafid.

 

6. Wasa’il al Shia ila Tahsil Masa’il al Shari’ah of Muhammad ibn al Hassan al Hurr al ‘Amili

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Introduction to the Author

Al Tahrani says:

هو العلامة المحدث الحر العاملي نزيل خراسان الشيخ محمد بن الحسن الحر العاملي المشغري المولود 1033 ه والمتوفى 1104

He is the erudite hadith expert al Hurr al ‘Amili, the inhabitant of Khurasan, Muhammad ibn al Hassan al Hurr al ‘Amili. He was born in 1033 A.H. and died in 1104 A.H.[69]

 

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Introduction to the Book

 

و هو حاو لجميع أحاديث الكتب الأربعة التي عليها المدار، و جامع لأكثر ما في كتب الإمامية من أحاديث الأحكام و عدة تلك الكتب نيف و سبعون كتابا، كافتها معتمدة عند الأصحاب، و قد فصل فهرسها و بين اعتبارها في خاتمة الكتاب، و أدرج في الخاتمة من الفوائد الرجالية ما لم يوجد في غيرها و بالجملة هو أجمع كتاب لأحاديث الأحكام و أحسن ترتيبا لها حتى من الوافي و البحار لاقتصار الوافي على جمع نصوص ما في الكتب الأربعة على خلاف الترتيب المأنوس فيها، و اقتصار البحار على ما عدا الكتب الأربعة مع كون جل أحاديثه في غير الأحكام، فنسبة هذا الجامع إلى سائر الجوامع المتأخرة كنسبة الكافي إلى سائر الكتب الأربعة المتقدمة، و يشبه الكافي أيضا في طول مدة جمعه إلى عشرين سنة

It includes all the narrations of rulings of the four books which are relied upon, and comprises of most of what is found in the books of the Imamiyyah, of the narrations of rulings; the number of these books are seventy plus and all of them are credible according to the scholars. At the end of the book, he has provided a detailed bibliography of them and has mentioned their reliability. He has also included therein transmitter related points which cannot be found elsewhere…

In essence, it is the most comprehensive book of the narrations of rulings and the best in terms of sequence, even better than al Wafi and Bihar al Anwar. This is because al Wafi suffices on collating the narrations of the four books, but against their format which people are familiar with. As for al Bihar, it suffices on collating the content of other books besides the four books, and over and above that, most of its narrations are not pertaining to rulings. Hence, the position of this collection in relation to the later collections is the like the position of al Kafi in relation to the remaining of the four early collections. It is also similar to al Kafi in that in was compiled over a period of twenty years.[70]

 

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The Number of Narrations in the Book

The number of narrations in the book are 35850 narrations.

 

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The Methodology of the Author in the Book

This book gathers many narrations regarding various chapters, from the shares of inheritance.

Al Tahrani says:

 

بدأ بأحاديث مقدمه العبادات، و رتب أحاديث الأحكام على ترتيب كتب الفقه من الطهارة إلى الديات، و كل كتاب على أبواب، و في أكثر الأبواب يشير إلى ما يناسب الباب مما تقدم عليه أو تأخر، و لخفاء الموضع المشار إليه بالتقدم و التأخر على غير الممارس للكتاب. أتعب جمع عن الأصحاب أنفسهم في استخراج المواضع و التصريح بما أشير إليه، و منهم حفيد العلامة صاحب الجواهر الشيخ عبد الصاحب المعاصر (المتوفى 1353) فإنه ألف كتاب الإشارات و الدلائل إلى ما تقدم أو تأخر في الوسائل، و منهم السيد أبو القاسم الخوئي المعاصر مؤلف أجود التقريرات، فإنه ألف كتابا في بيان ما تقدم و ما تأخر و تعيين محله و بابه، و زاد على ذلك أمرين مهمين أحدهما بيان ما يستفاد من أحاديث الباب زائدا على ما استفاده الشيخ الحر و ذكره في عنوان ذلك الباب، و الثاني ذكر حديث آخر لم يذكره الشيخ الحر في هذا الباب مع أنه يستفاد منه ما في عنوان الباب، و قد خرج منه كثير من أبوابه في ثلاث مجلدات

He begins with the narrations regarding acts of worship, and has organized the narrations of rulings according to the sequence of the books of jurisprudence, starting from Taharah to laws of blood-wite. Every chapter comprises of sub-chapters. In most sub-chapters, he alludes to any narration suited for the title from what has passed or what is to come. And due to the places alluded to (as having passed already or coming ahead) being unclear to someone who does not have experience with the book, a group of scholars have exhausted themselves by extracting those places and explicitly stating what was previously alluded to. Amongst them is the grandson of the erudite author of al Jawahir, ‘Abdul Sahib, a contemporary, who died in 1353 A.H. He wrote a book titled al Isharat wa al Dala’il ila ma Taqaddama Aw Ta’khkhara fi al Wasa’il. And among them is al Sayed Abu al Qasim al Khu’i, a contemporary, the author of Ajwad al Taqrirat. He has written a book explaining what has passed and what will come and specified their places and chapters, and has added to that two important matters: 1) exploring the benefits derived from the narrations of the chapter over and above what al Hurr already derived and enlisted under the title of that chapter. 2) Enlisting more narrations which al Hurr did not mention under the chapter whereas from them the title of the chapter can be supported. Many narrations of this sort emerged from its chapters in three volumes.[71]

 

Furthermore, the author has organized the book and arranged its narrations as per the topics of the book Shara’i’ al Islam of al Hilli. At the end of the book he has brought a detailed closing chapter consisting of twelve paragraphs which discuss the aspects pertaining to the sources of the book, its chains of transmissions, and the narrators of hadith, etc.

 

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The Publications of the Book

Al Tahrani says, “It has been printed three times in lithographic print. The first print, praise be to Allah who has created the minds to recognise him, was based on a manuscript of six volumes: 1) Taharah, 2) Salah, 3) Zakat, 4) Jihad, 5) Nikah, 6) Shares of inheritance. But it was printed in three large volumes.”[72]

This book was also printed in more than three volumes several times thereafter. So, in addition to its old print, Wasa’il al Shia was published in two well-researched prints with the research of two scholars:

  1. The research of ‘Abdur Rahim al Rabbani al Shirazi in 20 volumes.
  2. The research of Mu’assasah Al al Bayt with the footnotes of the author and with the extraction of all the sources and references in 30 volumes.

 

7. Al Wafi of Muhsin al Kashani, whose title was al Fayd

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Introduction to the Author

Al Tahrani says:

 

هو المولى محمد المحسن الكاشاني بن شاه مرتضى بن محمود، مؤلف الصافي والوافي وأكثر من مائة كتاب آخر، وقد ألف فهرسا لتصانيفه أولا في 1069 ه ثم ثانيا ثالثا جمع فهرسها في 1090 ه، وكان لوالده مكتبة عظيمة، وأولاده في كاشان وطهران بيت علم إلى اليوم، وكان صهر المولى صدرا، وأخذ تخلصه منه، ونظم الشعر

He is the master Muhammad al Muhsin al Kashani ibn Shah Murtada ibn Mahmud, the author of al Safi, al Wafi, and more than a hundred books. He compiled a table of contents for his book first in 1069 A.H. and then for a second and third time in 1090 A.H. His father had a enormous library, and his children are till today in Kashan and Tehran a household of knowledge. He was the son-in-law of Mawla Sadra. That is from where he got his signature name in his poetry and composed poetry.[73]

 

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Introduction to the Book

In this book, the author has gathered the narrations of the four early collections together with important narrations which he has cited from other sources, with brief comments and explanations. He says in his introduction:

 

بذلت جهدي في أن لا يشذ عنه حديث و لا إسناد يشتمل عليه الكتب الأربعة ما استطعت إليه سبيلا، و شرحت منه ما لعله يحتاج إلي بيان شرحا مختصرا، و أوردت بتقريب الشرح أحاديث مهمة من غيرها من الكتب و الأصول

I have exerted myself as much as I could to ensure that no narration or chain which the four books consist of should be missed. I have also briefly explained matters which would probably require explanation. And for the facilitation of easy access to the commentary, I have included crucial narrations from other books and principle works.[74]

 

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The Number of Narrations in the Book

The book comprises of 50 000 narrations.

It is worth noting, that although this book is a mere collection and arrangement of their four early canonical collections, the Shia still deem it to be a primary work in hadith. This again falls part of their sectarian propaganda, like the aspect of making their narrations seem copious, whereas most of them end at their Twelve Imams and very few of them actually consistently reach Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

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The Table of Contents of the Book

This book comprises of fourteen chapters which are as follows:

  1. Intelligence, knowledge, and the Oneness of Allah.
  2. Evidence.
  3. Iman and Kufr.
  4. Taharah.
  5. Salah.
  6. Zakat.
  7. Fasting.
  8. Hajj.
  9. Jihad.
  10. Ways of earning livelihood.
  11. Edibles and Drinks.
  12. Nikah.
  13. Bequest.
  14. Rawdah.

 

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The Publications of the Book

It has been published in lithographic print in Iran.

 

8. Mustadrak al Wasa’il wa Mustanbat al Masa’il of Mirza Hussain al Nuri al Tabarsi

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Introduction to the Author

Al Tahrani says:

شيخنا العلامة ميرزا حسين النوري المتوفى سنة 1320 ه

Our teacher the erudite Mirza Hussain al Nuri who died in 1320 A.H.[75]

 

In another place he says:

 

الحاج ميرزا حسين النوري، عالم جليل، متبحر في العلوم الدينية، جمع مكتبة تحتوي على مخطوطات ومطبوعات كثيرة، كتب على جملة منها تعاليق مفيدة عند قراءتها

Al Hajj Mirza Hussain al Nuri. A great scholar with depth in the sciences of Din. He put together a library which comprised of many manuscripts and published works. Upon many of them he wrote beneficial annotations.[76]

 

And ‘Ali al Khaqani says:

الحاج ميرزا حسين بن محمد تقي النوري من الأساطين، صاحب كتاب مستدرك الوسائل

Al Hajj Mirza Hussain ibn Muhammad Taqi al Nuri, from the authorities, the author of the book Mustadrak al Wasa’il.[77]

 

The author of this book is also the author of Fasl al Khitab fi Tahrif Kitab Rabb al Arbab which is considered to be the greatest indictment and disgrace against the Shia till the end of time. Despite that, they have deemed his book Mustadrak al Wasa’il to be a primary and credible work according to them.

 

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Introduction to the Book

Two hundred years after the scholar al Hurr al ‘Amili, Mirza Hussain al Nuri al Tabarsi decided to collate rare narrations from some books which were not at the disposal of al Hurr al ‘Amili, or which he did not deem reliable in the transmission of hadith, in a collection named Mustadrak al Wasa’il. He has arranged these narrations according to the sequence of al Wasa’il.[78]

Al Tahrani says:

 

فاصبح كتاب المستدرك من بركة هذا الكتاب ومصادره المعتبرة كسائر المجاميع الحديثية المتأخرة في أنه يجب على عامة المجتهدين الفحول أن يطلعوا عليها ويرجعوا إليها في استنباط الاحكام عن الادلة كي تتم لهم الفحص عن المعارض ويحصل اليأس عن الظفر بالمخصص وقد أذعن بذلك جل علمائنا المعاصرين

So, the book al Mustadrak became, due to the blessings of this books and its reliable references, like the rest of the later hadith collections in that it is compulsory upon all the great Mujtahids to study it and refer to it for the extraction of rulings from their proof-texts. This is so that they are enabled to find a contradictory text and so that despair be reached from finding a specifying text. Most of our contemporary scholars have acknowledged this.[79]

 

Thereafter al Tahrani substantiates this with the testimonies of the contemporary Shia scholars regarding al Mustadrak being a credible book and a primary source from their sources.[80]

 

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The Number of Narrations in the Book

In this book there are approximately 23000 narrations.[81]

 

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The Publications of the Book

This book was published in lithographic printing in Iran and letterpress printing in Lebanon.

In conclusion, these are their collections which are seven. They become eight with al Wafi which is merely a collection of the narrations of the four early books. We have presented brief discussions regarding these books, for the context does not allow for a critical and descriptive analyses of these books which reveal their actual contents, due to that being a study on its own.

Nonetheless, the Rawafid have other books which are no less important than the previously stated books. Some of them are:

  1. Nahj al Balaghah. This book is attributed to Imam ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and was put together by al Sharif al Radi (d. 436 A.H.)
  2. ‘Uyun al Akhbar, Ma’ani al Akhbar, Kamal al Din, al Khisal, al Amali, al Tawhid, Thawab al A’mal wa ‘Iqab al ‘A’mal, ‘Ilal al Shara’i’. All the works of al Saduq, the author of Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih.
  3. Basa’ir al Darajat of Muhammad ibn al Hassan al Saffar.
  4. Al Irshad, al Ikhtisas, and Awa’il al Maqalat. All the books of Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al No’man, whose title is al Mufid.
  5. Al Majalis wa al Akhbar of Sheikh al Ta’ifah al Tusi, amongst other books.

 

NEXT⇒ Section Two – General Comments regarding the Eight Collections


[1] I have taken brevity into account when introducing these books, for fear of the book becoming long.

[2] Miftah al Kutub al Arba’ah, 1/5.

[3] A’yan al Shia, 1/288; Miftah al Kutub al Arba’ah, 1/5.

[4] Minhaj ‘Amali li al Taqrib (a treatise of al Ha’iri which is included in al Wahdah al Islamiyyah), p. 233.

[5] Al Muraja’at, p. 531: correspondence no. 110.

[6] Al Shia wa Funun al Islam, p. 52.

[7] Notice the difference in the number of narrations of al Kafi according to ‘Abdul Hussain and Hassan al Sadr. The researcher of al Kafi ‘Ali Akbar al Ghifari says in his introduction in 1/28 that the number of narrations in al Kafi is 16199 with the repetitions and 15176 without repetitions.

[8] A’yan al Shia, 1/144.

[9] Kashf al Ghita ‘an Muhamad al Shari’ah al Gharat, p. 40.

[10] Rijal al Najashi, 1/377, entry no. 1026. Also see: Rijal Ibn Dawood, 1/187; Rijal al Tusi, 1/439, entry no. 62.

[11] Ahead some of these deviances and baseless narrations will be mentioned.

[12] Al Kuna wa al Alqab, 3/120.

[13] Al Dhari’ah, 17/245.

[14] Sharh Jami’ al Kafi, introduction: p. 5.

[15] Kulliyyat fi ‘Ilm al Rijal, p. 265.

[16] Fa’iq al Maqal, p. 97.

[17] Ibid. p. 45.

[18] Kulliyyat fi ‘Ilm al Rijal, p. 73, 380.

[19] Refer to the book: Ma’ al Ithnay ‘Ashariyyah fi al Usul wa al Furu’ of professor ‘Ali al Salus, 3/196. He has enlisted many narrations from the Usul, Furu’, and Rawdah sections of al Kafi which back the aforementioned analyses.

[20] Al Fihrist, p. 210.

[21] Rawdah al Jannat, 6/114.

[22] Rijal Ibn Dawood, 1/179; also see: Rijal al Najashi, 1/389, entry no. 1049; Rijal al Tusi, 1/439, entry no. 6275.

[23] Kulliyyat fi ‘Ilm al Rijal, p. 379.

[24] Fa’iq al Maqal, p. 97.

[25] Fa’iq al Maqal, p. 45.

[26] A book wherein an author enlists all his teachers and chains of transmission to narrations and compilations.

[27] Kulliyyat fi ‘Ilm al Rijal, p. 380.

[28] Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih, p. 1-4.

[29] Sama’ al Maqal fi ‘Ilm al Rijal, 3/210.

[30] Rawdah al Jannat, 6/137.

[31] Rijal al Najashi, 1/403, entry no. 1068.

[32] Rijal ibn Dawood, 1/169, 170; also see: al Dhari’ah, 4/504.

[33] Bihar al Anwar, 1/40.

[34] Al Dhari’ah, 4/504.

[35] Kulliyyat Fi ‘Ilm al Rijal, p. 391.

[36] Fa’iq al Maqal, p. 98.

[37] A book wherein he has enlisted all his teachers and transmissions of books and narrations, similar to a Mashikhah.

[38] Fa’iq al Maqal, p. 44.

[39] Kulliyyat fi ‘Ilm al Rijal, p. 392.

[40] Tahdhib al Ahkam, 1/2.

[41] Tahdhib al Ahkam, 1/2, 3; al Dhari’ah, 4/504.

[42] Al Dhari’ah, 4/504.

[43] ‘Uddah al Usul, 1/360.

[44] Al Hada’iq al Nadirah, 3/156; Sama’ al Maqal fi ‘Ilm al Rijal, 1/164.

[45] Al Hada’iq al Nadirah, 7/76.

[46] Wasa’il al Shia, 30/279.

[47] Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 1/99.

[48] Al Mawdu’at fi al Athar wa al Akhbar, p. 165.

[49] Introduction of al Istibsar, p. 2.

[50] Al Dhari’ah, 2/14.

[51] Fa’iq al Maqal, p. 97.

[52] Al Dhari’ah, 2/14.

[53] Al Shia wa Funun al Islam, p. 97.

[54] They allege that it is the most comprehensive book of hadith. See for the introduction to it: al Dhari’ah, 3/16; A’yan al Shia, 1/293.

[55] Al Dhari’ah, 3/16.

[56] Ibid., 3/16.

[57] Ibid. 3/26.

[58] The four books that have previously been discussed.

[59] Bihar al Anwar, 23/390.

[60] Ibid., 24/311.

[61] Ibid., 26/132.

[62] Ibid., 26/159.

[63] Ibid., 27/285.

[64] Ibid., 22/233.

[65] Ibid., 30/175.

[66] Mashra’ah Bihar al Anwar, 1/11.

[67] Ibid., 2/373.

[68] Bihar al Anwar, 107/179.

[69] Al Dhari’ah, 4/352.

[70] Ibid., 4/352, 353.

[71] Ibid., 4/352.

[72] Ibid., 4/352.

[73] Ibid. 9/853.

[74] Introduction of al Wafi.

[75] Al Dhari’ah, 13/3.

[76] Ibid., 2/550.

[77] Rijal al Khaqani, p. 10.

[78] Usul ‘Ilm al Rijal bayn al Nazariyyah wa al Tatbiq, 2/3.

[79] Ibid., 2/110,111.

[80] Ibid., 2/111.

[81] Ibid., 21/7.

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