c. Her Knowledge of the Prophetic Sunnah

b. Knowledge of Qur’an and its Sciences
August 6, 2021
d. Her Knowledge of Fiqh and Fatwa
August 6, 2021

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c. Her Knowledge of the Prophetic Sunnah

Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha accomplished the mammoth task of transmitting and authenticating a considerable amount of the Prophetic Sunnah. She is reckoned as a specialist in this field owing to her proximity to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She was his wife, who remained strongly attached to him, hearing what others did not hear from him, and seeing aspects of his which no one else saw. She understood him and clarified things that were unclear to her. As a result, her transmission of the pristine Prophetic Sunnah is unique for it comes after direct listening and communion with the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, combined with her growth and development in the house of Nubuwwah, under his salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam care.[1]

 

فعن محمود بن لبيد قال كان أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يحفظن من حديث النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كثيرا ولا مثلا لعائشة وأم سلمة

Mahmud ibn Labid states:

The wives of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had memorised plenty ahadith of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. There was no match to Aisha and Umm Salamah, however.[2]

 

The ahadith Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha narrated from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam have reached 2210 ahadith. Of these, 174 are documented by both al Bukhari and Muslim. Al Bukhari has narrated a further 54 while Muslim has narrated an extra 69. The remainder are found in al Sihah, al Sunan, al Ma’ajim, and al Masanid. Ibn Hazm[3] has placed her at fourth position among the prolific narrators of ahadith among the Sahabah.[4] Al Suyuti[5] lists her among the 7 most prolific narrators. He says:

أبو هريرة يليه ابن عمر والمكثرون في رواية الأثر
وجابر وزوجة النبي وأنس والبحر كالخدري

The prolific narrators of ahadith are Abu Hurairah, next up Ibn ‘Umar,

Anas, and the Ocean [Ibn ‘Abbas], like al Khudri, Jabir, and the wife of the Nabi.[6]

 

The wife of the Nabi is referring to Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha.

Hafiz Abu Hafs al Mayyanishi[7] rahimahu Llah in his book Idah Ma La Yasa’u al Muhaddith Jahluhu writes:

 

اشتمل كتاب البخاري ومسلم على ألف حديث ومائتي حديث من الأحكام فروت عائشة من جملة الكتابين مائتين ونيفا وتسعين حديثا لم يخرج عن الأحكام منها إلا اليسير

The books of al Bukhari and Muslim contain 1200 ahadith on Islamic law. Aisha alone has reported 290 odd ahadith in both books combined, with only a few narrations out of the ambit of Islamic law.[8]

 

He also says:

 

وروينا بسندنا عن بقي بن مخلد رضي الله عنه أن عائشة روت ألفين ومائتي حديث وعشرة أحاديث والذين رووا الألوف عن رسول الله أربعة أبو هريرة وعبد الله بن عمرو وأنس بن مالك وعائشة رضي الله عنهم

We have reported through our chain from Baqi ibn Makhlad[9] radiya Llahu ‘anhu that Aisha reported 2210 ahadith. Those who narrated few thousand ahadith from the Messenger of Allah are four viz: Abu Hurairah, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr, Anas ibn Malik, and Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[10]

 

Ibn Kathir rahimahu Llah speaks favourably about Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha :

 

ولم ترو امرأة ولا رجل غير أبي هريرة عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من الأحاديث بقدر روايتها رضي الله عنها

No woman or man—besides Abu Hurairah—has reported the amount of ahadith from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as she radiya Llahu ‘anha has.[11]

 

She had retained the most amount of ahadith from all the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. This is a well-accepted fact even by the Shia. Al Azdi—may Allah deal with him in a befitting manner—says:

ومن الذكر آية تنساها حفظت أربعين ألف حديث

She memorised 40 000 ahadith,

and forgot a verse of the Qur’an.[12]

 

Congratulations to Hassan Afnadi al Bazzaz al Mawsili[13] who aptly refuted this couplet by declaring:

باجتهاد للمؤمنين مغيث خرجت نصرة لحق حثيث
حفظت أربعين ألف حديث فبذا أرد قول جنب خبيث

She left to support the rapid truth.

Through ijtihad, seeking help from the believers.

With this I refute the statement of a wretched side,

she memorised 40 000 ahadith.

 

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha has a distinction to the exclusion of the rest of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in transmitting ahadith. Majority of her reports she heard directly from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Other prolific narrators among the Sahabah have reported plenty of ahadith from one another. She, on the other hand, very seldomly reports from anyone besides the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Therefore, she is justly reckoned as one who has learnt the most ahadith from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Owing to this, she is the sole narrator of innumerable ahadith from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which no one besides her has narrated. The narrators among the Sahabah have partnered in narrating plenty ahadith, whereas you will find the Musnad of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha replete with ahadith which are not found in any other compilation. When this distinction of hers is apparent, it manifests before us the magnificence and excellence of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha in transmitting the Prophetic Sunnah and its dissemination among people. Had it not been for her, a large portion of the Sunnah of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would have been lost. Especially his salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam practice in his home. The Musnad of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha is brimming with his practices. The ahadith in which she describes his practices virtually overwhelm the ahadith in which she reports his salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam statements.[14]

Among these is her knowledge of the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Witr. Here we have Sa’d ibn Hisham ibn ‘Amir approaching Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma and enquiring about the Witr of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from him. Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma tells him:

 

ألا أدلك على أعلم أهل الأرض بوتر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال من قال عائشة فأتها فاسألها ثم ائتني فأخبرني بردها عليك

“Should I not direct you to the most knowledgeable of all the inhabitants of earth about the Witr of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

“Who?”

“Aisha. Go and ask her. Then return to me and tell me how she responded to you.”

 

The narration continues:

 

فانطلق إليها يقول قلت يا أم المؤمنين أنبئيني عن وتر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالت كنا نعد له سواكه وطهوره فيبعثه الله ما شاء أن يبعثه من الليل فيتسوك ويتوضأ ويصلي تسع ركعات لا يجلس فيها إلا في الثامنة فيذكر الله ويحمده ويدعوه ثم ينهض ولا يسلم ثم يقوم فيصلي التاسعة ثم يقعد فيذكر الله ويحمده ويدعوه ثم يسلم تسليما يسمعنا ثم يصلي ركعتين بعد ما يسلم وهو قاعد فتلك إحدى عشرة ركعة يا بني فلما أسن نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأخذه اللحم أوتر بسبع وصنع في الركعتين مثل صنيعه الأول فتلك تسع يا بني وكان نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا صلى صلاة أحب أن يداوم عليها وكان إذا غلبه نوم أو وجع عن قيام الليل صلى من النهار ثنتي عشرة ركعة ولا أعلم نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قرأ القرآن كله في ليلة ولا صلى ليلة إلى الصبح ولا صام شهرا كاملا غير رمضان

In compliance, he went to her. He reports: I said, “O Umm al Mu’minin, inform me about the Witr of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

She explained, “We would prepare his miswak and water [for ablution]. Allah would wake him up at whichever time at night He desired. He would then brush his teeth with the miswak, perform wudu’, and pray nine rak’at. He would not sit except in the eighth one. He remembered Allah, praised Him, and supplicated to Him, before getting up without making salam. He would then perform the ninth [rak’ah] standing after which he would sit in qa’dah, remember Allah, praise Him, and supplicate to Him before making salam audibly. After making salam, he would perform two rak’at whilst sitting. Altogether, these are eleven rak’at, O my son.

After the Nabi of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam aged and picked up weight, he would perform seven rak’at of Witr and perform the last two rak’at as he had performed always. That makes nine, O my son.

When the Nabi of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam performed any salah, he loved to perpetuate it. If he was overpowered by sleep or sickness and could not stand at night in prayer, he would perform twelve rak’at during the day. I do not know of the Nabi of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam reciting the entire Qur’an in one night, performing salah the whole night until dawn, or fasting an entire month besides Ramadan.”[15]

 

Likewise, she was the most knowledgeable of the details of the life of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his private affairs. She has offered great support to the Ummah in this regard. The report of Abu Qais is a stunning example of this:

 

أرسلني عبد الله بن عمرو إلى أم سلمة أسألها هل كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقبل وهو صائم فإن قالت لا فقل لها إن عائشة تخبر الناس أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يقبل وهو صائم قال فسألها أكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقبل وهو صائم قالت لا قلت إن عائشة تخبر الناس أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يقبل وهو صائم قالت لعله إياها كان لا يتمالك عنها حبا أما إياي فلا

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar sent me to Umm Salamah to ask her whether the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would kiss while fasting. “If she replies in the negative,” he said, “tell her that Aisha is informing people that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would kiss while fasting.”

Accordingly, I asked her, “Would the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam kiss while fasting?”

“No,” she replied.

I said, “Aisha is telling people that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would kiss while fasting.”

She explained, “Probably he could not control his love from her specifically. As for me, he did not kiss me.”[16]

 

سئلت كيف كان يصنع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في الجنابة أكان يغتسل قبل أن ينام أم ينام قبل أن يغتسل فقالت كل ذلك قد كان يفعل ربما اغتسل فنام وربما توضأ فنام

She was asked: “How would the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam act when in janabah (major impurity)? Would he perform ghusl before sleeping or sleep and perform ghusl later?”

She replied, “He would practice both. Sometimes, he bathed before sleeping while at times he simply made wudu’ and then slept.”[17]

 

She says:

أشهد على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إن كان ليصبح جنبا من جماع غير احتلام ثم يصومه

I testify that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would sometimes enter morning in a state of ritual impurity from intercourse, not a wet dream, and fast the day.

 

Sayyidah Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha has a similar report.[18]

 

Similarly, the manner of his salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ghusl.[19] Her focus on the details of this led her to describe the utensil from which the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would perform ghusl. She radiya Llahu ‘anha reports:

 

أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يغتسل من إناء هو الفرق من الجنابة

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would take a ghusl from janabah from a vessel—which is al faraq.

 

Sufyan explains:

والفرق ثلاثة أصع

Al faraq is three sa’.[20]

 

She also reports that she and the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would take a ghusl from one vessel which could fit three mudds or close to this amount.[21] There are plenty other examples.

She is characterised by precision in transmitting ahadith, remembering his exact words so that the meaning is not affected.

 

فعن عمرة بنت عبد الرحمن أنها سمعت عائشة وذكر لها أن عبد الله بن عمر يقول إن الميت ليعذب ببكاء الحي فقالت عائشة يغفر الله لأبي عبد الرحمن أما إنه لم يكذب ولكنه نسى أو أخطأ إنما مر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على يهودية يبكى عليها فقال إنهم ليبكون عليها وإنها لتعذب في قبرها

‘Amrah bint ‘Abdur Rahman reports that Aisha was told that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar says that the deceased is certainly punished by the crying of the living. Aisha exclaimed, “May Allah forgive Abu ‘Abdur Rahman. Behold! He did not speak a lie. However, he forgot or erred. What had happened was that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed by a deceased Jewess who was being mourned and he commented, ‘They are crying over her while she is being subjected to punishment in her grave.’”[22]

 

When unaware of a hadith, she would enquire from the one who narrates it. If he remembers it accurately, she accepted it. This methodology was adopted by the hadith examiners thereafter in examining a hadith and examining the narrators.

 

عن عروة بن الزبير قال قالت لي عائشة يا ابن أختي بلغني أن عبد الله بن عمرو مار بنا إلى الحج فالقه فسائله فإنه قد حمل عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم علما كثيرا قال فلقيته فساءلته عن أشياء يذكرها عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال عروة فكان فيما ذكر أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال إن الله لا ينتزع العلم من الناس انتزاعا ولكن يقبض العلماء فيرفع العلم معهم ويبقي في الناس رءوسا جهالا يفتونهم بغير علم فيضلون ويضلون قال عروة فلما حدثت عائشة بذلك أعظمت ذلك وأنكرته قالت أحدثك أنه سمع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول هذه قال عروة حتى إذا كان قابل قالت له إن ابن عمرو قد قدم فالقه ثم فاتحه حتى تسأله عن الحديث الذي ذكره لك في العلم قال فلقيته فساءلته فذكره لي نحو ما حدثني به في مرته الأولى قال عروة فلما أخبرتها بذلك قالت ما أحسبه إلا قد صدق أراه لم يزد فيه شيئا ولم ينقص

Aisha told me, “O my nephew, I was told that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr will pass by us on his way for Hajj. Meet him and discuss with him for he has learnt a great amount of knowledge from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

‘Urwah continues: I met him and discussed with him few aspects which he attributed to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. One of the things he mentioned was that the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Certainly, Allah will not snatch away knowledge from people at once. Rather, He will take away the ‘Ulama’ and knowledge will lift with them. He will leave the people with ignorant leaders who will issue rulings without knowledge. They will deviate and lead others astray.”

When I narrated this to Aisha, she was amazed and questioned it saying, “Did he inform you that he heard the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying this?”

‘Urwah continues: The following year, she told me, “Indeed, Ibn ‘Amr has arrived. Go meet him and open the conversation by enquiring about the hadith which he reported to you about knowledge.”

Accordingly, I met him and discussed with him. He narrated it to me as he had narrated to me the first time. ‘Urwah says: After I informed her of it, she said, “I feel he is speaking the truth. I am certain that he has not added or deleted a word.”[23]

 

Owing to the Sahabah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhum acknowledgement of her meticulousness in retaining the exact words of the ahadith and the Huffaz’s recognition of the accuracy of her reports, some of them would present to her what they had memorised. Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu is one such example. He would come to the side of Sayyidah Aisha’s radiya Llahu ‘anha room and take a seat before calling out:

 

اسمعي يا ربة الحجرة

Listen, O owner of the room.[24]

 

Al Nawawi comments on his statement, O owner of the room:

 

يعني عائشة مراده بذلك تقوية الحديث بإقرارها ذلك وسكوتها عليه ولم تنكر عليه شيئا من ذلك سوى الإكثار من الرواية في المجلس الواحد لخوفها أن يحصل بسببه سهو ونحوه

Referring to Aisha. His intent was to strengthen the hadith with her acknowledgement and silence upon it. She did not disapprove of any of this except his profuse transmission of ahadith in one gathering, out of fear that an error might be committed.[25]

 

When the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum differed in an aspect, they would speak to her about it. It appears in Sahih al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim:

 

قيل لابن عمر إن أبا هريرة يقول سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول من تبع جنازة فله قيراط من الأجر فقال ابن عمر أكثر علينا أبو هريرة فبعث إلى عائشة فسألها فصدقت أبا هريرة فقال ابن عمر لقد فرطنا في قراريط كثيرة

Ibn ‘Umar was told, “Abu Hurairah claims that he heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam promising, ‘Whoever follows a janazah receives one qirat[26] of reward.’”

Ibn ‘Umar commented, “Abu Hurairah has taken it too far.” He then sent someone to Aisha to ask her about it and she confirmed what Abu Hurairah narrated.

Ibn ‘Umar sighed, “We have definitely missed out on plenty qirats.”[27] [28]

 

She was also unique in the significance she attached to meaning. Undoubtedly, the excellence and lofty position of Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha is not only on account of profuse transmission. The aspect that distinguished her and the original jewel which confers superiority to her is her superbness and proficiency in understanding and comprehending coupled with her prowess in ijtihad, profundity, and deduction.

This is supplemented with yet another speciality of the narrations of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. When explaining any Islamic ruling, she would not suffice on simply mentioning the ruling. Instead, she would expound on the reasons behind the ruling and list its advantages and wisdoms to entrench that ruling in the mind of the questioner and listener who will consequently be convinced of its legitimacy. The hadith of performing ghusl on the Day of Jumu’ah is the most manifest evidence to this. Al Bukhari documents in his Sahih from Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, Sayyidina Abu Sa’id al Khudri[29], and Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhum, consecutively. Upcoming are the reports quoted verbatim so that the difference between them becomes apparent:

 

حديث ابن عمر رضي الله عنه سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول من جاء منكم الجمعة فليغتسل

The hadith of Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

I heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, “Whoever of you comes for Jumu’ah should have a bath.”[30]

 

حديث أبي سعيد الخدري رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال غسل يوم الجمعة واجب على كل محتلم

The hadith of Abu Sa’id al Khudri radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated, “Ghusl on the Day of Jumu’ah is compulsory on every mature person.”[31]

 

حديث عائشة رضي الله عنها أم المؤمنين كان الناس ينتابون يوم الجمعة من منازلهم والعوالي فيأتون في الغبار يصيبهم العرق والغبار فيخرج منهم العرق فأتى رسول الله إنسان منهم وهو عندي فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لو أنكم تطهرتم ليومكم هذا

The hadith of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, Umm al Mu’minin:

People would come on the Day of Jumu’ah from their respective homes and the outskirts of Madinah. They would come, covered in dust, sweaty and dirty, with perspiration trickling out of them. A person from them approached the Messenger of Allah while he was by me. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam remarked, “Would you not purify yourselves thoroughly for this day of yours.”[32]

 

Another narration reads:

كان الناس مهنة أنفسهم وكانوا إذا راحوا إلى الجمعة راحوا في هيئتهم فقيل لهم لو اغتسلتم

People would carry out labour themselves[33]. They would come for Jumu’ah in this state. They were told, “Would you not take a ghusl.”[34][35]

 

Added to this, Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha utilised few methods to authenticate the texts of the ahadith presented to her. Some of them are listed hereunder:

 

  1. Comparing the hadith to the Glorious Qur’an

In the issue of ru’yah (whether the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saw Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala on the night of Mi’raj or not), Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha denied that the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saw his Rabb. To challenge what some Sahabah had narrated, she resorted to the Glorious Qur’an which confirms that seeing Allah in the world is impossible with the eye. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares:

 

لَّا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصَارَ وَهُوَ اللَّطِيْفُ الْخَبِيْرُ

Vision perceives Him not, but He perceives [all] vision; and He is the Subtle, the Acquainted.[36]

 

وَمَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَنْ يُكَلِّمَهُ اللهُ إِلَّا وَحْيًا أَوْ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ أَوْ يُرْسِلَ رَسُوْلًا فَيُوْحِيَ بِإِذْنِهِ مَا يَشَاءُ إِنَّهُ عَلِيٌّ حَكِيْمٌ

And it is not for any human being that Allah should speak to him except by revelation or from behind a partition or that He sends a messenger to reveal, by His permission, what He wills, He is Most High and Wise.[37] [38]

 

Similarly, the narration:

إن الميت ليعذب ببكاء أهله عليه

The deceased is certainly punished by the crying of his family over him.

 

She understood the meaning to be that the deceased is punished for a sin he did not commit, which is contrary to Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala statement:

 

وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرىٰ

And no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another.[39]

 

She rectified the hadith and applied to a disbeliever whose family is mourning him, whereas he is being punished.[40]

 

  1. Comparing the hadith with the Sunnah

An example of this is her rejection of the report:

الماء من الماء

Liquid is from liquid [i.e. ghusl is mandatory upon one who ejaculates.]

 

This was due to her knowledge of the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who declared:

 

إذا التقى الختانان فقد وجب الغسل

When the circumcised genitalia enter each other, ghusl is compulsory.’”[41]

 

  1. Comparing the hadith to analogy

An example of this is the narration of performing wudu’ after carrying a janazah. She had conviction that a believer is not impure―as she regarded a Muslim to be pure and believed that he does not become impure by death. As a consequence, his janazah is pure which follows that wudu’ not does become compulsory after carrying a janazah.[42] Added to this, she relied on intellect and said:

 

أو نجس موتى المسلمين وما على رجل لو حمل عودا

Do the dead make the Muslims impure? What compulsion is there on a man upon carrying wood?[43]

 

She made an analogy  of carrying the janazah of a Muslim to carrying wood, which does not necessitate wudu’ on its carrier. Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhum applied the same analogy.[44]

 

  1. Comparing the hadith to what the Sahabah say

The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum would only voice what came from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The meaning of them expressing something contrary to a hadith, is that it did not come from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the first place or it was abrogated. This assessment will be applied by one who has conviction that such a matter would not be hidden from him, had the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam practiced it—especially the Ummahat al Mu’minin radiya Llahu ‘anhunna, and particularly in respect of personal aspects of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and private affairs between spouses.[45]

 

NEXT⇒ d. Her Knowledge of Fiqh and Fatwa


[1] Al Sayyidah Aisha wa Tawthiquha li al Sunnah, pg. 3–4, with variation.

[2] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 2 pg. 375.

[3] He is ‘Ali ibn Ahmed ibn Sa’id, Abu Muhammad al Andalusi. The Imam, Bahr (Ocean of knowledge), master of various sciences and disciplines, Jurist, Zahiri, and Hafiz. He was born in 384 A.H. and passed away in 456 A.H. Al Muhalla and Maratib al Ijma’ are his books. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 18 pg. 184; Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 3 pg. 299.

[4] Marwiyyat Umm al Mu’minin Aisha fi al Tafsir, pg. 9–10; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 139.

[5] He is ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Bakr ibn Muhammad, Abu al Fadl al Suyuti al Shafi’i. Born in 849 A.H. He taught in Madrasah al Sheikhuniyyah. After reaching the age of 40, he isolated himself for worship and authoring. He has written 600 books. Al Ashbah wa al Naza’ir and Tadrib al Rawi are some of his works. He passed away in 911 A.H. Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 8 pg. 50; al A’lam, vol. 3 pg. 301.

[6] Alfiyat al Suyuti fi ‘Ilm al Hadith, pg. 108.

[7] He is ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul Majid ibn ‘Umar, Abu Hafs al Mayyanishi. The Judge, Sheikh, and Khatib of Makkah. He was a scholar, devout, and reliable. A large amount of people learnt knowledge from him. Idah Ma La Yasa’u al Muhaddith Jahluhu and al Ikhtiyar fi al Milh wa al Akhbar are some of his book. He passed away in 581 A.H. Al Sakhawi: al Tuhfat al Latifah, vol. 2 pg. 348; al A’lam, vol. 5 pg. 53.

[8] Al Ijabah li Irad ma istadrakathu Aisha ‘ala al Sahabah, pg. 59.

[9] He is Baqi ibn Makhlad ibn Yazid, Abu ‘Abdur Rahman al Andalusi al Qurtubi. The Imam, the Hafiz, the Sheikh of Islam. He is the first to increase the transmission and dissemination of ahadith in Andalus (Spain). He was among the senior mujahidin in the path of Allah. Al Tafsir and al Musnad which are unparalleled are authored by him. He passed away in 276 A.H. Ibn Abi Ya’la: Tabaqat al Hanabilah, vol. 1 pg. 118; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 25 pg. 285.

[10] Al Ijabah li Irad ma istadrakathu Aisha ‘ala al Sahabah, pg. 59.

[11] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 11 pg. 338.

[12] May Allah disgrace the writer for this wicked allusion. According to his warped understanding, she acted contrary to the Creator’s command:

وَقَرْنَ فِيْ بُيُوْتِكُنَّ

And abide in your houses. Surah al Ahzab: 33.

[13] He is Mulla Hassan Afandi al Bazzaz al Mawsili. The Linguist and Sufi. He was born in Mawsil in 1261 A.H. and passed away in Rabi’ al Awwal, 1305 A.H. He was occupied in compiling poetry. Al Baytar: Hilyat al Bashar, vol. 1 pg. 501.

[14] Al Sayyidah Aisha Umm al Mu’minin wa ‘Alimat Nisa’ al Islam, pg. 187.

[15] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 746.

[16] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 44 pg. 298, Hadith: 26691; al Tahawi: Sharh Ma’ani al Athar, vol. 2 pg. 93, Hadith: 3395. Its origin without the incident appears in Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1106.

[17] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 307.

[18] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1931; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1109.

[19] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 272, 248; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 316.

[20] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 319.

[21] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 321.

[22] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1289; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 932.

[23] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2673.

[24] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2493.

[25] Sharh Muslim, vol. 18 pg. 129.

[26] Majority are of the opinion that the purport of qirat is a quantity known to Allah. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam likened qirat to Uhud to bring it closer to understanding. Fath al Bari, vol. 3 pg. 195.

[27] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1323, 1324; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 945.

[28] Al Sayyidah Aisha Umm al Mu’minin wa ‘Alimat Nisa’ al Islam, pg. 191.

[29] He is Sa’d ibn Malik ibn Sinan, Abu Sa’id al Khudri radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The eminent Sahabi, from the Companions who pledged allegiance under the Tree, a distinguished Jurist. He participated in 12 battles alongside the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He memorised plenty Hadith from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He passed away in 63 A.H. or thereafter. Al Isti’ab, vol. 1 pg. 181; al Isabah, vol. 3 pg. 78.

[30] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 894; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 844.

[31] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 895; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 846.

[32] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 902; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 847.

[33] Mahnah – plural of mahin: workers for themselves. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 4 pg. 376.

[34] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 903; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 847.

[35] Sirat al Sayyidah Aisha, pg. 245, with variation.

[36] Surah al An’am: 103.

[37] Surah al Shura: 51.

[38] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 177.

[39] Surah al Isra’: 15.

[40] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1289; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 932.

[41] Al Ma’rifah wa al Tarikh, vol. 2 pg. 374.

[42] Al Sayyidah Aisha wa Tawthiquha li al Sunnah, pg. 116.

[43] Sunan al Bayhaqi, vol. 1 pg. 307, Hadith: 1527, likewise.

[44] Al Sayyidah Aisha wa Tawthiquha li al Sunnah, pg. 80.

[45] Al Sayyidah Aisha wa Tawthiquha li al Sunnah, pg. 81.

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