Extensive Knowledge of Various Sciences – a. Knowledge of ‘Aqidah

Academic Competence
July 9, 2021
b. Knowledge of Qur’an and its Sciences
August 6, 2021

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Extensive Knowledge of Various Sciences

a.  Knowledge of ‘Aqidah

The effort the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam devoted to entrenching ‘aqidah in the souls of the believers is unconcealable. He invited to Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala Oneness and the extermination of ascribing partners to Him until this ‘aqidah settled firmly in the hearts of his Companions radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha enjoyed a complete share in this. She had obtained this ‘aqidah from its purest source, owing to her proximity and closeness to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, listening to him directly, and her profuse questions on aspects unclear to her. Add to this, she was nurtured in a Muslim home and her ‘aqidah was never tarnished with any aspect of shirk or the deviance of the period of ignorance. Marvel at her affirmation of the quality of hearing for Allah—the Mighty and Majestic. She declared with a heart brimming with iman:

 

الحمد لله الذي وسع سمعه الأصوات لقد جاءت خولة إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم تشكو زوجها فكان يخفى علي كلامها فأنزل الله عز وجل قَدْ سَمِعَ اللهُ قَوْلَ الَّتِيْ تُجَادِلُكَ فِيْ زَوْجِهَا وَتَشْتَكِيْ إِلَى اللهِ وَاللهُ يَسْمَعُ تَحَاوُرَكُمَا الآية

All praise belongs to Allah Whose Hearing encompasses all sounds. Khawlah approached the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam complaining about her husband. Her conversation was concealed from me. Yet, Allah—the Mighty and Majestic—revealed: Certainly has Allah heard the speech of the one who argues with you, [O Muhammad], concerning her husband and directs her complaint to Allah. And Allah hears your dialogue.[1][2]

 

She supports some articles of belief with proof, like denying [the possibility of] seeing Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in the world with physical eyes, the Messenger of Allah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam conveying the message of his Rabb [i.e. the Qur’an] in its entirety, and Allah’s exclusivity with knowledge of the unseen. She pronounces:

 

ثلاث من تكلم بواحدة منهن فقد أعظم على الله الفرية … من زعم أن محمدا صلى الله عليه وسلم رأى ربه فقد أعظم على الله الفرية

There are three statements; whoever utters any one of them has fabricated the greatest lie against Allah. Whoever believes that Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saw his Rabb has fabricated a great lie against Allah.

 

She supports it with Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declaration:

 

لَّا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصَارَ وَهُوَ اللَّطِيْفُ الْخَبِيْرُ

Vision perceives Him not, but He perceives [all] vision; and He is the Subtle, the Acquainted.[3]

 

And Allah’s declaration:

 

وَمَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَنْ يُكَلِّمَهُ اللهُ إِلَّا وَحْيًا أَوْ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ أَوْ يُرْسِلَ رَسُوْلًا فَيُوْحِيَ بِإِذْنِهِ مَا يَشَاءُ إِنَّهُ عَلِيٌّ حَكِيْمٌ

And it is not for any human being that Allah should speak to him except by revelation or from behind a partition or that He sends a messenger to reveal, by His permission, what He wills, He is Most High and Wise.[4]

 

She continues:

 

ومن زعم أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كتم شيئا من كتاب الله فقد أعظم على الله الفرية والله يقول يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُوْلُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَّبِّكَ وَإِنْ لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ

Whoever believes that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam concealed anything from the Book of Allah has fabricated a great lie against Allah whereas Allah declares: O Messenger, announce that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, then you have not conveyed His message.[5]

 

She adds:

ومن زعم أنه يخبر بما يكون في غد فقد أعظم على الله الفرية والله يقول قُلْ لَّا يَعْلَمُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ إِلَّا اللهُ

And whoever believes that he informs of what will take place tomorrow has fabricated a great lie against Allah whereas Allah declares: Say, “None in the heavens and earth knows the unseen except Allah.”[6] [7]

 

Another example of this is when she was asked about al Kawthar in the verse:

 

إِنَّا أَعْطَيْنَاكَ الْكَوْثَرَ

Indeed, We have granted you, [O Muhammad], al Kawthar[8]

 

She expounded:

نهر أعطيه نبيكم صلى الله عليه وسلم شاطئاه عليه در مجوف آنيته كعدد النجوم

A river bestowed to your Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, on the banks of which are hollowed pearls, and its utensils are as numberless as the stars.[9]

 

She would affirm the excellence and high position of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and reject those who curse them or trivialise their high rank. The residents of Iraq and Egypt would vilify Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu on one end, the residents of Sham would vilify Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu on the other end, while the Khawarij would vilify them both. When Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha was notified of this, she commented:

 

أمروا أن يستغفروا لأصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فسبوهم

They were commanded to seek forgiveness for the Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but instead they vilified them.[10]

 

Despite acknowledging their excellence, she would not exceed the limits and raise them to a platform higher than the one they are stationed at. It appears in Sahih al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim that when Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha was told that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the wasi (undisputed successor of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), she objected:

 

متى أوصى إليه وقد كنت مسندته إلى صدري أو قالت حجري فدعا بالطست فلقد انخنث في حجري فما شعرت أنه قد مات فمتى أوصى إليه

When did he appoint him a successor? I had supported him [the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam] on my chest—or lap. He called for a dish. His limbs then became numb[11] while resting in my lap and I did not even realise that he had passed away. At what point exactly did he appoint him a successor?[12]

 

Likewise, she has narrated plenty ahadith on ‘aqidah which the scholars continuously rely upon as proof in various chapters and aspects of ‘aqidah.

 

NEXT⇒ b. Knowledge of Qur’an and its Sciences


[1] Surah al Mujadalah: 1.

[2] Sahih al Bukhari, without an isnad before Hadith: 7386 ; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 46; Sunan al Nasa’i, Hadith: 3460; Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 188. Ibn ‘Asakir classified it sahih in Mu’jam al Shuyukh, vol. 1 pg. 163; Ibn Hajar in Taghliq al Ta’liq, vol. 5 pg. 3339; al Albani in Sahih Sunan al Nasa’i, Hadith: 3460; and al Wadi’i in al Sahih al Musnad, Hadith: 1583.

[3] Surah al An’am: 103.

[4] Surah al Shura: 51.

[5] Surah al Ma’idah: 67.

[6] Surah al Naml: 65.

[7] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 177.

[8] Surah al Kawthar: 1.

[9] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4965.

[10] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 3022.

[11] Inkhanatha: lose movement and bend, due to the looseness of his limbs at the time of death. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 2 pg. 82.

[12] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 2741; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1636.

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