Answering the Allegation: ‘Ali was appointed as Khalifah at Ghadir Khumm

Answering the Allegation: `Umar attacked Fatimah and burned her house down
June 15, 2022
June 22, 2022



‘Ali was appointed as Khalifah at Ghadir Khumm

The following verse of the Qur’an was revealed, “O Messenger, announce that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, then you have not conveyed His message. And Allah will protect you from the people.” and as a result after Hajjat al Wada’ the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at Ghadir Khumm said, “Whoever considers me his Mawla, then ‘Ali is his Mawla.” It confirmed that ‘Ali would succeed, and many people congratulated him on that, including Abu Bakr and ‘Umar who were among the well-wishers, and who were quoted as having said to the Imam, “Well done, Ibn Abi Talib, overnight you have become a master of all the believers.” Immediately after the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam finished his speech, the following verse of the Qur’an was revealed, “Today I have perfected your religion and completed my favour upon you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion.



As for the hadith, “Whoever considers me his Mawla, then ‘Ali is also his Mawla,” it is sound and authentically reported. The Shia deduction from this narration, however, is far from the reality and utterly false. Many fabricated additions and tales have been attached to the authentic version of this Hadith. In essence, these are the core issues that need to be discussed:

  1. In what context did the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam say this?
  2. What is the meaning of Mawla?
  3. How was it understood by ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the rest of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum?
  4. Weak and false additions to the narration.
  5. The alleged congratulatory procession.
  6. Revelation of Verses of the Qur’an.


1. Context of the Hadith

There is consensus that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made this statement at a place called Ghadir Khumm, which is midway between Makkah and Madinah. It served as a rest stop for travellers providing water and shade. On his return to Madinah, after the Farewell Hajj, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stopped here to rest and pray. This is accepted as fact by both the Shia and Ahlus Sunnah.

This also means that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was only accompanied by the Sahabah who resided in Madinah since those from the other parts of the Arabian Peninsula had taken off on their own paths, some to Ta’if, others to Yemen, others to Najd, etc. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam could have made any announcement during the period of Hajj which was attended by over 100 000pilgrims, but he chose to make a particular statement at Ghadir Khumm where he was only accompanied by the Companions who resided in Madinah.

Ghadir Khumm is located between Makkah and Madinah, near the city of al Juhfah, and is a watering hole in the middle of the desert. Ghadir Khumm is located approximately 250 km away from Makkah. This simple fact is enough to shatter the entire premise of the argument.

This indicates to us that whatever the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had to say was something that pertained to the people of Madinah, and was not of absolute concern to the entire Muslim community. Why else did he wait until he was alone with the residents of Madinah to announce what he had to say? We learn from this that this was a domestic issue and not one that affected the entire Muslim Ummah.


Why did the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam say this?

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was responding to certain individuals who were criticizing ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The background behind this was that a few months earlier, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had dispatched ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu alongside 300 men to Yemen on an expedition. The army led by ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was very successful in Yemen and they captured a lot of war booty. It was over this war booty that a dispute began between ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu on the one hand and his soldiers on the other. It is narrated in Ibn Ishaq’s Sirah:


When ‘Ali came (back) from the Yemen to meet the Apostle in Makkah, he hurried to him and left in charge of his army one of his companions who went and covered every man in the force with clothes from the linen ‘Ali had. When the army approached, he (‘Ali) went out to meet them and found them dressed in the clothes. When he asked what on earth had happened, the man (his deputy) said that he had dressed the men so that they might appear seemly when they mingle with the people. He (‘Ali) told him to take off the clothes before they came to the Apostle and they did so and put them back among the spoils. The army showed resentment at their treatment…when the men complained of ‘Ali, the Apostle arose to address them and he (the narrator) heard him (the Prophet) say, “Do not blame ‘Ali, for he is too scrupulous in the things of Allah, or in the way of Allah, to be blamed.”[1]


The incident is mentioned in Sahih al Bukhari in the following manner:


حدثني محمد بن بشار حدثنا روح بن عبادة حدثنا علي بن سويد بن منجوف عن عبد الله بن بريدة عن أبيه رضى الله عنه قال بعث النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عليا إلى خالد ليقبض الخمس وكنت أبغض عليا وقد اغتسل فقلت لخالد ألا ترى إلى هذا فلما قدمنا على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ذكرت ذلك له فقال يا بريدة أتبغض عليا فقلت نعم‏ قال لا تبغضه فإن له في الخمس أكثر من ذلك‏

Buraydah radiya Llahu ‘anhu said: The Prophet sent ‘Ali to Khalid to bring the Khumus (of the booty) and I hated ‘Ali, and ‘Ali had taken a bath (after Janabah).

I said to Khalid, “Don’t you see this (i.e. ‘Ali)?”

When we reached the Prophet, I mentioned that to him.

He (the Prophet) said, “O Buraydah! Do you hate ‘Ali?”

I said, “Yes.”

He said, “Do not hate him, for he deserves more than that from the Khumus.”[2]


Ibn Kathir narrates that the people in the army (i.e. the contingent sent to Yemen) started to criticize ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu because he prevented them from riding the camels and took back the new clothes that they had acquired. It was these men who accompanied the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to Madinah via Ghadir Khumm, and it is they who were being addressed in the famous Hadith of Ghadir Khumm.

This incident is mentioned in Shia sources as well; Sheikh al Mufid writes:


(Earlier) the Commander of the Faithful had chosen a slave-girl from among the prisoners. Now Khalid sent Buraydah to the Prophet. He said, “Get to (the Prophet) before the army does. Tell him what ‘Ali has done in choosing a slave-girl for himself from the Khumus and bring him dishonour…”

Buraydah went to the Prophet. He (Buraydah) had with him the letter from Khalid with which he had been sent. He began to read it. The face of the Prophet began to change. “Apostle of Allah,” said Buraydah, “if you permitted the people (to act) like this, their booty would disappear.”

“Woe upon you, Buraydah,” the Prophet told him. “You have committed an act of hypocrisy. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib is allowed to have what is allowed to me from their booty… Buraydah, I warn you that if you hate ‘Ali, Allah will hate you.”

Buraydah reported, “I wanted the earth to split open for me so that I could be swallowed into it. Then I said, ‘I seek refuge in Allah from the anger of Allah and the anger of the Apostle of Allah. Apostle of Allah, forgive me. I will never hate ‘Ali and I will only speak good of him.’”

The Prophet forgave him.[3]


In short, prior to Hajj the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to Yemen to distribute the spoils after Khalid ibn al Walid’s military campaign in Yemen. There were some people who were displeased with ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and complained to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam about him. These people felt that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not entirely fair in his distribution and had treated them harshly. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam realised that there had been a misunderstanding and that there was some bitterness towards ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu from those who had complained about him. Having realised this, and finding a suitable opportunity to address the matter, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam addressed the entire gathering and said, “Whoever considers me his Mawla, then ‘Ali is also his Mawla.”


2. The Meaning of Mawla

We have not translated the word ‘Mawla’ above to illustrate that this word lends itself to multiple meanings and applying any one meaning without any contextual consideration would be misleading. Let us look at how the word ‘Mawla’ is understood lexically, as well as its usage in the Qur’an and other ahadith. Once we have a comprehensive understanding of the term, it will then be appropriate to translate it.

Al Razi says in Mukhtar al Sihah:

Mawla means mu’tiq (the one who sets free a slave),

and mu’taq (the freed slave),

and Ibn al ‘Amm (cousin),

and nasir (helper),

and jar (neighbour),

and Halif (ally)…

Muwalat (friendship) is the opposite of mu’adat (enmity)… Wilayah (guardianship) with a kasrah means sultan (power/authority) and wilayah or walayah with a kasrah or a fathah means nusrah (assistance).[4]


Al Fayruzabadi says:

Wali means qurb (closeness). Wali (guardian) is the noun derived from it and it means:

muhibb (the one who loves),

sadiq (friend),

nasir (helper).


(It is used in the following ways) waliya al shay means he took responsibility for the thing. alayh al wilayah or walayah (It is his responsibility). With the kasrah it means:

khittah (a plan),

imarah (leadership),

sultan (authority).


(The word Mawla) means:

malik (owner),

and ‘abd (slave),

and mu’tiq,

and mu’taq,

and sahib (companion),

and ibn (son),

and ‘amm (uncle),

and nazil (guest),

sharik (partner),

and ibn al ukht (sister’s son),

and wali,

and Lord (owner),

and nasir (helper),

and mun’im (generous),

and mun’am’alayh (favoured),


and tabi’i (follower),

and sihr (in-law).[5]


We learn that the word Mawla contains a spectrum of meaning which include ‘helper’, among others. To project its meaning to sultan (authority) liberally is to ignore the ambiguity which is inherent in the term. There has to be additional evidence to identify a particular meaning beyond the term itself. Furthermore, it requires stretching the term Mawla for it to mean wali (governor).

Ibn Taymiyyah said:


There is nothing in the statement which clearly indicates that it’s (the word Mawla) intended meaning is the caliphate. That is because the word Mawla is similar to the word wali. Allah says:


إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللّٰهُ وَرَسُوْلُه وَالَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا

Your [Wali] ally is none but Allah, and also His Messenger and those who have believed.[6]


وَإِنْ تَظَاهَرَا عَلَيْهِ فَإِنَّ اللّٰهَ هُوَ مَوْلَاهُ وَجِبْرِيْلُ وَصَالِحُ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ وَالْمَلَآئِكَةُ بَعْدَ ذٰلِكَ ظَهِيْرٌ

But if you support one another against him, then indeed Allah is his [Mawla] protector, as well as Jibril and all righteous believers, and the angels, moreover, are [his] assistants.[7]


Allah explains that the Messenger is the wali (friend) of the believers and that they are his friends as well. In the same manner Allah is the friend of the believers and they are His friends, and likewise the believers are friends of one another, since friendship is the opposite of enmity and it is established from two sides.

If one of the two friends is greater than the other in status then his friendship is a form of goodwill and the friendship of the other is a form of obedience and worship. This is similar to the way Allah loves the believers and they love Him. Friendship is therefore the opposite of enmity, warring, and deception. The disbelievers do not love Allah and instead oppose Him and His Messenger and take Him as an enemy. Allah says:


لَا تَتَّخِذُوْا عَدُوِّيْ وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ

Do not take My enemies and your enemies as allies.[8]


In similar manner, Allah says:


فَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلُوْا فَأْذَنُوْا بِحَرْبٍ مِّنَ اللّٰهِ وَرَسُوْلِهٖ

If you do not, then be informed of a war (against you) from Allah and His Messenger.[9]


Allah is the friend of the believers and their Mawla, removing them from the darkness to the light. If that is the case then the meaning of Allah being the friend of the believers and their Mawla, and the Messenger being their friend and their Mawla, and ‘Ali (also) being their Mawla, refers to friendship, good relationship and support.

The believers have pledged to Allah and His Messenger such allegiance that excludes the possibility of enmity. This ruling, however, applies to all believers. ‘Ali is included among the believers, whose description is that they take other believers as their friends and allies and they take him as their friend and ally.

This hadith therefore establishes ‘Ali’s allegiance inwardly and affirms that he is deserving of friendship inwardly and outwardly. This dispels whatever has been said against him by his enemies from the Khawarij and the Nawasib.

There is nothing in the hadith to prove that the believers have no other Mawla besides ‘Ali. How can that be inferred when the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had many Mawlas, namely, the pious believers—which includes ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu by way of priority—who took him as their friend? The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said that the tribes of Aslam, Ghifar, Muzaynah, Juhaynah, Quraysh, and the Ansar, had no Mawla besides Allah and his Messenger[10]. Allah made them the Mawlas of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam just as He made the pious believers His Mawlas, and Allah and His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam their Mawla.

In summary, there is a slight difference between Wali and Mawla, and a significant difference between these terms and Wali (governor). The meaning of Wilayah (the opposite of enmity) is at one end of the spectrum, and the term wilayah referring to leadership is at the other. The wilayah spoken of in the hadith refers to the former and not the latter. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not say, “Whoever I am his wali (governor) ‘Ali is his wali.” The word used (in the hadith) is “Whoever’s Mawla I am, ‘Ali is his Mawla.”

The word Mawla cannot refer to wali (governor) since friendship is established mutually. Indeed, the believers are the friends of Allah and He is their Mawla (guardian).

As for the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam being more worthy of them (the believers) than themselves, this is only established for the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as it is a unique feature of his nubuwwah. If we assume that he instated a khalifah to be the leader after him that would not mean he is more worthy of every believer than himself in the same manner that the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wives will not be his wives. If this meaning was intended then he would have said, “Whoever I am more worthy of him than himself, ‘Ali is more worthy of him than himself,” but no one has said this and no one has transmitted this, and its meaning is definitely false. The Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam being more worthy of every believer than himself is an established matter in his life and death.

The caliphate of ‘Ali, on the assumption of its existence, only came into being after the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam death. It did not exist during the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam life. Therefore, it is not possible for ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to have been the khalifah during the era of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and he could not therefore be more worthy of every believer than himself, rather, he could not have been the Mawla of any believer if what is intended is the caliphate. This is amongst the factors which prove that caliphate was not intended. The fact that he is a friend of every believer is established during the era of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, whose implementation was not postponed until the Prophet’s demise as opposed to the caliphate which could only come into effect after the demise of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Therefore, it is known that this (what is mentioned in the hadith) is not that which the Rafidah intend.

‘Ali being the Mawla of every believer is true during the life of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, his death, and even after the death of ‘Ali. Even today ‘Ali remains the “Mawla” of every believer even though he is not the governor over the people. In a similar manner all the believers are friends of one another living and deceased.[11]


We have learnt that the term ‘Mawla’ has many meanings. Allah has described the believers as Mawlas for the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The term Mawla is not used exclusively for the meaning of leadership in the Qur’an and hadith. The meaning of Mawla is different from Wali. If the term Mawla meant Khalifah, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not a Mawla during the Prophet’s life; however, if it meant friend and ally it applies to him during the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam life and remains applicable until the Day of Judgement.


3. How was it understood?

The Shia project the hadith as an explicit nomination of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu for the office of Caliphate by the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. We have thus far shown that the context of the hadith as well as the meaning of the term Mawla suggests otherwise. An often overlooked element is whether ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, or any of the other Companions, considered this as appointment by Prophetic directive.

Al Bukhari narrates with his chain to al Zuhri


عن الزهري قال أخبرني عبد الله بن كعب بن مالك الأنصاري وكان كعب بن مالك أحد الثلاثة الذين تيب عليهم أن عبد الله بن عباس أخبره أن علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه خرج من عند رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في وجعه الذي توفي فيه فقال الناس يا أبا حسن كيف أصبح رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال أصبح بحمد الله بارئا فأخذ بيده عباس بن عبد المطلب فقال له أنت والله بعد ثلاث عبد العصا وإني والله لأرى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم سوف يتوفى من وجعه هذا إني لأعرف وجوه بني عبد المطلب عند الموت اذهب بنا إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فلنسأله فيمن هذا الأمر إن كان فينا علمنا ذلك وإن كان في غيرنا علمناه فأوصى بنا فقال علي إنا والله لئن سألناها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فمنعناها لا يعطيناها الناس بعده وإني والله لا أسألها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

Al Zuhri related from ‘Abdullah ibn Ka’b ibn Malik, and Ka’b ibn Malik was one of the three whom Allah pardoned, that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas[12] informed him that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib emerged from the [home of the] Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam during his final illness and the people said, “O Abu al Hassan; How is the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam this morning?”

He said, “All praise be to Allah, he is well this morning.”

‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib took him by the hand and said to him, “I swear by Allah, in three days’ time you will be a subject. By Allah, I think that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam will die of this illness. I recognize the look of death in the faces of the Banu ‘Abdul Muttalib when they are dying. Let us go to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and ask him who will take charge over this matter (Caliphate). If it is for us, then we will know that, and if it is for someone other than us, we will know and he can advise him to look after us.”

‘Ali replied, “By Allah, if we ask him for it and he refuses us, then the people would never give it to us afterwards. By Allah, I will not ask it from the Messenger of Allah.”[13]


If ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was nominated by the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam explicitly at Ghadir Khumm, why would ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu even bother to ask the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam about Caliphate since it ought to be known that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was given the directive for succession? Furthermore, why did ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu not correct ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu and acknowledge that he was appointed? Why did ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu fear the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not granting him the Caliphate if he was already appointed? The reaction of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu clearly indicates that he never considered himself appointed by any explicit directive.

Further emphasising the fact that ‘Ali was not nominated or appointed as Khalifah at Ghadir Khumm is the narrations reported in Tarikh al Dimashq from Hassan al Muthanna—grandson of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu—when a man said to him that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had explicitly appointed ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu as Khalifah when he said “Whoever’s Mawla (friend) I am then ‘Ali is his Mawla (friend).” Hassan rahimahu Llah said to the man:


أما والله إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إن كان يعني بذلك الإمرة والسلطان والقيام على الناس بعده لأفصح لهم بذلك كما أفصح لهم بالصلاة والزكاة وصيام رمضان وحج البيت ولقال لهم إن هذا ولي أمركم من بعدي فاسمعوا له وأطيعوا فما كان من رواء هذا شيء فإن أنصح الناس كان للمسلمين رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ولو كان الأمر كما تقولون إن الله ورسوله اختارا عليا لهذا الأمر والقيام بعد النبي عليه السلام إن كان لأعظم الناس في ذلك خطأة وجرما إذ ترك ما أمره به رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يقوم فيه ، كما أمره أو يعذر فيه إلى الناس

By Allah! If, by that statement, he intended (for ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu) a position of leadership and authority, he would have clearly expressed it, just as he clearly expressed (the injunctions of) salah, zakat, fasting in Ramadan, and Hajj. He would have said, “O people! This (referring to ‘Ali) is your leader after me, so listen to him and obey him.” There would not have been any dispute after this, for indeed the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was the most benign and considerate of people to the Muslims. If it is like what you say, that ‘Ali was chosen for this after the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, then he would be the most flawed from all the people, because he didn’t do as the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commanded.[14]


‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu is lambasted by the Shia for his audacity in the presence of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the Thursday prior to his demise. We have demonstrated earlier that ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu is innocent of all the false allegations cast against him. There is, however, another significant element to bear in mind. If the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam nominated ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu at Ghadir, why accuse ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu of intervening in a matter already decided on. On the other hand, if whatever the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was going to write was so significant, and the guidance of mankind depended on it, does that not call into question the unmistakable directive for succession at Ghadir Khumm? The implication of either argument cannot be reconciled with the other. The argument against the Sahabah on the Thursday calamity is a self-inflicting injury to the argument of nomination based on the hadith of Ghadir. Any argument in favour of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu based on the hadith of Ghadir Khumm exonerates the Sahabah on the issue of the Thursday calamity. The two are mutually exclusive, based on Shia reasoning. It takes a special kind of logic to reconcile these two conflicting arguments. On the other hand, the explanation and interpretation given by the Ahlus Sunnah not only appears to be based on more persuasive evidence, but is free of ambiguity, accounts for all factors and possible objections, is in harmony with sound reasoning and aligns with the mutually accepted historical facts.


4. False additions

The first addition commonly cited, “Allahummu wali man walahu wa ‘adi man ‘adahu (O Allah, befriend whosoever befriends him and be the enemy of whosoever is hostile to him).”

This additional wording of the hadith, “O Allah, befriend whosoever befriends him and be the enemy of whosoever is hostile to him,” is an uncorroborated addition by the narrator, Sharik ibn ‘Abdullah al Qadi, who is weak of memory.[15] As such it will be treated as an irregular addition which means that these additional words are not considered to be the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam words. However, some scholars have accepted only this addition to be part of the Hadith.

There are other additions such as the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is his Wasi, Khalifah, Imam, etc., these are all fabrications. The version of Ghadir Khumm in Sahih al Bukhari does not contain the addition of Mawlaa. However, this addition of Mawla can be found in this variant of the Hadith reported in Musnad Ahmed [# 22995]; al Nasa’i in Sunan al Kubra [# 8145]; al Hakim in al Mustadrak [# 4578], Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah [6/374]); and others.

The common wording of the hadith is authentic and in no uncertain terms establishes the virtue and lofty status of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Certainly he is our Mawla and the Mawla of all the believers. This narration cannot be used to prove ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu pre-eminence for Caliphate because the term Mawla would be inconsistent with Khalifah in this instance. We have demonstrated this in great detail above.

The addition, “and cause the truth to follow him wherever he goes,” cannot be found despite exhaustive attempts in all the various narrations of this hadith.


5.  The alleged congratulatory procession

The Shia claim that a procession was laid out for ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and at the forefront of those who congratulated him at this ‘magnificent’ event were Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, at times even claiming that the wives of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam congratulated him too—as was done by Tijani. This dubious narration is referenced to a number of sources such as Musnad Ahmed, Tadhkirat al Khawas, al Hawi li al Fatawa[16], Kanz al ‘Ummal[17], al Bidayah wa al Nihayah[18].

If we refer to Musnad Ahmed we will find him mentioning the hadith and in it:


فلقيه عمر بعد ذلك فقال هنيئا يا بن أبي طالب أصبحت وأمسيت مولى كل مؤمن ومؤمنة

Then ‘Umar met him after that and said, “Congratulations to you, O son of Abu Talib! You have become the Mawla of every believer, male and female.”[19]


There is no mention of a procession or that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu or any other met him and congratulated him. The exact same narration is recorded in Tadhkirat al Khawas, al Hawi li al Fatawa, Kanz al ‘Ummal, al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, Tarikh Dimashq; all of which contain no mention whatsoever of a procession nor of any others congratulating him.

The only reason the name of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was added was to fool the unwary reader—who is unable to research these multiple sources—into thinking that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu usurped the caliphate from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu despite acknowledging and even “congratulating” him upon his appointment. However the truth has been separated from falsehood and the lies have been exposed.

The comment of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, “Congratulations to you O ‘Ali! You have become the Mawla of every believing male and female,” is not authentic since it only appears in the narration of ‘Ali ibn Zaid ibn Jud’an who has been graded weak by the scholars.


‘Ali ibn Zaid ibn Jud’an

  • Al Juzajani comments, “Wahi al hadith. Da’if.”[20]
  • Hafiz made similar comments in al Taqrib.[21]
  • Hammad ibn Zaid comments, “He would mix the asanid”
  • Ibn Khuzaymah remarked, “I do not use him as proof due to his weak memory.”
  • Ibn ‘Uyaynah declared him da’if.
  • Ibn Ma’in says, “He is worthless.”
  • Yahya al Qattan says, “His narrations should be avoided.”
  • Ahmed ibn Hambal labelled him da’if.


It appears in Tarikh Dimashq with a different chain:

Matar al WarraqShahar ibn Hawshab —from Abu Hurairah.


Matar al Warraq

  • Yahya ibn Ma’in said, “Acceptable, Imam Ahmed said that his narrations from ‘Ata’ are Da’if while al Nasa’i said He is not qawi (strong).
  • Abu Hatim al Razi said, “Da’if, Yahya al Qattan compared him to Ibn Abi Layla in the weakness of his memory… Muhammad ibn Sa’d said, “He is da’if in Hadith.”[22]


Shahar ibn Hawshab

  • Al Nasa’i says, “He is not qawi (strong).”[23]
  • Al Bazzar comments, “A group of scholars have condemned him.”[24]
  • Al Daraqutni remarks, “He is not qawi (strong).”[25]

Ibn al Jawzi in al Ilal al Mutanahiyah fi al Ahadith al Wahiyah has declared this Hadith impermissible to cite as proof.[26]


6. Revelation of Verses of the Qur’an

The Verse of Tabligh

The Shia claim that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was afraid of how the Sahabah would react to his nomination of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and it was at Ghadir Khumm that Allah then revealed the following verse which prompted him to make the announcement:


يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ ۖ وَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ

O Messenger, announce that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, then you have not conveyed His message. And Allah will protect you from the people. Indeed, Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.[27]


This verse has no relation to the nomination of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and was directed towards the People of the Book (i.e. Jews and Christians). The verses that come before and after it clarifies any misgivings:


وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ أَقَامُوا التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنْجِيلَ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ لَأَكَلُوا مِنْ فَوْقِهِمْ وَمِنْ تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِهِمْ ۚ مِنْهُمْ أُمَّةٌ مُقْتَصِدَةٌ ۖ وَكَثِيرٌ مِنْهُمْ سَاءَ مَا يَعْمَلُونَ يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ ۖ وَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَسْتُمْ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ حَتَّىٰ تُقِيمُوا التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنْجِيلَ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ ۗ وَلَيَزِيدَنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنْهُمْ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ طُغْيَانًا وَكُفْرًا ۖ فَلَا تَأْسَ عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

And if only they upheld [the law of] the Torah, the Gospel, and what has been revealed to them from their Lord, they would have consumed [provision] from above them and from beneath their feet. Among them are a moderate community, but many of them – evil is that which they do. O Messenger, announce that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, then you have not conveyed His message. And Allah will protect you from the people. Indeed, Allah does not guide the disbelieving people. Say, “O People of the Scripture, you are [standing] on nothing until you uphold [the law of] the Torah, the Gospel, and what has been revealed to you from your Lord.” And that which has been revealed to you from your Lord will surely increase many of them in transgression and disbelief. So do not grieve over the disbelieving people.[28]


It was in this context that the verse was revealed, reassuring the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that he should not fear the Jews or the Christians and that he salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam should clearly deliver the Message of Islam which will be made supreme over Judaism and Christianity. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is told in verse 5:67 that he should not fear these men who mean mischief, and in the very next verse (5:68) Allah says that the Message of Islam will only “increase them in inordinacy and disbelief.” It is exceedingly clear that we are talking about the same group of people, namely the disbelievers from amongst the People of the Book who mean to make mischief and who become obstinate in inordinacy and disbelief. In fact, that entire section of the Quran is referring to the People of the Book, starting from verse 5:59 and going all the way to 5:86.

The following references are often cited to prove that the above verse of Quran was indeed revealed right before the speech of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Ghadir Khumm:

  1. Tafsir al Kabir by Fakhr al Razi.
  2. Asbab al Nuzul, by al Wahidi.
  3. Nuzul al Qur’an by al Hafiz Abu Nuaim.
  4. Durr al Manthur by al Suyuti.
  5. Fath al Qadir by al Shawkani.
  6. Umdat al Qari by al ‘Ayni.


Tafsir al Kabir

Imam al Razi mentions that various people have claimed that the verse was revealed on different occasions. He lists ten possibilities of when the verse could have been revealed. It is well-known that the style of the scholars was to list the most important view first and the least important view last. Imam al Razi did mention Ghadir Khumm but as the absolute last one, meaning in his eyes it was the weakest possible view.

Scholars of Tafsir have mentioned many causes of revelation:

First: This verse was revealed in the instance of stoning and retaliation as was previously mentioned in the story of the Jews.

Second: It has been revealed because of the Jews’ criticism and making fun of the religion, and the Prophet had remained silent about them, thus this verse was revealed.

Third: When the verse of choice was revealed, which is “O Prophet! say to thy wives:” (i.e. 33:28), the Prophet did not deliver this verse to them out of fear that they may choose this world, and thus it (i.e. 5:67) was revealed.

Fourth: It was revealed with regards to Zaid and Zainab bint Jahsh. ‘Aisha said, “Whoever claims that the Messenger of Allah concealed part of what was revealed to him, then he has committed a great lie against Allah, for Allah has said, “O Apostle (Muhammad)! Proclaim (the Message),” and was the Messenger of Allah to conceal part of what was revealed to him he would have concealed His saying, “And you hide in your mind that which Allah was to bring to light.” [33:37]

Fifth: It was revealed with regards to Jihad, for the hypocrites hated it, so he used to withhold from urging them for Jihad.

Sixth: When the saying of Allah has been revealed, “Revile not those whom they call upon besides Allah, lest they out of spite revile Allah in their ignorance.” [6:108], the Messenger withheld from reviling their gods, so this verse was revealed, and He said, “Proclaim” i.e. the faults/criticism about their gods and do not hide it, and Allah will protect you against them.”

Seventh: It was revealed with regards to the rights of Muslims, because in the Last Pilgrimage after he had declared the rulings and rituals of Hajj, he said, “Have I not declared (it to you)?” They said, “Yes.” He said, “O Allah be my witness.”

Eighth: It has been narrated that he rested under a tree in one of his journeys and hung his sword on it, when a Bedouin came while he was sleeping and snatched the sword saying, “O Muhammad, who will protect you against me?” He said: “Allah”, so the hand of the Bedouin trembled, the sword fell from his hand, and he banged his head against the tree until his brains burst, so Allah revealed this verse and explained that He will protect him against people.

Ninth: He used to fear Quraysh, the Jews, and the Christians, so Allah removed this fear from his heart with this verse.

Tenth: This verse has been revealed to stress ‘Ali’s excellence, and when the verse was revealed, the Prophet caught hold of ‘Ali’s hand and said, “One who has me as his mawla has ‘Ali as his mawla. O Allah, Be his friend who befriends him, and be his enemy who is his enemy.” (Soon) after this, ‘Umar met him (‘Ali) and said, “O Ibn Abi Talib! I congratulate you, now you are my mawla and the mawla of every male and female believer.” This is the saying narrated from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, Bara’ ibn ‘Aazib and Muhammad ibn ‘Ali.

You should know that even with these narrations being numerous, it is more fit to explain the verse as Allah assuring him (the Prophet) of protection against the cunning schemes of the Jews and Christians and ordered him to announce the proclamation without having fear of them. This is because the context before this verse and after this verse is addressing the Jews and Christians; it would not be possible to throw a verse in the middle (of other verses) making it foreign to what is before it and after it.[29]


In other words, Imam al Razi did mention ten possibilities but he stated that the only strong opinion was that the verse was revealed about the Jews and Christians and this is why he mentioned this possibility first.

It is authentically established that the verse was revealed to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Madinah. The sahih narration reads:


حدثنا أبو محمد عبد الله بن يوسف الأصبهاني رحمه الله قال أخبرنا أبو بكر محمد بن الحسين بن الحسن القطان قال حدثنا علي بن الحسن الهلالي قال حدثنا مسلم بن إبراهيم قال حدثنا الحارث بن عبيد قال حدثنا سعيد الجريري عن عبد الله بن شقيق عن عائشة قالت كان النبي يحرس حتى نزلت هذه الآية وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ فأخرج رأسه من القبة فقال لهم أيها الناس انصرفوا فقد عصمني الله تعالى

Abu Muhammad ‘Abdullah ibn Yusuf al Asbahani rahimahu Llah narrated to us―Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al Hussain ibn al Hassan al Qattan informed us saying―’Ali ibn al Hassan al Hilali narrated to us saying―Muslim ibn Ibrahim narrated to us saying―al Harith ibn ‘Ubaid narrated to us saying―Sa’id al Jariri narrated to us from―’Abdullah ibn Shaqiq from―’Aisha who reports:

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would be guarded until the verse was revealed: And Allah will protect you from the people.[30] Where after he put his head out of the tent and told them, “O people, you may leave for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has guaranteed me protection.”

Ibn Mardawayh also reports as appears in Ibn Kathir[31] from two chains from Hammad ibn Salamah―Muhammad ibn ‘Amr narrated to us from―Abu Salamah from him. This isnad is hassan.

It is mentioned under this narration in Silsilat al Ahadith al Sahihah:


Know that the Shia believe―in opposition to the previous ahadith―that the above mentioned verse was revealed on the day of Ghadir Khumm regarding ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. They list many narrations, majority of which are mursal or mu’dal. One of the narrations is from Abu Sa’id al Khudri. However, it is not sahih from him. Other narrations which ‘Abdul Hussain points to in his al Muraja’at[32] without any examination of their isnads, as is his habit in all the ahadith in his book…

Rather, he deceives if I do not say he lies. He says after documenting this munkar hadith from Abu Sa’id al Khudri, “More than one of the authors of al Sunan like al Wahidi have documented it.”

The face of his lie that novices will grasp is that al Wahidi is not from the authors of the four Sunan. He is only a mufassir who narrates both sahih and not sahih narrations. This hadith of Abu Sa’id is among those that are not sahih. He documents it from the chain of a narrator who is matruk and extremely da’if.[33]


Continuing, he states:


Al Suyuti despite him being the mufassir who has gathered the most transmissions reported in tafsir without distinguishing sahih from da’if, he did not mention under this verse except this hadith of Abu Sa’id al Khudri, the weakness of which you have become familiar with and another similar hadith from Ibn Mardawayh from Ibn Mas’ud. Al Suyuti did not comment on it according to his habit. It is evident that it is from the fabrications of the Shia. Al Suyuti thereafter lists a number of ahadith mawsul and mursal; the sum of them point to the falseness of ‘Ali and Ghadir Khum featuring anywhere in the revelation of the verse. They are general, without any connection whatsoever to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.


The other books cited by the Shia contain this same chain. In the book Asbab Nuzul al Qur’an we find that this statement, which is ascribed to Abu Sa’id al Khudri radiya Llahu ‘anhu, is narrated via a chain of narration which runs as follows:

‘Ali ibn ‘Abis — al A’mash and Abu al Jahhaf — ‘Atiyyah (ibn Sa’d al ‘Awfi)— Abu Sa’id al Khudri


‘Ali ibn ‘Abis

  • This narrator lived in Kufah during the latter half of the second century A.H. There is consensus amongst the rijal critics that he was an unreliable transmitter.[34]
  • Ibn Hibban says, “Mistakes of his in transmitting hadith were so serious that he deserved to be abandoned (as a narrator).”
  • Abu Zur’ah al Razi states, “He is Munkar al Hadith; he transmits uncorroborated ahadith on the authority of reliable narrators.”[35]


‘Atiyyah al ‘Awfi

  • Ibn Hajar writes, ‘Atiyyah ibn Sa’d al ‘Awfi al Jadali al Kufi Abu al Hassan: He was a Shia who would commit many errors in his narrations and would conceal the name of the person from whom he narrated.”[36]
  • Ibn al Hajar writes in al Tahdhib, “Muslim ibn al Hajjaj mentioned ‘Atiyyah al ‘Auwfi by saying, “His narrations are unreliable.” Thereafter he said, “It has reached me that ‘Atiyyah would visit al Kalbi and he would ask him regarding tafsir. He had given him the agnomen Abu Sa’id from his own side. Thereafter, he would narrate to people saying, ‘Abu Sa’id said’. Hushaym would consider his narrations to be da’if (weak). Al Juzajani said, “He was inclined towards Shi’ism.” Al Nasa’i said, “He is da’if.” Ibn ‘Adi would count him amongst the Shia of Kufah. Ibn Hibban says that he had given him (al Kalbi) the agnomen Abu Sa’id. Thereafter, if anyone asked him, “Who narrated this to you?” He would reply, “Abu Sa’id.” This would mislead people into thinking that he was narrating from Abu Sa’id radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the Companion, whereas he was actually referring to al Kalbi. It is not permissible to write his narrations except with the purpose of noting it down as something really peculiar. He further says, Abu Bakr al Bazzar would count him amongst the Shia. Al Saji said, “He is not a reliable narrator and he used to believe that ‘Ali had the greatest rank.”[37]
  • Al Dhahabi states, “‘Atiyyah ibn Sa’d al ‘Awfi al Kufi—a famous Tabi’i[38] who is da’if… Salim al Muradi said, “‘Atiyyah was a Shia. He gave his teacher the agnomen Abu Sa’id and he would narrate from him saying, ‘Abu Sa’id said’, thus creating the impression that he is narrating from Abu Sa’id al Khudri.” Al Nasa’i and a group of others have stated that he is da’if.[39]


Muhammad ibn Sa’ib al Kalbi

  • Al Bukhari said, “Abu Nadr al Kalbi was suspected of forgery by Yahya and (‘Abdur Rahman) ibn Mahdi.” Then al Bukhari said, “‘Ali said — Yahya narrated — from Sufyan, ‘Al Kalbi said to me: “Everything what I have narrated to you from Abu Salih is lie.”
  • Yazid ibn Zuray’ said, “Al Kalbi narrated to us, and he was Saba’i.”
  • Ahmed ibn Zuhayr said that he asked Ahmed ibn Hambal, “Is it permitted to look into the commentary of al Kalbi?” He said, “No.”
  • Abu Awanah said, “I heard Al Kalbi saying, ‘Jibril use to dictate revelation to Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and when he went to relieve himself, Jibril started dictating it to ‘Ali.’”.
  • Ibn Hibban said, “Al Kalbi was a Saba’i, from those who said that ‘Ali did not die, and he would come back to this world.”
  • Al Juzajani said, “Al Kalbi was a liar.”
  • Al Daraqutni said, “He was suspected of forgery.”[40]


Verse of Ikmal al Din

The Shia claim that immediately after the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam finished his speech, the verse of Takmil was revealed:


الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلامَ دِينًا

Today I have perfected your religion and completed my favour upon you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion.[41]


Which they allege indicates that Islam was not complete without clearing up the matter of leadership after Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and completion of religion was due to announcement of the Prophet’s immediate successor.

This is another Shia fabrication. The verse of Takmil was revealed at the end of the Farewell Sermon on top of Mount Arafat. This fact is reported in Hadith narrated in Sahih al Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, the Sunan, and others:


عن عمر بن الخطاب، أن رجلا، من اليهود قال له يا أمير المؤمنين، آية في كتابكم تقرءونها لو علينا معشر اليهود نزلت لاتخذنا ذلك اليوم عيدا‏.‏ قال أى آية قال ‏{‏اليوم أكملت لكم دينكم وأتممت عليكم نعمتي ورضيت لكم الإسلام دينا‏}‏‏.‏ قال عمر قد عرفنا ذلك الي

Narrated from ‘Umar ibn al Khattab: Once a Jew said to me, “O the chief of believers! There is a verse in your Holy Book Which is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day (on which it was revealed as a day of celebration.” ‘Umar ibn al Khattab asked, “Which is that verse?” The Jew replied, “This day I have perfected your religion For you, completed My favour upon you, And have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” ‘Umar replied, “No doubt, we know when and where this verse was revealed to the Prophet. It was Friday and the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was standing at ‘Arafah (i.e. the Day of Hajj).”[42]


The narration which mentions that it was revealed at Ghadir Khumm was reported by Matar al Warraq from Shahar ibn Hawshab, which in addition to both of them being weak also contradicts the Sahih narration above which is the opinion of ‘Umar, Muawiyah, Samurah ibn Jundub, Ibn ‘Abbas, and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum; and is the opinion of Sha’bi, Qatadah, and the a number of scholars and ‘ulama’. It is also the preferred opinion of Ibn Jarir al Tabari.[43]

We ask Allah to protect us from deviation and ever straying from the Straight Path.

All praise belongs to Allah in the beginning and the end. May Allah bless and send peace on our leader Muhammad, his family, and his Companions.


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[1] Sirah Ibn Ishaq, p. 650.

[2] Sahih al Bukhari, # 4350.

[3] Kitab al Irshad, p. 111-112.

[4]  Mukhtar al Sihah, p. 306-307.

[5]  Al Qamus al Muhit, p. 1732.

[6]   Surah al Ma’idah: 55.

[7]   Surah al Tahrim: 4.

[8]   Surah al Mumtahinah: 1.

[9]   Surah al Baqarah: 279.

[10]   Refer to al Bukhari, Kitab al Manaqib, Bab dhikr Aslam, wa Ghifar, wa Muzaynah, wa Juhaynah, wa Ashjaʻ, hadith no. 3321.

[11]Minhaj al Sunnah, 7/322-325.

[12]  ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas is also the narrator of the Hadith regarding the Thursday Calamity.

[13]Sahih al Bukhari, # 4447.

[14] Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, 7/314-315; Tarikh Ibn ‘Asakir, 4/166; Al I’tiqad by al Bayhaqi, p. 499 with a sahih isnad; Muhammad ibn ‘Asim al Asbahani in his Juz’, # 126.

[15]  Al Silsilah al Sahihah, vol. 4, p. 338; al Juzajani says in al Shajarah wa Ahwal al Rijal, p. 150, “Sharik ibn ‘Abdullah: Weak of memory, confused in hadith.”

[16]   Refer to al Hawi li al Fatawa by al Suyuti, Bab (ma warada fi al tahni’ah bi al ‘id wa al ‘amal al salihah), 1/79, Dar al Kutub al ‘Ilmiyyah.

[17]   Kanz al ‘Ummal fi Sunan al Aqwal, Fada’il ‘Ali, vol. 13, hadith 36340, 36341, 36342, 36343; and in vol. 11, hadith 32904, 32905, 32906, 32916.

[18]   Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/359-363.

[19]Musnad Ahmed, Musnad al Bara ibn Malik, vol. 6, Hadith no. 18506.

[20] Al Shajarah fi Ahwal al Rijal, p. 194.

[21] Al Taqrib, Biography: 4734.

[22] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, 6/166.

[23] Al Du’afa’ wa al Matrukun, Biography: 294.

[24] Kashf al Astar, Biography: 490.

[25] Sunan al Daraqutni, 1/103.

[26] Al ‘Ilal al Mutanahiyah fi al Ahadith al Wahiyah, 1/226

[27] Surah al Ma’idah: 67.

[28] Surah al Ma’idah: 66-68.

[29] Tafsir al Kabir, under the commentary of the verse 5:67, 12/49-50.

[30] Surah al Ma’idah: 67.

[31] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 6/198.

[32] Al Muraja’at, p. 38.

[33] Silsilat al Ahadith al Sahihah, Hadith: 2489.

[34]Tahdhib al Kamal, 2/502-504.

[35]Kitab al Majruhin, 2/176.

[36]Taqrib al Tahdhib, p. 363, Printed in Lucknow.

[37]Tahdhib al Tahdhib, 6/225-226, Printed in Dakkan; Kitab al Majruhin, 2/166.

[38]  This refers to the generation after the Sahabah.

[39]Mizan al I’tidal, 2/201, Egyptian print.

[40] Mizan al I’tidal, 3/556.

[41] Surah al Ma’idah: 3.

[42] Sahih al Bukhari, # 45; Sahih al Muslim, # 3017 b; Sunan al Tirmidhi, # 3043.

[43] Tafsir ibn Kathir, 3/29.