37. The reverence of ‘Ali, Aisha, and many other Companions for ‘Uthman; and their strong condemnation of his murder

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37. The reverence of ‘Ali, Aisha, and many other Companions for ‘Uthman; and their strong condemnation of his murder

 

وَبِهِ قَالَ القَطِيْعِيُّ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، حَدَّثَتْنَا أُمُّ عَمْرٍو بِنْتُ حَسَّانَ بْنِ يَزِيْدَ أَبِي الغُصْنِ – قَالَ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ: وَكَانَتْ عَجُوزَ صِدْقٍ – ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، قَالَ: دَخَلْتُ المَسْجِدَ الأَكَبَرَ، مَسْجِدَ الكُوْفَةِ، وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ قَائِمٌ عَلَى المِنْبَرِ يَخْطُبُ النَّاسَ وَهُوَ يُنَادِي بَأَعْلَى صَوْتِهِ ثَلاثَ مَرَّاتٍ: يَا أَيُّهَا النَاسُ، يَا أيُّهَا النَاسُ، يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، إِنَّكُم تُكْثِرُوْنَ فِي عُثْمَانَ، وَإِنَّ مَثَلِي وَمَثَلَهُ كَمَا قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَنَزَعْنَا مَا فِي صُدُوْرِهِم مِنْ غِلٍ إِخْوَانًا عَلَى سُرُرٍ مُتَقَابِلِيْنَ قَالَتْ أُمُ عَمْرٍو: وَسَمِعْتُ أَبِي يَقُوْلُ: إِنَّ عُثْمَانَ جَهَّزَ جَيْشَ العُسْرَةِ مَرَّتَيْن

  1. Al Qati’i states—’Abdullah ibn Ahmed narrated to us—my father narrated to me—Umm ‘Amr bint Hassan ibn Yazid Abi al Ghusn narrated to us, Imam Ahmed[1] said, “She was a reliable old women.”—my father narrated to me:

I entered the grand Masjid of Kufah and ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib was on the pulpit, addressing the people, calling out loudly three times, “O people, O people, O people, you are excessive with regards to ‘Uthman, the likes of him and I is what Allah described in the Qur’an, And we will remove whatever is in their hearts of resentment, so they will be brothers, on thrones facing each other.”[2]

Umm ‘Amr said, “I heard my father saying, “‘Uthman prepared the Army of Distress twice.”[3]

 

وَبِهِ قَالَ القَطِيْعِيُّ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مَالِكٍ الأشْجَعِيُّ، عَنْ سَالِمِ بْنِ أَبِي الجَعْدِ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الحَنَفِيَّةَ، قَالَ: بَلَغَ عَلِيًا أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ تَلْعَنُ قَتَلَةَ عَثْمُانَ فِي المَرْبَدِ، قَالَ: فَرَفَعَ يَدَيْهِ حَتَّى بَلَغَ بِهِمَا وَجْهَهُ فَقَالَ: وَأَنَا أَلْعَنُ قَتَلَةَ عُثْمَانَ، لَعَنَهُمُ اللهُ فِي السَّهْلِ وَالجَبَلِ، قَالَ: مَرَّتَيْنِ وَثَلَاثًا

  1. Al Qati’i states—’Abdullah narrated to us—my father narrated to me—Abu Muawiyah narrated to us—Abu Malik al Ashja’i narrated to us—from Salim ibn Abi al Ja’d—from Muhammad ibn al Hanafiyyah:

It reached ‘Ali that Aisha was cursing ‘Uthman’s murderers on the battlefield. Upon hearing it he lifted his hands until it reached his face and said, “I too curse ‘Uthman’s murderers, may Allah curse them whether they are on the ground or in the mountains.” He said this two or three times.[4]

 

وَبِهِ قَالَ القَطِيْعِيُّ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ أَحْمَدَ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الصَّمَدِ – هُوَ ابْنُ عَبْدِ الوَارِثِ – ، حَدَّثَتْنِي فَاطِمَةُ بِنْتُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، قَالَتْ: حَدَّثَتْنِي أُمِّي أَنَهَا سَأَلَتْ عَائِشَةَ، وَأَرْسَلَهَا عَمُّهَا، فَقَالَتْ: إِنَّ أَحَدَ بَنِيْكِ يُقْرِئُكِ السَّلَامَ وَيَسْأَلُكِ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَفَّانَ، فَإِنَّ النَّاسَ قَدْ شَتَمُوْهُ، فَقَالَتْ: لَعَنَ اللهُ مَنْ لَعَنَهُ، وَاللهِ لَقَدْ كَانَ قَاعِدًا عِنْدَ نَبِيِّ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَإِنَّ رَسُوْلَ الله لَـمُسْنِدٌ ظَهْرَهُ إِلَيَّ، وَإِنَّ جِبْرِيْلَ سَلَامُ اللهِ عَلَيْهِ يُوْحِي إِليْهِ القُرْآنَ، وَإِنَّهُ لَيَقُوْلُ لَهُ: اكْتُبْ يَا عُثَيْمُ، فَمَا كَانَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لِيُنْزِلَهُ تِلْكَ المَنْزِلَةَ إِلَّا وَهُوَ كَرِيْمٌ عَلَى اللهِ وَرَسُوْلِهِ.

  1. Al Qati’i states—’Abdullah ibn Ahmed narrated to us—my father narrated to me—’Abdul Samad, who is Ibn ‘Abdul Warith, narrated to us—Fatimah bint Abdul Rahman narrated to us—my mother narrated to me:

She asked Aisha—and it was her uncle who sent her—she said, “One of your sons sends greetings to you and asks you regarding ‘Uthman, for people are abusing him.”

Aisha said, “May Allah curse whoever curses him. I was seated with the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam leaning against his back and Jibril was revealing Qur’an to him. He was saying, ‘Write, O ‘Uthaym[5].” Allah would not give him such a position except if he was a man of honour in the sight of by Allah and His Messenger.”[6]

 

وَبِهِ قَالَ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلَ: حَدَّثَنَا يُوْنُسُ – هُوَ ابْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عُمْرُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيْمَ اليَشْكُرِيُّ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ أُمِّي تُحَدِثُ أَنَّ أُمَّهَا انْطَلَقَتْ إِلَى البَيْتِ [حَاجَّةً]، وَالبَيْتُ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَهُ [بَابَانٍ]، قَالَتْ: فَلَمَّا قَضَيْتُ طَوَافِي دَخَلْتُ عَلَى عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ: قُلْتُ: يَا أُمَّ المُؤْمِنِيْنَ،  إِنَّ بَعْضَ بَنِيْكِ بَعَثَ يُقْرِئُكِ السَّلَامَ، وَإِنَّ النَّاسَ قَدْ أَكْثَرُوا فِي عُثْمَانَ، فَمَا تَقُوْلِيْنَ فِيْهِ؟ قَالَتْ: لَعَنَ اللهُ مَنْ لَعَنَهُ – لَا أَحْسَبُهَا إِلَا قَالَتْ ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ – لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ وَهُوَ يُسْنِدُ فَخِذَهُ إِلَى عُثْمَانَ، وَإِنِّي لَأَمْسَحُ العَرَقَ عَنْ جَبِيْنِ رَسُوْلِ اللهِ، وَإِنَّ الوَحْيَ يَنْزِلُ عَلَيْهِ، وَلَقَدْ زَوَّجَهُ ابْنَتَيْهِ، احْدَيْهِمَا بَعْدَ الأُخْرَى، وَإِنَّهُ لَيَقُوْلُ: اكْتُبْ يَا عُثَيْمُ، وَاللهِ مَا كَانَ اللهُ لِيُنْزِلَ عَبْدًا مِنْ نَبِيِّهِ بِتِلْكَ المَنْزِلَةِ إِلَّا عَبْدًا عَلَيْهِ كَرِيمًا

  1. Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal states—Yunus, who is ibn Muhammad, narrated to us—’Umar ibn Ibrahim al Yashkuri narrated to us:

I heard my mother saying that her mother went to the Ka’bah [for a need][7]. The house at the time had two doors[8]. She said, “After I completed my Tawaf, I entered upon Aisha and said, ‘One of your sons sent me to convey his greetings to you; people are excessive with regards to ‘Uthman, what do you say about it?’ She replied, “May Allah curse whoever curses him—I think she said this three times. I saw the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sitting knee to knee with ‘Uthman and I was wiping the sweat of the Prophet’s face while revelation was coming down. He married two of his daughters to him, one after the other. He was saying, ‘Write O ‘Uthaym.’ By Allah, Allah will not elevate a slave to that level except he was honourable.’”[9]

 

وَبِهِ قَالَ القَطِيْعِيُّ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ سُلَيْمانَ، حَدَّثَنَا مُغِيْرَةُ ابْنُ مُسْلِمٍ، عَنْ مَطَرٍ الوَرَّاقُ، عَنْ ابْنِ سِيْرِيْنَ، عَنْ حُذَيْفَةَ، قَالَ: لَمَّا بَلَغَهُ قَتْلَ عُثْمَانَ، قَالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ تَعْلَمُ بَرَاءَتِي مِنْ دَمِ عُثْمَانَ، فَإِنْ كَانَ الَّذِيْنَ قَتَلُوْهُ أَصَابُوا بِقَتْلِهِ فَإِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِنْهُ، وَإِنْ كَانُوا أَخْطَأوا بِقَتْلِهِ فَإِنَّكَ تَعْلَمُ بَرَاءَتِي مِنْ دَمِهِ، وَسَتَعْلَمُ العَرَبُ لَئِنْ كَانَتْ أَصَابَتْ بِقَتْلِهِ، لَتَحْتَلِبَنَّ بِذَلِكَ دَمًا، وَإِنْ كَانَتْ أَخْطَأَتْ بِقَتْلِهِ لَتَحْتَلِبَنَّ بِذَلِكَ دمًا، مَا رُفِعَتْ عَنْهُمْ السِّيُوْفُ وَلَا القَتْل.

  1. Al Qati’i states—’Abdullah narrated to us—my father narrated to me—Ishaq ibn Sulaiman narrated to us—Mughirah ibn Muslim narrated to us—from Matar al Warraq—from Ibn Sirin—from Hudhayfah:

When news of ‘Uthman’s murder reached him he said, “O Allah you know that I am free of his blood. If they were right to kill him, I am free from it. If they erred in killing him then You know I am innocent of shedding his blood. The Arabs will soon know, if they killed him justly, they will derive milk[10] from it and if they have erred in killing him then they will derive blood from it. The sword will never be lifted from them and the killings will never cease.”[11]

 

وَبِهِ قَالَ القَطِيْعِيُّ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللهِ، حَدَّثَنَا هَارُوْنُ بْنُ مَعْرُوْفٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ إِدْرِيْسَ، قَالَ لَيْثٌ: حَدَّثْنَاهُ عَنْ يَزِيْدَ بْنِ المَلِيْحِ، عَنْ أَبِيْهِ، عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ: لَوْ اِجْتَمَعَ النَّاسُ عَلَى قَتْلِ عُثْمَانَ، لَرُمُوْا بِالحِجَارَةِ كَمَا رُمِيَ قَوْمُ لُوْط

  1. Al Qati’i states—’Abdullah narrated to us—Harun ibn Ma’roof narrated to us—from ‘Abdullah ibn Idris—Layth said—Yazid ibn al Malih narrated it to us—from his father—from Ibn ‘Abbas:

If all the people agreed to kill ‘Uthman then they would have been pelted with stones as the people of Lut were.[12]

 

NEXT⇒ 38. ‘Uthman will be the friend of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Jannat


[1] Imam Ahmed said this in Fada’il al Sahabah (298).

[2] Surah al Hijr: 47.

[3] The isnad is Da’if. The tradition from ‘Ali is Hassan due to corroborating reports. Imam Ahmed narrates it in Fadail al Sahabah (698) from Umm ‘Amr bint Hassan with this chain. Hassan ibn Yazid is in the chian of narration and his condition as a narrator is unknown. In Fadail al Sahabah it appears as Hassan ibn Zaid, likewise in Al Kunna of al Dulabi (2/146) and al Thiqat of Ibn Hibban (710). It has a sound corroboration in the Mustadrak of al Hakim (4563) from Abu Muhammad al Muzani; whose full name is Ahmed ibn ‘Abdullah—from Ahmed ibn Najdah—from ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdul Hamid—from Ya’qub al Qummi—from Harun ibn ‘Antarah—from his father, who said, “‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was in Khawarnaq, lying in his bed, and with him was Aban ibn ‘Uthman. He said, ‘I hope your father and I will be from those Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala described as and we will remove whatever is in their hearts of resentment, so they will be brothers, on thrones facing each other.’” I say: A similar narration is recorded in the Sunan of Sa’id ibn Mansur (1203) from Hammad ibn Zaid—from ‘Asim ibn Bahdalah as a Mursal narration, with the exception that it states, “One of the daughters of ‘Uthman entered.”

[4] The isnad is Sahih. Imam Ahmed narrates it in Fadail al Sahabah (733) from Abu Muawiyah Muhammad ibn Khazim al Darir with this chain. Similarly, Ismail ibn Zakariyya also narrates it from Abu Malik al Ashja’i as recorded in the Sunan of Sa’id ibn Mansur (2943), and Yazid ibn Harun from Abu Malik as recorded in Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah (37782).

[5] Diminutive form of ‘Uthman, used to show affection.

[6] The isnad is Da’if. Imam Ahmed narrates it in Fadail al Sahabah (813) from ‘Abdul Samad ibn ‘Abdul Warith with this chain. The weakness of the narration is due to the anonymity Fatimah bint ‘Abdul Rahman and her mother, but it seems it is Umm Khulthum bint Thumamah al  Yashkuriyyah which will come under narration 51. Ibn Hajar said in Al Ta’jil (pg. 599) that Fatimah is not known.

[7] In the original it states “Special house,” but what is mentioned above is more coherent in the context of the narration, as stated in Fadaʾil al Sahabah.

[8] In the original it states “It became clear,” but what is mentioned above is correct, as stated in Fadaʾil al Sahabah.

[9] The isnad is Da’if. Imam Ahmed narrates it in Fadail al Sahabah (814) from Yunus ibn Muhammad ibn Muslim al Baghdadi with this chain. It is weak due to the anonymity of Umm Khulthum bint Thumamah al Yashkuriyyah. ‘Umar ibn Ibrahim al Yashkuri is in fact Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al Yashkuri according to al Bukhari as mentioned in his al Tarikh al Kabir (26). He said, “He is considered from the inhabitants of Basrah. ‘Ali and Bishr ibn Yusuf related to me that Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al Yashkuri narrated to us—Umm Kulthum bint Thamah narrated to me,” the same narration previously mentioned.

[10] This is how it appears in the original and in Fada’il al Sahabah it has the word “milk” which is correct and the context of the narration supports it.

[11] The isnad is Da’if but the tradition is authentic. Imam Ahmed narrates it in Fadail al Sahabah (801) from Ishaq ibn Sulaiman al Razi with this chain. It is weak due to Matr al Warraq but there are corroborating narrations for it. Ibn Abi Shaibah narrates in his Musannaf (37686) from Hammad ibn Usamah—from Hisham ibn Hassan—from Muhammad ibn Sirin—from Hudhayfah; this is a sound chain of narration. Ibn Sa’d narrates in his Tabaqat (3/79) from ‘Amr ibn ‘Asim al Kilabi—from Abu al Ashhab Hawdhah ibn Khalifah—from ‘Auf al A’rabi—from Ibn Sirin—from Hudhayfah. This chain is also authentic.

[12] The isnad is Da’if. ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed narrates in Zawa’id ‘ala Fada’il al Sahabah (746) from Harun ibn Ma’roof with this chain. This chain is weak due to Layth ibn Abi Sulaim and his teacher. Sheikh Wasi al Allah, the researcher of Fada’il al Sahabah said, “Yazid ibn al Malih appears in the original and on it is a sign indicative of a mistake. The correct name is Ziyad ibn Abi al Malih… It has an incomplete corroboration in the Tabaqat of Ibn Sa’d (3/80) from Qatadah—from Zahdam al Jurmi—from Ibn ‘Abbas. Qatadah is a Mudalis (obfuscates when he narrates) and he narrated in a vague manner, but with this corroboration the report becomes sound.” I say: The statement “as the people of Lut were” is not found in the Tabaqat of Ibn Sa’d.

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