The accusation of an illusory truce

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The accusation of an illusory truce

Some attempt to use the words of the hadith:

هدنة على دخن

There will be an illusory truce

To undermine the truce between Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. A few points need to be taken note of in reply to this distortion.

 

1. The truce was fulfilment of the glad tidings of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

The portion mentioned above is an extract of a lengthy hadith detailing the signs of Qiyamah. It neither mentions Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu nor Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu nor a place or a time. It is incorrect to ascribe this indistinct prophecy to the truce between Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu because it has been reported in a sahih hadith that the Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, while delivering a khutbah (sermon) on the minbar turned towards Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu (who was still an infant at the time) and said:

 

ان ابنى هذا سيد و لعل الله ان يصلح به فئتين عظيمتين من المسلمين

This son of mine is a leader and it is possible that Allah will unite two large groups of the Muslims through him.[1]

 

After such a clear prophecy, which describes perfectly the reconciliation which Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu would be instrumental in, it is absolutely incorrect to substantiate that this truce was illusory based upon an indistinct hadith, which also bears no relation to the description of the Sahaba in the Qurʼan:

 

رُحَمَآءُ بَیْنَهُمْ

They are compassionate amongst each other.[2]

 

Furthermore, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam having high hopes for this truce, addressed Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu as a leader, and praised the actions he would carry out. All of this indicates that this truce would be correct and not illusory.

 

2. Sayyidina Muawiyah’s kindness towards the Ahlul Bayt

After this truce, Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu never experienced any shortcoming from Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu nor did they experience any difficulty from him, and Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu never broke any of the promises he made to them. Abu Hanifah al Dinwari (d. 282 A.H) writes:

 

قالوا و لم ير الحسن و لا الحسين طول حياة معاوية منه سوءا فى انفسهم و لا مكروها و لا قطع عنهما شيئا مما كان شرط لهما و لا تغير لهما عن بر

Historians state that Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu never experienced any difficulty throughout the life of Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu nor anything they disliked. Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu never broke any of the conditions they agreed upon nor did he change in his kind treatment towards them.[3]

 

3. The stipends Sayyidina Muawiyah designated for the Ahlul Bayt

During his caliphate, Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu always showed kindness and generosity towards Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the other Ahlul Bayt, examples of which fill the books of history. The senior members of the Banu Hashim would present their needs before Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and he in turn would gladly fulfil all their needs. This continued until his demise. This in itself is a separate discussion which cannot be adequately discussed in this brief treatise. However, we will suffice with mention of a few such incidents.

 

Hafiz Ibn al Kathir rahimahu Llah (d. 774 A.H) writes:

 

فلما استقرت الخلافة لمعاوية كان الحسين يتردد اليه مع اخيه الحسن فيكرمهما معاوية اكراما زائدا و يقول لهما مرحبا و اهلا و يعطيهما عطاء جزيلا

When the caliphate of Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was established, Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu along with his brother would visit Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and he would be extremely hospitable toward them. He would welcome them and present them with lavish gifts.[4]

 

Hafiz Ibn al Kathir rahimahu Llah also writes:

 

وروى الاصمعى قال: وفد الحسن و عبد الله بن زبير على معاوية فقال مرحبا و اهلا بابن رسول الله و امر بثلاث مائة الف و قال لابن زبير مرحبا و اهلا بابن عمة رسول الله و امرله بمائة الف

Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu came to Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu said: “Welcome to the son of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.” and he ordered three hundred thousand (dirhams) to be given to him. He then said to ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu: “Welcome to the son of the paternal aunt of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.” and ordered him to be given one hundred thousand (dirhams).[5]

 

Hafiz Ibn al ’Asakirrahimahu Llah writes:

 

ان الحسن و الحسين كانا يقبلان جوائز معاوية

Verily Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu would accept the gifts of Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[6]

 

It appears in another narration:

 

عن عبد الله بن بريده قال : قدم الحسن بن على على معاوية فقال لاجيزنك بجائزة ما اجزت بها قبلك و لا اجيزبها احدا بعدك فاعطاه اربع مائة الف

Once Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu visited Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu said to him: “I will give you such a large amount that I have never given to any person before you nor will I give to any person after you.” He then gave him four hundred thousand (dirhams).[7]

 

In a similar manner, Hafiz Ibn al Kathir rahimahu Llah has reported the yearly stipend Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu would receive from Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

كان له (الحسن بن على) على معاوية فى كل عام جائزة و كان يفد اليه فربما اجازه باربع مائة الف درهم و راتبه فى سنة مائة الف

Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu would receive a yearly stipend from Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu would travel to visit him every year. Many a time, Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu would gift him with four hundred thousand dirhams and his yearly stipend was one hundred thousand.[8]

 

Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu would also keep himself informed of the needs of Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu and whenever the need arose he would assist them. The historian al Baladhuri (d. 279 A.H) has reported an incident in this regard that once Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu went to visit Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and during their conversation the latter said to him:

 

يا ابن اخى بلغنى ان عليك دينا قال ان على دينا قال و كم هو؟ قال مائة الف قال فقد امرنا لك بثلاث مائة الف ثم قال مائة الف لقضاء دينك و مائة الف تقسمها فى اهل بيتك و مائة الف لخاصة بذانك

O son of my brother! It has reached me that you are in debt. Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied: “Yes! I am in debt.” He enquired how much it was and Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied that it was one hundred thousand. Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu said: “I have ordered for you to be given three hundred thousand; one hundred thousand for your debt, one hundred thousand to distribute among your household and one hundred thousand especially for you.”[9]

 

Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu maintained the exact same relationship with Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Hafiz Ibn al Kathir rahimahu Llah reports:

 

و لما توفى الحسن كان الحسين يفد الى معاوية فى كل عام فيعطيه و يكرمه

After the demise of Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu would visit Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu every year. Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu would grant him (what he needed) and honour him.[10]

 

In a similar manner, Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu would honour the brother of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Sayyidina ‘Aqil ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who had stood in against Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu during the Battle of Siffin, but did not physically participate in the battle. Hafiz al Dhahabi rahimahu Llah (d. 748 A.H) writes in his biography:

 

ووفد على معاوية…فاتى معاوية فاعطاه مائة الف

He travelled to meet Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu…he came before Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who gave him one hundred thousand (dirhams).[11]

 

The generosity of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu towards Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who was the son-in-law of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, has been reported by Imam Hakim:

 

وفد عبد الله بن جعفر على معاوىة فامرله بالفى الف درهم

‘Abdullah ibn Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu travelled to meet Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who ordered him to be given two million dirhams.[12]

 

Hafiz Ibn al ’Asakir rahimahu Llah (d. 571 A.H)has reported a similar narration:

 

كان لعبد الله بن جعفر من معاوية الف الف درهم فى كل عام

‘Abdullah ibn Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu would receive a stipend of one million dirhams every year from Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[13]

 

To what extent must we continue discussing the kindness and generosity of Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu towards the Banu Hashim… in conclusion we will quote one more narration:

 

ان معاوية كان يجيز فى كل عام الحسن و الحسين و عبد الله بن عباس و عبد الله بن جعفر بن ابى طالب كل واحد منهم بالف الف درهم

Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu would send yearly stipends to Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu; all of them would receive one million dirhams each (in the form of stipends and gifts) every year.[14]

 

4. The Banu Hashim participate in the campaigns of jihad during the caliphate of Muawiyah  

The senior Sahaba of the Banu Hashim participated in the campaigns of jihad during the caliphate of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu also participated in the campaigns waged by Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and in particular he participated in the campaign on Constantinople, under the authority of Yazid ibn Muawiyah. Hafiz Ibn al Kathir rahimahu Llah expands:

 

و لما توفى الحسن كان الحسين يفد الى معاوية فى كل عام فيعطيه و يكرمه و قد كان فى الجيش الذين غزوا القسطنطينية مع ابن معاوية يزيد فى سنة احدى و خمسين

After the demise of Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu would visit Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu every year, who would grant him (what he needed) and honour him. He was also part of the army that marched on Constantinople under Yazid ibn Muawiyah in 51 A.H.[15]  

 

Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu also joined this expedition, Hafiz Ibn al Kathir rahimahu Llah writes:

 

و معه جماعة من سادات الصحابة منهم ابن عمر و ابن عباس و ابن زبير و ابو ايوب الانصارى

Accompanying him was a group comprising of the most eminent Sahaba such as Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Ibn Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and Abu Ayub al Ansari radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[16]

 

Sayyidina Quthm ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu was amongst the younger Sahaba and was the foster brother of Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He has had the honour of entering the grave of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when burying him and was the last to come out of it. He joined the army waging jihad in Khurasan during the caliphate of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. When the battle of Samarqand took place, he joined that expedition under the leadership of Sa’id ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, wherein he was martyred. Hafiz al Dhahabi rahimahu Llah writes:

 

قال الزبير: سار قثم ايام معاوية مع سعيد بن عثمان الى سمرقند فاستشهد بها

During the caliphate of Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Quthm radiya Llahu ‘anhu joined the expedition on Samarqand under Sa’id ibn ‘Uthman where he was martyred.[17]

 

It is evidently clear from these narrations that the Ahlul Bayt recognised Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu as the rightful khalifah after the truce between him and Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and they would participate in the campaigns he waged without any hesitation.

 

5. The Ahlul Bayt adhered stringently to the conditions of the treaty

The pledge of allegiance that the Ahlul Bayt gave to Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu as well as the conditions they agreed upon were adhered to stringently by the Ahlul Bayt right until the demise of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This is the reason why Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied to Hujar ibn ‘Adi rahimahu Llah in the following manner when urged to rebel against Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

انا قد بايعنا و عاهدنا لا سبيل الى نقض بيعتنا

We have pledged our allegiance and taken oaths; now there is no way of breaking it.[18]

 

Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu later wrote the following letter to Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

فكتب اليه الحسين اتانى كتابك و انا بغير الذى بلغك عنى جدير و الحسنات لا يهدى لها الا الله و ما اردت لك محاربة ولا عليك خلافا

I have received your letter and whatever you have heard regarding me is incorrect. With certainty it is only Allah who can guide towards good deeds. I do not wish to wage war against you or to oppose you.[19]

 

6. Addressing Sayyidina Muawiyah with the title of Amir al Muʼminin

After this peace treaty, the Ahlul Bayt would address Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu with the title of Amir al Muʼminin and would often utter words of supplication for him. When Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu learnt of the demise of Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he sent a letter of condolence to Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu who replied:

 

لا يحزننى الله لا يسؤنى ما ابقى الله امير المؤمنين

As long as Amir al Muʼminin is alive, Allah Ta’ala will not cause us to grieve nor any harm to afflict us.[20]

 

In a similar manner, once Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu brought the stipend to Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu personally and after searching for him handed it over. Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu then said to him:

 

وصل الله قرابتك يا امير المؤمنين! واحسن جزاك

May Allah Ta’ala maintain your family ties, O Amir al Muʼminin! And May He grant you a noble reward.[21]

 

Summary

If this truce was illusory then the worst accusation will fall upon Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Allah forbid, for handing over the caliphate and distancing himself from it. Furthermore, he continued accepting stipends from the very person who “usurped” and “snatched” the caliphate from him, Allah forbid.

This all makes it exceptionally clear that the truce between Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, in accordance with the prophecy of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, was absolutely correct and thereafter Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was unanimously accepted as the khalifah. This is the reason why that year became known as ‘Am al Jama’ah (the year of unity).[22]

Imam Abu Zur’ah al Razi rahimahu Llah (d. 158 A.H) has stated that the caliphate of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu after his truce with Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu was a just caliphate based on the consensus of the Sahaba, since the Sahaba will never come to consensus on falsehood.

 

عن الاوزاعى قال ادرك خلافة معاوية عدة اصحاب رسول الله منهم سعد و اسامة و جابر بن عبد الله و ابن عمر و زيد بن ثابت و سلمة بن خالد و ابو سعيد ابو رافع بن خديج و ابو امامة و انس بن مالك و رجال اكثر ممن سميت باضعاف مضاعفة كانوا مصابيح الدجى و اوعية العلم حضروا من الكتاب تنزيله و اخذوا عن رسول الله تاويله

Imam al Awza’i rahimahu Llah said that many Sahaba were alive during the caliphate of Muawiyah rahimahu Llah , amongst them were Sa’d radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Usamah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Zaid ibn Thabit radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Salamah ibn Khalid radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and many more than what I have named. They were all lanterns in the darkness, vessels of knowledge, present when the Qurʼan was revealed and learnt its meaning directly from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[23] 

 

It is common knowledge that this ummah as individuals are not infallible but collectively they are, such that the Ijma’ (consensus) of the Sahaba is no less than that proven from the Qurʼan and Sunnah. Imam Abu Bakr al Sarakhsi rahimahu Llah (d. 453 A.H) writes:

 

ان ما اجمع عليه الصحابة فهو بنزلة الثابت بالكتاب و السنة

Whatever the Sahaba are in agreement upon is the same as that proven by the Qurʼan and Sunnah.[24]

 

Thus, those who regard this truce as illusory, in actual fact intend to deny the prophecy of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the ijma’ of the Sahaba and the honour of Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, even if they might not verbally do so; which no Muslim whould dare to perpetrate.

 

NEXT⇒ The claim that the khilafah of Mu’awiyah was not worthy of being followed


[1] Bukhari vol. 1 page 373

[2]  Surah al Fath: 29

[3]Al Akhbar al Tuwal page 225

[4]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 8 page 150, 151

[5]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 7 page 137

[6]Tarikh Madina Damashq vol. 59 page 195

[7]Al Isabah vol. 2 page 64

[8]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 8 page 40

[9]Kitab al Ansab wal Ashraf page 84, 85

[10]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 8 page 151

[11]Tarikh al Islam of al Dhahabi vol. 2 page 84, 85

[12]Mustadrak al Hakim vol. 3 page 67

[13]Tarikh Madina Damashq vol. 59 page 195

[14]Lataʼif al Ma’arif page 21-22

[15]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 8 page 150, Tahdhib Tarikh Ibn al ’Asakir vol. 4 page 311

[16]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 8 page 32

[17]Siyar A’alam al Nubalaʼ vol. 4 page 515

[18]Akhbar al Tuwal page 220

[19]Tadhib Ibn al ’Asakir vol. 4 page 327

[20]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 8 page 138

[21]Tarikh Madina Damashq vol. 46 page 178

[22]Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 8 page 21

[23]Tarikh Abu Zur’ah vol.1 page 309, Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 8 page 133

[24] Usul al Sarakhsi vol. 1 page 318