Those who remained steadfast on Islam During the Apostasy Part 3

Those who remained steadfast on Islam During the Apostasy Part 2
August 30, 2023
Those who remained steadfast on Islam During the Apostasy Part 4
August 31, 2023

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Those from Yemen who remained steadfast on Islam

Many people in Yemen remained steadfast on Islam, and they opposed al Aswad al ‘Ansi,[1] who claimed prophethood. They managed to kill him during the lifetime of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and also fought against those who incited Fitnah after the death of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, even before the armies of the Islamic Caliphate, led by al Muhajir ibn Abi Umayyah and ‘Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl, arrived to those parts of Yemen to help the Muslims. The Abna’[2] showed great courage and intelligence in this field, they fought with their lives and encouraged other tribes, groups, and individuals who remained Muslim to support them. Due to their efforts, a group of Banu ‘Uqayl ibn Rabi’ah and a group from ‘Akk rose with them. They eradicated the Fitnah in all its forms, nationalistic and doctrinal, especially the Fitnah of Qays ibn ‘Abd Yaghuth ibn al Makshuh[3] and ‘Amr ibn Ma’di Karib,[4] and they opposed tribalism and nationalism by means of the spirit of Islam.

This is evidenced by al Kala’i[5] mentioning that al Nakha’ and Ju’fa did not follow al ‘Ansi when he came to Ghamdan in Yemen. The reason Aswad al ‘Ansi left Najran and travelled to al San’a’ was his uncomfortable situation in Najran. When he arrived in al San’a’, the Abna’ did not believe him either, which led to him humiliating and oppressing them.

A narration mentioned by al Kala’i[6] states that the people of Yemen remained steadfast on Islam even after they received news of the death of the Prophet of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, led by Qays, al Abna’, and the people of al San’a. He mentions that al Asfar al ‘Akki[7], with a group of his people who remained steadfast on Islam, set out for Najran intending to fight Banu al Harith ibn Ka’b. When al Asfar came to them, they returned to Islam without a fight. He stayed in Najran, put all of its affairs in order, and took control of it. Then Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu ordered al Muhajir ibn Abi Umayyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu to mobilize anyone he passed by from Mudar, arm them, and give them from the wealth that Abu Bakr gave him.[8] Whoever remained steadfast on Islam in Yemen from the tribe of Murad and the rest of Madhhij, the tribe of al Aswad al ‘Ansi, gathered around Khalid ibn Sa’id.[9] Khalid ibn Sa’id took all of them with him to fight against the apostates from the tribe of Zubayd and defeated them.[10]

There are narrations in Tarikh al Tabari about this; the first of which mentions that the first to oppose al ‘Ansi and fight him was ‘Amir ibn Shahr al Hamdani[11] and Fayruz[12] and Dadhawayh,[13] each in his own area, and others to whom the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wrote.[14]

The second narration mentions that the followers of al ‘Ansi were from the common people of Madhhij and not from the high ranking.[15]

The third narration, in the context of discussing the withdrawal of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam governors from the areas where al ‘Ansi’s fitnah took root, after the killing of Badhan,[16] states that Mu’adh ibn Jabal radiya Llahu ‘anhu had settled in al Sakun[17] and that Abu Musa al Ash’ari had settled in al Sakasik[18], which indicates that these two tribes remained steadfast on Islam in Yemen. It also mentions that al Tahir ibn Abi Halah resided with the tribe of ‘Akk in Tihamah who were standing in opposition of the Fitnah of al ‘Ansi. This narration further discusses the stance of the Muslims towards al Aswad:

 

وعامله المسلمون بالتقية وعامله أهل الردة بالكفر والرجوع عن الإسلام…وتزوج معاذ إلى بني بكرة حي من السكون امرأة يقال لها رملة فحدبوا لصهره علينا

The Muslims interacted with him by means of dissimulation,[19] while the apostates responded by disbelieving and leaving Islam… Mu’adh married a woman by the name of Ramlah[20] from the Banu Bakrah, a family from al Sakun. So, they were kind due to their relationship with us.[21]

 

Meaning they were kind to the Muslims, including the narrator of this narration.

The fourth narration, on the authority of Jushnas ibn al Daylami states that Wabar ibn Yuhannas[22] came to them with a letter from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam[23] ordering them to uphold the religion of Islam and rise in war against al Aswad, either through deception or direct confrontation. He also asked them to send a message of help and faith, on his behalf, to all those present, so they did as commanded. As a result, many people gathered to support them. They succeeded in winning Qays ibn ‘Abd Yaghuth over to their side when they noticed the change in al Aswad’s behaviour towards him. The Muslims heard the news of people opposing al ‘Ansi, including: ‘Amir ibn Shahr, Dhu Zawad Sa’id ibn al ‘Aqib[24], Dhu Murran ‘Umayr ibn Aflah[25], and Dhu Zulaym Hawshab[26]. So, they wrote to the Muslims of Yemen and offered them support. The narration says that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had written to the people of Najran, both Arabs and non-Arabs, so they remained firm on Islam and retreated and gathered in one place, which greatly annoyed al ‘Ansi, because he sensed his own destruction. The Muslims were in correspondence with the people of Hamdan and Himyar.[27]

This narration states that Azad[28], the wife of Shahr ibn Badhan, was among those who hid their Islam. Al Aswad killed her husband Shahr, and thereafter married her. She cooperated with Qays ibn ‘Abd Yaghuth and the Abna, including Jushnas, Fayruz, Dadhawayh and their supporters to kill al Aswad. She played a significant role in his downfall due to her sincere Islam and the Islam of most of the people of Yemen.[29]

The narrations mentioned by Ibn al Athir, in al Kamil, confirms what was narrated by al Kala’i and al Tabari. Including mentioning that those who adhered to Islam from Madhhij had joined Farwah ibn Musayk[30] when Qays ibn ‘Abd Yaghuth ibn Makshuh fought against them.[31]

Farwah ibn Musayk and those who stood firm with him on Islam separated from al ‘Ansi and those who followed him from the general masses of Madhhij and that is what caused Qays ibn ‘Abd Yaghuth to go against al Aswad.[32] Ibn Musayk was among those who joined al Muhajir ibn Abi Umayyah when he came to Yemen to assist the Abna’.[33]

Among those who remained steadfast on Islam in Yemen and supported the Abna’, and defeated Qays ibn ‘Abd Yaghuth were the Banu ‘Uqayl ibn Rabi’ah ibn ‘Amir ibn Sa’sa’ah, led by Mu’awiyah al ‘Uqayli[34], and a group from ‘Akk, led by Masruq al ‘Akki.[35] The people of Najran sent a delegation to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu renewing their covenant and pledging their allegiance to the Caliphate.[36]

As for Bajilah, Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent Jarir ibn ‘Abdullah[37] radiya Llahu ‘anhu back to them and ordered him to mobilize those who remained steadfast on Islam from his tribe to fight against those who apostatized from Islam. He ordered him to go to Khath’am and fight those who had apostatized in that region. Jarir radiya Llahu ‘anhu went out and did what al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu had commanded him. No one stood in support of him except a small group. He then killed the rest and pursued them.[38]

Ibn Dhi al Mish’ar al Hamdani[39] and Masruq ibn Dhi al Harith al Hamdani, later known as al Arhabi[40] were from amongst those who remained on Islam in Yemen.

It is mentioned in al Isabah[41] that when Ibn Dhi al Mish’ar al Hamdani, who was the king of his region, heard about the concern of his people’s apostasy, he stood among them, encouraging them to remain firm on Islam. Masruq ibn Dhi al Harith al Arhabi volunteered to be his envoy to al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Ibn Dhi al Mish’ar agreed to this. So, Masruq came to al Siddiq and informed him of the Islam of his people and their steadfastness.

‘Amr ibn al Fuhayl al Zubaydi,[42] who was the leader of his people, remained firm on Islam in Yemen. He and ‘Amr ibn al Hajjaj[43], one of the leaders of Zubayd, stood against ‘Amr ibn Ma’di Karib. An excerpt of the speech of Ibn al Fuhayl to his people is reproduced below:

 

يا معشر زبيد ان كنتم دخلتم في هذا الدين راغبين فحاموا علبه او خائفين من اهله فتحصنوا به ولا تظهروا للناس من سرائركم ما يعلم الله فيظهروا عليكم ولا أبلغ من نصحي لكم فوق نصحي لنفسي اعصوا عمرو بن معدي كرب واطيعوا عمرو بن الحجاج

O people of Zubayd, if you accepted this religion eagerly and willingly, then gather around it. If you accepted it due to fear of its adherents, then take refuge in it and do not expose to people your secrets that only Allah knows, lest they be victorious over you. My advice to you is nothing more than my advice to myself, disobey ‘Amr ibn Ma’di Karib and obey ‘Amr ibn al Hajjaj.[44]

 

Among those mentioned by Wathimah as having remained firm on Islam in Yemen and resisted Aswad al ‘Ansi and his group until they killed him and scattered his followers are:

 

1. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Dhi al Ajurrah al Thumali

He was part of the group that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commanded to kill al Aswad al ‘Ansi, so they rose to do so. Regarding this he said:

لقد جزعت عنس لقتل الاسود

لعمري وما عمري علي بهين

على خير موعود وأسعد أسعد

وقال رسول الله سيروا لقتله

على خير أمر من وصاة محمد

فسرنا إليه في فوارس بهمة

By my life, and I do not take my life lightly,

Indeed, the tribe of ‘Ans were concerned regarding the killing of al Aswad,

And the Messenger of Allah said, “Proceed to kill him,”

On the best promise and best fortune.

So, we marched to him on the backs of black horses,

By the best command from the instructions of Muhammad.[45]

 

2. Yazid ibn Dhi al Ajurrah al Yamani

He was among those who took up the challenge to kill al Aswad al ‘Ansi by the order of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. After al Aswad’s death, he said:

يمانية الأحساب غير لئام

لعمرك إنا يوم عبــدان عصبة

ابان بها المكشوح رأس همام

غداة جدعنا في عنيس بضربة

By your life, we were a group of servants on that day,

People from Yemen, who were not dishonourable.

In the morning, we struck ‘Unays with a blow,

Through it, al Makshuh exposed the head of the bold man.[46]

 

3. ‘Abdullah ibn Salamah al Hamdani

He was part of the delegation of Hamdan to Madinah when they received the news of the demise of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He recited the following lines in front of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

م فدته الأسماع والابصار

إن فقد النبي جَزْعَنا اليو

لا ولا أفردت به الانصار

ما أصيبت به الغداة قريش

ح ومدت جنح الظلام أنوار

فعليه السلام ما هبت الري

Indeed, the loss of the Prophet today has grieved us, may our hearing and sight be sacrificed for him.

The Quraysh and the Ansar are not the only ones struck by what happened this morning.

Peace be upon him as long as the winds blow and darkness and light spread their wings.

 

He also expressed his condolences to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu when entering with his people’s delegation, saying:

 

يا معشر قريش إنكم لم تصابوا بالنبي دون سائر العرب لأنه لم يكن لأحد دون أحد غير إنا معترفون للمهاجرين بفضل هجرتهم وللانصار بفضل نصرتهم

O Quraysh, you did not suffer the loss of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam more than the rest of the Arabs, because he did not belong to anyone more than anyone else. However, we acknowledge the virtue of the Muhajirin due to their migration and the distinction due to the Ansar owing to their support.[47]

 

4. ‘Abdullah ibn Malik al Arhabi

He was amongst the Sahabah who made Hijrah and attained great virtue in Islam. The tribe of Hamdan came to him when they intended to apostatise, so he stood among them and said:

 

يا معشر همدان إنكم لم تعبدوا محمداً إنما عبدتم رب محمد وهو الحي الذي لا يموت غير أنكم أطعتم رسوله بطاعة الله واعلموا أنه استنقذكم من النار ولم يكن الله ليجمع أصحابه على ضلالة

O people of Hamdan, you did not worship Muhammad, but you worshipped the Lord of Muhammad, who is the Ever Living and never dies. However, you obeyed the Messenger in obedience to Allah, and you should know that he rescued you from the Fire. Remember, Allah will not unite his followers on misguidance.

 

A long sermon of his is also reported, in which he says:

لما مات يا ابن القيل رب محمد

لعمري لئن مات النبي محمد

فيا خَيْر عُوذي ويا خير منجد

دعاه إليه ربه فاجابه

I take an oath by my life, even though the Prophet Muhammad has passed away,

The Lord of Muhammad will never die, O tribe of Qayl.

Muhammad’s Lord called him so he responded,

O my best refuge and O best saviour.[48]

 

5. Ahwad ibn ‘Iyad al Azdi

He was the first to announce the death of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to his people, they accused him of lying and drove him away from them. He was a devoted worshipper, so he said:

 

اللهم إنما نعيت إليهم رسولك لئلا يفتتنوا بعده وليواسوني في جزعي عليه

O Allah, I only announced to them Your Messenger’s death so they would not fall into trial after him, and so they might comfort me in my grief over his death.

 

When the news of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam death became widespread, they called him back to live amongst them. In this regard, Ibn Dhi Asbah says:

إِنْ نَعَى بي محمداً

جزع القلب أهودُ

أخا الأزد أهودا

ليتني لم أكن رأيت

Ahwad’s heart was grieved,

When he announced Muhammad’s death to me.

I wish I had not seen,

Azd’s brother, Ahwad.[49]

 

6. Zur’ah ibn Abi ‘Uqbah al Himyari

He is the one who brought the letter from the people of Himyar to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu when they received news of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam death, in which they mentioned their steadfastness on their religion.[50]

 

7. ‘Abdul Harith ibn Anas al Harithi

When the people of Najran heard of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam death, some of them were thinking of turning away from Islam. He was a leader of his people so he stood among them and said:

 

یا اهل نجران من أمركم بالثبات على هذا الدين فقد نصحكم ومن أمركم ان ت يغوا فقد غشكم. وإنما كان نبي الله عارية بين أظهركم فأتى عليه اجله وبقي الكتاب الذي جاء به فأمره امر و نهيه نهي إلى يوم القيامة.

O people of Najran, whoever advises you to hold firm to this religion has given you good advice. Whoever encourages you to apostatize has deceived you. Verily, the Prophet of Allah was among you in person, but his time has come to pass. Yet, the Book he brought remains and its commandments and prohibitions are valid until the Day of Judgment.

 

He also recited some verses:

بنو الحارث الخير الذين هم مدر

ونحن بحمد الله هامة مذحج

نھانا حراماً منه والأمر ما أمر

ونحن على دين النبي نرى الذي

We are, by the grace of Allah, the crown of Madhhij.

We are the sons of al Harith, the best of those who live in cities.

And we firm on the religion of the Prophet, we consider,

Everything he forbade us from as Haram, and everything he commanded us to do as imperative.

 

In this incident it is mentioned that the people of Najran responded to his request and said to him:

 

وكنت خير وافد أنت وقومك من بني الحارث

You and your people from Banu al Harith have been the best of delegations.[51]

 

8. Umayr ibn al Husayn al Najrani

He also stood up among the people of Najran, admonishing them, when some of them rushed to apostasy after the demise of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. A portion of what he said was:

 

وإنكم لأن تزدادوا من هذا الأمر أحوج إلى أن تنقصوه فإن في الإنكار الشك بعد اليقين ودينكم اليوم دينكم بالأمس فكونوا عليه حتى تخرجوا به إلى رضی الله تعالى ونوره

Surely, you are more in need of clinging to this religion instead of abandoning it. For in denial, there is doubt after certainty. Your religion today is the same as it was yesterday, so remain on it until you depart with it to the pleasure of Allah and His light.

 

He then recited the following lines:

وكونوا يدا علي الكفار

أهل نجران أمسكوا بهدى الله

ك و بعد الرضي الي الإنكار

لا تكونوا بعد اليقين إلى الش

ه و كونوا كهيئة الأنصار

واستقيموا على الطريقة في

People of Najran, hold onto the guidance of Allah,

And be like one hand against the disbelievers.

Do not go to doubt after having being certain,

And do not go from acceptance to denial.

Stay steadfast on the path,

And be like the Ansar were.[52]

 

NEXT⇒ Those who remained steadfast on Islam During the Apostasy Part 4


[1] His name was ‘Abhalah, and according to some sources ‘Ayhalah, the son of Ka’b ibn ‘Awf. He is al ‘Ansi (by attribution) because he was from the tribe of ‘Ans, a branch of Madhhij. He was known as “Dhu al Khimar” because he was always dark and covered (al Kamil, 2/336). Some say he was called, “Dhu al Himar” because he had a donkey that would prostrate when told “Prostrate to your Lord” and would kneel when told “Kneel” (Hurub al Riddah, pg. 213, footnote 1). He claimed prophethood during the time of the Prophet, and married Azad, the wife of Shahr ibn Badhan, after killing him (al Kamil, 2/338; Hurub al Riddah, pg. 213).

[2] A group in Yemen of Persian origin, they embraced Islam at its inception and steadfastly held onto it during the Fitnah of the al ‘Ansi and those who came after them. For more about Badhan, see: al Tabaqat, 1/260.

[3] Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn ‘Uthman al Dhahabi: Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, 2nd edition, editing supervised by Shu’ayb al Arna’ut and Husayn al Asad, Beirut, Muʾassasat al Risalah, 1402 AH/1986, 3/520. No mention is made of his apostasy; al Isti’ab, 3/244-247; al Isabah, 3/260, Biography: 7239; al Tabaqat, 5/525; Usd al Ghabah, 4/222.

He was a knight of Madhhij, he was a delegate to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He participated in the killing of al Aswad al ‘Ansi along with the Abna’, as mentioned in the aforementioned sources.

[4] One of the knights of the Arabs, from the tribe of Madhhij. He converted to Islam in Madinah when he went there as part of the delegation of his tribe Zubayd. He apostatized from Islam then returned to it. He migrated to Iraq, and he performed well in its conquests, especially in the Battle of al Qadisiyyah, al Tabaqat, 5/525-526; Sirah Ibn Hisham, 2/583-585; al Isti’ab, 2/520; al Isabah, 3/18–20, Biography: 5970.

[5] Hurub al Riddah, pg. 114.

[6] Hurub al Riddah, pg. 216.

[7] Al Asfar al ‘Akki: No biography was found for him.

[8] Hurub al Riddah, pg. 219.

[9] He is Khalid ibn Sa’id ibn al ‘As one of the early converts to Islam and amongst the emigrants to Abyssinia who returned with Ja’far ibn Abi Talib during the conquest of Khaybar. He performed Jihad and was martyred at the end of the Caliphate of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu or at the beginning of ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Caliphate (Usd al Ghabah, 2/90–92) The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed him over the area between Najran and Zabid. See al Kamil, 2/336; al Isabah, 1/406, Biography: 2167.

[10] Hurub al Riddah, pg. 220.

[11] It is said that his name was al Bakili and it is also said al Na’izi (al Isabah, 2/251, Biography: 4394). Ibn Hajar says about him, “He was the first to oppose al Aswad al ‘Ansi when he claimed prophethood. And ‘Amir ibn Shahr was one of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam governors in Yemen. See: Usd al Ghabah, 3/83-84.

[12] He was part of the Abna’, he was sent by Kisra to Yemen with Sayf ibn Dhi Yazan, they expelled the Abyssinians from Yemen and prevailed over them. When he heard the news of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he came to him and converted to Islam. He heard and narrated Hadith from him as well. He was one of those who participated in the killing of al Aswad al ‘Ansi regarding which the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “The pious man, Fayruz ibn al Daylami, killed him.” (al Bukhari; Musnad Ahmed, 1/263; Musnad ibn ‘Abbas, no. 2373). He passed away during the Caliphate of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. See: al Tabaqat, 5/533-534; al Isabah, 3/210; Usd al Ghabah, 4/186.

[13] He was amongst the Abna’. He was an elderly man who converted to Islam during the time of the Prophet of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and was among those who killed al ‘Ansi. When Qays ibn Makshuh apostatized, he killed his Dadhawayh treacherously. See: al Tabaqat, 5/534 – 535; al Isabah, 1/478, Biography: 2415; al Isti’ab, 1/479; Usd al Ghabah, 2/129.

[14] Al Tabari, 3/229; see this narration in al Isti’ab, 3/13 under the biography of ‘Amir ibn Shahr al Hamdani.

[15] Al Tabari, 3/229.

[16] Badhan ibn Sinan was from the descendants of Bahram Jur. He was from the Abna’ in Yemen. When the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent his letter to Kisra inviting him to Islam, Kisra tore the letter and sent a message to Badhan, his Yemeni governor, asking who is the man that we are talking about and instructing to send two strong men to bring him news of the Prophet of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had previously informed them of Kisra’s death at the hand of his son Shayrawayh. When they returned to Yemen, they told Badhan, and he and the Abna’ of Yemen converted to Islam. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed him over Yemen. Find his story in al Tabaqat, 1/260; Ibn Hisham, 1/69. Regarding his lineage see Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn Ayyub, known as Ibn Qayyim al Jawziyyah: Zad al Ma’ad Fi Hady Khayr al ‘Ibad, 13th edition, edited by Shu’ayb and ‘Abdul Qadir al Arna’ut, Beirut, Muʾassasat al Risalah, 1406 AH/1986, 1/125.

[17] An Arab tribe in the south of the Arabian Peninsula. Al Tabaqat, 7/424.

[18] An Arab tribe in the south of the Arabian Peninsula. The Prophet established a brotherhood between them and al Sakun. Al Tabaqat, 7/424.

[19] For this detail, see al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 6/47. The personalities mentioned in this narration are the governors of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Yemen. See al Tabari, 3/230.

[20] Also see this story in al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 6/347; al Kamil, 2/338, and these are narrations confirming al Tabari’s narration.

[21] Al Tabari, 3/230.

[22] He was part of the Abna’ in Yemen. He came to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and accepted Islam. When he returned to Yemen, many people accepted Islam at his hands such as Fayruz al Daylami, Markabudh, the father of ‘Ata’—the first to collect the Qur’an in al San’a—and Badhan. This happened in the tenth year after Hijrah. See: al Tabaqat, 5/533; al Isabah, 3/630, biography: 9104; Usd al Ghabah, 5/99.

[23] For more information on this book see al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 347

[24] Al Aqra’ ibn ‘Abdullah al Himyari was amongst those who the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent to them. See his biography in al Isabah, 1/59, under the biography of al Aqra’ ibn ‘Abdullah al Himyari.

[25] Ibn ‘Abdul Barr said about him, “He is ‘Umayr Dhu Marwan al Qil ibn Aflah ibn Sharahil ibn Rabi’ah, he is Na’it ibn Marthad al Hamdani; the Prophet of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wrote to him and he accepted Islam”. (al Isti’ab, 2/493) Also see al Isabah, 3/121. In some sources his name is mentioned as Dhu Murran, see Usd al Ghabah, 3/145, 4/147.

[26] He is Hawshab ibn Tikhiyyah al Himyari also known as, al Alhani Dhu Zulaym, he became a Muslim during the time of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He was amongst those who the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wrote to with regard to dealing with al Ansi. He was the leader of his people. He was killed in Siffin as part of the army of Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. See: al Isti’ab, 1/394; Usd al Ghabah, 2/70–71, 2/139, 2/142.

[27] Al Tabari, 3/231-234.

[28] Read about her and her role in the killing of al Ansi in sources like: al Tabari, 3/232 and what follows.

[29] Al Tabari, 3/239.

[30] He is Farwah ibn Musayk ibn al Harith ibn Salamah ibn al Harith ibn Zayd ibn Malik al Muradi al Ghutayfi, Abu ‘Umar. See his lineage in al Isabah, 3/205, biography: 6981. He presented himself to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, leaving the kings of Kindah and became a Muslim. The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave him command over Murad, Zubayd, and all of Madhhij. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent Khalid ibn Sa’id ibn al ‘As with him to collect the Zakah; so he remained with him in his land until the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away. See Sirah Ibn Hisham, 2/581 – 583; al Tabaqat, 1/327; al Tabari, 3/326 – 327; Usd al Ghabah, 4/180.

[31] Al Kamil, 2/337.

[32] Al Tabari, 3/327.

[33] Al Tabari, 3/329.

[34] Al Tabari, 3/325; al Kamil, 2/376–377; al Isabah, 3/497, biography: 8436 and biography: 8084 (Mu’awiyah al Thaqafi). He was amongst those who assisted in saving the sons of Fayruz al Daylami from Qays.

[35] Al Tabari, 3/326; al Kamil, 2/375-376; al Isabah, 3/408, biography: 7934. Al Tahir ibn Abi Halah together with this Masruq were able to quell the apostasy of some of the ‘Akkiyyin and the Ash’ariyyin in Tihamah. See: al Tabari, 3/320.

[36] Al Kamil, 2/375.

[37] Al Bajali, his Kunyah was Abu ‘Amr. He accepted Islam in 10 AH.

[38] Al Kamil: 2/375.

[39] He is Malik ibn Namat ibn Qays ibn Malik ibn Sa’d ibn Malik al Hamdani, then al Arhabi. His Kunyah is Abu Thawr, and some say it is Dhu al Mish’ar. He came to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as part of the Hamdan delegation. See: al Isabah, 3/356-357; Sirah Ibn Hisham, 2/598.

[40] Read about him in al Isabah, 3/493, biography: 8409.

[41] Al Isabah, 3/493, biography: 8409.

[42] See his biography in al Isabah, 3/10-11, biography: 5929; Usd al Ghabah, 4/97.

[43] Al Isabah, 2/531; Usd al Ghabah, 4/97.

[44] Al Isabah, 3/10-11, biography: 5929.

[45] Wathimah: Qita’ min Kitab al Riddah, pg. 28-29; al Isabah, 2/397, biography: 5116. He has the word “al Akhirah” in his narration.

[46] Wathimah: Ibid., pg. 29; al Isabah, 3/674, Biography: 9399.

[47] Wathimah: Ibid., pg. 29-30; al Isabah, 3/91, biography: 6327.

[48] Wathimah: Ibid., pg. 31; al Isabah, 2/365, biography: 4935.

[49] Wathimah: Ibid., pg. 32; al Isabah, 1/79, biography: 311.

[50] Wathimah: Ibid., pg. 33; al Isabah, 1/578, biography: 2974.

[51] Wathimah: Ibid., pg. 334; al Isabah, 2/387 – 388, biography: 5066.

[52] Wathimah: Ibid., pg. 34-35; al Isabah, 3/120-121, biography: 6527.