Those who remained steadfast on Islam During the Apostasy Part 2

Those who remained steadfast on Islam During the Apostasy Part 1
August 30, 2023
Those who remained steadfast on Islam During the Apostasy Part 3
August 31, 2023

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Those from the Banu Dhubyan who remained steadfast on Islam

A group of Banu Dhubyan adhered to Islam. This is why they were victims of the fatal attacks by the apostates, and for this reason, Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu took an oath to attack an equal amount of people from every tribe that killed the Muslims and more.[1]

 

Those from the Banu Sulaim who remained steadfast on Islam

Groups from the Banu Sulaim adhered to Islam as well. Therefore, when Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu took office, he wrote to Ma’n ibn Hajiz[2], giving him command over those from the Banu Sulaim who had adhered to Islam. He did well amongst them, reminding the people about death being inevitable for all, including the Messengers and the Prophets. He recited verses from the Qur’an pertaining to this matter, and many people from Banu Sulaim gathered around him.[3]

When Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu decided to direct Khalid ibn al Walid to al Dahiyah[4], he wrote to Ma’n ibn Hajiz to join Khalid ibn al Walid with all of the Muslims who were with him. He also asked him to appoint Turayfah ibn Hajiz[5] as his replacement, and he did as commanded. Turayfah and the Muslims with him stood against those who apostatized, attacking them at times, and defending themselves against attacks[6], which indicates the strength of the group of Muslims from the Banu Sulaim.

The incident concerning Turayfah ibn Hajiz with al Fuja’ah al Sulami[7], reflects the role of the Muslims of Sulaim in fighting against the apostates and those who caused corruption on earth. Even al Fuja’ah himself, before he laid down his arms, we find him acknowledging Islam; as he says in a conversation with Turayfah:

 

يا طريفة والله ما كفرت وإني لمسلم وما أنت بأولى بأبي بكر مني من أنت أميره فإني أميره

O Turayfah, by Allah, I have not disbelieved and I am indeed a Muslim! And you are no more entitled to Abu Bakr than me. Whosoever you are a leader for, indeed I am his leader as well!

 

But due to his heinous act and his killing of innocent Muslims, al Siddiq killed him by burning him with fire, because he was a person who caused corruption on earth.

Evidence of the role that the Muslims of Sulaim played in fighting the apostates is found in the incident of Qabisah as well. Al Kala’i[8] mentions that Qabisah[9], one of the Banu al Dirban from Banu Khifaf, had come to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and mentioned to him that he was a Muslim, and that his people did not apostatize. So Abu Bakr ordered him to rally the Muslims of his tribe, from Sulaim, and fight against those who apostatized from his tribe. Qabisah returned to his people and many people who adhered to Islam gathered around him. They all went out and tracked down the apostates to deal with them.

Wathimah mentioned several individuals from the Banu Sulaim who adhered to Islam, cautioned the apostates, advised them and fought against them alongside Khalid ibn al Walid, including:

 

1. Sufyan ibn ‘Amr al Sulami

He rebuked his people for apostatizing and gave them an eloquent speech but they swore at him in response and composed poetry about it. When he realized that they were not going to obey him, he moved to Madinah and settled there.[10]

 

2. Al Dahhak ibn Sufyan al Sulami

He was the flag bearer of the Banu Sulaim and their leader. When they followed al Fuja’ah al Sulami he said:

 

يا بني سليم بئس ما فعلتم

O Banu Sulaim, how evil is what you did.

 

He admonished them very strongly and they swore at him in response and plotted against him. He moved away from them but after a short while they regretted and asked him to stay among them, but he refused and said:

 

ليس بيني وبينكم مواده

There is no friendship between me and you.

 

He also composed poetry regarding it.

He then returned with the Muslims to fight against them and was martyred. A verse of his poem is as follows:

مخازي عارها في الدهر باق

لقد جر الفجاءة على سليم

Al Fuja’ah has indeed dragged such shame to Sulaim,

Its disgrace will endure for the rest of time.[11]

 

Those from the Banu Kalb who remained steadfast on Islam

Al Tabari[12] narrates that among those who adhered to Islam were groups from the Banu Kalb, led by ‘Imru’ al Qays ibn al Asbagh al Kalbi.[13] Abu Bakr al Siddiq wrote to him asking him to go to Wadi’ah al Kalbi, who had apostatized and was supported by some of Banu Kalb.[14] This fact is confirmed by more than one historian, amongst whom are Ibn Hajar[15] and Ibn ‘Abdul Barr.[16]

 

Those from the Banu al Qayn who remained steadfast on Islam

In a narration of al Tabari[17] it is stated that amongst those who adhered to Islam in this region, was a group from Banu al Qayn led by ‘Amr ibn al Hakam, the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam governor to Banu al Qayn.

Al Siddiq wrote to this ‘Amr to go to the two leaders of the Fitnah of apostasy in his region, Zumayl and Muawiyah al Wa’ili, and suppress their apostasy.[18] ‘Amr did so and stood against them. Ibn ‘Abdul Barr[19] and Ibn Hajar[20] confirm this fact.

 

Those from the Banu Quda’ah who remained steadfast on Islam

A group of people from Quda’ah held onto Islam as well.[21] Mu’adh ibn Yazid ibn al Sa’iq al ‘Amiri from Hawazin, who had a significant status among his people, also adhered to Islam. When his people were determined to apostatize, he gathered them and gave them a long sermon encouraging them to return to Islam, explaining to them the evil of apostasy, and warning them about the anger of Allah. But when they did not accept his advice, he moved away with his family and all those who had obeyed him from his tribe.[22]

We have previously stated that al Fuja’ah al Sulami launched a raid on every Muslim in the tribes of Sulaim, ‘Amir and Hawazin, which is also evidence that not all of Hawazin had apostatized.[23]

 

Those from the Tay’ who remained steadfast on Islam

As for the tribe of Tay’, the incident of their apostasy and Islam deserves more detail. ‘Adi ibn Hatim al Ta’i[24] did not waiver in his steadfastness on Islam, which he managed to hold onto for himself. When the news of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passing away reached him, he had a large number of camels that he had gathered from the people as Zakah. His people tried to convince him to return the camels to them, using the pretext of the demise of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the apostasy of some of the neighbouring tribes like Asad and Ghatfan. But he took a great stance against them, taking an oath not to do what they were scheming to do, as they had willingly entered Islam and were not forced. He considered this move on their part to be a sort of betrayal and breach of trust that was brought about by the misguidance of Shaitan and ignorance regarding the religion. He tried to make them understand using all forms of encouragement, admonition, and explanation of the truth. Part of which is reproduced below:

 

ولا يدعونكم غدر غادر إلى أن تغدروا فإن للشيطان قادة عند موت كل نبي يستخف بها أهل الجهل حتى يحملهم على قلائص الفتنة وإنما هي عَجَاجَة لا ثبات لها ولا بيان فيها إن لرسول الله خليفة من بعده يلي هذا الأمر وإن لدين الله أقواماً سينهضون ويقومون به بعد رسول الله كما قاموا بعهده و وذو بيته في السماء لئن فعلتم ليقار عُنَّكم على أموالكم ونسائكم بعد قتل عدي وغدركم فأي قوم أنتم عند ذلك

Do not let the treachery of any traitor call you to betrayal. Indeed, at the death of every prophet, Shaitan has leaders who make the ignorant people rush[25] into Fitnah. It is a turbulent path with no steadiness or clarity in it. The Prophet of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has a successor who will take over after him, to manage these affairs. Indeed the religion of Allah has people who will rise and stand after the demise of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, just as they stood during his time, even if his[26] home is in the heavens! If you do this, then after ‘Adi is killed, battles will be fought for your wealth and your women, because of your betrayal. What kind of people will you be then?[27]

 

When the tribe of Tay’ witnessed ‘Adi’s serious stance, the clear truth he presented, and his firm faith, they responded to the call of faith and cursed Shaitan.[28] Tay’, with its two branches, al Ghawth and Jadilah, became among the most loyal supporters of Khalid ibn al Walid in the fight against the apostates of Asad and Ghatfan and those who followed Tulayhah al Asadi. Thus, some historians described him as the best person born in the land of Tay’ and the one who brought the most blessings to them. He was also one of the commanders who assisted Khalid ibn al Walid.[29]

Due to this stance of ‘Adi and his people, reliable historians say that Tay’ did not apostatize.[30]

As for modern historians, they have confused the stance of Tay’ at the beginning of the apostasy and what they settled on at the end, when they were convinced by the arguments of their leader and chief, ‘Adi ibn Hatim al Ta’i.[31]

Among those who immortalized his stance in his poetry is al Harith ibn Malik al Ta’i, who remained steadfast in Islam and paid his charity to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu with ‘Adi. From his poetry on this occasion, he wrote:

 

و سربلنا مجداً عدي بن حاتم

وفينا وفاء ما وفى الناس مثله

And in us is loyalty that none can match,

And we were clothed in glory by ‘Adi ibn Hatim.[32]

 

Amongst those who referenced ‘Adi’s stance during the Fitnah of apostasy was al Zabarqan ibn Badr, who will be mentioned later. While addressing his people and calling them to be steadfast on Islam, he asked them to take the position Tay’ took, by saying:

 

وقد بلغكم ما كان من بني آل طيء وكيف أجابوه يعني الصديق إلى الحق وأدوا الزكاة. فاتقوا الله في أنفسكم ولا تسفكوا دماءكم ولا تردوا علي كلامي فإني لكم ناصح

And you have received news about the Banu al Tay’, and how they responded to him (the Khalifah) by accepting the truth and paid the Zakah. So, fear Allah within yourselves, and do not shed your own blood, and do not reject my words, for I am advising you.[33]

 

NEXT⇒ Those who remained steadfast on Islam During the Apostasy Part 3


[1] Abu al Fida’ Isma’il ibn ‘Umar: al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, edited by Muhammad ‘Abdul ‘Aziz al Najjar, Saudi Arabia, Maktabat al Falah, n.d., 6/353-354; al Kamil, 2/345; al Tabari, 3/246.

[2] In some narrations by certain historians his name is mentioned as Ma’an ibn Hajizah, see for example: Ahmed ibn Yahya ibn Jabir al Baladhuri: Futuh al Buldan, distributed by Dr. Salah al Din al Munajjid, Cairo, Maktabat al Nahdah al Misriyyah, 1965, 1/117. He belonged to the Banu Harithah and was the leader of Sulaim. See his story in al Tabari, 6/265-266; Usd al Ghabah, 4/401; al Isti’ab, 2/240.

[3] Hurub al Riddah, pg. 182-183; also see al Kamil, 2/351; Tarikh al Khamis, 2/202.

[4] It refers to a region east of Khaybar to the western borders of the Yamamah region. It includes al Bazakhah and al Batah. It is in this region that the Fitnah of Tulayhah al Asadi erupted.

[5] He is Turayfah ibn Aban ibn Salamah ibn Hajiz al Sulami, as mentioned in al Isabah, 2/223, Biography: 4244. His account with the al Fuja’ah al Sulami, mentioned here, is a summary of what is mentioned by al Kala’i and others. See his biography in al Isti’ab, 2/240; Usd al Ghabah, 3/51.

[6] Al Tabari, 3/256, and see another narration in the same source, 3/242.

[7] He is Iyas ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Yalil ibn ‘Umayr ibn Khaffaf (see Hurub al Riddah, pg. 183). According to al Tabari (3/364) he is Iyas ibn ‘Abd Yalil. However, according to al Baladhuri (Futuh al Buldan, 1/117), he is Bujayr ibn ‘Abdullah al Sulami. He came to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and said, “O Abu Bakr, I am a Muslim and I intend to engage in Jihad against those who have apostatized. Give me a conveyance and support me, for if I had the strength, I would not have come to you, but I am weak in terms of a riding animal and weaponry.” Al Siddiq acceded to his request, but he betrayed and deceived Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and killed Muslims and the apostates. Al Siddiq captured him and burned him as punishment for causing corruption on earth. See his story in al Tabari, 3/264; Hurub al Riddah, pg. 184-185; al Baladhuri: al Futuh, 1/117; Ibn A’tham: al Futuh, 1/7; al Isti’ab, 2/240.

[8] Hurub al Riddah, pg. 185; Mawqif Bani Sulaim by Professor Dr. ‘Abdul Quddus al Ansari; Banu Sulaim, 1st ed., Beirut, 1391 AH/1971 CE, pg. 130-132.

[9] He was killed by Khumaysah ibn al Hakam al Sharidi, the apostate, because Qabisah had killed one of Khumaysah’s neighbours, who was an apostate, in his absence. See this story in Hurub al Riddah by al Kala’i, pg. 185; and al Isabah, 3/224, Biography: 7065.

[10] Wathimah: Qita’ min Kitab al Riddah, pg. 9; al Isabah, 2/113, Biography: 3688.

[11] Wathimah: ibid., pg. 9-10; al Isabah, 2/206, Biography: 4165.

[12] Tarikh al Tabari, 3/243.

[13] He was the leader of his people, and the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent him as a deputy to Kalb at the same time that he sent his deputies to Quda’ah. See: al Isabah, 1/63, Biography: 249; al Isti’ab, 1/107.

[14] Al Tabari, 3/243.

[15] Al Isabah, 1/63, Biography: 249.

[16] Al Isti’ab, 1/107.

[17] Al Tabari, 3/243.i

[18] Al Tabari, 3/243.

[19] Al Isti’ab, 2/531.

[20] Al Isabah, 2/532, Biography: 8515.

[21] Al Tabari, 3/243.

[22] Al Isabah, 3/497, Biography: 8431.

[23] Al Tabari, 264/3.

[24] He is ‘Adi ibn Hatim ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Sa’d… ibn al Ghawth ibn Tay’ al Taʾi, and his nickname is Abu Tarif. His father was proverbially known for his generosity and assisting people. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed him to oversee the charity of his tribe. See the story of his conversion to Islam and part of his biography in: Sirah Ibn Hisham, 2/578; al Tabaqat, 1/322; Usd al Ghabah, 3/392-394; Hurub al Riddah, pg. 45…; al Isabah, 2/468; al Isti’ab, 3/141-143, etc.

[25] The singular of this word is ‘qalus’. Another plural for the word is ‘quls’. It refers to a young female camel. It is used metaphorically to describe the hastiness in rushing into turmoil. See: Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn ‘Abdul Qadir al Razi: Mukhtar al Sihah, vol. 1, Beirut, Dar al Kutub al ‘Arabi, 1979, pg. 548, under the entry “qals.”

[26] “Dhu” means “the one” in the dialect of the Tay’ tribe, to which ‘Adi belongs. Their poet, Sanan ibn al Fahl al Taʾi, says:

وبئري ذو حفرت وذو طويت

فإن الماء ماء ابي وجدي

For indeed, the water is the water of my father and grandfather,

And my well, which I dug and concealed.

[27] See this incident in Hurub al Riddah, pg. 49-51.

[28] Hurub al Riddah, pg. 51, 69.

[29] See al Tabari, 3/253-255; Futuh ibn A’tham, 1/14; al Kamil, 2/347; Tarikh al Khamis, 2/202, 205, 206.

[30] For example: al Kala’i: Hurub al Riddah, pg. 42, 70; al Diyar Bakri: Tarikh al Khamis, 2/202, 205.

[31] And among those who made mistakes with regards to this incident are, for example: al Khudri Bek: Itmam al Wafaʾ, pg. 21, the reference previously mentioned; Barighish: Zahirat al Riddah, pg. 101, the reference previously mentioned; Talas: al Khulafaʾ al Rashidun, pg. 20, the reference previously mentioned.

[32] Wathimah: Qit’ nim Kitab al Riddah, pg. 5; Ibn Hajar: al Isabah, 1/370, Biography: 1930.

[33] Muhammad ibn ‘Umar al Waqidi: Kitab al Riddah, narrated by Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn A’tham al Kufi (d. 314 AH), edited by Dr. Yahya al Jiburi, Dar al Gharb al Islami, 1st ed., Beirut: 1410 AH/1990, pg. 68.