It is amazing how malleable an incident taken out of context can be. The fabric of reality almost shifts and a culprit can be portrayed a victim; a hero projected as a villain. Truncated versions of events accompanied with an imaginative reinterpretation is the favourite tool of every Shia propagandist. Thus, we deemed it necessary to provide some details of the final moments in the life of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, in light of authentic narrations.
After the Conquest of Makkah, Islam spread throughout the Arabian Peninsula. Deputations of Arab tribes followed one after another in rapid succession to announce their entry into the fold of Islam and to pledge their allegiance to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This surge in the growth of Islam alludes to the inevitable dominance of Islam.
إِذَا جَآءَ نَصْرُ اللّٰهِ وَ الْفَتْحُ وَ رَأَیْتَ النَّاسَ یَدْخُلُوْنَ فِیْ دِیْنِ اللّٰهِ اَفْوَاجًا فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَ اسْتَغْفِرْهُۚ إِنَّه کَانَ تَوَّابًا
When the victory of Allah has come and the conquest. And you see the people entering into the religion of Allah in multitudes. Then exalt [Him] with praise of your Lord and ask forgiveness of Him. Indeed, He is ever Accepting of repentance.
The tenth year after the Hijrah witnessed a series of unique events signalling the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mission in this world had been fulfilled and that his end was near. These were subtle signs which were picked up on by the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and some of his close Companions. ‘Irbad ibn Sariyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu relates:
One day, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stood up among us and delivered a deeply moving speech that melted our hearts and caused our eyes to flow. It was said to him, “O Messenger of Allah, it is as though you have delivered a speech of farewell, so enjoin something upon us.” He said, “I urge you to fear Allah, and to listen and obey, even if (your leader) is an Abyssinian slave. After I am gone, you will see great conflict. I urge you to adhere to my Sunnah and the path of the Rightly Guided Khulafa’, and cling to it with your molars. And beware of newly-invented matters, for every innovation is a deviation.”
The Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam usual practise during the final days of Ramadan was that he would seclude himself for devotions in I’tikaf for ten days. However, he withdrew into seclusion for a period of twenty days that year.
In addition to this, he would complete the recitation of the Qur’an once every Ramadan when he was visited by Jibril ‘alayh al Salam. That year he completed the recitation twice.
‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu as well as Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma understood the above verses to suggest the imminence of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam demise. Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma said:
‘Umar used to ask me questions in front of the Companions of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. So ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf said to him, “Why do you ask him, while we have children his age?’”
‘Umar said to him, “It is because of what you know (about him).”
So he asked me about this verse, ‘When the victory of Allah has come and the Conquest.’ I said, “It is only regarding the (end of the) life span of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, which Allah informed him of.”
I then recited the Surah until its end. So ‘Umar said, “By Allah! I do not understand it except the way you have.”
The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam frequently recited these words just before he passed away, “Subhanaka Rabbana wa bihamdika Astaghfiruka wa atubu ilaika [Glory be to You, Our Lord and praise be to You; I seek Your forgiveness and turn to You in repentance].”
Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha asked him, “O Messenger of Allah! What are these new words which I hear from you repeatedly?”
He replied, “A sign has been appointed for me relating to my people that I should repeat these words at the appearance of that sign.” Then he recited Surah al Nasr.
He undertook the journey for Hajj that year as well. During his Hajj he encouraged his people to take the rites of Hajj from him as he was not aware if he would perform Hajj in the future.
The verse in Surah al Ma’idah, “This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favour upon you and have approved for you Islam as your religion…” was revealed during the Hajj.
Upon his return to Madinah, the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam visited the graves of those slain at Uhud and prayed for them. He also visited the graves of his Companions in al Baqi’ [the cemetery in Madinah]; almost as if he were bidding them farewell from this realm. ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Amir radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:
One day the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went out and sought Allah’s forgiveness for the martyrs of the battle of Uhud after eight years. It seemed that by so doing, he bid farewell to the living and the dead. He then came back, ascended the pulpit and said, “I shall be one who goes ahead; I am a witness for you (before Allah), and I will be present before you at the Pond (Hawd al Kawthar). By Allah, I can see with my own eyes the Hawd from this place. I am not afraid that you will associate anything with Allah in worship after (my demise), but I fear that you will vie with one another for the life of the world.” It was the last time that I saw the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
Two days prior to his illness, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prepared an army under the leadership of Usamah ibn Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. The army was to proceed to Greater Syria. Senior companions from the Muhajirin and Ansar were enlisted in this detachment. Among those enlisted was ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Concerns were expressed regarding the ability of Usamah to lead a 3000 strong detachment considering his age. The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam addressed them:
If you criticise his appointment it is as if you criticise the appointment of his father before him. He is indeed worthy of office as was his father. He (Zaid) was among the most beloved to me and this (Usamah) is the most beloved after him.
The army was camped at al Jurf, 5 kilometers outside Madinah. When the news of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam illness reached Usamah, he delayed his departure. The army was later dispatched during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu; and it was one of the first duties he fulfilled after assuming leadership.
Abu Muwayhibah, the freed-slave of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:
The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent for me during the middle of the night, saying, “Abu Muwayhibah, I have been ordered to ask for forgiveness for those in Baqi’; so come with me.”
I left with him and when he stood among them, he said, “Peace be upon you, O people in the graves! You can be content that you do not experience the same as people here. Tests encroach like dark portions of the night, following one another in succession, the last being worse than the first.”
He then came over to me and said, “Abu Muwayhibah, I have been given the keys to the treasures of the world, remaining here a long time, and the (going to) paradise. I have been given the choice between this and meeting my Lord and (going to) paradise (soon).”
I said, “May my parents be ransomed for you, choose the keys of the treasures of this world, a long life here, and then Paradise.”
He replied, “No, Abu Muwayhibah. Rather I chose to meet my Lord and Paradise.”
He then proceeded to pray for forgiveness for those buried in al Baqi’, and then left. And soon thereafter began the illness in which Allah took him.”
The next day he began complaining of a headache. He was at the house of Maymunah radiya Llahu ‘anha while visiting his wives in turn, when his pain persisted and became severe. His family assembled, and it was suggested that he be given medicine through the corner of his mouth. He gestured with his hand, meaning to say, “Do not pour medicine in my mouth.”
It was assumed that he did so in the same way as a patient dislikes medicines. When he improved and felt a little better, he said, “Did I not forbid you to pour medicine in my mouth?”
His family responded, “(We thought it was because of) the dislike patients have for medicines.”
He said, “Let everyone present in the house be given medicine by pouring it in his mouth while I am looking at him, except ‘Abbas as he was not present.”
Thereafter he began asking, “Where shall I stay tomorrow?”, “Where am I tomorrow?” They understood that he was seeking permission of his wives to be nursed in the home of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. So, they all agreed for him to be nursed there. He moved to Aisha’s house supported on either side by al Fadl ibn ‘Abbas and ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. One can imagine the sadness experienced by his family as they saw his head wrapped in a bandage and his feet dragging on the ground as he was being supported; as he was too weak to walk. It was there that he spent the last week of his life.
When he arrived at the home of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha he requested the water of seven water-skins—the mouths of which have not been untied—be poured on him as a remedy, so that he would gain strength to advise his Companions. He sat in a big basin belonging to his wife Hafsah radiya Llahu ‘anha, and his wives then started to pour water on him from these water skins until he experienced relief. Then he went out to the people and led them in prayer and addressed them. He ascended the pulpit, praised Allah as He deserves to be praised and delivered his final sermon which included the following statements:
“May Allah’s curse be on the Jews and Christians for they took the graves of their Prophets as places of worship.”
“Do not make my grave an idol that is worshipped.”
“I advise you to treat the Ansar well. They are my family and with them I found shelter. They have acquitted themselves credibly of the responsibility that fell upon them and now there remains what is for them. The believers will increase, but the Ansar will diminish to the extent that they would be among men as salt is in food. Whoever among you occupies a position of responsibility and is powerful enough to do harm or good to people should fully acknowledge and appreciate the favour that these benefactors have shown, and overlook their faults.”
Abu Sa’id al Khudri radiya Llahu ‘anhu relates:
The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam delivered a sermon and said, “Allah gave a choice to one of (His) slaves either to choose this world or what is with Him in the Hereafter. He chose the latter.”
Abu Bakr began to weep. I said to myself, “What is this old man weeping for, if Allah gave a choice to one (of His) slaves either to choose this world or what is with Him in the Hereafter and he chose the latter?” (However) that slave was Allah’s Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; he was referring to himself. Abu Bakr was more knowledgeable than us.
The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “O Abu Bakr! Do not cry.”
The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then added, “Abu Bakr has favoured me much with his property and company. If I were to take a Khalil (close friend) other than Allah, I would certainly have taken Abu Bakr. It is enough that we share the Islamic bond of brotherhood and friendship. No door leading into the Masjid is to be left open besides the door of Abu Bakr.” 
Sa’id ibn Jubayr radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates:
I heard Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma saying, “Thursday! And you know not what Thursday is?” and then he wept till the stones on the ground were moist with his tears.
On that I asked, “What is Thursday?”
He said, “When the health of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam deteriorated, he said, ‘Bring me a bone, so that I may write something for you after which you will never go astray.’
The people argued their opinions although it was inappropriate to dispute in front of a prophet. They said, “What is his condition? Is he speaking senselessly? Ask him for clarity.”
The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied, “Leave me as I am in a better state than what you are asking me to do.” Then the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advised them with three things saying, “Expel the Mushrikin from the Arabian Peninsula, be hospitable to all foreign delegates as I used to do.” The narrator added, “The third order was something beneficial which either Ibn ‘Abbas did not mention, or he mentioned but I forgot.” 
The famous Muhaddith and historian, ‘Imad al Din ibn Kathir has presented a very objective approach to understanding this hadith. He says:
Orthodox scholars accept what is fully established and reject what might be viewed as allegorical. This is the methodology of those firmly rooted in knowledge. This area is one of those where the feet of many of the noisome slip. Orthodox scholars do not manipulate events to suit the narrative of their prescribed leaning, rather they pursue the truth alone, moving with it along whatever path it leads.
We do not suggest that we know what was intended; but if we were to apply discernment at what the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam potentially might have intended we can apply those ahadith that lend themselves to a clear, unambiguous interpretation.
Imam Ahmed narrates with his chain from Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, “When the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was suffering from that illness from which he succumbed to, he said, ‘Summon Abu Bakr and his son, so that no one will desire afterwards or aspire to Abu Bakr’s role.’ He went on, ‘Allah would not allow it to be otherwise, and the believers.’ He said this twice.”
Imam Ahmed also narrates—with another chain— from Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, “When the illness of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam worsened, he told ‘Abdur Rahman, Abu Bakr’s son, ‘Bring me a shoulder bone or a tablet so that I can write a document for Abu Bakr about which no one can dispute.’ When ‘Abdur Rahman went to do this, he said, ‘Allah and the believers reject there being any disagreement over you, O Abu Bakr!’”
Al Bukhari narrates with an alternate chain from Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha who said, “The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, ‘I felt like sending for Abu Bakr and his son, and appoint him lest some people claim something or some others desire something, but then I said (to myself), ‘Allah would not allow it to be otherwise, and the Muslims would prevent it from being otherwise.’”
There is a hadith which appears both in al Bukhari and Muslim from Muhammad ibn Jubayr ibn Mut’im radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who quoted his father as saying, “A woman came to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and he told her to return to him again. She asked, ‘Suppose I come and no longer find you?’ She seemed to be implying his death. He replied, ‘If you do not find me, then go to Abu Bakr.’”
It seems obvious—though Allah knows best—that she said that to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, during his final illness.
On the Thursday, five days before he passed away, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had delivered an address in which he had asserted the excellence of Abu Bakr over the other Companions, in addition to his explicit instructions that Abu Bakr lead them in prayer. It may perhaps be that this address should be viewed as a substitution for what he intended to write in the document.
He had washed himself prior to making that noble address. They had sprinkled over him water from seven water-skins, the openings of which had not been untied as mentioned in the Sahih collections.
Jundub ibn ‘Abdullah al Bajali radiya Llahu ‘anhu related:
I heard from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam five days before his death that he said, “I stand acquitted before Allah of taking any one of you as a friend; for Allah has taken me as His friend, as he took Ibrahim as His friend. Had I taken any one of my Ummah as a friend, I would have taken Abu Bakr as a friend. Beware of those who preceded you and used to take the graves of their prophets and righteous men as places of worship, but you must not take graves as masjids; I forbid you to do that.” 
The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam departed from this world on a Monday morning. Five days prior to that would be the Thursday.
The Ahl al Sunnah consider the decision of leadership the responsibility of the Muslim community. The mention of Abu Bakr in the previous narrations, in addition to his appointment to lead the Salah, are strong suggestions from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for his preferred candidate.
The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not appoint a successor as can be learnt from the narration involving ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu and ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib radiya Llahu ‘anhu
Al Bukhari narrated with his complete chain to ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma who said:
‘Ali ibn Abi Talib came out of the Messenger’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam home during his fatal illness. The people asked, “O Abu al Hassan, how is the health of Allah’s Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam this morning?”
‘Ali replied, “He has recovered with the Grace of Allah.”
‘Abbas grabbed him by the hand and said to him, “In three days you will be ruled (by somebody else), and by Allah, I feel that Allah’s Messenger will not survive this ailment. I know the look of death on the faces of the offspring of ‘Abdul Muttalib. Let us go to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and ask him who will take over the Caliphate. If it is given to us, we will know; and if it is given to somebody else, we will inform him so that he may tell the new ruler to take care of us.”
‘Ali said, “By Allah, if we asked the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for it (the Caliphate) and he denied us it now, the people will never give it to us after that. By Allah, I will not ask Allah’s Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for it.” 
The mother of Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, Umm al Fadl radiya Llahu ‘anha said:
The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came out to us with his head bandaged from his illness. He prayed Maghrib, reciting (Surah) al Mursalat.” [She said:] “He did not pray it again until he met Allah.” 
The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu forward to lead the people in salah until he passed away. After the Maghrib prayer, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam experienced difficulty and repeatedly lost consciousness. When he instructed that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu lead the prayer, Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha suggested that ‘Umar be appointed instead. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam insisted that only Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu lead the prayer. Perhaps the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wanted to leave no room for misunderstanding in his suggested candidate.
Imam al Bukhari narrates from Abu Musa radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was ill and when his illness intensified, He said, “Order Abu Bakr to lead the people in salah!”
Aisha then said, “Indeed, he is a soft-hearted man. When he stands in your place, he will be unable to lead the people in salah.”
She then repeated herself and he said, “Order Abu Bakr to lead the salah! Indeed you are of the women of Yusuf!”
He then came to the Messenger and he led the people in salah during the life of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
‘Ubaidullah ibn ‘Abdullah reported that he visited Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha and asked her to tell him about the illness of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She agreed and said:
The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was seriously ill and he asked whether the people had prayed. We said, “No, they are waiting for you, Messenger of Allah.”
The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Put some water in the tub for me.”
We did accordingly and the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took a bath. When he was about to move with difficulty, he fainted. After regaining consciousness, he again asked, “Have the people prayed?”
We said, “No, they are waiting for you, Messenger of Allah.”
He again said, “Put some water for me in the tub.”
We did accordingly and he took a bath, but when he was about to move with difficulty he fainted after regaining consciousness, he asked whether
the people had prayed and again we said, “No, they are waiting for you, Messenger of Allah.”
He said, “Put some water for me in the tub.”
We did accordingly and he took a bath and he was about to move with difficulty when he fainted. When he regained consciousness, he asked, “Have the people prayed?”
We said, “No, they are waiting for you, Messenger of Allah.”
The people were staying in the masjid and waiting for the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to lead the ‘Isha prayer. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent (instructions) to Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer. When the messenger came, he told him (Abu Bakr), “The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has ordered you to lead the people in prayer.”
Abu Bakr who was a man of very tenderly feelings asked ‘Umar to lead the prayer. ‘Umar said, “You are more entitled to that.” Abu Bakr led the prayers during those days. Afterwards the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam felt some relief and he went out supported by two men, one of them was ‘Abbas, to the noon prayer. Abu Bakr was leading the people in prayer. When Abu Bakr saw him, he began to withdraw, but the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told him not to withdraw. He told his two companions to seat him beside him (Abu Bakr). They seated him by the side of Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr said the prayer standing while following the prayer of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the people prayed (standing) while following the prayer of Abu Bakr. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was seated.
I visited ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, and said, “Should I repeat to you what Aisha had told me about the illness of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam?”
He said, “Go ahead.”
I repeated to him what had been transmitted by her. He objected to none of it, only asking whether she had named the man who accompanied ‘Abbas. I said, “No.” He replied, “It was ‘Ali.”
On Sunday, a day before his departure from this world, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam set his slaves free, paid as a charity the seven Dinars he owned, and gave his weapons as an endowment to be used by the Muslims. Even his armour was mortgaged as a security with a Jew for thirty sa’ of barley.
Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:
Abu Bakr used to lead the people in prayer during the fatal illness of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam until it was Monday. When the people aligned (in rows) for the prayer, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lifted the curtain of his house and started looking at us and was standing at that time. His face was (glittering) like a page of the Mushaf, and he smiled cheerfully. We were about to be put to trial for the pleasure of seeing the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Abu Bakr retreated to join the row as he thought that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would lead the prayer. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam beckoned us to complete the prayer and he let the curtain fall. He passed away on that very day.
Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha narrates:
Once Fatimah came walking and her gait resembled the gait of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Welcome, O my daughter!” Then he made her sit on his right or on his left side, after which he told her a secret and she started weeping.
I asked, “Why are you weeping?” He again told her a secret and she started laughing. I said, “I never saw happiness so near to sadness as I saw today.”
I asked her what the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had told her and she replied, “I would never disclose the secret of Allah’s Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”
When the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away, I asked her about it. She replied, “The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, ‘Every year Jibril used to revise the Qur’an with me once only, but this year he has done so twice. I think this indicates my death, and you will be the first of my family to follow me.’ So, I started weeping. Then he said, ‘Do you not like to be the leader of all the women of Paradise or the leader of the believing women?’ So I laughed for that.”
When the pangs of death started, Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha supported him against her. She used to say, “One of Allah’s bounties upon me is that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away in my house, on my day. His soul departed with his head between my chest and neck while he was leaning against me. Allah mixed his saliva with mine at his death.
 Surah al Nasr.
 Abu Dawood, Hadith no. 3607; al Tirmidhi, Hadith no. 2676.
 Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith no. 3624.
 Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith no. 4430.
 Sahih Muslim, Hadith no. 484.
 Surah al Ma’idah: 3.
 Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith no. 4042.
 Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith no. 4467.
 Al Bayhaqi: Dala’il al Nubuwwah, vol. 7 p. 162.
 Dala’il al Nubuwwah, vol. 7 p. 168-9; Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith no. 4458; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 p. 438.
 Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith no. 3799-3801; Sahih Muslim, Hadith no. 2510.
 Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith no. 3654.
 Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith no. 4431; Sahih Muslim, Hadith no. 1637.
 Sahih Muslim, Hadith no. 532.
 Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith no. 4447.
 Al Tirmidhi, Hadith no. 308; Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith no. 4429.
 Sahih al Bukhari, The Book of Congregation, Hadith no. 646.
 Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith no. 687.
 Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith no. 680.
 Note that this merit of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha has been narrated by Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha.
 Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith no. 4096.