Section Two: III. Accusations in his manner of dealing with those Sahabah who conflicted with him such as Abu Dharr, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir, and ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhum

Section Two: II. Accusations of innovation.
March 2, 2020
Section Two: IV. Accusations against his personality such as being absent from Badr, fleeing Uhud, and not being present at Bay’ah al Ridwan.
March 3, 2020

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III. Accusations in his manner of dealing with those Sahabah who conflicted with him such as Abu Dharr, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir, and ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhum

 

Amongst the criticisms levelled against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the matter of him sending Abu Dharr al Ghifari radiya Llahu ‘anhu to al Rabadhah is featured prominently. To clarify the position of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in this matter, we shall reproduce what Imam al Bukhari has narrated on the authority of Zaid ibn Wahb[1] who says:

 

مررت بالربذة فإذا أنا بأبي ذر ، قلت : ما أنزلك هذا ؟ قال : كنت بالشام فاختلفت أنا ومعاوية في {وَالَّذِيْنَ يَكْنِزُوْنَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ وَلَا يُنْفِقُوْنَهَا فِيْ سَبِيْلِ اللَّهِ } فقال معاوية : نزلت في أهل الكتاب ، فقلت نزلت فينا وفيهم ، وكان بيني وبينه في ذلك ، فكتب إلى عثمان يشكوني ، فكتب إليّ عثمان أن أقدم المدينة فقدمتها ، فكثر علي الناس حتى كأنهم لم يروني قبل ذلك ، فذكرت ذلك لعثمان فقال : إن شئت تنحّیت فكنت قريبا ، فذاك الذي أنزلني هذا المنزل ، ولو أمروا عليّ حبشيا لسمعت وأطعت

I passed by a place called Al Rabadhah and I met Abu Dharr and asked him, “What has brought you to this place?”

He said, “I was in Sham and differed with Muawiyah on the meaning of (the following verse of the Qur’an):

وَالَّذِيْنَ يَكْنِزُوْنَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ وَلَا يُنْفِقُوْنَهَا فِي سَبِيْلِ اللَّهِ

And those who hoard gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah.[2]

Muawiyah said, ‘This verse is revealed regarding the people of the scriptures.’ I said, ‘It was revealed regarding us and also the people of the scriptures.’

So we had a quarrel and Muawiyah sent a complaint against me to ‘Uthman. ‘Uthman wrote to me to come to Madinah, and I came to Madinah. Many people came to me as if they had not seen me before.

So I told this to ‘Uthman who said to me, ‘You may depart and live nearby if you wish.’ That was the reason for my being here for even if an Ethiopian had been nominated as my ruler, I would have obeyed him.”[3]

 

This is the most reliable and authentic narration regarding the moving of Abu Dharr to al Rabadhah. It paints a clear picture of the actualities surrounding this incident which the wicked and those with ulterior motives have sought to distort.

Ibn Hajar rahimahu Llah says:

 

وإنما سأل زيد بن وهب أبا ذر عن ذلك لأن مبغضي عثمان كانوا يشنعون عليه أنه نفى أبا ذر ، وقد بين أبو ذر أن نزوله في ذلك المكان كان باختياره

The reason Zaid ibn Wahb asked Abu Dharr about this was because those pitted against ‘Uthman had accused him of exiling Abu Dharr. Abu Dharr clarified that his stay in that area was by his own choice.[4]

 

The narration indicates that the difference of opinion between Abu Dharr and Muawiyah was due to the interpretation of the aforementioned verse. Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was of the opinion that a Muslim should not have wealth in excess of his needs. He would say to people:

 

ولا يبيت عند أحدكم دينار ولا درهم ، إلا ما ينفقه في سبيل الله أو يعده لغريم

None of you should have a Dinar or Dirham in his possession overnight, except that he intends spending it in the path of Allah or to repay his creditor.[5]

 

On the other hand, the view of the majority of the Sahabah, amongst them Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, was that retaining the wealth of which zakat had been discharged would not be considered as hoarding.[6]

Imam al Bukhari has titled a chapter in Kitab al Zakat as ‘The chapter establishing that wealth upon which zakat has been paid is not deemed hoarded wealth’.[7]

The narration also indicates that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was cognizant of the standing of Abu Dharr and fully aware of his noble status. He did not write to Muawiyah to send Abu Dharr upon a wild animal with a brute camel driver as understood from fabricated narrations.[8]

He had written to him directly instructing him to come to Madinah. This point is further strengthened by the narration of Ibn Sa’d from Abu Dharr who said:

 

فكتب إلي عثمان أن اقدم إلى المدينة

‘Uthman wrote to me instructing me to come to Madinah.[9]

 

Ibn Hajar has narrated from Fawa’id Abi al Hassan ibn Jadhlam — from ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu who said:

 

و إنما أرسلنا إليك لتجاورنا بالمدينة

We sent for you so that you may be close to us in Madinah.[10]

 

Al Muhibb al Tabari has narrated from Qatadah that ‘Uthman wrote to Abu Dharr stating:

 

أقبل إلينا فنحن أرعی لحقك وأحسن جوارا من معاوية

Come to us, we will fulfil your rights to a greater degree and are better neighbours than Muawiyah.[11]

 

The narration also indicates that ‘Uthman did not banish Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma to al Rabadhah as a form of punishment or exile. Rather, when Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu mentioned to the khalifah the multitudes of people coming to him asking him of his arrival from Sham, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu feared fitnah and said, “It may be better for you to depart”. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was inferring to him that his views and temperament was perhaps not suitable amongst the masses. And whoever is of the temperament of Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu ought to refrain from mixing with people and leave people to their devices in matters that are not explicitly impermissible in the shari’ah.[12]

The narration also illustrates the deep seeded faith of Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu in his submission to the Amir, complying with the command of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam of submitting to the leaders in all besides sin. This is evident from his statement, “If an Ethiopian had been nominated as my ruler, I would have obeyed him.” It has also been narrated through various chains that he said, “If ‘Uthman had ordered me to walk on my head, I would have done so.”[13]

Badr ibn Khalid al Jurami[14] says:

 

كنت جالسا عند عثمان طه إذ جاءه شیخ ، فلما رأوه القوم ، قالوا : أبو ذر . فلما رآه قال : مرحبا وأهلا يا أخي ، فقال أبو ذر : مرحبا وأهلا يا أخي ، لعمري لقد غلظت في العزمة ، وايم الله لو أنك عزمت علي أن أحبو الحبوت ما استطعت أن أحبو

I was sitting by ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, when an old man came. When the people saw him they said, “Abu Dharr.”

When ‘Uthman saw him he said, “Welcome my brother.”

Abu Dharr replied, “Welcome my brother. You have been harsh and severe regarding difficult matters. By Allah! If you instructed me to crawl, I would crawl as much as I could.”[15]

 

Ibn Sa’d narrates that some people of Kufah said to Abu Dharr in al Rabadhah:

 

إن هذا الرجل فعل بك وفعل ، هل أنت ناصب لنا راية – يعني لقتاله – فقال : لا ، لو أن عثمان سيرني من المشرق إلى المغرب لسمعت وأطعت

This man (‘Uthman) has done such and such to you. Will you legitimize our effort to kill him by raising a flag for us?

He replied, “No. If ‘Uthman ordered me to travel from the east to the west, I would listen and obey.”[16]

 

Ibn Abu Shaybah narrates the incident and their statements in the following words:

 

هل أنت ناصب لنا راية فتأتيك برجال ما شئت ؟ فقال يا أهل الإسلام لا تعرضوا علي أذاكم لا تذلوا السلطان ، فإن من أذل السلطان أذله الله – الحديث – والله لو صلبني عثمان على أطول حبل أو أطول خشبة لسمعت وأطعت ، وصبرت واحتسبت ، ورأيت ذلك خيرا لي ، ولو سيرني ما بين الأفق والأفق أو بين المشرق إلى المغرب لسمعت وأطعت

Will you legitimize our revolution by raising a flag and we will come to you with however many men you want?

He said, “O people of Islam. Do not present your ill to me. Do not disparage the leader. Whoever disparages the leader, Allah will humiliate him[17]—hadith. By Allah! If ‘Uthman crucified me on the longest piece of wood, I would listen and obey, and I would keep patient and hope for reward from Allah whilst considering it better for me. Moreover, if he ordered me to travel from between the horizons or between the east and the west I would listen and obey.”[18]

 

Another narration outlines that Abu Dharr was in fact the one who sought permission to settle at al Rabadhah. ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit al Ghifari[19] says:

 

دخلت مع أبي ذر على عثمان . فحسر عن رأسه فقال : والله ما أنا منهم – يعني الخوارج – فقال – أي عثمان – : إنما أرسلنا إليك لتجاورنا بالمدينة . فقال : لا حاجة لي في ذلك ، ائذن لي بالربذة

I came to ‘Uthman with Abu Dharr. He uncovered his head and he said, “By Allah I am not one of them, i.e. the Khawarij.”

‘Uthman replied, “The only reason we sent for you is so that you may be close to us in Madinah.”

He said, “I have no need for that. Permit me to go to al Rabadhah.”[20]

 

He would go this area during the era of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as recorded by the authors of the Sunan.[21]

In Tarikh al Tabari it is recorded that Abu Dharr sought permission from ‘Uthman to leave to al Rabadhah as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as advised him that once the built up area reached Sal’[22], he should leave Madinah. ‘Uthman permitted him to do so and allocated to him a small herd of camels and gave him two slaves. He also instructed him as follows, “Do not cut yourself off from Madinah lest you revert to being a Bedouin.” Abu Dharr did so.[23]

After Imam al Tabari recorded those narrations that suggest his confinement was of his own choice he comments:

 

وأما الآخرون فإنهم رووا في سبب ذلك أشياء كثيرة وأمورا شنيعة كرهت ذكرها

As for the other narrators of these events, they recount many things concerning them, repugnant matters that I am loath to repeat.[24]

 

Ghalib al Qattan[25] says:

قلت للحسن – أي البصري – عثمان أخرج أبا ذر؟ قال : لا ، معاذ الله

I asked to al Hassan i.e. al Basri, “Did ‘Uthman banish Abu Dharr?”

He replied, “No. Ma’adh Allah!”[26]

 

When it would be mentioned to Muhammad ibn Sirin that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had made him leave, he would consider such sentiment to be grave and he would say:

 

هو خرج من قبل نفسه ، ولم يسيره عثمان

He left by his own choice. ‘Uthman did not make him leave.[27]

 

From amongst the baseless lies that the Khawarij accuse ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu of is that he struck ‘Ammar until his intestines were ruptured and that he stomped Ibn Mas’ud due to which he suffered from a hernia. Ibn al ‘Arabi commenting on these made up claims says:

 

وأما ضربه لابن مسعود ومنعه عطاءه فزور ، وضربه لعمار إفك مثله ، ولو فتق أمعاءه ما عاش أبدا . وقد اعتذر عن ذلك العلماء بوجوه لا ينبغي أن يشتغل بها ، لأنها مبنية على باطل ، ولا يبنى حق على باطل ، ولا تذهب الزمان في مماشاة الجهال فإن ذلك لا آخر له

The accusation that he hit Ibn Mas’ud and curtailed his stipend is a lie. Similarly, the accusation that he hit ‘Ammar is also a lie. If he had ruptured his intestines he would never have lived. The scholars have given explanations to these which are not suitable to delve into as they are based on untruths. Truth cannot be construed over untruths. Time cannot be squandered in playing along with the ignorant as there is no end to that.[28]

 

The character of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, his advanced age, his faith, his modesty, his soft nature, precedence, and high status in Islam is far beyond him stooping so low and interfering with a man who himself is amongst the eminent Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was well aware of his precedence and virtue no matter their differences of opinion. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, prevented people fighting for him and was prepared to face his own death with patience and hope for reward rather than have blood spilled and mass fitnah arise. The fabricated narrations propose that this same ‘Uthman ordered his slaves to hit him till he lost consciousness thereafter he himself stomped his abdomen in this condition. Would a man of such nobility be happy, nay tolerate, such atrocities against ‘Ammar radiya Llahu ‘anhu whose virtues and status in Islam he was cognizant of? Would the character and modesty of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu allow him to vilify ‘Ammar radiya Llahu ‘anhu with calls of ignorance by speaking ill of his mother Sumayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha, a woman of precedence and noble virtue? Could this be possible whilst ‘Uthman understood the significance of his relation to his mother, the first martyr in Islam?

Indeed, this could never be! The reliable and authentic narrations do not contain a shred of evidence that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu would adopt such crude measures of punishment and retribution. Moreover, the character and nature of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu would be at complete odds with such behaviour. There is no doubt that pitting such fabricated narrations against the views and character of these eminent personalities as well as the general character of the society in that era lays bare the lies and falsities of the deceivers.

The reality of the incident surrounding ‘Ammar is related by ‘Uthman himself as narrated by Ibn Abi Shaybah in his book Al Musannaf in the following words:

 

جاء سعد وعمار فأرسلت إليهما ، فانصرف سعد وأبي عمار أن ينصرف – فتناوله رسولي من غير أمري ، فوالله ما أمرت ولا رضيت ، فهذه يدي لعمار فليقتص

Sa’d and ‘Ammar arrived and I called for them. Sa’d returned and ‘Ammar refused to. My messenger assaulted him without my instruction. By Allah! I did not instruct him so and neither was I pleased with it. Here is my hand for ‘Ammar to extract justice (Qisas).[29]

 

This narration clarifies the stance of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu which can be surmised in the following:

  • The messenger of ‘Uthman had assaulted ‘Ammar without the instruction or permission of ‘Uthman. What sin of ‘Uthman is this?
  • ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu – pious and truthful as he was – took an oath that he did not give the instruction and neither was he pleased with it. Rather, he was displeased with it.
  • He did not just verbally make his displeasure known. In order to please him and equal the scales of justice he made himself available for ‘Ammar to extract justice. The reverence of ‘Uthman for ‘Ammar was so great that he did not avail his messenger for justice, he availed himself for an assault of the same nature.

The objectors claim that ‘Ammar was displeased with ‘Uthman due to what had occurred. This is not true. Further, there is no reason to be displeased with the khalifah if he had in fact disciplined him. This claim dissipates when one considers the narration of Abu al Zinad[30] from Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu who says:

 

أن عثمان لما حوصر ومنع الماء ، قال لهم عمار : سبحان الله ، قد اشترى بئر رومة وتمنعونه ماءها ، خلوا سبيل الماء ، ثم جاء إلى علي وسأله إنفاذ الماء إليه

When ‘Uthman was surrounded and bared from water, ‘Ammar said, “Subhan Allah, he bought the well of Rumah and you prevent him from its water. Leave the path to the water open.” He then came to ‘Ali and requested him to send water to him.[31]

 

The accusation of ‘Uthman having assaulted Ibn Mas’ud and curtailing his stipend is a lie as mentioned by Ibn al ‘Arabi. Ibn al Athir has stated in Usd al Ghabah that Ibn Mas’ud had in fact become independent of taking a stipend and thus waived it as others had done.[32]

If, for arguments sake, any of the above attributions to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is even remotely true, then too the khalifah is permitted to discipline whoever he deems deserving. In such an instance the khalifah is not to be viewed negatively and neither will he be disparaged for it as he is responsible for keeping the order. The khalifah does not do so due to any personal vendetta. Far from it when he is a man of justice, knowledge, and exemplary character.[33]

Another blatant lie flaunted is that Ibn Mas’ud branded ‘Uthman a disbeliever. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prohibited the branding of a Muslim as a disbeliever, let alone a pious Mu’min. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma narrates that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

أيما رجل قال لأخيه يا كافر فقد باء بهما أحدهما

Whoever says to his brother, ‘O disbeliever’ then certainly one of them will be branded such.[34]

 

Moreover, the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum firmly followed the guidance and ways of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam more than anyone else.

When ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu became the khalifah, Ibn Mas’ud went to Kufah and said:

 

ولينا خيرنا ذا فوق ولم تأل

We have appointed the best of us in virtue and precedence and we did not find anyone better.[35]

 

Ibn Shabbah has narrated in Tarikh al Madinah that a man stood up vilifying ‘Uthman. ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud said:

 

ما سرني أني أردت عثمان بسهم فأخطأه وأن لي مثل أحد ذهبا

I would not take gold equal to Mount Uhud to shoot and miss ‘Uthman.[36]

 

Salamah ibn Sa’id[37] says:

ما سمعت ابن مسعود  رضي الله عنه قائلا لعثمان سوا قط ، ولقد سمعته يقول : لعن قتلتموه لا تستخلفونه – أي لا تجدون مثله

I have never heard Ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu speak ill of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. I heard him say, “If you kill him, you will not find anyone like him to replace him.”[38]

 

NEXT⇒ Section Two: IV. Accusations against his personality such as being absent from Badr, fleeing Uhud, and not being present at Bay’ah al Ridwan.


[1] He is Zaid ibn Wahb al Juhani, Abu Sulaiman al Kufi. A Mukhadram, a great and renowned Tabi’i. There is consensus on citing him as proof. He narrates from ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, and others.

  • Ibn Ma’in says, “Reliable.”
  • Ibn Khirash says, “Kufi, reliable.”
  • Ibn Sa’d says, “He was reliable and narrated much hadith.”
  • Al ‘Ijli says, “Reliable.”

See, Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 6 pg. 102; Ibn Ma’in: Al Tarikh, vol. 2 pg. 184; Al Bukhari: Al Tarikh al Kabir, 2/1/407; Al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, pg. 171; and Ibn Hajar: Al Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 427.

[2] Surah al Tawbah: 34.

[3] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 2 pg. 1.

[4] Ibn Hajar: Al Fath, vol. 3 pg. 274.

[5] Ibn Hajar: Al Fath, vol. 3 pg. 271.

[6] Ibn al ‘Arabi: Al ‘Awasim, pg. 74.

[7] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 2 pg. 111.

[8] Ibn A’tham: Al Futuh, vol. 2 pg. 156; Al Mas’udi: Murawwaj al Dhahab, vol. 2 pg. 350.

[9] Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 216.

[10] Ibn Hajar: Al Fath, vol. 3 pg. 274.

[11] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 3 pg. 94.

[12] Ibn al ‘Arabi: Al ‘Awasim, pg. 74.

[13] Ibn Abi Shaybah: Al Musannaf, vol. 15 pg. 225.

[14] He is Badr ibn Khalid al Jurami al Kufi. From the Tabi’in. He narrated from ‘Uthman and Abu Dharr. Abu al Juwairiyah al Jurami narrated from him.

  • Al ‘Ijli says, “Tabi’i, reliable.”
  • Al Bukhari says, “He is listed amongst those of Kufah.”

His life has been recorded by, Al Bukhari: Al Tarikh al Kabir, 1/2/138; Al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, pg. 77; and Ibn Abi Hatim: Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 2 pg. 412.

[15] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh Madinah Munawwarah, vol. 3 pg. 1041.

[16] Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 227.

[17] Ahmed: Al Musnad, vol. 5 pg. 49; Al Tirmidhi: Al Sunan, vol. 3 pg. 341.

[18] Ibn Abi Shaybah: Al Musannaf, vol. 15 pg. 226.

[19] He is ‘Abdullah ibn al Samit al Ghifari al Basri. From the Tabi’in. He narrates from his uncle, Abu Dharr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, and others.

  • Al Nasa’i, Ibn Hibban, al ‘Ijli, and Ibn Sa’d have deemed him reliable.

He passed away the year 70 A.H/ 689 A.D. His life has been recorded by Khalifah: Al Tabaqat, pg. 191; Al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, pg. 262; Ibn Abi Hatim: Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 5 pg. 84; Al Dhahabi: Al Mizan, vol. 2 pg. 447.

[20] Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 4 pg. 232; Ibn Hajar: Al Fath, vol. 3 pg. 274.

[21] See, Abu Dawood, vol. 1 pg. 91.

[22] A mountain of Madinah. See, Yaqut: Mujam al Buldan, vol. 1 pg. 236.

[23] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 284.

[24] Ibid, vol. 4 pg. 284.

[25] He is Ghalib ibn Khattaf ibn Abi Ghaylan al Qattan, Abu Sulaiman al Basri.

  • Ahmed ibn Hambal says, “Reliable, reliable.”
  • Ibn Sa’d, Ibn Ma’in, and al Nasa’i have deemed him reliable.
  • Ibn Hibban has recorded his name in Al Thiqat.

His life has been recorded by Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 7 pg. 271; Ibn Ma’in: Al Tarikh, vol. 2 pg. 468; Ibn Abi Hatim: Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 7 pg. 48; and Ibn Hajar: Al Tahdhib, vol. 8 pg. 242.

[26] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh Madinah Munawwarah, vol. 3 pg. 1037.

[27] Ibid, vol. 3 pg. 1037.

[28] Ibn al ‘Arabi: Al ‘Awasim, pgs. 63-66.

[29] Ibn Abi Shaybah: Al Musannaf, vol. 15 pgs. 220-221.

[30] He is ‘Abdullah ibn Dhakwan al Qurashi al Madani, Abu ‘Abdur Rahman, famously known as Abu al Zinad. From amongst the eminent Tabi’in.

  • Ibn Sa’d says, “He was reliable, narrated much hadith, was eloquent, had deep insight into the Arabic language and was an intelligent scholar.”
  • Ibn Ma’in says, “Reliable, a proof.”
  • Ibn al Madini says, “After the senior Tabi’in there was no one more knowledgeable than him in Madinah.”
  • Al ‘Ijli says, “Madani, Tabi’i, reliable.”
  • Abu Hatim says, “Reliable, a jurist.”
  • Al Bukhari says, “The most authentic chain of transmission of Abu Hurairah is Abu al Zinad— from Al A’raj — from Abu Hurairah.”
  • Al Nasa’i, al Saji, and Abu Jafar al Tabari have also deemed him reliable.

He passed away the year 130 A.H/747 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 5 pg. 49; Ibn Ma’in: Al Tarikh, vol. 2 pg. 305; Al Bukhari: Al Tarikh al Kabir, 3/1/83; Al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, pg. 254; Ibn Abi Hatim: Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 5 pg. 49; and Ibn Hajar: Al Tahdhib, vol. 5 pg. 203.

[31] Al Muhibb al Tabari: Al Riyad al Nadirah, vol. 3 pf. 98.

[32] Ibn al Athir: Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 390.

[33] Ibn Taymiyyah: Al Minhaj, vol. 3 pg. 195.

[34] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 7 pg. 97.

[35] Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 462; Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, pg. 209.

[36] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, vol. 3 pg. 1052.

[37] I did not find his profile in the sources available to me.

[38] Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, vol. 3 pg. 1052.

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