Section Two – A Detailed Analyses Regarding some Rafidi Transmitters from their Credible Transmitter Dictionaries

Chapter Ten – The Status of the Transmitters of the Rawafid – Section One: The Rafidi narrators impugned in their credible transmitter dictionaries.
December 2, 2021
Section Three – Unknown Narrators in the Books of the Rawafid
December 2, 2021

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Section Two

A Detailed Analyses Regarding some Rafidi Transmitters from their Credible Transmitter Dictionaries

 

The most Reliable Transmitters of the Rawafid

They are: Zurarah ibn A’yan, Abu Basir Layth ibn al Bakhtari al Muradi, Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Rabah al Thaqafi, Burayd ibn Muawiyah Abu al Qasim al ‘Ijli.

These four individuals are the pillars from who most of the narrations of the Rafidah have come. ‘Abdul Hussain Sharaf al Din mentions in his book Al Muraja’at:

 

هؤلاء الأربعة قد نالوا الزلفى وفازوا بالقدح المعلى والمقام الأسنى

These four individuals have attained closeness; they acquired the successful arrow and the elevated position.[1]

 

And al Kashshi narrates from Sulaiman ibn Khalid al Aqta’:

 

ما أجد أحدا أحيا ذكرنا وأحاديث أبي عليه السلام إلا زرارة وأبو بصير المرادي ومحمد بن مسلم وبريد بن معاوية ولولا هؤلاء ما كان أحد يستنبط هذا هؤلاء حفاظ الدين وأمناء أبي عليه السلام على حلال الله وحرامه وهو السابقون إلينا في الدنيا والسابقون إلينا في الآخرة

I heard Abu ‘Abdullah saying, “I don’t find anyone who has revived our mention and the narrations of my father ‘alayh al Salam besides Zurarah, Abu Basir Layth al Muradi, Muhammad ibn Muslim, and Burayd ibn Muawiyah. Had it not been for these individuals no one would have extracted this. These are the preservers of the Din and the confidants of my father ‘alayh al Salam in the Halal matters of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and his Haram matters. They are the forerunners to us in the world and the forerunners to us in the afterlife.[2]

 

And al Kashshi says:

 

أجمعت العصابة على تصديق هؤلاء الأولين من أصحاب أبي جعفر وأصحاب أبي عبد الله وانقادوا لهم بالفقه فقالوا أفقه الأوّلين ستة زرارة معروف بن خربوذ وبريد وأبو بصير الأسدي والفضيل بن يسار ومحمد بن مسلم الطائفي… وقال بعضهم مكان أبو بصير الأسدي أبو بصير المرادي وهو ليث بن البختري

The sect has concurred upon confirming the narrations of these early companions of Abu Jafar and the companions of Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam, and they have acknowledged jurisprudential ability for them. Hence, they have said, “The greatest jurists of the early people are six: Zurarah, Ma’roof ibn Kharrabudh, Burayd, Abu Basir al Asadi, al Fudayl ibn Yasar, and Muhammad ibn Muslim al Ta’ifi.” And they say, “The greatest jurists of the six is Zurarah.” And some suggest Abu Basir al Asadi instead of Abu Basir al Muradi, and he was Layth ibn al Bakhtari.”[3]

 

And Abu ‘Ubaidah al Hadhdha’ says:

 

سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول زرارة وأبو بصير ومحمد بن مسلم وبريد من الذين قال الله تعالى ‏وَالسَّابِقُونَ السَّابِقُونَ أُولَئِكَ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ

I heard Abu ‘Abdullah saying, “Zurarah, Abu Basir, Muhammad ibn Muslim, and Burayd are those regarding who Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has said, ‘And the forerunners, the forerunners, those are the ones brought near’[4].[5]

 

And he also says:

 

إن أصحاب أبي كانوا زينا أحياء وأمواتا أعني زرارة ومحمد بن مسلم ومنهم ليث المرادي وبريد العجلي وهؤلاء القوامون بالقسط هؤلاء السابقون السابقون أولئك المقربون

The companions of my father were a beauty whilst alive and after their demise. I am referring to: Zurarah, Muhammad ibn Muslim, Layth al Muradi, and Burayd al ‘Ijli. They are the people who upheld justice and they are the forerunners, the forerunners, and they are the ones brought near.[6]

 

And al Sadiq says whilst describing a group of the companions of his father:

 

هم مستودع سري أصحاب أبي عليه السلام حقا إذا أراد الله بأهل الأرض سوءا صرف بهم عنهم السوء هم نجوم شيعتي أحياء ا وأمواتا يحيون ذكر أبي عليه السلام بهم يكشف الله كل بدعة ينفون عن هذا الدين انتحال المبطلين وتأول الغالين ثم بكي فقلت من هم فقال من عليهم صلوات الله ورحمته احياءا وأمواتا بريد العجلي وزرارة وأبو بصير ومحمد بن مسلم

“They are the safekeepers of my secret and truly the companions of my father. When Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala intends for the people of the earth an affliction, he averts the affliction because of them. They are the stars of my Shia, whilst alive and after death. They revive the mention of my father. By way of them Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala exposes every innovation, and they dispel from the Din the false attributions of the falsifiers and the misinterpretations of the fanatics.”

He then cried.

I asked, “Who are they?”

He replied, “Those upon who descends the mercy of Allah whilst alive and after their death: Burayd al ‘Ijli, Zurarah, Abu Basir, Muhammad ibn Muslim.”[7]

 

And Jafar al Sadiq also says:

 

بشر المخبتين بالجن بريد بن معاوية العجلي وأبو بصير ليث بن البختري المرادي ومحمد بن مسلم وزرارة أربعة نجباء امناء الله على حلاله و حرامه لولا هذه انقطعت آثار النبوة واندرست

Give glad tidings to the devoted of Jannat: Burayd ibn Muawiyah al ‘Ijli, Abu Basir Layth ibn al Bakhtari al Muradi, Muhammad ibn Muslim, and Zurarah. They are the four noble people who are the trust keepers of Allah in his matters of Halal and Haram. Had it not been for these individuals the traces of Nubuwwah would have ended and faded away.[8]

 

Al Kashshi narrates from Jamil ibn Darraj:

 

سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول أوتاد الأرض وأعلام الدين أربعة محمد بن مسلم وبريد بن معاوية وليث بن البختري المرادي وزرارة بن أعين

I heard Abu ‘Abdullah saying, “The pegs of the earth and the flags of the Din are four: Muhammad ibn Muslim, Burayd ibn Muawiyah, Layth ibn al Bakhtari al Muradi, and Zurarah ibn A’yan.”[9]

 

The Biography of These Transmitters:

 

 

1. Zurarah ibn A’yan

The Shia unanimously concur upon the approbation of this man and the authentication of what has come from him. And the narrations of Zurarah are abundantly found in their canonical works regarding various topics, like: Shar’i rulings, principles of Din, jurisprudence, etiquettes, and advises, amongst others.

Abu al Qasim al Khu’i mentions:

 

وقع بعنوان زرارة في إسناد كثير من الروايات تبلغ ألفين وأربعة وتسعين موردا فقد روى عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام ورواياته عنه تبلغ ألفا ومائتين وستة وثلاثين موردا وروى عن أبي جعفر وأبي عبد الله عليهما السلام ورواياته عنهما بهذا العنوان تبلغ اثنين وثمانين موردا وروى عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام ورواياته عنه بهذا العنوان وق يعبر عنه بالصادق عليه السلام تبلغ أربعمائة وتسعة وأربعين موردا وروى عن أحدهما عليهما السلام ورواياته عنهما بهذا العنوان تبلغ مائة وستة وخمسين موردا

There have come with the name of Zurarah many a narration which reach 2490. Hence, he has narrated from ‘Abu Jafar’, and his narrations from him reach 1236 narrations. And he has narrated from ‘Abu Jafar and Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam’ (with this title, i.e., the title of ‘Abu Jafar and Abu ‘Abdullah’) and his narrations from them reach 82 narrations. And he has narrated from ‘Abu ‘Abdullah’ and his narrations from him with this title (and at times with the title al Sadiq) reach 440 narrations. And he has narrated from ‘one of them’ and his narrations from them with this title reach 156 narrations.[10]

 

It should be not that what is intended by these numbers is the number of narrations from him in the four early books.

Likewise, Abu Jafar al Tusi makes mention of Zurarah, his sons, and his brothers and says:

 

ولهم روايات كثيرة وأصول وتصانيف… ولزرارة تصنيفات منها كتاب الاستطاعة والجبر

And for them are many narrations, and principal sources, and other works… And for Zurarah there are many books, amongst them is: Kitab al Istita’ah wa al Jabr…[11]

 

Approbation of Zurarah

Added to the statements about his approbation that have passed already are the following:

Al Najashi mentions:

 

شيخ أصحابنا في زمانه ومتقدمهم وكان قارئا فقيها متكلما شاعرا أديبا قد اجتمعت فيه خلال الفضل والدين صادقا فيما يرويه

Zurarah ibn A’yan is the teacher of our people in his time and their leading scholar. He was a master of the Qur’an, a jurist, a theologian, a poet, and a master in literature. All the attributes of virtue and knowledge were found in him, and he was truthful in what he narrated.[12]

 

Jafar al Sadiq said about him:

 

رحم الله زرارة بن أعين لولا زرارة ونظراؤه لاندرست أحاديث أبي

May Allah have mercy on Zurarah ibn A’yan, had it not been for Zurarah and his like the narrations of my father would have vanished.[13]

 

He also said about him:

 

يا زرارة! إن اسمك من أسماء أهل الجنة

O Zurarah your name is included in the names of the people of Jannat.[14]

 

‘Ali ibn Musa al Rida says about him:

 

أترى أحدا كان أصدع بالحق من زرارة

Do you know of anyone who proclaimed the truth more than Zurarah?[15]

 

However, despite this lavish praise for him, the views about him in the Transmitter dictionaries are conflicting. At times they raise him to the sky, and at times they land him in the ditches of ruination. The reality is that when we analyze these reports of approbation and impugning, we will conclude that the man was a liar, a forger, and a hypocrite; and that he would lie against the Imams and would also belie them; likewise, he was disrespectful to them, especially to Jafar al Sadiq, to the extent that it is reported that he passed wind on his beard mockingly.

Al Kashshi narrates the following from Zurarah:

 

سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن التشهد؟ فقال اشهد ان لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له وأشهد ان محمدا عبده ورسوله قلت التحيات والصلوات؟ قال التحيات والصلوات فلما خرجت قلت إن لقيته لأسألنه غدا فسألته من الغد عن التشهد فقال كمثل ذلك قلت التحيات والصلوات قال التحيات والصلوات قلت ألقاه بعد يوم لأسألنه غدا فسألته عن التشهد فقال كمثله قلت التحيات والصلوات قال التحيات والصلوات فلما خرجت ضرطت في لحيته وقلت لا يفلح ابدا

I asked Abu ‘Abdullah about Tashahhud and he said, “I testify that there is no deity but Allah alone who has no partner, and I testify that Muhammad is his servant and messenger.” I said, “What about al Tihhiyyat wa al Salawat (greetings and salutations)?” He said, “Al Tahiyyat wa al Salawat.” And when I came out, I said, “If I meet him, I will ask him again tomorrow.” I thus asked him the next day about Tashahhud and he said the same. I asked, “What about al Tahiyyat wa al Salawat?” He said, “And Al Tahiyyat wa al Salawat.” I said, “I will meet him after a day and will ask him again. I thus asked him about Tashahhud and he gave the same answer. I asked, “And what about al Tahiyyat wa al Salawat?” He replied, “al Tahiyyat wa al Salawat.” When I left him, I passed wind on his beard and said, “He will never be successful.”[16]

 

As for the narrations that praise him, they are weak. And even if hypothetically we consider them to be authentic, they do not suggest any merit for him or praise. Because when approbating and impugning statements happen to clash, a detailed impugning is given preponderance over approbation. Over and above that, the possibility that the Imam was practicing Taqiyyah with him also stands, as per their belief of Taqiyyah.

Despite this, we find that some later scholars like Abu al Qasim al Khu’i, the author of Mujam Rijal al Hadith, has unsuccessfully tried to approbate this transmitter who has been cursed by the Imams in his following statement:

 

أما الروايات الذامة فهي على ثلاث طوائف الأولى ما دلت على أن زرارة كان شاكا في إمامة الكاظم الثانية الروايات الدالة على أن زرارة قد صدر منه ما ينافي إيمانه الثالثة ما ورد فيها قدح زرارة من الإمام

The narrations which condemn Zurarah are of three types:

    1. Narrations which suggest that Zurarah doubted the Imamah of al Kazim….
    2. Narrations which suggest that from Zurarah certain things emerged which violate his faith…
    3. Narrations which contain an impugning of Zurarah by the Imam.…[17]

 

Impugning of Zurarah

Hereunder are some statements narrated by al Kashshi regarding the impugning of Zurarah: Al Kashshi narrates that Imam al Sadiq asked one of his Shia:

 

متى عهدك بزرارة قال قلت ما رأيته منذ أيام قال لا تبال وإن مات فلا تشهد جنازته قال: قلت زرارة متعجبا مما قال قال نعم زرارة زرارة شر من اليهود والنصارى ومن قال إن الله ثالث ثلاثة

“When last did you see Zurarah?”

He replied, “I did not see him for a few days.”

Imam al Sadiq said, “Don’t be bothered, and even if he dies do not attend his funeral.”

The questioner asked, “Zurarah?” surprised by what he had said.

Imam al Sadiq responded, “Yes Zurarah, Zurarah is worse than the Jews and the Christians and those who say that Allah is the third of Trinity.”[18]

 

And al Kashshi narrates that Abu ‘Abdullah cursed him three times[19] and said:

 

إن الله قد نكس قلت زرارة

The heart of Zurarah has been inversed.[20]

 

And this explains why Zurarah would say:

 

وأما جعفر فأن في قلبي عليه لعنة

As for Jafar, in my heart is a curse for him.[21]

 

The narrator of the report explains the reason saying:

 

لأن أبا عبد الله أخرج مخازيه

Because Abu ‘Abdullah exposed his shameful acts.[22]

 

Nonetheless, al Kashshi also narrates from Abu Sayyar:

 

سمعت أبا عبد الله يقول لعن الله بريدا ولعن الله زرارة

I heard Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam saying, “May Allah curse Burayd and may Allah curse Zurarah.”[23]

 

Al Kashshi narrates from Muyassar:

 

كنا عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فمرت جارية في جانب الدار على عنقها قمقم قد نسكته قال فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام فما ذنبي إن الله قد نكس قلب زرارة كما نكست هذه الجارية هذا القمقم

We were by Abu ‘Abdullah when a maiden passed from the side of the house with a small vase on her neck that she had overturned. Abu ‘Abdullah thus said, “What is my sin if Allah has overturned the heart of Zurarah, just as this maiden has overturned the vase.”[24]

 

Abu ‘Abdullah said:

 

ما أحدث أحد في الإسلام ما أحدث زرارة من البدع عليه لعنة الله

No one has innovated in Islam as much as Zurarah has innovated, upon him be the curse of Allah.[25]

 

Likewise, Zurarah would intentionally lie against Abu ‘Abdullah and he would insist on attributing that to him. Al Kashshi narrates from Muhammad ibn Abi ‘Umair:

 

دخلت على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فقال كيف تركت زرارة؟ قال تركته لا يصلي العصر حتى تغيب الشمس قال فأنت رسولي إليه فقل له فليصل في مواقيت أصحابي فاني قد حرقت قال فأبلغته ذلك فقال أنا والله أعلم أنك لم يكذب عليه ولكني أمرني بشيء فأكره أن أدعه

I entered upon Abu ‘Abdullah and he asked, “How did you leave Zurarah?”

I said, “I left him whilst he was not performing the ‘Asr Salah till the setting of the sun.”

“Then you are my messenger to him so say to him,” he said, and then added, “He should read Salah in the times of my companions, for now I am frustrated.”

I, thus, conveyed that to him and he retorted, “I, by Allah, know that you have not lied against him, but he has ordered me to do something and I dislike leaving it.”[26]

 

As is clear, here he claims that Jafar al Sadiq is the one who ordered him not read the ‘Asr Salah till the setting of the sun, whereas Jafar is free from this lie.

 

The Most Crucial Criticisms about Zurarah:
  • Zurarah Would Issue Legal Verdicts Based on his Opinion in Matters of Halal and Haram

In Rijal al Kashshi the following is narrated from Ibn Muskan:

 

تذاكرنا عند زرارة في شيء من أمور الحلال والحرام فقال قولا برأيه فقلت أبرأيك هذا أم برأيه فقال انى أعرف أو ليس رب رأى خير من اثره

We discussed by Zurarah a matter from the matters of Halal and Haram and he made a statement based on his opinion. So I asked him, “Is this based on your opinion or based on a tradition?”

He replied, “I know better. Is it not that many an opinion is better than tradition?”[27]

 

  • Zurarah Would Forge Lies Against al Sadiq:

The following is narrated in Rijal al Kashshi from Hisham ibn Salim:

 

قال لي زرارة بن أعين لا ترى على أعوادها غير جعفر عليه السلام قال فلما توفى أبو عبد الله عليه السلام أتيته فقلت له تذكر الحديث الذي حدثتني به وذكرته له وكنت أخاف ان يجحدنيه فقال انى والله ما كنت فلت ذلك الا برأيي

Zurarah ibn A’yan said to me, “You will not see upon the wood (of this pulpit) except Jafar (that is he is the promised Mahdi).”

Hence, when Abu ‘Abdullah passed away I came to him and said, “Do you remember the narration you narrated to me?” and I mentioned it to him and feared that he would deny it.

He replied, “By Allah, I did not say that but on the basis of my opinion.”[28]

 

  • Zurarah Would Doubt the Knowledge of al Sadiq:

Ibn Muskan narrates, as appears in Rijal al Kashshi:

 

إني كنت أرى جعفر أعلم مما هو وذلك يزعم أنه سأل أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن رجل من أصحابنا كان مختفيا من غرامة فان كان هذا الامر قريبا صبر حتى يخرج مع القائم وان كان فيه تأخير صلح غرامة فقال له أبو عبد الله عليه السلام يكون ان شاء الله تعالى فقال زرارة يكون إلى سنة فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام يكون إن شاء الله فقال زرارة  يكون إلى سنتين فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام يكون إن شاء الله فخرج زرارة فوطن نفسه على أن يكون إلى سنتين فلم يكن فقال ما كنت أرى جعفرا الا اعلم مما هو كنت أرى جعفرا اعلم ممن هو

“I would consider Jafar more knowledgeable than he actually is.”

This is because he claims that he asked Abu ‘Abdullah regarding a person of our companions who was in hiding because of a debt saying, “May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala keep you in goodness, a person of our companions is hiding due to debt. So, if this matter is close, then he can exercise patience till he emerges with the Mahdi, and if there will be delay in it, then he can reconcile with his debtors.”

Abu ‘Abdullah said, “It will happen.”

Zurarah asked, “Will it happen in a year?”

Abu ‘Abdullah said, “It will happen if Allah wills.”

Zurarah asked, “So, will it happen within two years?”

Abu ‘Abdullah said, “It will happen if Allah wills.”

Zurarah, thus, left and convinced himself that it will happen in two years, but it did not happen. Thus he said, “I used to consider Jafar more knowledgeable than he actually is.”[29]

 

  • Zurarah would belie al Sadiq

In Rijal al Kashshi the following narration is narrated from ‘Isa ibn Abi Mansur, Abu Usamah al Shahham, and Yaqub al Ahmar:

 

كنا جلوسا عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فدخل عليه زرارة فقال إن الحكم بن عيينة حدث عن أبيك أنه قال صل المغرب دون المزدلفة فقال له أبو عبد الله عليه السلام أنا تأملته ما قال أبي هذا قط كذب الحكم على أبي قال فخرج زرارة وهو يقول ما أرى الحكم كذب على أبيه

We were sitting by Abu ‘Abdullah when Zurarah entered upon him and said, “al Hakam ibn ‘Uyaynah has narrated from your father that he said, “Read the Maghrib Salah before Muzdalifah.”

Abu ‘Abdullah said, “I pondered over this, my father did not say that ever, al Hakam has lied against my father.”

Zurarah, thus, left saying, “I don’t think al Hakam has lied against his father.”[30]

 

  • Zurarah will die whilst astray:

In Mujam Rijal al Hadith the following is narrated from Layth al Muradi:

 

سمعت أبا عبد الله يقول: لا يموت زرارة إلا تائها

I heard Abu ‘Abdullah saying, “Zurarah will not die but whilst astray.”[31]

 

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The Views of the Ahlus Sunnah regarding Zurarah

Sufyan al Thawri mentions about Zurarah:

ما رأى أبا جعفر

He did not see Abu Jafar.[32]

 

And when Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah was told that Zurarah ibn A’yan had a book from Abu Jafar, he said:

 

ما هو ما رأى أبا جعفر ولكنه كان يتتبع حديثه

What book is that? He did not see Abu Jafar, however, he would search for his narrations.[33]

 

And Ibn al Sammak narrates:

 

حججت فلقيني زرارة بن أعين بالقادسية فقال إن لي إليك حاجة وعظمها فقلت ما هي فقال إذا لقيت جعفر بن محمد فأقرئه منى السلام وسله أن يخبرني أنا من أهل النار أم من أهل الجنة فأنكرت ذلك عليه فقال لي إنه يعلم ذلك ولم يزل بي حتى أجبته فلما لقيت جعفر بن محمد أخبرته بالذي كان منه فقال لي هو من أهل النار فوقع في نفسي مما قال جعفر فقلت ومن أين علمت ذاك فقال من ادعى على علم هذا فهو من أهل النار فلما رجعت لقيني زرارة فأخبرته بأنه قال لي إنه من أهل النار فقال كال لك من جراب النورة قلت وما جراب النورة؟ قال عمل معك بالتقية

I set out for Hajj and Zurarah ibn A’yan met me in al Qadisiyyah and said to me, “I need a favour from you,” and he made it seem big.

I asked him, “What is it?”

He said, “When you meet Jafar ibn Muhammad, convey my regards to him and ask him to inform me if I am from the people of hell or the people of paradise.”

I disapproved of that, so he said, “He knows that,” and persisted till I accepted.

Later when I met Jafar ibn Muhammad, I informed him of what he said.

He responded, “He is from the people of Jahannam.”

I doubted what Jafar had said and, hence, I asked, “How did you come to know that?”

He replied, “Whoever claims that another to have the knowledge of that is from the people of hell.”

So, when I returned, Zurarah met me and I informed him that he told me that he is from the people of hell, he said, “He measured for you from the sack of lime.”

I asked him, “What is the sack of lime?”

He replied, “He practiced Taqiyyah upon you.”[34]

 

Authentication of the narration, ‘May Allah curse Zurarah’ from the reliable books of the Shia:

The following narration appears in Rijal al Kashshi:

 

حدثني أبو جعفر محمد بن قولويه قال حدثني محمد بن أبي القاسم أبو عبد الله المعروف بماجيلويه عن زياد بن أبي الحلال قال قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام إن زرارة روى عنك في الاستطاعة شيئا فقبلنا منه وصدقناه وقد أحببت أن أعرضه عليك فقال هاته فقلت يزعم أنه سألك عن قول الله عز وجل: وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا فقلت من ملك زادا وراحلة فقال لك كل من ملك زادا وراحلة فهو مستطيع للحج وإن لم يحج؟ فقلت نعم فقال ليس هكذا سألني ولا هكذا قلت كذب علي والله كذب علي والله لعن الله زرارة لعن الله زرارة لعن الله زرارة إنما قال لي من كان له زاد وراحلة فهو مستطيع للحج قلت قد وجب عليه قال فمستطيع هو فقلت لا حتى يؤذن له قلت فأخبر زرارة بذلك قال نعم قال زياد فقدمت الكوفة فلقيت زرارة فأخبرته بما قال أبو عبد الله وسكت عن لعنه قال أما انه قد أعطاني الاستطاعة من حيث لا يعلم وصاحبكم هذا ليس له بصر بكلام الرجال

Abu Jafar ibn Quluwayh narrated to me, he says: Muhammad ibn Abi al Qasim Abu ‘Abdullah who was known as Majilawayh narrated to him from Ziyad ibn Abi al Halal who said:

I said to Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam, “Zurarah narrated something from you regarding ability so we accepted it from him and we believed him. I, thus, wanted to present it to you.”

He said, “Present it.”

I said, “He claimed that he asked you regarding the verse, ‘And to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House, for whoever is able to find thereto a way,’[35] and you told him, ‘It refers to whoever possesses provisions and a conveyance.’ He thus asked, ‘Every person who owns a conveyance and provision is capable of Hajj even though he does not perform Hajj,’ and you said, “Yes.”

Abu ‘Abdullah said, “He did not ask me in this way and nor did I answer in that way. He has lied upon me, by Allah; he has lied upon me by Allah. May Allah curse Zurarah, may Allah curse Zurarah, may Allah curse Zurarah. What he said to me was, ‘Is any person who has provisions and a conveyance capable of doing Hajj?’ So, I said, ‘Hajj becomes binding upon him.’ He then asked again, ‘So is he able?’ and I replied, ‘No, till he is accorded permission.’”

I asked, “Should I inform Zurarah of that?”

He replied, “Yes.”

I, thus, came to Kufah and met Zurarah and informed him of what Abu ‘Abdullah said and remained silent from mentioning the curse.

His response was, “Behold, he accorded me ability in a way unknown to him. And this companion of yours [referring to Abu ‘Abdullah] does not have a good understanding of the dialogue of men.”

 

Al Kashshi states that the Transmission of this narrations is Sahih without a doubt according to the consensus of the scholars.[36]

As we noticed, instead of seeking pardon, Zurarah insisted that the Imam gave him a legal verdict of ability in a way unknown to him and presumed that the Imam does not have insight into the speech of men. This shows that Zurarah was of those who intentionally forged lies.

Nonetheless, here is a brief analyses of the narrators of this narration:

  • Muhammad ibn Quluwayh Abu Jafar

Al Najashi says:

من خيار أصحاب سعد

From the noble companions of Sa’d.[37]

 

And Abu al Qasim al Khu’i mentions:

 

محمد بن قولويه الجمال والد أبي القاسم جعفر بن محمد يروي عن سعد بن عبد الله وغيره…وتقدم عن النجاشي في ترجمة ابنه جعفر أنه من خيار أصحاب سعد وقد أكثر الرواية عنه ابنه جعفر في كامل الزيارات وقد التزم بأن لا يروي في كتابه هذا إلا عن ثقة وكذلك الكشي روى عنه كثيرا وروى بعنوان محمد بن قولويه عن الحسن بن متيل وروى عنه جعفر أبو القاسم ابنه

Muhammad ibn Quluwayh al Jammal, the father of Abu Qasim Jafar ibn Muhammad. He narrates from Sa’d ibn ‘Abdullah and others. And it has passed already in the biography of his son Jafar from al Najashi that he was from noble companions of Sa’d. His son Jafar has abundantly narrated from him in Kamil al Ziyarat wherein his requisite is that he will not narrate but from a reliable. Likewise, al Kashshi has also narrated excessively from him. He has narrated from him with the name ‘Muhammad ibn Quluwayh from al Hassan ibn Matil, and from him his son Jafar Abu al Qasim has narrated.[38]

 

  • Muhammad ibn Abi al Qasim

Al Najashi says about him:

 

محمد بن أبي القاسم عبيد الله بن عمران الجنابي البرقي أبو عبد الله الملقب بماجيلويه وأبو القاسم يلقب ببندار سيد من أصحابنا القميين ثقة عالم فقيه عارف بالأدب والشعر والغريب

Muhammad ibn Abi al Qasim ‘Ubaidullah ibn ‘Imran al Janabi[39] al Barqi Abu ‘Abdullah, also known as Majilawayh, and Abu al Qasim was known as Bundar. He is the leading scholar of our Qummi scholars who was reliable, a scholar, a jurist, and one who was well-versed in literature, poetry, and strange words of language.[40]

 

  • Ziyad ibn Abi al Halal:

Al Najashi says:

زياد بن أبي الحلال كوفي مولى ثقة روى عن أبي عبد الله عليه سلام له كتاب يرويه عدة من أصحابنا

Ziyad ibn Abi al Halal. A Kufi freed slave who is reliable. He has narrated from Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam. He has a book which a number of our scholars narrate.[41]

 

And Ibn Dawood al Hilli says:

 

بفتح الحاء المهلمة كوفي مولى ثقة

With a Fathah on the letter Ha’. A Kufi freed slave who was reliable.[42]

 

From the aforementioned, the authenticity of the narration which curses Zurarah is established, just has him being impugned and his narrations being compromised is also established. And therefrom the influence of Zurarah on the Shia dogma is evident in that it is very akin to the influence of Ibn Saba’.[43]

Having said that, it is also reported that Zurarah belonged to a Christian family. Hence, in al Fihrist of al Tusi it appears that he was from a Christian family and that his grandfather Sansan was a priest in the Roman lands and that his father was a Roman slave of a person from the Banu Shayban.[44]

So, based on the above it we ask: Can any narration be accepted from Zurarah? Can any religion be assimilated from him? Can any hadith be taken from him? Also, regarding which of their transmitters can an investigation be undertaken when their most reliable transmitter happens to be Zurarah?

 

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2. Abu Basir Layth ibn al Bakhtari al Muradi

Ibn Dawood al Hilli mentions in the chapter of agnomens in his book that the agnomen Abu Basir is shared by four individuals: al Muradi Layth ibn al Bakhtari, al Asadi al Makfuf Yahya ibn Abi al Qasim, Yusuf ibn al Harith al Batri, and ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad al Asadi.[45] The individual we are talking about is Abu Basir Layth ibn al Bakhtari al Muradi.

Added to the previously cited statements regarding from the Imams regarding his approbation are the following:

The author of al Fa’iq mentions regarding him:

 

من ثقات محدثي وفقهاء الإمامية وكان جليل القدر ممدوحا ومن الثقات الذين رووا النص على إمامة الإمام الكاظم عليه السلام من أبيه الإمام الصادق عليه السلام وله كتاب مدحه الإمام الصادق عليه السلام

From the reliable hadith scholars of the Imamiyyah. He was of great stature and was praiseworthy. And he is one of the reliable transmitters who have narrated the explicit appointment of Imam Kazim ‘alayh al Salam by his father Imam al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam. He has also authored a book. Imam al Sadiq himself praised him.[46]

 

And after citing two narrations regarding his approbation Jafar al Subhani mentions:

 

ودلالة هذين الخبرين على أن ليثا كان في مستوى عال من الوثاقة غير خفي ولذا قال بعض إن المدح المستفاد من هذه النصوص مما لا يتصور فوقه مدح ولا يعقل أعلى منه ثناء

The purport of these two narrations regarding Layth being on a high degree of reliability is not unclear. That is why some said, “The praise that is understood from these texts is such that no praise beyond it is imaginable, nor is any exalting be higher than it.”[47]

 

However, his status also changes. Hence, the pious and pure Layth is dubbed a sinner, and the truthful Layth is dubbed a liar by the scholars of the Imamiyyah.

Al Kashshi narrates from Abu Basir that he would enter the houses of the Imams whilst in the state of major impurity.[48]

And Ibn al Ghada’iri says:

 

كان أبو عبد الله عليه السلام يتضجر به ويتبرم وأصحابه يختلفون في شأنه

Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam would become annoyed with him and get tired of him. And his companions differ about him.[49]

 

And the greatest tragedy is what Abu Basir has said regarding his infallible Imam. Al Kashshi narrates from Shu’ayb ibn Yaqub al ‘Aqraqufi that he said:

 

سألت أبا الحسن عليه السلام عن الرجل تزوج امرأة ولها زوج ولم يعلم قال ترجم المرأة وليس على الرجل شيء إذا لم يعلم، فذكرت ذلك لأبي بصير المرادي قال قال لي والله جعفر عليه السلام ترجم المرأة ويجلد الرجل الحد قال فضرب بيده على صدره يحكها أظن صاحبنا ما تكامل علمه

I asked Abu al Hassan about a person that marries a woman who has a husband he is unaware of. He said, “The women will be lapidated, and there is nothing upon the man.”

I, thus, mentioned that to Abu Basir al Muradi who said, “Jafar, by Allah, said to me, ‘The woman will be lapidated the man will be lashed.’”

Thereafter he took his hand and rubbed it on his chest and said, “I don’t think the knowledge of our companion (referring to Abu al Hassan) is complete.”[50]

 

So basically, he is accusing Abu al Hassan of having little knowledge.

And al Kashshi narrates from Hammad ibn ‘Uthman:

 

خرجت أنا وابن أبي يعفور وآخر إلى الحيرة أو إلى بعض المواضع فتذاكرنا الدنيا فقال أبو بصير المرادي أما إن صاحبكم لو ظفر بها لاستأثر بها قال فأغفى فجاء كلب يريد أن يشغر عليه فذهبت لأطرده فقال لي ابن أبي يعفور دعه فجاءه حتى شغر في أذنه

I came out with Ibn Abi Ya’fur and another to al Hirah or to some places. We talked of the world and Abu Basir al Muradi said, “Behold, if your companion (the Imam) got hold of it he would exclusively have it for himself.”

He then fell off to sleep. A dog came wanting to pee on him, and I was going to chase it but Ibn Abu Ya’fur said to me, “Leave it.”

It thus lifted its leg and urinated in his ear.[51]

 

In this narration he is accusing Abu ‘Abdullah of inclining toward the world and loving to enjoy it exclusively. Consequently, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala sent a dog to urinate in his ears as a punishment for what he said regarding Abu ‘Abdullah.[52]

And al Kashshi also narrates from Hammad al Nab:

 

جلس أبو بصير على باب أبي عبد الله عليه السلام ليطلب الاذن فلم يؤذن له فقال لو كان معنا طبق لاذن قال فجاء كلب فشغر في وجه أبي بصير قال أف أف ما هذا قال جليسه هذا كلب شغر في وجهك

Abu Basir sat at the door of Abu ‘Abdullah to seek permission, but permission was not granted to him. He thus said, “If we had a tray with us, he would have given permission.” Thereafter a dog came, lifted his leg and peed in the face of Abu Basir.

He thus said, “Uff, uff, what is this?”

His friend said to him, “This is a dog that urinated in your face.”[53]

 

I.e. he is accusing Abu ‘Abdullah of love for gruel and delicious food. So much so that he does not give permission to anyone to visit him unless he comes with a tray of food. But Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala punished him and sent a dog that urinated in his face for what he said regarding Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam.

And al Kashshi also narrates from Ibn Abi Ya’fur:

 

خرجنا إلى السواد نطلب دراهم للحجّ ونحن جماعة وفينا أبو بصير المرادي قال قلت له يا أبا بصير اتّق الله وحجّ بمالك فإنك ذو مال كثير فقال اسكت! فلو أن الدنيا وقعت لصاحبك لاشتمل عليها بكسائه

We went out to the green lands of Iraq to seek money for Hajj. We were a group and with us was Abu Basir al Muradi. I thus said to him, “O Abu Basir, fear Allah and perform Hajj with your own wealth, for you are a person of abundant wealth.”

He said, “Keep quiet, for if the world would fall to your companion (the Imam) his shawl would entirely enshroud it.”

 

And al Kashshi has also narrated from al Sayed ibn Tawus the meaning of this statement. He says:

 

مقتضاه أن الصادق عليه السلام لو ظفر بالخلافة لاستأثر بها وإن لم يصرح بالصادق عليه السلام لكن الظاهر هذا

This entails that if al Sadiq obtained the Caliphate he would exclusively have it for himself. Even if he hasn’t mentioned the name of al Sadiq explicitly, but this is the obvious meaning.[54]

 

And al Hussain ibn Mukhtar narrates the following from Abu Basir:

 

كنت اقرئ امرأة كنت اعلمها القرآن فمازحتها بشيء، فقدمت على أبى جعفر عليه السلام فقال لي أي شيء قلت للمرأة قال قلت بيدي هكذا وغطى وجهه فقال لا تعودن إليها

I would teach a woman how to read the Qur’an, so I joked with her about something. Thereafter I came to Abu Jafar and he said to me, “O Abu Basir what did you say to the woman?”

I said, “I said with my hand like this,” and he covered his face.

Abu Jafar said to him, “Don’t return to her.”[55]

 

This means that Abu Basir stretched his hand to touch a part of her body with the intention of fourplay and humour, whereas he was teaching her the Qur’an.[56]

So, can any person be considered reliable after this? And can any narration be accepted from him and be practiced? And what Din can we assimilate from him?

 

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3. Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Rabah al Thaqafi

Added to the previously cited statements about his approbation are the following:

Al Najashi says about him:

 

محمد بن مسلم بن رباح أبو جعفر الأوقص الطحان مولى ثقيف وجه أصحابنا بالكوفة فقيه ورع صحب أبا جعفر وأبا عبد الله عليهما السلام وروى عنهما وكان أوثق الناس له كتاب يسمى الأربعمائة مسألة في أبواب الحلال والحرام

Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Rabah Abu Jafar al Awqas al Tahhan, the freed slave of Thaqif al A’war. The leader of our companions in Kufah. He was a jurist and an ascetic. He accompanied Abu Jafar and Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam and narrated from them. He was from the most reliable people. He has a book named: al Arba’u Mi’ah Mas’alah fi Abwab al Halal wa al Haram.[57]

 

And ‘Abdullah ibn Ya’fur says:

 

قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام إنه ليس كل ساعة ألقاك ولا يمكن القدوم عليك ويجئ الرجل من أصحابنا فيسألني وليس عندي كل ما يسألني عنه فقال ما يمنعك من محمد بن مسلم الثقفي فإنه سمع من أبي وكان عنده وجيها

I said to Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam, “I don’t meet you all the time, and it is not possible to come to you. And a person from our companions comes and asks me a question and I do not have answers to all that he asks.”

He replied, “What prevents you from Muhammad ibn Muslim, for he heard from my father, and enjoyed prominence by him.[58]

 

And Abu al Hassan Musa ibn Jafar ‘alayh al Salam says:

 

إن محمد بن مسلم من حواري أبي جعفر بن علي وابنه جعفر بن محمد الصادق عليهما السلام

Muhammad ibn Muslim is from the disciples of Abu Jafar ibn ‘Ali and his son Jafar ibn Muhammad al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam.[59]

 

And al Kashshi narrates from Abu al Nasr, “I asked ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid about Muhammad ibn Muslim:

 

كان رجلا شريفا موسرا فقال له أبو جعفر عليه السلام تواضع يا محمد فلما انصرف إلى الكوفة أخذ قوصرة من تمر مع الميزان وجلس على باب مسجد الجامع وجعل ينادي عليه فاتاه قومه فقالوا له فضحتنا فقال إن مولاي أمرني بأمر فلن أخالفه ولن أبرح حتى أفرغ من بيع باقي هذا القوصرة فقال له قومه إذا أبيت الا لتشتغل ببيع وشراء فاقعد في الطحانين فهيأ رحى وجملا يطحن وقيل إنه كان من العباد في زمانه

He was a notable and was rich. So Abu Jafar ‘alayh al Salam said to him, “Be humble o Muhammad.” Hence, when he returned to Kufah he took a basket of dates with a scale and sat at the door of the masjid and started announcing to sell them.

His people came to him and said, “You have disgraced us.”

He replied, “My master ordered me to do something and I will not go against that. And I will not leave till I am not done selling the rest of the basket.”

So, his people said to him, “If you refuse but to busy yourself in buying and selling then sit with the millers.”

Hence, he prepared and mill and a camel and started milling. And it is said that he was from the devoted worshippers of his time.[60]

 

But will his status remain as is according to the people of Taqiyyah who are capricious and the people of Rafd? No, for they have turned against him as well. Jafar al Sadiq says:

لعن الله محمد بن مسلم كان يقول إن الله لا يعلم الشيء حتى يكون

May Allah curse Muhammad ibn Muslim. He would say, “Allah does not know of a thing till it happens.”[61]

 

And al Kashshi narrates from Abu al Sabbah: I heard Abu Abdullah saying:

 

يا أبا الصباح هلك المتريسون في أديانهم منهم زرارة وبريد ومحمد بن مسلم وإسماعيل الجعفي وذكر آخر لم أحفظه

O Abu al Sabbah the seekers of prominence are ruined in their Din. From among them are: Zurarah, Burayd, Muhammad ibn Muslim, and Ismail al Ju’fi. He also mentioned another who I don’t remember.

 

Al Kashshi says:

المتريسون على التفعل من الرياسة وفي بعض النسخ المترايسون على التفاعل

The word Mutarayyisun is from the form Tafa’’ul from Riyasah (leadership) and in some manuscripts it is Mutarayisun from the Tafa’ul.[62]

 

And al Kashshi narrates as well from ‘Amir ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Judha’ah:

 

قلت لأبي عبد الله إن امرأتي تقول بقول زرارة ومحمد بن مسلم في الاستطاعة وترى رأيهما فقال ما للنساء والرأي والقول إنهما ليسا بشيء في ولاية قال فجئت إلى امرأتي فحدثتها فرجعت عن ذلك القول

I said to Abu ‘Abdullah, “My wife holds the opinion of Zurarah and Muhammad ibn Muslim regarding ability.”

He replied, “What do women know about opinion and holding a view? They are nothing in loyalty to us.”

I, thus, returned to my wife and informed her whereafter she retracted her opinion.

 

Al Kashshi explains:

إنهما ليس بشيء في ولاية أي إنهما في القول بالاستطاعة ليسا على شيء من ديننا ولا في شيء من ولايتنا

Meaning, in their opinion regarding ability they are not upon anything of our Din, nor are they affiliated to us in anyway.

 

And al Kashshi narrates:

إن محمد بن مسلم الثقفي شهد عند ابي أبي ليلى فرد شهادته

Muhammad ibn Muslim al Thaqafi testified by Ibn Abi Layla, but the latter rejected his testimony.[63]

 

Subhan Allah, how strange indeed is this transition. After being prominent, a jurist, an ascetic, and from the companions of Abu Jafar, he became accursed and ruined enjoying no affiliation to Jafar al Sadiq.

 

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4. Burayd ibn Muawiyah al ‘Ijli:

Added to the previously cited statements about his approbation are the following:

Al Najashi says:

وجه من وجوه أصحابنا وفقيه أيضا له محل عند الأئمة

A prominent person from the elite of our companions and a jurist as well. He enjoyed a good position by the Imams.[64]

 

However, as is the usual, the standards turn against him and the very same person who was reliable and was a prominent figure becomes accursed and banished from the mercy of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.

Hence, al Kashshi narrates from Abu Sayyar that he heard Abu ‘Abdullah saying:

 

لعن الله بريدا ولعن الله زرارة

May Allah curse Burayd and may Allah curse Zurarah.[65]

 

And Ibn Dawood says:

ساء ظن بعض أصحابنا به

The assumption of some of our scholars is bad about him.[66]

 

And previously we had cited the following statement of Jafar al Sadiq:

 

يا أبا الصباح، هلك المتريسون في أديانهم منهم زرارة وبريد ومحمد بن مسلم وإسماعيل الجعفي وذكر آخر لم أحفظه

O Abu al Sabbah the seekers of prominences are ruined in their Din. From among them are: Zurarah, Burayd, Muhammad ibn Muslim, and Ismail al Ju’fi. He also mentioned another who I don’t remember.[67]

 

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5. Jabir al Ju’fi, the Transmitter who Enjoys the Distinction of Excessive Narrations

He is Jabir ibn Yazid ibn al Harith ibn ‘Abd Yaghuth ibn Ka’b ibn al Harith ibn Muawiyah ibn Wa’il ibn Mar’i ibn Ju’fi al Ju’fi Abu ‘Abdullah, and it is said, ‘Abu Yazid’, and it is also said, ‘Abu Muhammad’ al Kufi (d. 128 A.H.).[68]

Jabir al Ju’fi is at the forefront of those who transmitted the narrations of the Imamiyyah. He is there leading transmitter who exclusively enjoys the distinction of excessive narrations from the Imams.

Al Hurr al ‘Amili says about him:

 

روى سبعين ألف حديث عن الباقر عليه السلام وروى مائة وأربعين ألف حديث والظاهر أنه ما روى أحد بطريق المشافهة عن الأئمة عليهم السلام أكثر مما روى جابر فيكون عظيم المنزلة عندهم لقولهم عليهم السلام اعرفوا منازل الرجال منا على قدر رواياتهم عنا

Jabir al Ju’fi has narrated 70 000 narrations from al Baqir ‘alayh al Salam, and he has narrated a 140 000 narrations in total. And apparently, no one has narrated more narrations directly from the Imams than Jabir. This suggests that he was of a great standing by them, due to the Imams saying, “Know the ranks of men by us based on the extent of their narrations from us.”[69]

 

But how could he have narrated all these narrations when he only entered upon al Sadiq once, and he did not see him by his father but once. Zurarah narrates:

سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن أحاديث جابر فقال ما رأيته عند أبي قط إلا مرة واحدة وما دخل علي قط

I asked Abu ‘Abdullah about the narrations of Jabir and he said, “I did not see him by my father but once, and he never entered upon me.”[70]

 

It would be appropriate for us to investigate his excessive narrations from al Sadiq and his father in spite of him not entering but once upon the father of al Sadiq.  Likewise, al Ju’fi claims that he heard 50 000 thousand narrations which no one has heard from him. For he would go to the outskirts, dig a hole, put his head in it and say, “Muhammad ibn ‘Ali narrated to me such and such.”[71]

So, how does he narrate this stupendous amount of narrations from a person whom he did not meet, or from whom he only met once, whereas he explicitly mentions that he was told and that he heard?

Their scholar Abu al Qasim al Khu’i, thus, offers an interpretation of this narration which belies Jabir saying:

 

لا بد حمله على نحو من التورية

It is necessary to interpret it as being such due to a type of dissimulation.[72]

 

This is because he considers Jabir al Ju’fi to be reliable, hence, he says:

 

الذي ينبغي أن يقال أن الرجل لابد من عده من الثقات الاجلاء لشهادة علي بن إبراهيم والشيخ المفيد في رسالته العددية وشهادة ابن الغضائري على ما حكاه العلامة ولقول الصادق عليه السلام في صحيحة زياد إنه كان يصدق علينا

What should be said is that it is necessary to consider him from the reliable giants. This is because of the testimonies of ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim, al Sheikh al Mufid in his booklet al ‘Adadiyyah, and Ibn al Ghada’iri, as cited by al ‘Allamah. And also because of the statement of al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam in the authentic narration of Ziyad, ‘Surely he would speak the truth from us.”[73]

 

Likewise, he has also been approbated by some of the Imamiyyah and they have cited from him in their sources.[74] Hence, Ibn al Ghada’iri says about him:

ثقة في نفسه

Reliable in himself.[75]

 

And al Hurr al ‘Amili says:

ضعفه بعض علمائنا والأرجح توثيقه

Some of our scholars have deemed him weak. But his approbation is more preferred.[76]

 

But on the other hand, some Imamiyyah have criticized him:

Al Najashi says:

 

وكان في نفسه مختلطا وكان شيخنا أبو عبد الله محمد بن محمد بن النعمان رحمه الله ينشدنا أشعارا كثيرة في معناه تدل على الاختلاط ليس هذا موضعا لذكرها وقل ما يورد عنه شيء في الحلال والحرام

He was in himself deranged, and our teacher Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al No’man, may Allah have mercy on him, would cite to us many poems which suggested his derangement, but this is not the place to cite them. And very seldomly can anything be quoted from him in matters of Halal and Haram.[77]

 

In addition to this, the research scholars of the Ahlus Sunnah have dubbed him the biggest of liars. Imam Abu Hanifah says:

 

ما رأيت أحدا أكذب من جابر الجعفي

I have not seen a bigger liar than Jabir al Ju’fi.[78]

 

And Jarir ibn ‘Abdul Hamid says:

لا أستحل أن أروي عنه، كان يؤمن بالرجعة

I do not consider it permissible to narrate from him. He believed in Raj’ah.[79]

 

And Za’idah says:

جابر الجعفي رافضي يشتم أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

Jabir al Ju’fi was a Rafidi who would revile the Sahabah of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[80]

 

And he also said:

كان جابر الجعفي كذابا يؤمن بالرجعة

Jabir was a liar who believed in Raj’ah.[81]

 

And Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah said:

كان يؤمن بالرجعة

He would believe in Raj’ah.[82]

 

And he also said:

سمعت من جابر الجعفي كلاما فبادرت خفت أن يقع علينا السقف

I heard from Jabir al Ju’fi a speech whereafter I rushed fearing that the roof will fall upon us.[83]

 

And Abu al Ahwas says:

كنت إذا مررت بجابر سألت ربي العافية

Whenever I would pass by Jabir, I would ask my Lord for safety.[84]

 

And Ibn Hibban says:

كان سبئيا من أصحاب عبد الله بن سبأ وكان يقول إن عليا عليه السلام يرجع إلى الدنيا

He was a Saba’i, from the companions of ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’. And he would say, “‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam will return to the world.”[85]

 

And al ‘Ijli says:

كان ضعيفا يغلو في التشيع وكان يدلس

He was weak and was a fanatic in Shi’ism and would practice Tadlis.[86]

 

And Ibn Hajar says:

ضعيف رافضي

A weak Rafidi.[87]

 

I say: in spite of what we have learnt about the status of Jabir al Ju’fi, we find that the Imamiyyah have latched on to his narrations and bitten on to it with their molars. But the truth is that if they do not do that, the Imami dogma would collapse; for most of the narrations of the Imamiyyah rest upon him. And it should be remembered that he is the very individual who forged the narrations of the interpolation of the Qur’an, the narrations which exaggerate regarding the Imams, and the narrations which denigrate the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and excommunicate him. Likewise, he is the one who sowed the seed of the esoteric interpretation of the Qur’an, a method of interpretation which is equal to disbelief and heresy. So based on the above, he is the first founder of the lies of the Twelver Imamiyyah. The question is: will the Imamiyyah disavow his narrations whilst knowing that he is a liar?

 

NEXT⇒ Section Three – Unknown Narrators in the Books of the Rawafid


[1] Al Muraja’at, p. 529; letter: 110.

[2] Rijal al Kashshi, 1/348.

[3] Rijal al Kashshi, 2/507.

[4] Surah al Waqi’ah: 10-11.

[5] Rijal al Kashshi, 1/438.

[6] Ibid., 1/399.

[7] Ibid., 1/348, 349.

[8] Ibid., 1/398.

[9] Ibid., 2/507; also see: Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 4/196.

[10] Mujam Rijal al Hadith,8/254.

[11] Al Fihrist, p. 134.

[12] Rijal al Najashi, p. 175: no. 463.

[13] Rijal al Kashshi, 1/438.

[14] Ibid., 1/345.

[15] Tarikh Al Zurarah, 1/50.

[16] Rijal al Kashshi, 1/379.

[17] Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 8/237, 245. Refer to his entire discussion in the book.

[18] Rijal al Kashshi, 1/381.

[19] Ibid., 1/361.

[20] Ibid., 1/381.

[21] And in some manuscripts is the word Laftah instead of La’nah which means ‘a turning’. See: footnotes of Rijal al Kashshi, 1/356.

[22] Ibid., 1/356, 357.

[23] Ibid., 1/364.

[24] Ibid., 1/381.

[25] Ibid., 1/365.

[26] Ibid., 1/355.

[27] Ibid., 1/373, 242.

[28] Ibid., 1/374.

[29] Ibid., 1/377.

[30] Ibid., 1/377.

[31] Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 8/248.

[32] Lisan al Mizan, 2/473.

[33] Ibid., 2/473.

[34] Ibid., 2/473.

[35] Surah Al ‘Imran: 97.

[36] Rijal al Kashshi, 1/359-361.

[37] Rijal al Najashi, p. 123: no. 318; also see: Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 88, 271.

[38] Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 18/175.

[39] This is as recorded by al Najashi, and Ibn Dawood al Hilli has recorded it as al Khababi. See: Rijal ibn Dawood, p. 160.

[40] Rijal al Najashi, p. 353: no. 947: Rijal Ibn Dawood al Hilli, p. 160: entry no. 1274.

[41] RIjal al Najashi, p. 171: no. 451.

[42] Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 99.

[43] Did you know that the narrations of Zurarah in the four early canonical collections reach 1975 narrations approx. In al Kafi there are about 700 narrations; in Tahdhib al Ahkam there are about 775 narrations; in al Istibsar there are about 250 narrations; and in Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih there are about 250 narrations. Refer to Wilayah al Faqih of Muhammad Mal Allah, p. 128, 186.

[44] Al Fihrist, p. 133.

[45] Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 214; Rijal al Kashshi, 1/397.

[46] Al Fa’iq fi Ashab al Imam al Sadiq, 2/627.

[47] Kulliyyat fi ‘Ilm al Rijal, p. 467.

[48] Rijal al Kashshi, 1/399.

[49] Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 235; Sama’ al Maqal, 1/360; Tahrir al Tawusi, p. 488.

[50] Rijal al Kashshi, 1/402.

[51] Ibid., 1/403

[52] Also see: Kashf al Asrar wa Tabri’ah al A’immah al Athar, p. 90.

[53] Rijal al Kashshi, 1/407.

[54] Ibid., 1/403.

[55] Ibid., 1/404.

[56] See: Kashf al Asrar wa Tabri’ah al A’immah al Athar, p. 90, 91.

[57] Rijal al Najashi, p. 323: entry no. 882.

[58] Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 251.

[59] Ibid., p. 251.

[60] Rijal al Kashshi, p. 389.

[61] Ibid., p. 394.

[62] Ibid., 2/508.

[63] Ibid., 1/387.

[64] Rijal al Najashi, p. 112: no. 287.

[65] Rijal al Kashshi, 1/364.

[66] Rijal Ibn Dawood al Hilli, p. 233: no. 72.

[67] Rijal al Kashshi, 2/508.

[68] Tahdhib al Kamal, 4/465; al Tarikh al Kabir of al Bukhari, 2/120.

[69] Wasa’il al Shia, 30/329.

[70] Rijal al Kashshi, 2/436.

[71] Ibid., 2/442.

[72] Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 4/344.

[73] Ibid., 3/344.

[74] Ibid., 4/344, 345.

[75] Jami’ al Ruwat, 1/145.

[76] Wasa’il al Shia, 30/329.

[77] Rijal al Najashi, p. 128: no. 332.

[78] Tahdhib al Kamal, 29/444; al Kamil fi al Du’afa’, 2/113; al Majruhin, 1/209.

[79] Tahdhib al Tahdhib, 2/43.

[80] Ibid., 2/43; al Du’afa’ of al ‘Uqayli, 1/193.

[81] al Kamil fi al Du’afa’, 2/114.

[82] Tahdhib al Tahdhib, 2/43.

[83] Ibid. 2/43.

[84] Ibid. 2/43; al Kamil fi al Du’afa’, 2/115.

[85] Al Majruhin, 1/208; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, 2/44.

[86] Ma’rifah al Thiqat, 1/264. Tadlis: is when a transmitter who (sometimes) transmits with obfuscation in his transmission; either intentionally or unintentionally narrating a hadith in manner that obscures or omits transmitters in the isnad.

[87] Taqrib al Tahdhib, 1/137: no. 878.

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