Section Three – The Rawafid and Isnad

Section Two – The Importance of the Isnad and the Attention Paid to it by the Scholars of the Ahlus Sunnah
November 23, 2021
Chapter Seven – The ‘Adalah (rectitude) of the Sahabah – Section One: The ‘Adalah of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in the Noble Qur’an
November 25, 2021

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Section Three

The Rawafid and Isnad

 

Those who study history will know very well that the Rawafid are the greatest liars on the surface of the earth. Their unseizing lying propels them to do various things, most prominent of which is their considering lying and forging to be an act of religiosity, to defend their false dogmas and their deviant Din, especially in their narrations and in their polemics with Muslims.

How many Shia narrators, hadith scholars, and story-tellers aren’t there who have been avoided by the scholars of the Muslims from the Ahlus Sunnah and others besides them. And how many a time have you not read about the reprehensible traits of their narrators. Likewise, in many of their narrations the content is such that cannot be confirmed by revelation, nor supported by reason.

Hence, we ask: The Rawafid claim that they narrate the hadith of the Ahlul Bayt, but with what type of Sanad? The simple answer is: With a Sanad that is inconsistent, forged, and a lie.

The books of the Rawafid state that there are various reasons for forging Asanid for narrations. Hereunder some of them are discussed:

 

1. To extricate themselves from the criticism of the Ahlus Sunnah

Al Hurr al `Amili (d. 1104), acknowledging this fact, mentions:

 

والفائدة في ذكره أي  السند دفع تعيير العامة الشيعة بأن أحاديثهم غير معنعنة بل منقولة من أصول قدمائهم

The benefit in mentioning it (i.e. the Sanad) is to deflect the criticism of the commonality that their narrations are not transmitted, rather cited (without a chain of transmission) from the principle sources of their ancient scholars.[1]

 

This text denotates that Isnad was non-existent in their legacy until they were confronted with criticism from the Ahlus Sunnah.

Nasir al Qafari mentions:

 

وكأن هذا النص الخطير يفيد – أيضاً – أن الإسناد عندهم غير موجود، وأن رواياتهم كانت بلا زمام ولا خطام حتى شنع الناس عليهم بذلك فاتجهوا حينئذ لذكر الإسناد. فالأسانيد التي نراها في رواياتهم هي صنعت فيما بعد وركبت على نصوص أخذت من أصول قدمائهم، ووضعت هذه الأسانيد لتوقي نقد أهل السنة، وقولهم بأن أسانيد الشيعة غير معنعنة. ولا يستبعد أن يقوم من يتولى صناعة تلك الأسانيد بوضع أسماء رجال لا مسمى لهم، وقد لحظت في دراستى لكتاب سليم بن قيس -أول كتاب ظهر لهم- أنهم يضعون روايات أو كتبا لأشخاص لا وجود لهم

It is as though this grave text denotates that Isnad did not exist by them and that their narrations were without any reigns or ropes owing to which people criticized them. As a result, they then paid attention to mentioning the Isnad. Hence, the Asanid that we see in their narrations were forged later and were mounted upon narrations which were taken from the principal sources of their early scholars. These Asanid were forged to avoid the criticism of the Ahlus Sunnah and their claim that the Asanid of the Shia are inconsistent. It is not far-fetched, thus, to surmise that some people assumed the task of forging these transmissions by concocting names of men that did not exist in reality. I have noticed in my study of the book of Sulaim ibn Qais (their first book to come to the fore) that they forge narrations or books and attribute them to men that do not exist in reality.[2]

 

2. To mimic the Ahlus Sunnah

Al Hurr al `Amili has emphasized that the terminology of categorizing the hadiths into Sahih and other types is by way of following the Ahlus Sunnah. He says:

والاصطلاح الجديد موافق لاعتقاد العامة واصطلاحهم، بل هو مأخوذ من كتبهم كما هو ظاهر بالتتبع

The new terminology is harmonious with the belief of the commonality and their nomenclature. In fact, it is taken from their books, as is evident through in-depth study.[3]

 

This proves that the Rawafid are dependent upon the Ahlus Sunnah and that they cannot separate from them in hadith and in authoring books concerning it.

 

3. To attain blessings

Al Hurr al `Amili mentions:

والفائدة في ذكره مجرد التبرك باتصال سلسلة المخاطبة اللسانية

The benefit of mentioning it (i.e. the Sanad) is to attain blessings by keeping the chain of verbal address consistent.[4]

 

And Muhammad Baqir al Majlisi (d. 1111 A.H.) says:

 

فإننا لا نحتاج إلى سند لهذه الأصول الأربعة، وأذا أوردنا سندا فليس إلا للتيمن والبركة، والاقتداء بسنة السلف

We do not require a Sanad for these four principal works. So, when we do cite a Sanad, we do so to attain blessings, and in order to imitate the Sunnah of the Salaf.[5]

 

The Shia, and their Disregard for Asanid and Mutun

From the disregard of the Shia for transmission and transmitters is the following narration of al Kafi: Muhammad in Muslim says, I asked Abu `Abdullah `alayh al Salam:

أسمع الحديث منك فأزيد وأنقص؟ قال: إن كنت تريد معانيه فلا بأس

“I hear a narration from you and at times I increase in it and decrease.”

He said, “If your objective is its purport, there is no problem.”[6]

 

And Abu Basir narrates:

قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: الحديث أسمعه منك، أرويه عن أبيك أو أسمعه من أبيك أرويه عنك؟ قال: سواء إلا أنك ترويه عن أبي أحب إلي

I said to Abu `Abdullah `alayh al Salam, “When I hear a hadith from you, should I narrate from your father, or when I hear from your father, should I narrate it from you?”

He said, “Both are the same; however, if you narrate it from my father, it will be more preferred by me.”[7]

 

And al Sukuni narrates the following from Abu `Abdullah:

 

قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: إذا حدثتكم بحديث فأسندوه إلى الذي حدثكم، فإن كان حقا فلكم وإن كان كذبا فعليه

Amir al Mu’minin `alayh al Salam said, “When I narrate a narration to you, then attribute it to the one who transmitted it to you. If it is true, it will be in your favour, and if it is a lie, it will be against him.”[8]

 

And Ahmed ibn `Umar al Hallal says:

 

قلت لأبي الحسن الرضا عليه السلام: الرجل من أصحابنا يعطيني الكتاب ولا يقول: اوره عني، يجوز لي أن أرويه عنه؟ قال: فقال: إذا علمت أن الكتاب له فاروه عنه

I said to Abu al Hassan al Rida `alayh al Salam, “A person from our companions gives me a book and he does not say, “Narrate it from me,” is it permissible for me to narrate it from him?”

He said, “If you know that the book is his, you can narrate it from him.”[9]

 

And Muhammad ibn al Hassan ibn Abi Khalid Shaynulah says:

 

قلت لأبي جعفر الثاني عليه السلام: جعلت فداك، إن مشايخنا رووا عن أبي جعفر وأبي عبد الله عليهما السلام، وكانت التقية شديدة، فكتموا كتبهم ولم ترو عنهم، فلما ماتوا صارت الكتب إلينا فقال: حدثوا بها فإنها حق

I said to Abu Jafar the second, “May I be sacrificed for thee, our scholars have narrated from Abu Jafar and Abu `Abdullah `alayhima al Salam when the Taqiyyah was intense. Hence, they concealed their books and consequently they were not narrated from them. And after they died, the books reached us.”

He said, “Narrate them, for they are true.”[10]

 

Musa Jar Allah says in his comment upon this last text:

نرى أن التقية جعلت وسيلة إلى وضع الكتب

We aver that Taqiyyah was a pretext under which books were fabricated.[11]

 

It is for this reason, that some scholars of the Shia have acknowledged that the creed of the Ahlul Bayt was lost because of Taqiyyah. Hence, Yusuf al Bahrani says in al Hada’iq al Nadirah:

الكثير من أخبار الشيعة وردت على جهة التقية التي  هي على خلاف الحكم الشرعي واقعا

Many of the narrations of the Shia have featured by way of Taqiyyah, and are contrary to the actual Shar’i ruling.[12]

 

And he says in another place:

 

فلم يعلم من أحكام الدين على اليقين إلا القليل، لامتزاج أخباره بأخبار التقية، كما قد اعترف بذلك ثقة الاسلام وعلم الأعلام (محمد بن يعقوب الكليني نور الله تعالى مرقده) في جامعه الكافي، حتى أنه (قدس سره) تخطى العمل بالترجيحات المروية عند تعارض الأخبار، والتجأ إلى مجرد الرد والتسليم للأئمة الأبرار

Hence, none but a very few rulings of the Din are known with certainty, due to their reports being mixed with the reports of Taqiyyah, as has been confessed by the authority of Islam and the prominent of all prominents, Muhammad ibn Yaqub al Kulayni, in his compendium al Kafi. To the extent that he skipped practicing upon the preferences at the time of conflict in the narrations and resorted to referring them and submitting them to the noble Imams.[13]

 

Who can assure them, especially in the circumstances of fear and Taqiyyah that these books that reached them were not forged by a heretic who intended to mislead the Shia, and distance them from Islam?

Al Qummi says:

الأخبار الموجودة في كتبنا ما يدل على أن الكذابة والقالة فد لعبت أيديهم بكتب أصحابنا وأنهم كانوا يدسون فيها

Some of the narrations present in our books suggest that liars and forgers have tempered with our books and that they would shove into them what was not from them.[14]

 

Likewise, one of their scholars has admitted that many of their books are forgeries. Hence, he says whilst talking about the book of Sulaim ibn Qais:

 

والحق أن هذا الكتاب موضوع لغرض صحيح نظير كتاب الحسنية، وطرائف ابن طاوس، والرحلة المدرسية للبلاغي، وأمثاله

The truth is that this book was forged for a good reason, just like the books al Hassaniyyah, Tara’if Ibn Tawus, al Rihlah al Madrasiyyah of al Balaghi, and many others.[15]

 

And Hashim Ma`roof al Hussaini says:

 

وتؤكد المرويات الصحيحة عن الإمام الصادق عليه السلام وغيره من الأئمة أن المغيرة بن سعيد وبيانا، وصائدا الهندي، وعمر النبطي، والمفضل، وغيرهم من المنحرفين عن التشيع، والمندسين في صفوف الشيعة، وضعوا بين المرويات عن الأئمة عددا كبيرا في مختلف المواضيع. ثم قال: وجاء عن المغيرة أنه قال: وضعت في أخبار جعفر بن محمد أي جعفر الصادق اثني عشر ألف حديث. ثم يقول: وظل هو وأتباعه زمنا طويلا بين صفوف الشيعة يترددون معهم إلى مجلس الأئمة عليهم السلام، ولم ينكشف حالهم إلا بعد أن امتلأت أصول كتب الحديث الأولى بمروياتهم كما تشير إلى ذلك رواية يحيى بن حميد

The authentic narrations from Imam al Sadiq and the others confirm that al Mughirah ibn Sa`id, Bayan, Sa’id al Hindi, `Umar al Nabti, al Mufaddal, and many other detractors of the Shia and those who infiltrated their ranks masquerading as Shia, forged many a narration regarding various topics and included them in the narrations of the Imams. He then says, “It is reported from al Mughirah that he said, “I forged twelve thousand narrations in the narrations of Jafar ibn Muhammad, i.e. Jafar al Sadiq.” He also says, “He and his followers, for a very long time, remained in the ranks of the Shia and frequently went with them to the gatherings of the Imams `alayh al Salam. Their condition was only exposed after the early principal sources were replete with their narrations, as is suggested in the narration of Yahya ibn Humaid.[16]

 

And from the Disregard of the Shia for Asanid is the following as well:

They have considered the book Nahj al Balaghah to be authentic, whereas this book is not free from criticism. For it was compiled three and a half centuries after Amir al Mu’minin, and that also without an Isnad.

Also, Abu al Hassan al Sha`rani says:

 

إن أكثر أحاديث الأصول في الكافي غير صحيحة الإسناد، ومع ذلك أورده الكليني معتمدا عليها لاعتبار متونها، وموافقتها للعقائد الحقة، ولا ينظر في مثلها إلى الإسناد

Most of the narrations pertaining to the fundamentals in al Kafi are inauthentic. Despite that al Kulayni has cited them, relying upon them, due to considering their wordings and their being harmonious with the true beliefs; for in such matters the Isnad is not considered.[17]

 

Furthermore, there have occurred in the hadith collections of the Shia many mistakes and confusions in the narrations. `Abdullah al Mamaqani (d. 1351 A.H) says:

في كثير من الأسانيد قد وقع غلط واشتباه في أسامي الرجال وآبائهم أو كناهم أو ألقابهم

In many of the Asanid, mistakes and confusions have occurred in the names of the transmitters, their fathers, their agnomens, or their titles.[18]

 

And the following appears in their book al Sara’ir, one of their reliable books, from Abu `Abdullah:

 

قال- أي راوي الحديث- يسأل أبا عبد الله: هؤلاء-يعني بهم أئمة أهل السنة-يأتون بالحديث مستويا كما يسمعونه، وإنا ربما فدمنا وأخرنا، وزدنا ونقصنا

He said (the narrator of the hadith) whilst asking Abu `Abdullah, “These people (referring to the scholars of the Ahlus Sunnah) produce a narration as they hear it, and we at times bring forth or push back, and we increase and omit.”[19]

 

From the aforementioned, we can draw the following:

  • The absence of retention and trustworthiness, and the lying of the Rafidi narrators, as attested to by their scholars.
  • The trustworthiness and meticulous retention of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama`ah in this science.

Having said this, the science of Asanid for the narrations was forged by concocting names of men that had no existence. Al Sayed Abu Talib, one of the Zaidi Imams (knowns as al Natiq bi al Haqq, i.e. the speaker of the truth) says:

 

إن كثيرا من أسانيد الإثني عشرية مبنية على أسماء لا مسمى لها من الرجال

Many of the Asanid of the Twelvers are based upon names behind whom there are no real men.

 

He also says:

. وقد عرفت من رواتهم المكثيرين من كان يستحل وضع الأسانيد للأخبار المنقطعة إذا وقعت إليه، وحكي عن بعضهم أنه كان يجمع روايات برزجمهر وينسبها إلى الأئمة بأسانيد يضعها، فقيل له في ذلك، فقال: ألحق الحكمة بأهلها

And I have known from their narrators who excessively narrate individuals who considered it perfectly fine to forge Asanid for inconsistent narrations if they came to them. It is also reported regarding one of them that he would compile the narrations of Bozorgmehr and attribute them to the Imams by way of Asanid that he would forge. When he was confronted about this he said, “I make the wisdom reach its rightful people.”[20]

 

Indeed, Ibn Taymiyyah correctly said:

 

الإسناد من خصائص هذه الأمة، وهو من خصائص الإسلام، ثم هو في الإسلام من خصائص أهل السنة، والرافضة من أقل الناس عناية به إذ كانوا لا يصدقون إلا بما يوافق أهواءهم، وعلامة كذبه أي عندهم أنه يخالف هواهم، ولهذا قال عبد الرحمن بن مهدي: أهل العلم يكتبون ما لهم وما عليهم، وأهل الأهواء لا يكتبون إلا ما لهم

Isnad is the speciality of this Ummah, it is from the specialities of Islam, and in Islam it is from the specialities of the Ahlus Sunnah. The Rafidah are the least concerned people with it, due to them only accepting what is harmonious with their desires. For the sign of a narration being false according to them is that it opposes their whims. And that is why `Abdur Rahman ibn Mahdi said, “The people of knowledge record what is for them and what is against them, and the people of deviance only record what is for them.”[21]

 

NEXT⇒ Chapter Seven – The ‘Adalah (rectitude) of the Sahabah – Section One: The ‘Adalah of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in the Noble Qur’an


[1] Wasa’il al Shia, 30/258. And commonality refers to the Ahlus Sunnah.

[2] Usul Mazhab al Shia, 1/385.

[3] Wasa’il al Shia, 30/259.

[4] Wasa’il al Shia, 30/258.

[5] Rasa’il Abi al Ma`ali `an al Majlisi, p. 459.

[6] Usul al Kafi, 1/51.

[7] Ibid., 1/51.

[8] Ibid., 1/52.

[9] Ibid., 1/52.

[10] Ibid., 1/52.

[11] Al Washia, p. 47.

[12] Al Hada’iq al Nadirah, 1/89.

[13] Ibid., 1/5.

[14] Al Qawanin, 2/222.

[15] Abu al Hassan al Sha`rani in his annotations of al Kafi with the commentary of al Mazindarani: 2/307.

[16] Al Mawdu`at fi al Athar wa al Akhbar, p. 150.

[17] In his annotations of al Kafi with the commentary of al Mazindarani, 1/8.

[18] Tanqih al Maqal fi `Ilm al Rijal, 1/177.

[19] Al Sara’ir, p. 163.

[20] Al Hur al `In of Nashwan al Himyari, p. 77.

[21] Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah, 7/37.

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