Section Three – The Consensus of the Ummah Regarding the ‘Adalah of the Sahabah

Section Two – The ‘Adalah of the Sahabah in the Sunnah
November 25, 2021
Section Four – The ‘Adalah (rectitude) of the Sahabah in the Books of the Rawafid
November 25, 2021

BACK Return to Table of contents

 

Section Three

The Consensus of the Ummah Regarding the ‘Adalah of the Sahabah

 

The Ummah unanimously concurs, with the exception of the deviants whose difference is not worth consideration, upon the approbation of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and his Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for all the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. The statements regarding this consensus from the scholars of the Ummah, the scholars of hadith, the jurists, and the scholars of the principles of the Shari’ah are too many.

Al Khatib al Baghdadi mentions:

 

أنه لو لم يرد من الله عز وجل ورسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم فيهم شيء مما ذكرناه لأوجبت الحال التي كانوا عليها من الهجرة والجهاد، والنصرة وبذل المهج والأموال وقتل الآباء والأولاد والمناصحة في الدين وقوة الإيمان واليقين القطع على عدالتهم والاعتقاد لنزاهتهم وأنهم أفضل من جميع المعدلين والمزكين الذين يجيئون من بعدهم أبد الآبدين هذا مذهب كافة العلماء ومن يعتد بقوله من الفقهاء

Even if nothing of what we mentioned featured from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the reality which they lived of emigration, striving, supporting the Din of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, sacrificing of lives and wealth, killing of fathers and children, well-wishing for the Din, the strength of their Iman and conviction, all of this would necessitate the categoricity of their ‘Adalah (rectitude), and the belief of their pureness, and that they are better than all the approbators and investigators to come after them till eternity. This is the stance of all the scholars and those who are worth consideration from the jurists.[1]

 

And Ibn al Salah says:

 

للصحابة بأسرهم خصيصة وهي أنه لا يُسأل عن عدالة أحد منهم بل ذلك أمر مفروغ منه لكونهم على الإطلاق معدّلين بنصوص الكتاب والسنة وإجماع من يُعتدُّ به في الإجماع من الأمة

For all the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum there is a distinction, and that is that no investigation will be undertaken regarding the ‘Adalah (rectitude) of any of them. In fact, this is a matter which is already settled, due to them being absolutely approbated in the texts of the Qur’an, the Sunnah, and the consensus of those worth consideration in the Ummah.[2]

 

And al Ghazali says the following:

 

والذي عليه سلف الأمة وجماهير الخلف أن عدالتهم معلومة بتعديل الله عز وجل إياهم وثنائه عليهم في كتابه فهو معتقدنا فيهم إلا أن يثبت بطريق قاطع ارتكاب واحد لفسق مع علمه به وذلك مما لا يثبت فلا حاجة لهم إلى التعديل فأي تعديل أصح من تعديل علام الغيوب سبحانه وتعديل رسول الله، كيف ولو لم يرد الثناء لكان فيما اشتهر وتواتر من حالهم في الهجرة والجهاد وبذل المهج والأموال وقتل الآباء والاهل في موالاة رسول الله ونصرته كفاية في القطع بعدالتهم

The view of the predecessors of the Ummah and the majority of the later scholars is that their ‘Adalah is categorically known due to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala approbating them and praising them in His Book. So, this is our belief regarding them, unless it is established with certainty that one of them committed a sin despite knowing about it, something which is unfounded. Hence, they do not require any (other) approbation. For can any approbation be more authentic than the approbation of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Why would there be a need for that when what is popularly known about them and transmitted with mass-transmission regarding their migration, striving, sacrificing of lives and wealth, slaying of fathers and family in support of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam owing to their allegiance to him are more than enough to establish their ‘Adalah with categoricity.[3]

 

So, these blessed statements about the consensus of the Ummah are many. Each one of them is a clear exposition and a categorical proof that the uprightness of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in general without any exception is a done and dusted matter which is an accepted fact. For no person should entertain any doubt or suspicion after the approbation of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, his Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the consensus of the Ummah.

Al Shawkani says:

 

وإذا تقرر لك عدالة جميع من ثبتت له الصحبة علمت أنه إذا قال الراوي عن رجل من الصحابة ولم يسمه كان ذلك حجة ولا يضر الجهالة لثبوت عدالتهم على العموم

Once the ‘Adalah of all those for whom companionship is established is confirmed, you should know that when a narrator says ‘from a person from the Sahabah’ without naming him, that that will still be proof. For anonymity is not harmful due to ‘Adalah for them being established in general.[4]

 

And al Juwayni mentions:

 

ولعل السبب فى قبولهم من غير بحث عن أحوالهم والسبب الذى أتاح الله الإجماع لأجله أن الصحابة هم نقلة الشريعة ولو ثبت توقف فى رواياتهم لانحصرت الشريعة على عصر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ولما استرسلت على سائر الأعصار

And probably the reason for accepting them without investigation and the reason for which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has enabled consensus is that the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum are the transmitters of the Shari’ah. So, if hesitance in their transmissions is confirmed, the Shari’ah would become confined to the era of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and it would not have perpetuated across the centuries.[5]

 

These are some examples regarding the best of creation after the Ambiya’ ‘alayh al Salam and Messengers ‘alayh al Salam, may Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala be pleased with all the Sahabah.

Ibn Taymiyyah correctly said:

 

وخيار هذه الأمة هم الصحابة فلم يكن في الأمة أعظم اجتماعا على الهدى ودين الحق ولا أبعد عن التفرق والاختلاف منهم وكل ما يذكر عنهم مما فيه نقص فهذا إذا قيس إلى ما يوجد في غيرهم من الأمة كان قليلا من كثير وإذا قيس ما يوجد في الأمة إلى ما يوجد في سائر الأمم كان قليلا من كثير وإنما يغلط من يغلط أنه ينظر إلى السواد القليل في الثوب الأبيض ولا ينظر إلى الثوب الأسود الذي فيه بياض

The best of this Ummah is the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. There was not in the Ummah a group who was more united upon guidance and the Din of truth and who were more distant from division and bickering than them. And all the deficiencies that are attributed to them, are very little when juxtaposed with what is found in others of the Ummah besides them. And if the deficiencies found in the Ummah are juxtaposed with what is found in the rest of the nations they will be very little as well. Those who err only err because they look at the little black on the white garment and do not see the black garment in which there is white.[6]

 

‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu spoke the truth when he said:

 

من كان مُسْتنًّا فلْيسْتن بمن قد مات ، فإن الحي لا تُؤمنُ عليه الفِتْنةُ أولئك أصحابُ محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم كانوا أفضل هذه الأمة أبرها قلوبًا وأعمقها علمًا وأقلها تكلُّفًا اختارهم الله لصحبة نبيِّه ولإقامة دِينه فاعرِفوا لهم فضلهم واتبعُوهم على أثرهم وتمسكوا بما استطعْتُم من أخلاقِهم وسيرِهم فإنهم كانوا على الهُدى المستقيم

Whoever wishes to emulate anyone, he should emulate those who have passed on. For there is no assurance of a living person being safe from Fitnah. They are the Sahabah of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; they were the best of this Ummah, with the most noble hearts, in-depth knowledge, and least formalities. There were a people whom Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala had chosen for the companionship of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the transmission of his Din. So, emulate them in their character and mannerisms, for they are the Sahabah of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and were upon the straight path.[7]

أولئك آبائي فجئني بمثلهم             إذا جمعتنا يا جرير المجامع

They are my fathers; so bring me their like, when the gathering gather us, O Jarir.

May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala enshroud us and them with his mercy and forgiveness… Amin.

 

NEXT⇒ Section Four – The ‘Adalah (rectitude) of the Sahabah in the Books of the Rawafid


[1] Al Kifayah, p. 49.

[2] ‘Ulum al Hadith, p. 171.

[3] Al Mustasfa, 1/130.

[4] Irshad al Fuhul, 1/101; Fath al Mughith, 3/116.

[5] Al Burhan fi Usul al Fiqh, 1/407; Irshad al Fuhul, 1/101.

[6] Minhaj al Sunnah, 6/366.

[7] Abu Nuaim: al Hilyah, 1/350; Qatf al Thamar, 1/149; Majmu’ al Fatawa, 3/126.

Back to top