Section Three – A Brief Study of the Book al Kafi

Section Two – General Comments regarding the Eight Collections
October 1, 2021
Section Four – The Four Hundred Principal Sources
October 1, 2021

BACK Return to Table of contents

 

Section Three

A Brief Study of the Book al Kafi

 

Herein we will present some brief examples regarding the condition of the narrations and the narrators of al Kafi wherefrom it will become clear that this book plays a pivotal role in shaping the beliefs of the Shia. It will also become clear that this book is based upon the reports of narrators who were nothing but liars, charlatans, and bearers of invalid and false beliefs.

The discussion will revolve around two points:

  1. Condition of the narrations.
  2. Status of the narrators.

 

Condition of the Narrations

Ayatollah al Burqa’i says:

إن كتاب الكافي يجمع المنتافضات والأضداد، ويضم بين دفتيه من الخرافات ما لا يحصى

The book al Kafi gathers contradictions and opposites, and it includes within its covers innumerable fables.[1]

 

After having learnt the status of this book and rank according to the Rawafid, as has passed previously, let us now proceed to enlisting some of the comedic and untoward content which appears therein. These comedic and deplorable narrations could not have originated from an intelligent person, let alone the possibility of them being attributed to the Ahlul Bayt of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam or to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself.

Because my intention is brevity, I will suffice on presenting some of what appears in the book, and from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala do I seek assistance.

 

1. The Kufr and Shirk which occur therein

This will become clear from the following points:

 

 

• Attributing Bada’ to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala

Abu Jafar and Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam are reported to have said:

 

إن الناس لما كذبوا برسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله هم الله تبارك وتعالى بهلاك أهل الأرض إلا عليا فما سواه بقوله: فَتَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ فَمَا أَنتَ بِمَلُومٍ ثم بدا له فرحم المؤمنين، ثم قال لنبيه صلى الله عليه وآله وَذَكِّرْ فَإِنَّ الذِّكْرَىٰ تَنفَعُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

When the people belied Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala intended to destroy the people of the earth except ‘Ali and those besides him due to the verse, “So leave them (O Muhammad), for you are not to be blamed.” Thereafter otherwise occurred to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala so he had mercy on the believers. Thereafter Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala said to his Nabi, “And remind, for indeed, the reminder benefits the believers.”[2]

 

Back to top  

• Reprobating the Book of Allah

Abu Jafar ‘alayh al Salam said:

 

ما ادعى أحد من الناس أنه جمع القرآن كله كما أنزل إلا كذاب، وما جمعه وحفظه كما نزله الله تعالى إلا علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام والائمة من بعده عليه السلام

None from the people has claimed that he compiled the entire Qur’an as it was revealed but a liar. No one compiled it and memorized it as it was revealed by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala beside ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam and the Imams ‘alayhim al Salam after him.[3]

 

And Abu al Hassan ‘alayh al Salam was asked:

 

جعلت فداك إنا نسمع الآيات في القرآن ليس هي عندنا كما نسمعها ولا نحسن أن نقرأها كما بلغنا عنكم، فهل نأثم؟ فقال: لا، اقرؤوا كما تعلمتم فسيجيئكم من يعلمكم

“May I be sacrificed for thee. We hear verses of the Qur’an which are not recorded by us as we hear them and we are unable to read them correctly as they have been conveyed to us from you. So will we be sinful?”

He said, “No. Read as you have learnt, for there will come to you he who will teach you.”[4]

 

Back to top  

• Claiming that the Book of Allah is Interpolated

Salim ibn Salamah narrates:

 

قرأ رجل على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام وأنا أستمع حروفا من القرآن ليس على ما يقرؤها الناس، فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: كف عن هذه القراءة اقرأ كما يقرأ الناس حتى يقوم القائم فإذا قام القائم عليه السلام قرأ كتاب الله عز وجل على حده وأخرج المصحف الذي كتبه علي عليه السلام

A person read to Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam whilst I was listening to some dialects of the Qur’an which people did not normally read. Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam said, “Stop reading this, read like how the people read till the Mahdi emerges. Once the Mahdi emerges he will read the book of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala differently,” and he then took out the Mushaf of ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam.[5]

 

And it is narrated from Abu ‘Abdullah that:

 

وإن عندنا لمصحف فاطمة عليها السلام وما يدريهم ما مصحف فاطمة عليها السلام؟ قال: قلت: وما مصحف فاطمة عليها السلام؟ قال: مصحف فيه مثل قرآنكم هذا ثلاث مرات، والله ما فيه من قرآنكم حرف واحد

“And by us is the Mushaf of Fatimah, and what do they know what is the Mushaf of Fatimah ‘alayha al Salam?”

The narrator said, “I asked: what is the Mushaf of Fatimah ‘alayha al Salam?”

He replied, “A Mushaf which has three-fold the like of your Qur’an, and by Allah, there is not in your Qur’an from it a letter.”[6]

 

Back to top  

Some of their Distortions

Abu Basir said to Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam:

 

جعلت فداك قول الله سبحانه وتعالى: سأل سائل بعذاب واقع للكافرين بولاية علي ليس له دافع. من أنا لا نقرأها هكذا، فقال: هكذا والله نزل بها جبرئيل على محمد صلى الله عليه وآله، وهكذا هو والله مثبت في مصحف فاطمة عليها السلام

“May I be sacrificed for thee. The verse of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, ‘A supplicant asked for a punishment bound to happen, to the disbelievers in the successorship of ‘Ali, of it there is no preventer,’ in my region we do not read it like this.”

He replied, “In this manner, by Allah, did Jibril descend with it to Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and in this manner, by Allah, it is documented in the Mushaf of Fatimah ‘alayha al Salam.”[7]

 

Abu ‘Abdullah is reported to have said:

 

إن القرآن الذي جاء به جبرئيل عليه السلام إلى محمد صلى الله عليه وآله سبعة عشر ألف آية

The Qur’an which Jibril brought to Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam contained 17 000 verses.[8]

 

This, without a doubt, is equivalent to approximately three times the Qur’an. It is, thus, the Mushaf of Fatimah that they claim.

Also, Al Kulayni has established a chapter in al Kafi with the title: the entire Qur’an was not compiled by anyone besides the Imams ‘alayhim al Salam and they had full knowledge of it.[9]

Zaid ibn Jahm says:

 

عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال سمعته يقول أن تكون أئمة هي أزكى من أئمتكم قال قلت جعلت فداك أئمة؟ قال إي والله أئمة. قلت: فأنا نقرأ أربى. فقال ما أربى؟ وأومأ بيده فطرحها

I heard Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam saying, “Lest there be A’immah (Imams) who are Azka (purer) than your A’immah (Imams).”

I said, “May I be sacrificed for thee, A’immah?”

He said, “Yes, By Allah, A’immah.”

I replied, “We read it as Arba (more in number and strength).”

He asked, “What is Arba?” He indicated with his hand as if shunning it.[10]

 

Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam said regarding the following verse:

 

ومن يطع الله ورسوله في ولاية علي وولاية الأئمة من بعده فقد فاز فوزا عظيما، هكذا نزلت

And whoever obeys Allah and His Rasul regarding the successorship of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Imams thereafter,[11] he is indeed successful with a great success.[12]

 

Abu ‘Abdullah is reported to have said:

 

ولقد عهدنا إلى آدم من قبل ” كلمات في محمد وعلي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين والأئمة عليهم السلام من ذريتهم ” فنسي ” هكذا والله نزلت على محمد صلى الله عليه وآله

And we had taken a promise from Adam before of certain words regarding Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, al Hassan, al Hussain and the Imams ‘alayhim al Salam from their posterity, but he forgot. Indeed this is how it was revealed to Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[13]

 

And Abu Jafar has said:

 

نزل جبريل عليه السلام بهذه الآية على محمد صلى الله عليه وآله هكذا: بئسما اشتروا به أنفسهم أن يكفروا بما أنزل الله في علي بغيا

Jibril ‘alayh al Salam descended with this verse upon Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam like this, “How wretched is that for which they sold themselves, that they would disbelieve in what Allah has revealed regarding ‘Ali through their outrage.”[14]

 

Abu ‘Abdullah is reported to have said:

 

نزل جبريل عليه السلام بهذه الآية على محمد هكذا: وإن كنتم في ريب مما نزلنا على عبدنا في علي فأتوا بسورة من مثله

Jibril ‘alayh al Salam descended with this verse upon Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam like this, “And if you are in doubt about what we have sent down upon our servant regarding ‘Ali, then produce a Surah a like thereof.”[15]

 

Al Rida is reported to have said the following:

 

كبر على المشركين بولاية علي ما تدعوهم إليه يا محمد من ولاية علي، هكذا في المخطوطة

It is indeed burdensome for the polytheist what you call them to, O Muhammad regarding the successorship of ‘Ali.’ This is how it appears in the manuscript.[16]

 

Abu Jafar says:

نزل جبرئيل بهذه الآية فبدل الذين ظلموا آل محمد حقهم غير الذي قيل لهم فأنزلنا على الذين ظلموا آل محمد حقهم رجزا من السماء بما كانوا يفسقون

Jibril ‘alayh al Salam came down with this verse, but those who wronged the family of Muhammad in their right changed those words to a statement other than that which had been revealed, “So we sent down upon those who wronged the family of Muhammad in their right a punishment from the sky because they were defiantly disobeying.”[17]

 

Someone read the following verse in the presence of Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam:

 

وَقُلِ اعْمَلُوا فَسَيَرَى اللهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ

And say, “Do, for Allah will see your deeds and His Messenger and the believers.”[18]

 

Abu ‘Abdullah said to him:

ليس هكذا هي، إنما هي: والمأمونون، فنحن المأمونون

This is not how it is, it is actually, ‘And those who are safe.’ And we are the safe people.[19]

 

These are just a few examples of the many distortions and claims of certain things being from the Book of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala whereas they are not from the Book of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. It is without a doubt that all of this has been forged against Abu ‘Abdullah (Jafar al Sadiq), Abu Jafar (Muhammad al Baqir), al Rida (‘Ali ibn Musa), and the other Imams of the Ahlul Bayt of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

Back to top  

• Their Determination to Oppose the Ahlus Sunnah

Abu ‘Abdullah is reported to have said:

 

 أيما رجل كان بينه وبين أخ له مماراة في حق فدعاه إلى رجل من إخوانه ليحكم بينه وبينه فأبى إلا أن يرافعه إلى هؤلاء إلا كان بمنزلة الذين قال الله عز وجل أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَن يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ

Any person who between him and his brother is an argument and the latter calls him to a person from his brothers so that he may decide between the two of them, and the former disagrees but to raise the matter to these people (the Ahlus Sunnah), he will be like those whom Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has referred to in this verse, “Have you not seen those who have claimed to believe in what was revealed to you, and what was revealed before you, they which to refer legislation to Taghut whilst they were commanded to reject it.”[20]

 

2. The Fables and Fantasies which Occur therein

This is evident from the following points:

Back to top  

• The Silent and Loud Flatulence of the Imams are like Musk

Abu Jafar says:

 

للإمام عشر علامات: يولد مطهرا، مختونا، وإذا وقع على الأرض وقع على راحته رافعا صوته بالشهادتين، ولا يجنب، وتنام عيناه ولا ينام قلبه، ولا يتثاءب ولا يتمطى، ويرى من خلفه كما يرى من أمامه، ونجوه كرائحة المسك، والأرض موكلة بستره وابتلاعه

The Imam has ten signs: He is pure and circumcised, and when he falls on the earth [after borth], he falls on his hands raising his voice with the two testimonies (of faith), he is never in the state of major impurity, his eyes sleep but not his heart, he does not yawn, he does not stretch, he can see behind himself just as he can see ahead, his excreta, soft and loud flatulence are like the smell of musk, and the earth has been appointed to conceal it and swallow it.[21]

 

Back to top  

• Al Hassan can Speak Seventy Million Languages

Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam says that Hassan said:

 

إن لله مدينتين إحداهما بالمشرق والاخرى بالمغرب; عليهما سور من حديد وعلى كل واحد منهما ألف ألف مصراع وفيها سبعون ألف ألف لغة، يتكلم كل لغة صاحبها وأنا أعرف جميع اللغات وما فيهما وما بينهما، وما عليهما حجة غيري وغير الحسين أخي

For Allah are two cities, one in the east and one in the west. Upon them is a steel wall, and upon each one of them are a hundred-thousand door frames (doors). There are seventy million languages each of which is spoken by its people. And I know all the languages and what is in the two cities and what is between them. And there is no evidence upon them other than me and my brother Hussain.[22]

 

Back to top  

• The Imam can Speak all the Languages of all the Creations

Abu Hamzah Nasir al Khadim says:

 

سمعت أبا محمد غير مرة يكلم غلمانه بلغاتهم: ترك وروم وصقالبة، فتعجبت من ذلك وقلت: هذا ولد بالمدينة ولم يظهر لاحد حتى مضى أبو الحسن عليه السلام ولا رآه أحد فكيف هذا؟ أحدث نفسي بذلك، فأقبل علي فقال: إن الله تبارك وتعالى بين حجته من سائر خلقه بكل شئ ويعطيه اللغات ومعرفة الأنساب والآجال و الحوادث

I heard Abu Muhammad more than once talking to his slaves in their languages, slaves who were Turks, Romans, and Europeans. I was surprised at that and said to myself, “This person was born in Madinah and he did not emerge to anyone till Abu al Hassan passed away, so how is this possible?” So, he came to me and said, “Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has made clear his evidence to His entire creation in everything and He grants him (i.e. the Imam) the knowledge of languages, lineages, lifespans, and events.[23]

 

Back to top  

• Bathing with a Vessel made from the Clay-pots of Egypt Makes you Shameless

‘Ali ibn Asbat narrates the following from Abu al Hassan al Rida:

 

لا تأكلوا في فخارها ولا تغسلوا رؤوسكم بطينها، فإنها يذهب بالغيرة ويورث الدياثة

Do not eat in its earthenware and do not wash you heads with its soil, for they take away a person’s possessiveness, and instil in him shamelessness.[24]

 

Back to top  

• Al Hussain would Suckle from the Finger of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his Tongue

Abu ‘Abdullah says:

لم يرضع الحسين من فاطمة (عليها السلام) ولا من أنثى، كان يؤتى به النبي فيضع إبهامه في فيه فيمص منها ما يكفيه اليومين والثلاث

Al Hussain did not drink the milk of Fatimah ‘alayh al Salam nor any woman. He would be brought to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who would place his thumb in his mouth. He would, thus, suck from it enough to suffice him for two to three days.[25]

 

And in another narration from Abu al Hassan al Rida it stated:

 

إن النبي (صلى الله عليه وآله) كان يؤتى به الحسين فيلقمه لسانه فيمصه فيجتزىء به ولم يرتضع من أنثى

Al Hussain would be brought to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who would give him his tongue. He would suck it and would suffice on that. He did not drink the milk of a woman.[26]

 

Back to top  

• The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would Suckle from the Breast of his Uncle Abu Talib

Abu ‘Abdullah says:

 

لما ولد النبي صلى الله عليه وآله مكث أياما ليس له لبن، فألقاه أبو طالب على ثدي نفسه، فأنزل الله فيه لبنا فرضع منه أياما حتى وقع أبو طالب على حليمة السعدية فدفعه إليها

When Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was born he stayed for days without milk. Abu Talib, thus, gave him his own breast and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala sent down milk into it. Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam drank from it for days till Abu Talib found Halimah al Sa’diyyah and gave him to her.[27]

 

Back to top  

• Eating Sand is the Cure to Every Sickness

Abu al Hassan says:

كل الطين حرام مثل الميتة والدم ولحم الخنزير إلا طين قبر الحسين عليه السلام فان فيه شفاء من كل داء ولكن لا يكثر منه وفيه أمنا من كل خوف

All sand is Haram just like a dead animal, blood, and the meat of a pig, with the exception of the sand of the grave of Hussain ‘alayh al Salam. For therein is a cure for every sickness, but one should not have too much of it, and security from every fear.[28]

 

Back to top  

• Drinking Water at night Causes Yellow Water

Abu ‘Abdullah says:

وشرب الماء من قيام الليل يورث الماء الأصفر

And drinking water when waking up at night causes yellow water.[29]

 

Back to top  

• Ramadan is a Name from the Names of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala

Sa’d narrates from Abu Jafar that he said:

 

كنا عنده ثمانية رجال فذكرنا رمضان فقال لا تقولوا هذا رمضان ولا ذهب رمضان ولا جاء رمضان فإن رمضان اسم من أسماء الله عزوجل

We were eight men by him and we talked about Ramadan. He said, “Do not say this is Ramadan, or Ramadan came, or Ramadan went. For Ramadan is a name from the names of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.[30]

 

Back to top  

• Satiation Causes Leprosy

Abu ‘Abdullah says:

الأكل على الشبع يورث البرص

Eating to one’s fill causes leprosy.[31]

 

Back to top  

• Eating Melon Causes Paralyses

Al Rida is reported to have said:

البطيخ على الريق يورث الفالج نعوذ بالله منه

Eating melon on an empty stomach in the morning causes paralyses, we seek the refuge of Allah from that.[32]

 

Back to top  

Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was Free from Menstruation

Abu al Hassan says:

إن بنات الأنبياء لا يطمثن

The daughters of the Prophets do not menstruate.[33]

 

And Abu Jafar is reported to have said:

 

لما ولدت فاطمة عليها السلام أوحى الله عز وجل إلى ملك فأنطق به لسان محمد صلى الله عليه وآله فسماها فاطمة ثم قال: إني فطمتك بالعلم وفطمتك عن الطمث ثم قال أبو جعفر عليه السلام: والله لقد فطمها الله تبارك وتعالى بالعلم وعن الطمث بالميثاق

When Fatimah ‘alayh al Salam was born Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala sent revelation to an angel, so he made the tongue of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam utter it and, thus, he named her Fatimah. Thereafter he said, “I have weaned you with knowledge and I have weaned you from menstruation.”

Thereafter, Abu Jafar said, “By Allah, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala weaned her with knowledge and from menstruation at the time of the covenant.”[34]

 

Back to top  

• The Narrations of the Donkey ‘Ufayr

Al Kulayni has narrated from ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu the following:

 

أن أول شئ من الدواب توفي عفير ساعة قبض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله قطع خطامه ثم مر يركض حتى أتى بئر بني خطمة بقباء  فرمى بنفسه فيها فكانت قبره

The first animal to die was ‘Ufayr. When Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away it cut its reign and went about running till it came to the well of the Banu Khatamah in Quba’ and threw itself in it and, thus, it became its grave.

 

Amir al Mu’minin is reported to have said:

 

إن ذلك الحمار كلم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فقال: بأبي أنت وأمي إن أبي حدثني، عن أبيه، عن جده، عن أبيه أنه كان مع نوح في السفينة فقام إليه نوح فمسح على كفله ثم قال: يخرج من صلب هذا الحمار حمار يركبه سيد النبيين وخاتمهم، فالحمد لله الذي جعلني ذلك الحمار

That donkey spoke to Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and said, “May my parents be sacrificed for thee my father told me from its father, from its grandfather, from its father that he was with Nuh ‘alayh al Salam in the ship. Nuh ‘alayh al Salam stood up to him and passed his hand over its buttock and said, ‘There will appear from the posterity of this donkey, a donkey which will be mounted by the leader of the Prophets and their seal.’ So, all praise is for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala who has made me that donkey.”[35]

 

So, this narration is narrated by al Kulayni with its chain of transmission, and its chain as you notice is filled with donkeys. What is appalling is that this chain appears in the most authentic of their books.

Then, in terms of the hadith dimension this narration contains many flaws:

  1. The chain of transmission contains unknown narrators, this is because we do not know whether they are reliable retainers or not? And I have not found any scholar who has documented their biographies. Probably the reader would want to join me in searching for their biographies in the books Hayat al Hayawan and al Hayawan of al Dimyari and al Jahiz respectively.
  2. How can a donkey say, ‘may my father and mother be sacrificed for thee’? Who is its father and who is its mother so that they be sacrificed for Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? This is without a doubt tarnishing the reputation of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as is clear. In fact, it is trivialising his stature and gives an impression of lack of respect on the path of those who attribute this speech to the leader of the entire creation salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; i.e. that a donkey say to him may my father and my mother be sacrificed for thee.
  3. In this narration there is a narrator who is accused of lying, and that is the grandfather of the father of the donkey ‘Ufayr. This is because it could never have met Nuh ‘alayh al Salam but still claims that Nuh ‘alayh al Salam passed his hand over its buttock.

All praise is due to Allah for the bounty of intellect. Can there be anyone with a thicker face, firmer cheek who is more impudent and emboldened to speak such lies than this?

 

3. The Narrations of al Kafi Contradicting the Noble Qur’an

Hereunder, we present a simple illustration of the narrations of Abu ‘Abdullah Jafar al Sadiq which are found in al Kafi (narrations which are falsely attributed to him), and which entirely contradict the Noble Qur’an.

It is without doubt that Imam Jafar al Sadiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu is a great Imam and enjoys a very high ranking according to the both the Sunnis and the Shia. He was accorded the title al Sadiq (the truthful), obviously he was not accorded this title but after it was completely harmonious with his statements and actions. Hashim Ma’roof al Hussaini says:

 

لقد أجمع واصفوه بأنه لقب بالصادق، لأنه عرف بصدق الحديث، والقول والعمل، حتى أصبح حديث الناس في عصره

His describers concur that he was accorded the title al Sadiq because he was known for his truthfulness in speech and his genuineness in speech and action, to the extent that he became the center of people’s discussion in his time.[36]

 

Indeed, the Rafidah do not know the creed of Jafar al Sadiq, for they have only collated conjectured opinions and forgeries which they found appeasing and attributed them to him.

And as I have said, whatever we will present hereunder are fabrications which they have attributed to Abu ‘Abdullah Jafar al Sadiq, for he is pure from making such statements.

 

Hereunder are some narrations:

  1. Muawiyah ibn ‘Ammar narrates the following from Abu ‘Abdullah:

 

عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام في قول الله عز وجل وَلِلهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا قال: نحن والله الأسماء الحسنى التي لا يقبل الله من العباد عملا إلا بمعرفتنا

Concerning the verse of Allah, “And for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala are beautiful names, so call out to him with them,” he said, “We are, by Allah, the beautiful names of Allah without recognising who Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will not accept a single action from the bondsmen.”[37]

 

This contradicts the following verses:

وَلِلهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا

And for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala are beautiful names, so call out to him with them.[38]

 

قُلِ ادْعُوا اللهَ أَوِ ادْعُوا الرَّحْمَٰنَ أَيًّا مَّا تَدْعُوا فَلَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ

Say, “Call upon Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala or call upon the most merciful, whichever name you call to him belong the best names.”[39]

 

هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ

He is Allah, the creator, the inventor, the fashioner; to him belong the best names.[40]

 

Pure is Allah! Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala attributes the best names to himself, and the infallible Imams claims that the best names are the Imams themselves.

It seems as though the infallible Imam Jafar al Sadiq did not study the Qur’an, or he studied it but did not understand it, or he understood it but was a victim of fanaticism. In fact, we even find him emphasising his statement and supporting it with an oath. Pure is Allah! Are you not accorded the title ‘al Sadiq’? Of what benefit then is your oath? Your title is enough. Hence, there is no doubt that this is falsely attributed to him.

 

  1. Saif al Tammar narrates:

 

كنا مع أبي عبد الله عليه السلام جماعة من الشيعة في الحجر، فقال: علينا عين؟ فالتفتنا يمنة ويسرة، فلم نر أحداً، فقلنا: ليس علينا عين، فقال: ورب الكعبة! ورب البنية! ثلاث مرات – لو كنت بين موسى والخضر لأخبرتهما أني أعلم منهما، ولأنبئتهما بما ليس في أيديهما، لأن موسى وخضر أعطيا علم ما كان، ولم يعطيا علم ما يكون، وما هو كائن حتى تقوم الساعة، وقد ورثناه من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآلة وراثة

We were by Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam, a group of the Shia, in the Hijr (the Hatim area).

He said, “There is a spy upon us.”

We thus looked to the right and to the left and did not see anyone.

So, we said, “There is no spy upon us.”

He, thus, said, “By the lord of the Ka’bah, by the lord of the building,” saying that three times, “If I were between Musa and Khidar I would inform them that I am more knowledgeable than them and I would inform them of what is not in their possession. Because Musa and Khidar were granted the knowledge of what happened, not of what will happen and what is to happen till the day of Judgement. And that we inherited from Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[41]

 

This contradicts the following verses of the Qur’an:

 

قُلْ مَا كُنتُ بِدْعًا مِّنَ الرُّسُلِ وَمَا أَدْرِي مَا يُفْعَلُ بِي وَلَا بِكُمْ

Say, “I am not something new amongst the messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or with you.”[42]

 

كَذَٰلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ رُوحًا مِّنْ أَمْرِنَا مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِي مَا الْكِتَابُ وَلَا الْإِيمَانُ

And, thus, we have revealed to you an inspiration of our command (the Qur’an), you did not know what is the book or what is faith.[43]

 

قُل لَّا يَعْلَمُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ إِلَّا الله

Say none in the heavens and earth knows the unseen except Allah.[44]

 

تِلْكَ مِنْ أَنبَاءِ الْغَيْبِ نُوحِيهَا إِلَيْكَ ۖ مَا كُنتَ تَعْلَمُهَا أَنتَ وَلَا قَوْمُكَ مِن قَبْلِ هَٰذَا

That is from the news of the unseen which we reveal to you, you knew it not, neither you not your people.[45]

 

فَقُلْ إِنَّمَا الْغَيْبُ لِله

So, say, “The unseen is only for Allah.”[46]

 

وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ

And with him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except him.[47]

 

This also contradicts the statement of Imam Jafar himself in another narration wherein he has refuted the claim of those who say that he is infallible Imam who knows the unseen. Hence, Sadir narrates the following:

 

 كنت أنا وأبو بصير ويحيى البزاز وداود بن كثير في مجلس أبي عبد الله عليه السلام إذ خرج إلينا وهو مغضب، فلما أخذ مجلسه قال: يا عجبا لأقوام يزعمون أنا نعلم الغيب، ما يعلم الغيب إلا الله عز وجل، لقد هممت بضرب جاريتي فلانة، فهربت مني فما علمت في أي بيوت الدار هي

I, Abu Basir, Yahya al Bazzaz, and Dawood ibn Kathir were in the gathering of Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam. He came out to us angry and when he took his seat he said, “Appalling indeed are a people who claim that we know the unseen; none besides Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala knows the unseen. I wanted to beat my slave girl, but she ran away from me and I did not know in which of the rooms of the house she was.”[48]

 

  1. Abu ‘Abdullah is reported to have said:

من استفتح نهاره بإذاعة سرنا سلط الله عليه حر الحديد وضيق المحابس

Whoever starts his day by divulging our secret, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will put upon him the heat of steel and the constrains of prison.[49]

 

And in another narration Sulaiman ibn Khalid narrates the following from Abu ‘Abdullah:

 

يا سليمان إنكم على دين من كتمه أعزه الله، ومن أذاعه أذله الله

O Sulaiman, you are upon a creed, whoever conceals it Allah will elevate him, and whoever divulges it Allah will disgrace him.[50]

 

This contradicts the following verse:

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَشْتَرُونَ بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا أُولَٰئِكَ مَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ إِلَّا النَّارَ وَلَا يُكَلِّمُهُمُ اللَّهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلَا يُزَكِّيهِمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الضَّلَالَةَ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَالْعَذَابَ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ فَمَا أَصْبَرَهُمْ عَلَى النَّارِ

Indeed, they who conceal what Allah has sent down of the book and exchange it for a small price-those consume not into their bellies except the fire. And Allah will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them. And they will have a painful punishment. Those are the ones who have exchanged guidance for error and forgiveness for punishment. How patient they are for the fire.[51]

 

It also contradicts another narration from Jafar al Sadiq wherein he states that he has been ordered by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to convey, wherefrom we understand the absence of concealing. He says:

 

وإن عندنا سرا من سر الله، وعلما من علم الله، أمرنا بتبليغه، فبلغنا عن الله عز وجل ما أمرنا بتبليغه

And by us is a secret from the secrets of Allah, and knowledge from the knowledge of Allah. He ordered us to convey it, and, thus, we conveyed from Allah what he ordered us to convey.[52]

 

  1. Abu al Rabi’ al Shami narrates the following from Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam:

 

إن الإمام إذا شاء أن يعلم عُلِّم

The Imam, when he wants to know, he is taught.[53]

 

This contradicts the following verses:

 

وَمَا تَشَاءُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاءَ اللهُ

And you do not will except if Allah wills.[54]

 

وَمَا تَشَاءُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاءَ اللهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ

And you do not will except if Allah wills, the lord of the universe.[55]

 

Likewise, Jafar al Sadiq contradicts himself in the following narration which is narrated by Safwan, from whoever he narrates, from Abu ‘Abdullah:

قلت له: علمني شيئا أقوله إذا أصبحت وإذا أمسيت، فقال: قل: الحمد لله الذي يفعل ما يشاء ولا يفعل ما يشاء غيره

I asked him, “Teach me something I can say morning and evening.”

He replied, “Say: all praise is due to Allah who does what he wills and does not do what others besides him will.[56]

 

  1. Jafar al Sadiq says:

يا ابن أبي يعفور  فنحن حجج الله في عباده

O Ibn Abi Ya’fur, we are the evidences of Allah in his servants.[57]

 

He also says:

نحن شهداء الله تبارك وتعالى على خلقه وحججه في أرضه

We are the witnesses of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala on his creation and his evidences in the earth.[58]

 

This contradicts the verse of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala which states that the evidences are the Prophets ‘alayhim al Salam and messengers. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:

لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللَّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ

So that mankind will have no argument against Allah after the messengers.[59]

 

And ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

تمت بنبينا محمد صلى الله عليه وآله حجته

With our Nabi Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam his evidence is completed.[60]

 

Whilst concluding this illustration of contradiction, I would like to say the following: if the response of the Twelver Shia Rawafid is that the narrations we have cited from al Kafi from Jafar al Sadiq are weak or forged and, thus, unworthy of substantiation, then why don’t we find in them resoluteness to clarify the weakness of these narrations for their opponents before even an Imami Shia, so that he does not advance them as evidence against them?

Furthermore, if the Shia are really so concerned with the studying of the chain in every narration, then why was the book Zubdat al Kafi[61] of al Bahbudi confiscated from markets and why were the Shia scholars unhappy with his criticism of al Kafi?

Professor Musa al Musawi says:

 

ولا أعتقد أن زعيما دينيا واحدا من زعماء المذهب الشيعي قديما وحديثا قد قام بغربلة الكتب الشيعية من الروايات التي تنسب زورا إلى الأئمة في تجريح الخلفاء ، وغيرها من الروايات التي يحكم العقل السليم ببطلانها ، وعدم صدورها من الإمام مع أن علماء المذهب كلهم مجمعون أيضا بأن الكتب التي يعتمدون عليها في الشئون المتعلقة بالمذهب فيها روايات باطلة غير صحيحة ، وهم يذعنون بأن هذه الكتب تجمع بين طياتها الصدف والخزف والصحيح والسقيم ، ومع ذلك لم يسلك هؤلاء الزعماء طريق إصلاح مثل هذه الروايات . فإذا كانت زعاماتنا الشيعية تتصفح بالشجاعة وتؤمن بالمسئولية الملقاة على عاتقها في رفع الخلاف لتحملت مسئولية الخلاف بكاملها ، ولعملت على إزالة مثل هذه الروايات من بطون الكتب ، وعقول الشيعة ، ولفتحت صفحة جديدة ، ولعم الخير على جميع المسلمين

I do not believe that a single religious leader from the leaders of the Shia dogma, in the past and the present, has undertaken the task of sifting the narrations of the Shia books to remove those narrations which have falsely been attributed to the Imams regarding the impugning of the Khulafa’ and other narrations which, according to sound reason, are baseless and could never have originated from the Imam. Whereas the scholars of the dogma concur that the books they rely upon regarding religious issues contain fallacious and invalid narrations. They also believe that these books gather between their covers, oysters and earthenware, and authentic and lackluster narrations. But despite that these leaders have not treaded the path of rectifying this type of narrations. So, if our Shia leaderships are characterized by valour, and they believe in the responsibility of eradicating the disputes which has been placed upon their shoulders, they would assume the responsibility of all the disputes; would strive to eliminate such narrations from the bellies of the books and the minds of the Shia; and they would open a new page in the history of Islam wherein goodness would engulf all the Muslims.[62]

 

This is some of what appears in al Kafi the greatest of their books. Had my intention been a detailed covering of all their laughable content, I would refer to other books like: al Anwar al No’maniyyah, Bihar al Anwar, Saluni Qabl an Tafqiduni, Madinah al Ma’ajiz, Zahr al Rabi’ and many more of their credible books. For by Allah in these books is contained the most astounding of content.

Now at the end, listen to Ayatollah al Burqa’i and what he has to say about the inception of the Shia narrations in his book Kasr al Sanam:

 

ولكن بعد مضي قرن أو قرنين من الزمان، ظهرت أخبار باسم الدين ووجد أشخاص باسم المحدثين أو المفسرين، الذين جاؤوا بأحاديث مسندة عن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم

But after the passage of one or two centuries, reports emerged in the name of religion, and personnel came about in the name of hadith scholars and exegetes, who presented narrations reaching consistently to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Till he says:

وضعت كتابي هذا موضحا فيه أن هذه الخلافات إنما نشأت بسبب الإخبار المفتراة الواردة في كتبنا المعتبرة نحن الشيعة

I have written this book to explain that these differences only came about because of forged narrations which appear in our reliable books, the Shia.

 

And he says:

وكان الوضاعون من أشباه المتعلمين وأصحاب الخرافات قد أحدثوا أكثر هذه الأخبار في القرن الثاني أو الثالث، حيث لم تكن هناك حوزة علمية

The forgers who resembled students and were people of fallacies forged most of these narrations in the second and third century, when there were no seminaries of knowledge.

 

Thereafter Ayatollah al Burqa’i mentions that al Sheikh al Saduq was a working individual who sold rice in Qum; he had written a book wherein he gathered everything he heard from whom he met and considered good and transmitted it. Likewise, Muhammad ibn Yaqub al Kulayni was also a grocer in Baghdad who also gathered and documented over a period of twenty years what he heard from the people of his creed and was then deemed an authority. This is because in that era there were no scholars of Din as per the understanding thereof today. Till he says:

 

ليت شعري كيف يكون كتاب الكافي كافيا لهم، حيث الستقى مئات الورايات، والموضوعات الخرافية من أعداء الدين، كما سنفصل ذلك

I would want to know how the book al Kafi was sufficient for them when he has drawn hundreds of narrations, and fallacious content from the enemies of the religion and documented them, as we will explain that.

 

And he says:

 

ففي كتاب الكافي عيوب كثيرة سواء من حيث السند ورواته كانت، أم من حيث المتن وموضوعاته، وأما من حيث السند فمعظم رواته من الضعفاء والمجهولين، ومن الناس المهملين، وأصحاب العقائد الزائفة، وهذ ما يقول به علماء الرجل من الشيعة

In the book al Kafi there are many flaws, in the chains of transmission and transmitters and in the wordings of the narrations and their subject-matters. As for the chains, most of its narrators are weak, unknown, people whose identities have not fully been disclosed, and people who had false beliefs. And this is what the Shia scholars of the transmitter biographies have said.

 

Thereafter he goes onto delineate the objective of writing the book Kasr al Sanam. He thus says:

  1. Many fables have entered Islam in the name of the Imam, and we know that these fables are not acceptable according to the intelligent and the scholars, in fact they are the cause of their reprehension. These fables have mostly entered through the forging of narrations and through undue reliance upon the early scholars. Therefore, it is important to purify Islam from such blemishes.
  2. Majority of the Shia sects, which are close to a hundred groups, have based their dogma upon these narrations. And these fallacious narrations assist them in advancing their ideologies. For this reason, and in order to eliminate the causes of differences and dissension between the Muslims, and to reach unity, it is suited or necessary to write a book of this kind.
  3. They have played with the verses of the Book of Allah and have averted them from their actual interpretations mostly on the basis of these narrations and reports. They also omitted the meanings of these divine verses on the basis of forged exegetic comments attributed to the Imam. Therefore, it should be clear that the narrators of the reports did not have a pure motive.
  4. These narrations have also been the cause for the negative assumptions of the majority of Muslim scholars and their criticism of the Shia. This is what is driving us to strive to separate the good from the bad, and the correct from the false.
  5. Majority of our population here in Iran has drawn its beliefs from the book al Kafi and its like. So, when you try to show them the truth, and guide them to the correct beliefs they refuse to accept. Hence, it is important to clarify to them that it is not possible to derive belief from a single report. Especially when all the scholars of the Shia and their research masters have said and written that the report of a lone narrator is not evidence and cannot be used for matters pertaining to belief.

 

And all the narrations included in al Kafi pertaining to belief, or at least most of them, are single reports. Added to that is the fact that it has appeared in the sources of the Shia, their references, their letters, and their legal verdicts that in beliefs following without evidence is not permissible. Hence, it is not permissible to follow (without evidence) in belief a specific narrator and his opinion. And even if all of this is overlooked, it is necessary to ascertain what can be accepted as authoritative and evidence in Islam.[63]

By Allah, he has spoken the truth, these narrations are the reason for the belief of the Muslim scholars that those who have forged these narrations are heretics. And that many of the followers do not intend evil for the Din and its adherents, but they devote themselves by way of ignorance to what appears in them.

Al Burqa’i has in this regard presented an example of one of these individuals. He thus says:

 

وفي حوار مع أحد المجتهدين قال: إن أحاديث الكافي كلها صحيحة، ولا يحتمل الشك فيها أبدا، وإذا قال أحد غير هذا فهو مغرض. فقلت لهذا المجتهد: إذا كنت تقول بصحة جميع أحاديثه، فلم لا تعتقد بثلاثة عشر إماما، ذلك لأنه روي في المجلد الأول من الكافي في باب عدد الأئمة أربع روايات على أن الأئمة ثلاثة عشر إماما؟ قال: أرني ذلك، فأريته، فتعجب وقال: ما رأيت ذلك قبل

And in a discussion with one of the Mujtahids he said, “All the narrations of al Kafi are Sahih, no doubt can ever be entertained in them. And if anyone says anything other than this he is prejudiced.” So, I said to him, “If you believe in the authenticity of its narrations, then why don’t you believe in thirteen Imams; this is because in the first volume of al Kafi under the chapter of the number of Imams there four narrations which state that the Imams are thirteen. He said, “Show me.” So, I showed him. He was surprised and said, “I did not see that before.”[64]

 

So, do you see, may Allah guide me and you, how the reality of the falsity of these narrations which have fragmented the Ummah became clear to this genuine scholar?

We ask Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala for safety in this world and the next. Amin.

 

Status of the Narrators

This is a very brief introduction to the status of some narrators from who Muhammad ibn Yaqub al Kulayni has narrated in his acclaimed book al Kafi[65] taken from the book Kasr al Sanam of the great Ayatollah al Sayed Abu al Fadl ibn al Rida al Burqa’i.[66] These narrators have played a very pivotal role in introducing false beliefs and reprehensible ideologies to Shi’ism. And if this is the status of the narrators of their greatest book, then what would be the situation of the remaining books.

It is as though the situation of the Shia is proclaiming:

 

قل الثقات فما أدري بمن أثق لم يبق في الناس إلا الزور والملق

The reliable people are very few, so I do not know who to trust… Nothing remains in people besides lying and flattery.

 

Ayatollah al Burqa’i mentions:

 

اعلم أن في الكافي يحتوي على 16199 حديثا، وشاع بين أئمة الشيعة أن هذا الكتاب من أوثق الكتب، وأنه معتمد لدي جميع علمائهم، وكل من لم يقرأه أو يطلع عليه يظن أن كل رواة حديثه عدول ثقات متدينون، وأنه خال من كل المواضيع التي تخالف القرآن والعقل، وهما حجتان إلهيتان، ولكن بعد التدقيق والدراسة يصدق القول رب شهرة لا أصل لها، ففي أحاديث كتاب الكافي عيوب كثيرة سواء من حيث السند ورواته كانت، أم من حيث المتن وموضوعاته، وأما من حيث السند فمعظم رواته من الضعفاء والمجهولين، ومن الناس المهملين، وأصحاب العقائد الزائفة، وهذ ما يقول به علماء الرجل من الشيعة

Know that there are 16199 narrations in al Kafi. It has become commonplace amongst the scholars of the Shia that this book is the most reliable book and that it is an authority according to their scholars. Whoever has not read it and studied it will assume that all its narrators are reliable and religious, and that it is free from all subject matter which opposes the Qur’an and sound reason, which are the two evidences of Allah. But after much research and study the following maxim proves to be true, “Many a popularity has no basis.” Hence, in the book al Kafi there are many flaws, in the chains of transmission and transmitters, and in the wordings of the narrations and their subject-matters. As for the chains, most of their narrators are weak, unknown, people whose identities have not fully been disclosed, and people who had false beliefs. And this is what the Shia scholars of transmitter biographies have said.[67]

 

Some Narrators:

  1. Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al Ahmar al Nahawandi: The scholars of transmitter biographies have deemed him weak and have considered him to be from the extremists. He was a sinner and an innovator.[68]
  2. Umayyah ibn ‘Ali al Qaisi: From the extremists. He has been impugned by the scholars of transmitter-biographies; they have described him as a fanatic and a liar.[69]
  3. Ibn Qayyama: A Waqifi[70] in dogma.[71]
  4. Abu al Bakhtari, Wahb ibn Wahb: The Shia scholars of transmitter biographies have deemed him weak, a liar, and a wicked person. Fadl ibn Shadhan has said regarding him, “He is the biggest of liars in the people, and he is the person who was the cause of the murder of the ascetic Yahya ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Hassan.”[72]
  5. Abu al Jarud Ziyad ibn al Mundhir: He was astray in his creed and was the founder of the Jarudiyyah sect.[73] Jafar al Sadiq cursed him and said, “He is blind in his heart and in his eyes.” He would befriend the disbelievers, would drink wine, and was blind. He was known as Sarhub, a devil which resides in the ocean.[74]
  6. Jama’ah ibn Sa’d: He was a wretched person and was weak. He revolted with Abu al Khattab who claimed divinity and was killed because of that.[75]
  7. Hassan ibn ‘Abbas ibn al Harish: The scholars of transmitter-biographies have very severely impugned him. And al Najashi has said, “He is very weak.” He has a book regarding Surah al Qadr the wording of which is very jumbled up. And al Gada’iri says, “He is very weak, and his book has muddled up words and is a fabrication which is not worth consideration. His narrations will not be written.” Likewise, is suggested by the rest of the scholars as well.[76]
  8. Dawood ibn Kathir al Raqqi: The scholars have deemed him weak and have considered him to be the authority of the extremists and a person who was deviant in his creed.[77]
  9. Durust Ibn Mansur: A Waqifi in creed, and from the Mamturah dogs, i.e. dogs whose impurity and extends to others.[78]
  10. Sa’d ibn Tarif al Iskaf: He was astray in his creed and from the [79] He was a story-teller and has been deemed weak by the scholars. They have said about him, “He has reprehensible narrations.”[80]
  11. Salamah ibn al Khattab: A deviant in his creed and a Waqifi. The scholars of transmitter biographies have deemed him weak.[81]
  12. Sama’ah ibn Mihran: A Waqifi in creed.[82]
  13. Saif al Tammar: His narrations oppose the Qur’an.[83]
  14. Salih ibn Sahl: From the fanatics. He considered Jafar al Sadiq to be his deity and lord. And al Sadiq said, “The fanatics are worse than the polytheists.” He would forge narrations, so it is surprising that al Kulayni narrates from such narrators.[84]
  15. Salih ibn Hammad: Weak and from the fanatics. And al Najashi said, “His matter is confusing, sometimes he narrates acceptable narrations and sometimes reprehensible narrations, i.e. he was a hypocrite.” Ibn al Ghada’iri has also deemed him weak, and al Hilli did not accept his narration and considered him to be foolish in Manhaj al Maqal.[85]
  16. ‘Ali ibn Abi Hamzah al Bata’ini: A Waqifi who has been accused by the Imam. He is the head of the Waqifi sect and the scholars of the Shia have considered him to be from the Mamturah dogs and the Waqifis. He was the guardian of Musa ibn Jafar and his representative. He usurped the wealth of the Imam which he was entrusted with.[86]
  17. ‘Ali ibn Asbat: He was a Fathi[87] in creed.[88]
  18. ‘Amr in Shimar ibn Yazid: He has been deemed weak by all the scholars.[89]
  19. Muhammad ibn Awramah: An extremist. He has mixed truth and falsehood in his book, and was not reliable.[90]
  20. Muhammad ibn Jumhur: The Shia scholars have deemed him a liar who was corrupt in hadith and in belief. He popularized sinning and debauchery by way of his poetry.[91]
  21. Muhammad ibn Sinan: From the infamous liars and from the extremists. He was a forger and was corrupt in his creed. He is the one that would say, “Allah created the world, thereafter he handed over its affairs to Muhammad and ‘Ali and he sat to rest.” And he also claimed that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has a hand, a face, a body, and is confined to space like humans.[92]
  22. Yunus ibn Zubyan: From the infamous extremist and liars. The scholars state that he is weak and his narrations should not be given attention. He was wicked; he would say to al Rida, “I was doing Tawaf and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala came above my head and addressed me saying, “O Yunus, I am Allah, there is no one worthy of worship besides me, and establish Salah for my remembrance.” Al Rida became angry and said, “Leave,” and he told another person sitting by him, “Take him out.” He thereafter said to him, “May the curse of Allah be upon you and whoever addressed you. Leave.” And he said, “A thousand curses upon Yunus ibn Zubyan, followed by a thousand and another thousand curses, and every curse that will lead him to the fire.” And the Imam said, “I testify that the person who addressed you was the devil. Behold, Yunus and Abu al Khattab both will be in shackles of iron and in the severest punishment.”[93]

 

In essence, Sheikh al Ta’ifah al Tusi (d. 460 A.H.) has summarized the statuses of their transmitters with a very important confession:

 

إن كثيرا من مصنفي أصحابنا، وأصحاب الأصول، ينتحلون المذاهب الفاسدة، وإن كانت كتبهم معتمدة

Many authors from our scholars, and the authors of the primary sources are affiliated to corrupt creeds, even though their books are reliable.[94]

 

Al Hurr al ‘Amili says:

 

ودعوى بعض المتأخرين أن الثقة بمعنى العدل الضابط ممنوعة، وهو مطالب بدليلها، وكيف وهم مصرحون بخلافها حيث يوثقون من يعتقدون فسقه، وكفره، وفساد مذهبه؟

And the claim of some later scholars that a reliable transmitter is in terms of him being a person of integrity and accurate retention is untrue, and he is required to provide evidence for that. For how can that be the case when they explicitly state contrary to that; for they deem reliable even those who they believe are guilty of sinning, disbelief, and deviation in creed?[95]

 

He also says:

وأصحاب الاصطلاح الجديد قد اشترطوا في الراوي العدالة، فيلزم من ذلك ضعف جميع أحاديثنا لعدم العلم بعدالة أحد منهم إلا نادرا

And the scholars of the new terminology have placed integrity as a requirement in a narrator. This would entail the weakness of all our narrations, due to not having definitive knowledge regarding any of them, except rarely.[96]

 

And he says:

ومن المعلوم قطعا أن الكتب التي أمروا عليهم السلام بها كان كثير من رواتها ضعفاء، ومجاهيل، وكثير منها مراسيل

And it is known with certainty that the books the Imams ordered adherence to, many of their narrators are weak and unknown. And many of their narrations are inconsistent.[97]

 

NEXT⇒ Section Four – The Four Hundred Principal Sources


[1] Kasr al Sanam, p. 29. An introduction to al Burqa’i will come under our discussion regarding the conditions of the narrators of al Kafi.

[2] Rawdah al Kafi, 8/103.

[3] Usul al Kafi, 1/228.

[4] Ibid., 2/619.

[5] Ibid., 2/633.

[6] Ibid., 1/239.

[7] Rawdah al Kafi, 8/57, 58.

[8] Usul al Kafi, 2/634.

[9] Usul al Kafi, 1/228.

[10] The correct verse is:

أنْ تَكُونَ أُمَّةٌ هِيَ أَرْبَى مِنْ أُمَّةٍ

So that one community be more plentiful than another community. [Surah al Nahl: 92]

[11] The portions which have been underlined, in the subsequent examples, are not part of the original verse and claimed to have been deliberately omitted.

[12] Usul al Kafi, 1/292.

[13] Ibid., 1/416.

[14] Ibid., 1/417.

[15] Ibid., 1/417.

[16] Ibid., 1/418.

[17] Ibid., 1/423,424.

[18] Surah Tawbah: 105.

[19] Ibid., 1/424.

[20] Furu’ al Kafi, 7/411.

[21] Usul al Kafi, 1/388, 389.

[22] Ibid., 1/462.

[23] Ibid., 1/509.

[24] Furu’ al Kafi, 6/386.

[25] Ibid., 1/465.

[26] Ibid., 1/465.

[27] Ibid., 1/448.

[28] Furu’ al Kafi, 6/378.

[29] Ibid., 6/383.

[30] Ibid., 4/69, 70.

[31] Ibid., 6/269.

[32] Ibid., 6/361.

[33] Furu’ al Kafi, 6/361.

[34] Usul al Kafi, 1/460.

[35] Ibid., 1/237.

[36] Sirah al A’immah al Ithnay ‘Ashar, 1/273.

[37] Usul al Kafi, 1/143, 144.

[38] Surah al A’raf: 180.

[39] Surah al Isra’: 110.

[40] Surah al Hashr: 24.

[41] Usul al Kafi, 1/260, 261.

[42] Surah al Ahqaf: 9.

[43] Suran al Shura: 52.

[44] Surah al Naml: 65.

[45] Suran Hud: 49.

[46] Surah Yunus: 20.

[47] Surah al An’am: 59.

[48] Usul al Kafi, 1/257.

[49] Ibid., 2/372.

[50] Ibid., 2/222.

[51] Surah al Baqarah: 174-175.

[52] Usul al Kafi, 1/402.

[53] Ibid., 1/258.

[54] Surah al Insan: 30.

[55] Surah al Takwir: 29.

[56] Usul al Kafi, 2/529.

[57] Usul al Kafi, 1/191.

[58] Usul al Kafi, 1/191.

[59] Surah al Nisa’: 165.

[60] Nahj al Balaghah, 1/177.

[61] He will be discussed under the discussion of authentication and deeming weak.

[62] Al Shia wa al Tashih, p. 66.

[63] Kasr al Sanam, p. 39, 40.

[64] Kasr al Sanam, p. 38.

[65] Specifically the narrators who appear in Usul al Kafi which discusses the beliefs of the Rawafid.

[66] He is the erudite and great Ayatollah Abu al Fadl ibn al Rida al Burqa’i radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He studied in the seminary of Qum in Iran and achieved the level of Ijtihad in the Jafari Twelver school. He has written hundreds of books, treatises and booklets. In his youth he was a fanatic of the Jafari school, but then Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala guided him to return to the Qur’an and the Sunnah. He, thus, wrote several books wherein he has refuted the Imami Shia, one of them being Kasr al Sanam. The police of the Iranian revolution tried to assassinate him with live ammunition in his house. Hence, bullets were shot at him whilst he was reading Salah and one penetrated his left cheek and came out from his right. This had caused some amount of hearing impairing. Notwithstanding, that the age of the scholar at that time was more than eighty. And in the hospital where he was taken for treatment, orders were issued to the doctors that they do not treat him. He, thus, left the hospital and returned home to be treated there. But he did not retract even the amount of a fingertip. Thereafter he was imprisoned in the Evin Prison which is considered to be the harshest political prison in Iran in its methods of penalizing. He spent in its darkness almost a year whereafter he was banished to Yazd, a city far from the capital Tehran where he stayed. Thereafter he was imprisoned again till he passed away in 1992. It is not far-fetched that he was murdered whilst in prison. He had bequeathed that he not be buried in the graveyard of the Shia. Some of his books are: Tahrim al Mut’ah fi al Islam, al Khurafat al Kathirah fi Ziyarat al Qubur, Mukhalafah Mafatih al Jinan li Ayat al Qur’an, and many more. Refer to Kasr al Sanam, 23, 24. Al Burqa’i started studying al Kafi very extensively and thoroughly in light of the Qur’an and sound reason. He found that most of its content contradicts what appears in the Qur’an and clashes with sound reason which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has granted us. Thereafter, he took a greater step and delved into its chains of transmission (alongside its wording). He came out with the appalling conclusion that most of the book is taken from liars, charlatans, and haters of the pure Imams. He, thus, did an in-depth study of every chapter and every narration in al Kafi and thereafter presented his findings in an academic dissertation which is indicative of his extensive knowledge and grasp of the transmitter-biographies. Hence, he did not leave a single narration but that he mentioned the defects it contained, nor a single chapter but that he invalidated whatever appeared in it. And because this book was the primary reference work of his people who gave it credence even over the Book of Allah, to the extent that one of them said whilst holding the Qur’an “This Book is not worth anything without ‘Ali,” he considered it to be an idol being worshiped other than Allah. Consequently, he wrote his books Kasr al Sanam and Tahtim al Sanam. (Taken from the introduction of Kasr al Sanam written by ‘Ali al Salus).

[67] Kasr al Sanam, p. 37.

[68] Ibid., p. 197; also see his biography in the following sources: Rijal al Najashi, p. 19: entry no. 21; al Tusi: al Fihrist, p. 8; Jami’ al Ruwat, 1/18; Naqd al Rijal, 1/54; Tahdhib al Maqal, 1/295; Ma’alim al ‘Ulama’, p. 43: entry no. 23: Idah al Ishtibah, p. 86.

[69] Kasr al Sanam, p. 299; also see: Rijal al Najashi, p. 105; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 232; Jami’ al Ruwat, p. 108; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 324; Naqd al Rijal, 1/246; Tara’if al Maqal, 1/285; Tahdhib al Maqal, 4/72; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 4/144.

[70] This will come ahead.

[71] Kasr al Sanam, p. 245; also see his biography in: Rijal al Kashshi, 2/773; Rijal al Kashshi, 2/773; Rijal al Tusi, p. 336; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 241: entry no. 147; Jami’ al Ruwat, 1/251: Khulasah al Aqwal, 338; Sama’ al Maqal, 1/353; Tara’if al Maqal, 1/353; Naqd al Rijal, 2/111; Tahdhib al Maqal, 2/388; al Tahrir al Tawusi, p. 146; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 7/70.

[72] Kasr al Sanam, p. 56; also see his biography in: Rijal al Kashshi, 2/597; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 282; Rijal al Najashi, p. 430: entry no. 1155; al Tahrir Tawusi, p. 587; al Fa’iq fi Ruwat wa Ashab al Imam al Sadiq, 3/410; Idah al Ishtibah, p. 309; Tara’if al Maqal, 1/620; Naqd al Rijal, 5/31; al Kuna wa al Alqab, 1/15; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 22/44.

[73] The Jarudiyyah are the followers of Jarud Ziyad ibn al Mundhir al A’ma, Sarhub al Khurasani al ‘Abdi. Ibn Nadim has cited in his al Fihrist from Jafar al Sadiq that he cursed him and said, “His heart and eyes are blind.” He has also cited from Muhammad ibn Sinan that he said the following when asked about him, “He did not die till he consumed the intoxicant and befriended the disbelievers.”

This group believed in the superiority of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu over all else and did not deem his position suitable for anyone else. They claim that whoever pushed ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu from this position is a disbeliever and that the Ummah disbelieved and deviated in not pledging allegiance to him. After him they consider Imamah to be for al Hassan ibn ‘Ali, thereafter al Hussain ibn ‘Ali, thereafter they aver the matter will be decided by a council from their children. Hence, whoever turns out to be deserving of Imamah he is the Imam. Both these groups have claimed alliance to Zaid in ‘Ali ibn al Hussain, and Zaid ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, and from them do all the variants of the Zaidis emerge. Refer to: al Nawbakhti: Firaq al Shia, p. 21; Ibn Nadim: al Fihrist, p. 253; Maqalat al Islamiyyin, p. 66; al Farq bayn al Firaq, p. 22; al Milal wa al Nihal, 1/153; Taqrib al Tahdhib, p. 221.

[74] Kasr al Sanam, p. 174; also see his biography in: Rijal al Kashshi, 2/495; Rijal al Tusi, p. 135; Rijal al Najashi, p. 170; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 246; Rijal al Barqi, p. 13; Rijal al Khaqani, p. 130; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 348; Tara’if al Maqal, 2/21; al Tahrir al Tawusi, p. 221; al Fa’iq fi Ruwat wa Ashab al Imam al Sadiq, 1/623; al Fihrist, p. 72; Naqd al Rijal, 2/278; al Kuna wa al Alqab, 1/34; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 8/332.

[75] Kasr al Sanam, p. 200; also see his biography in: Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 236; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 232; Jami’ al Ruwat, 1/164; Naqd al Rijal, 1/368; al Fa’iq fi Ruwat wa Ashab al Imam al Sadiq, 1/307; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 5/114.

[76] Kasr al Sanam, p. 185; also see his biography in: Rijal al Najashi, p. 60; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 238; Naqd al Rijal, 2/31; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 336; Idah al Ishtibah, p. 157; Tahdhib al Maqal, 2/179; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 5/361.

[77] Kasr al Sanam, p. 300; also see his biography in: Rijal al Tusi, p. 336; Rijal al Najashi, p. 156; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 91; Rijal al Barqi, p. 47; Ma’alim al ‘Ulama’, p. 84; Naqd al Rijal, 2/219; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 8/126.

[78] Kasr al Sanam, p. 128; also see: Rijal al Tusi, p. 48; Rijal al Najashi, p. 162; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 446; Naqd al Rijal, 2/224; Sama’ al Maqal, 2/239; Tara’if al Maqal, 1/458; al Fa’iq fi Ruwat wa Ashab al Imam al Sadiq, 1/552; Idah al Ishtibah, p. 19; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 8/144.

[79] The definition of this group will also come ahead.

[80] Kasr al Sanam, p. 185, 275; also see: Rijal al Kashshi, 2/476; Rijal al Tusi, p. 115; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 101, Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 352; Naqd al Rijal, 2/309; al Fa’iq fi Ruwat wa Ashab al Imam al Sadiq, 2/20; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 9/48.

[81] Kasr al Sanam, p. 292; also see: Rijal al Tusi, p. 427; al Fihrist, p. 79; Rijal al Najashi, p. 187; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 101; Jami’ al Ruwat, 1/372; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 354; Tara’if al Maqal, 1/237; Naqd al Rijal, 2/349; Idah al Ishtibah, p. 198; Ma’alim al ‘Ulama’, p. 92; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 9/212.

[82] Kasr al Sanam, p. 73; Rijal al Tusi, p. 221; Rijal al Najashi, p. 193; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 249; Rijal al Khaqani, p. 138; Rijal al Barqi, p. 44; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 356; Sama’ al Maqal, 1/160; Idah al Ishtibah, p. 200; Nihayah al Dirayah, p. 266; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 9/312.

[83] Kasr al Sanam, p. 197; also see: Rijal al Tusi, p.222; al Fihrist, p. 78; Rijal al Najashi, p. 189; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 108; Rijal al Barqi, p. 1/41; Jami’ al Ruwat, p. 1/395; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 161; Naqd al Rijal, 2/388; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 9/380.

[84] Rijal al Kashshi, 2/632; Rijal al Tusi, p. 138; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 110; Rijal al Barqi, p. 27; Jami’ al Ruwat, p. 1/407; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 359; Tara’if al Maqal, 1/488; al Tusi: al Tahrir, p. 305; Naqd al Rijal, 2/409; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 10/77.

[85] Kasr al Sanam, p. 332; also see: Rijal al Najashi, p. 198; al Tusi: al Fihrist, p. 84; Naqd al Rijal, 2/403; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 359; al Tusi: al Tahrir, p. 307; Tara’if al Maqal, 1/238; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 10/58.

[86] Kasr al Sanam, p. 90, 171; also see: Rijal al Kashshi, 2/705; Rijal al Tusi, p. 245; al Tusi: al Fihrist, p. 96; Rijal al Barqi, p. 25; Rijal al Khaqani, p. 79; Naqd al Rijal, 3/220; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 181; Sama’ al Maqal, 1/13; Tara’if al Maqal, 2/334; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 11/71.

[87] The introduction to this sect will also come ahead.

[88] Kasr al Sanam, p. 151; also see: Rijal al Kashshi, 2/835; Rijal al Tusi, p. 360; al Tusi: al Fihrist, p. 90; Rijal al Najashi, p. 252; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 260; Rijal al Barqi, p. 55; Naqd al Rijal, 3/230; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 185; Sama’ al Maqal, 2/311; Tara’if al Maqal, 1/325.

[89] Kasr al Sanam, p. 62; also see: Rijal al Tusi, p. 250; Rijal al Najashi, p. 287; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 264; Rijal al Barqi, p. 35; Jami’ al Ruwat, 1/623; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 378; Naqd al Rijal, 3/336; al Fa’iq fi Ruwat wa Ashab al Imam al Sadiq, 2/493; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 14/116.

[90] Kasr al Sanam, p. 163. See also: Rijal al Tusi, p. 367; Rijal al Najashi, p. 329; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 299; Rijal al Khaqani, p. 196; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 397; Naqd al Rijal, 4/146; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 16/124.

[91] Kasr al Sanam, p. 108, 166, 245; also see: Rijal al Kashshi, 2/463, Rijal al Tusi, p. 364, 448; al Tusi: al Fihrist, p. 145; Rijal al Najashi, p. 337; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 271; Rijal al Barqi, p. 51; Tahdhib al Maqal, 4/75; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 395; Ma’alim al ‘Ulama’, p. 138; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 16/189.

[92] Kasr al Sanam, p. 108, 166, 245; also see: Rijal al Kashshi, 2/687; Rijal al Najashi, p. 328; Rijal Ibn Dawood, p. 174; Rijal al Khaqani, p. 157; al Tusi: al Fihrist, p. 143; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 394; Naqd al Rijal, 4/223; al Darajat al Rafi’ah, p. 102; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 17/160.

[93] Kasr al Sanam, p. 239; also see: Rijal al Kashshi, 2/653; Rijal al Tusi, p. 323; al Tusi: al Fihrist, p. 182; Rijal al Najashi, p. 448; Rijal ibn Dawood, p. 285; Rijal al Barqi, p. 30; Khulasah al Aqwal, p. 419; Sama’ al Maqal, 1/11; Tara’if al Maqal, 1/632; Naqd al Rijal, 5/108; al Fa’iq fi Ruwat wa Ashab al Imam al Sadiq, 3/468.

[94] al Tusi: al Fihrist, p. 32.

[95] Wasa’il al Shia, 30/260.

[96] Ibid.

[97] Ibid. 30/244.

Back to top