Section 2 – The Influence of their Concept of Takfir on the Rest of the Muslim Sects and Schools and its Manifestation – 1. Their excommunication includes all the sects and mazahib (schools of thought) of the Ahlus Sunnah

December 2, 2022
2. Explanation of Common Technical Terms used in Takfir
December 8, 2022

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Section 2

The Influence of their Concept of Takfir on the Rest of the Muslim Sects and Schools and its Manifestation


Before I begin discussing the contents of the section, it is necessary to discuss two important aspects, of which many Muslims are negligent.


1. Their excommunication includes all the sects and mazahib (schools of thought) of the Ahlus Sunnah

Some Ahlus Sunnah might assume—based on husn al-zann (good thoughts) or ignorance of Shi’ism and its reality, by reason of them falling prey to false and deceitful Shia information—that the target of this cursing and excommunication are some deviant sects who are considered to be a part of Ahlus Sunnah, like the Nawasib and Khawarij[1], and not all the sects of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah. This in reality is an incorrect assumption, far removed from accuracy. The truth is that the excommunication of the Shia of their opposition includes all the mazahib and sects of the Ahlus Sunnah without any exception. Hence, there is no difference between a Shafi’i and Hambali, nor a Mu’tazili and Ash’ari, nor a Sufi and Salafi. All, in the sight of the Shia, are disbelievers, accursed, and deserving of eternity in the Fire and Blaze of the Hereafter with the Jews, Christians, and Magians. O beloved reader, understand the establishment of this reality from two angles.


Angle 1

This is an evidence-based angle, founded on the texts and narrations mentioned before, and goes as follows:

Firstly, the Ahlus Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah respect and revere all the Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and determine their ‘adalah (righteousness)—as is known to all. They declare superiority between them and consider the most superior of them—in fact, the most superior humans unrestrictedly after the Prophets—the three Rightly Guided Khalifas, Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum. They consider them the lanterns which light the way, the parables followed, and even the inherited magnificence which is considered, due to the assistance and jihad they rendered and the priceless assets they spent in the way of their Nabi and their Din, climaxing in the revelation of verses of the Glorious Qur’an in praise of them extensively with the command to follow their way and tread their footsteps, since this definitely ensures following and treading the path of Nubuwwah. Oh insolence! When the books of the Shia are replete with criticising, cursing, and excommunicating this impressive group and these rare humans—as learnt in the previous section—it is only logical that this ruling of criticism, curse, and excommunication be applied to all those who emulate them, follow their path, and attest to their superiority and goodness. It does not make sense to excommunicate, curse, and swear the superior, the followed—in favour of whose goodness and approval the Glorious Qur’an has testified, whom the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam selected for companionship and assistance, and history is replete with their grand deeds and splendid accomplishments—while the follower, the less superior is spared—whereas the Shari’ah’s Qur’an or Sunnah has neither defended them nor cleared them of accountability, and they have not reached a tenth of their predecessors in sacrifice, spending, perseverance, and jihad.

Secondly, it was proven while discussing section one of the treatise that the Twelver Shia Imamiyyah excommunicate all those who oppose them or deny the fundamental of Imamah. There is absolutely no doubt that the Ahlus Sunnah, all without exception, with all their various sects and mazahib are at the forefront of this. Hence, the Shia sparing them from criticism, slander, and excommunication is logically impossible. There is no logical or philosophical evidence for this.


Angle 2

After clarifying in the first angle through proof and evidence that the excommunication of the Shia encompasses all the mazahib and sects of the Ahlus Sunnah without any exception, we need to find out whether the conclusion we reached is exactly what Shi’ism states; or is it nothing but detached from the real condition of the Shia or applying logic in an unsuitable situation? Is their takfir restricted to a group or a specific sect, to the exclusion of others?

In order for us all to understand the reality, O beloved reader, have a look at—just for example, not as an all-encompassing rule—the fabricated narrations of the Imams and the declarations of their religious authorities.


  1. Al-Kulayni reports a narration in which he describes Abu Hanifah rahimahu Llah as a Nasibi. The wording of the narration is:

عن محمد بن مسلم قال دخلت على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام وعنده أبو حنيفة فقلت له جعلت فداك رأيت رؤيا عجيبة فقال لي يا ابن مسلم هاتها فإن العالم بها جالس وأومأ بيده إلى أبي حنيفة قال فقلت رأيت كأني دخلت داري وإذا أهلي قد خرجت علي فكسرت جوزا كثيرا ونثرته علي فتعجبت من هذه الرؤيا فقال أبو حنيفة أنت رجل تخاصم وتجادل لئاما في مواريث أهلك فبعد نصب شديد تنال حاجتك منها إن شاء الله فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام أصبت والله يا أبا حنيفة قال ثم خرج أبو حنيفة من عنده فقلت جعلت فداك إني كرهت تعبير هذا الناصب فقال يا ابن مسلم لا يسؤك الله فما يواطئ تعبيرهم تعبيرنا ولا تعبيرنا تعبيرهم وليس التعبير كما عبره

Muhammad ibn Muslim reports: I entered the presence of Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al-Salam while Abu Hanifah was by him. I submitted, “May I be sacrificed for you. I saw an amazing dream.”

He said to me, “O Ibn Muslim, relate it as the one knowledgeable of it is seated,” gesturing with his hand to Abu Hanifah.

I said, “I saw as if I entered my house and suddenly my family left towards me. She broke many walnuts and threw them at me. I am amazed at this dream.”

Abu Hanifah said, “You are a man who is quarrelling and contending mean people over the inheritance of your family. After much strain, you will attain your need from it, Allah willing.”

Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al-Salam commented, “You are correct, by Allah, O Abu Hanifah.”

Abu Hanifah then left his presence.

I said, “May I be sacrificed for you. I dislike the interpretation of this Nasibi.”

He commented, “O Ibn Muslim, may Allah not sadden you. Their interpretation does not match ours and ours does not match theirs. The interpretation is not as he interpreted.”[2]


  1. Al-Kulayni reports:

عن محمد بن حكيم قال قلت لأبي الحسن موسى عليه السلام جعلت فداك فقهنا في الدين وأغنانا الله بكم عن الناس حتى أن الجماعة منا لتكون في المجلس ما يسأل رجل صاحبه تحضره المسألة ويحضره جوابها فيما من الله علينا بكم فربما ورد علينا الشيء لم يأتنا فيه عنك ولا عن آبائك شيء فنظرنا إلى أحسن ما يحضرنا وأوفق الأشياء لما جاءنا عنكم فنأخذ به فقال هيهات هيهات في ذلك والله هلك من هلك يا ابن حكيم قال ثم قال لعن الله أبا حنيفة كان يقول قال علي وقلت

Muhammad ibn Hakim reports: I said to Abu al-Hassan Musa ‘alayh al-Salam, “May I be sacrificed for you. We have gained understanding in din and Allah made us independent of people through you to the extent that a group of us is in a gathering; a man does not ask his friend an issue troubling him but the answer is present due to Allah’s favour upon us owing to you. Sometimes, an issue faces us, in which nothing has come to us from you or your forefathers. We consider the best that appears to us and the one closest to what has come to us from you and practice upon it.”

He said, “Very far, very far! Like this, by Allah, those who were destroyed, were destroyed, O Ibn al-Hakam.”

He then added, “May Allah curse Abu Hanifah. He would say, ‘‘Ali said and I said.’”[3]


  1. Shia Muhaddith Ni’mat Allah al-Jaza’iri relates to us a disturbing report which discloses the Safawid Persian hatred for the scholars of the Muslims—while speaking on the stance of Shah ‘Abbas and his grand father Shah Ismail concerning the grave of Imam Abu Hanifah al-No’man rahimahu Llah. He says:


إن السلطان الأعظم شاه عباس الأول لما فتح بغداد أمر بأن يجعل قبر أبي حنيفة كنيفا وقد أوقف وقفا شرعيا بغلتين وأمر بربطهما على رأس السوق حتى أن كل من يريد الغائط يركبهما ويمضي إلى قبر أبي حنيفة لقضاء الحاجة وقد طلب خادم قبره يوما فقال له ما تخدم في هذا القبر وأبو حنيفة الآن في أسفل الجحيم فقال إن في هذا القبر كلبا أسودا دفنه جدك الشاه إسماعيل لما فتح بغداد قبلك فأخرج عظام أبي حنيفة وجعل موضعها كلبا أسودا فأنا أخدم ذلك الكلب

The grand sultan Shah ‘Abbas the first, after conquering Baghdad, instructed that Abu Hanifah’s grave be changed into a toilet. He made a Shar’i endowment of two mules and commanded they be tied at the entrance of the market so that whoever intends to relieve himself should mount them and proceed to Abu Hanifah’s grave to relieve himself.

He called for the servant of his grave once and asked him, “Who do you serve in this grave whereas Abu Hanifah is now in the lowest part of the Blaze.”

The servant replied, “There is a black dog in this grave buried by your grandfather Shah Ismail when he conquered Baghdad before you. He removed the bones of Abu Hanifah and placed a black dog in his place. I therefore serve that dog.”


Al-Jaza’iri then goes on to emphasise the occurrence of sinful transgression upon Abu Hanifah’s rahimahu Llah grave saying:

وكان صادقا في مقالته لأن المرحوم شاه إسماعيل فعل مثل هذا

He was truthful in his statement because the deceased Shah Ismail did just that.[4]


  1. Al-Kulayni narrates:


عن محمد بن حكيم وحماد عن أبي مسروق قال سألني أبو عبد الله عليه السلام عن أهل البصرة ما هم فقلت مرجئة وقدرية وحرورية قال لعن الله تعالى تلك الملل الكافرة المشركة التي لا تعبد الله على شيء

Muhammad ibn Hakim and Hammad narrate from Abu Masruq: Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al-Salam asked me about the residents of Basrah, what they are.

I replied, “Murji’ah, Qadariyyah, and Haruriyyah.”

He said, “May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala curse these disbelieving polytheistic religions who do not worship Allah at all.”[5]


The researcher of the book al-Kafi, ‘Ali Akbar Ghifari, commenting on this narration, presents his definition of al-Murji’ah:


المرجئة المؤخرون أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام عن مرتبته في الخلافة أو القائلون بأن لا يضر مع الإيمان معصية

The Murji’ah: Those who defer Amir al-Mu’minin ‘alayh al-Salam from his position as Khalifah[6] or those who think that sin will not harm when iman is present.


  1. Shia Muhaddith Muhammad ibn Tahir al-Qummi insults the four Imams, viz. Abu Hanifah, Malik, al-Shafi’i, and Ahmed saying:


خاتمة في أحوال الأئمة الأربعة لأهل السنة وبعض فتاويهم الركيكة وعقائدهم السخيفة

Conclusion on the condition of the four Imams of the Ahlus Sunnah, some of their useless verdicts and absurd beliefs.[7]


  1. The seal of the Muhaddithin of the Shia, Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi, relates the belief of the four Imams of the Ahlus Sunnah of the takbirs upon the deceased being four, while cursing them and naming them the most wicked hypocrites. He says:


وذهب الفقهاء الأربعة من المخالفين وجماعة أخرى منهم إلى أن التكبير أربع وأما كون الصلاة على غير المؤمن أربعا فهو المقطوع به في كلامهم ويظهر لك من أمثال هذا الخبر أن منشأ اشتباه العامة لعنهم الله في الأربع هو فعل النبي صلى الله عليه وآله ذلك أحيانا ولم يفهموا جهة فعله بل أعماهم الله تعالى عن ذلك ليتيسر للشيعة العمل بهذا في الصلاة عليهم لكونهم من أخبث المنافقين لعنة الله عليهم أجمعين

The Four Fuqaha’ of the opposition (Ahlus Sunnah) and another group of them have deemed that takbir is four times. Salah [takbir] upon the disbelievers being four is conclusive in their speech. It is manifest to you from examples of this type that the source of the confusion of the masses (Ahlus Sunnah)—may Allah’s curse be upon them—is the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam practice of this at times. They did not understand the angle of his action. Rather, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala blinded them from this, making it easy for the Shia to practice upon this when performing salah upon them, as they are the most wicked hypocrites—May Allah’s curse be upon them all.[8]


  1. Shia Muhaddith Ni’mat Allah al-Jaza’iri writes in al-Anwar al-No’maniyyah:


فالأشاعرة ومتابعوهم أسوأ حالا في باب معرفة الصانع من المشركين والنصارى … فمعرفتهم سبحانه على هذا الوجه الباطل من جملة الأسباب التي أورثت خلودهم في النار مع إخوانهم من الكفار

The Asha’irah and their followers are worse than the polytheists and Christians in the aspect of recognising the Creator. Their recognition of Him subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in this false way is one of the many reasons determining their eternity in Hell with their brothers among the disbelievers.[9]


  1. The stance of the Shia Muhaddith Yusuf al-Bahrani of criticising and cursing the scholars of the Ahlus Sunnah without differentiating between a Mu’tazili and Ash’ari. He insulted al-Zamakhshari, al-Razi, al-Ghazali, and al-Taftazani. After quoting the words of al-Zamakhshari followed by al-Razi, he comments on them:


إلى آخر كلامه أذاقه الله تعالى مع سابقه شديد انتقامه

Until the end of his quotation, may Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala let him taste with his predecessor (i.e. al-Zamakhshari) the intensity of His vengeance.[10]


He comments on al-Ghazali:


وإنه ليعجبني أن أنقل كلاما للغزالي الذي هو حجة إسلامهم لتطلع بذلك على خبث سرائرهم وقبح مرامهم

It shocks me to quote the words of al-Ghazali, who is the proof of their Islam, so that you realise the wickedness of their internal and the shamefulness of their aspirations.


He later says:


فسرح بريد نظرك في أطراف هذا الكلام الذي هو كلام إمام أولئك اللئام وحجة إسلام تلك الطغام

Gaze calmly at the segments of this statement uttered by the Imam of these despicable people, the proof of the Islam of these common folk.[11]


He insults al-Taftazani:


ولقد أجرى الله الحق على لسان علامتهم التفتازاني قال عليه ما يستحقه في شرح المقاصد

Allah made the truth flow on the tongue of their learned scholar al-Taftazani. He says—upon him is what he deserves—in Sharh al-Maqasid


Until he says about him:


ولقد أنصف التفتازاني في ذلك تمام الإنصاف على رغم أنفه وفي المثل المشهور حامل حتفه بكفه وقد ظن أن التستر بهذه الأعذار يطفئ عنهم نائرة العار والشنار ولم يدر أن عثراتهم لعظم قبائحها قد بلغت في الاشتهار إلى حد لا تقبل الإنكار وعذراتهم لنتن روائحها قد بلغت في الانتشار إلى مقام لا يقبل الاستتار

Al-Taftazani has displayed complete justice in this against his will. As the famous proverb goes: the carrier of death in his palm. He thinks that hiding under these excuses extinguishes the flame of shame and ignominy. He is unaware that their slips are due to the enormity of their dirty tricks which have reached in fame the level that cannot be rejected and their stinking excuses have reached in popularity the level that cannot be concealed.[12]


  1. Shia Sheikh Muhammad Baqir al-Mazandarani says:


وهذا عند أصحاب الكياسة والعقل عجيب وإن كان لدى أهل السنة السفهاء غير غريب

This according to the men of intelligence and understanding is shocking while it is not strange according to the foolish Ahlus Sunnah.[13]


  1. Shia erudite scholar and researcher al-Mirza Habib Allah al-Hashimi al-Khu’i comments on the Sufiyyah and Mutasawwifah:


قد تبين وتحقق لك مما أوردناه في شرح هذا الكلام لأمير المؤمنين عليه السلام أن مذاهب الصوفية بحذافيرها مخالفة لمذهب المتشرعة الإمامية الحقة شيد الله بنيانه وأحكم قواعده وأركانه كما ظهر لك أن الآيات والأخبار في لعنهم وطعنهم والتعريض والإزراء عليهم لعنهم الله تعالى متظافرة وأن الأخبار التي تمسكت بها هذه الفئة الضالة المبتدعة المطرودة الملعونة إما موضوعة مجعولة أو متشابهة مؤولة أو ضعيفة سخيفة … فويل لقوم اتخذوا سلفهم الذين مهدوا لهم البدعات وموهوا لهم الضلالات أربابا فرضوا بالشبلي والغزالي وابن العربي وجنيد البغدادي أئمة … خذلهم الله تعالى في الدنيا وضاعف عليهم العذاب في العقبى

It has become clear and definite to you from what we presented in the commentary of this speech of Amir al-Mu’minin ‘alayh al-Salam that the sects of the Sufiyyah, all without exception, are oppose to the true, legislated religion, the Imamiyyah—may Allah construct its building and solidify its foundation and pillars. As was apparent to you that the verses and narrations are filled with cursing them, criticising them, exposing them, and holding them in contempt—may Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala curse be on them. Moreover, the narrations which this deviated, innovative, rejected, accursed sect cling to are either fabricated, mutashabih (allegorical), interpreted, or weak and absurd. Woe to the nation who have taken their predecessors as lords, who facilitated innovations for them and falsified deviations for them. They thus were pleased with al-Shibli, al-Ghazali, Ibn al-’Arabi, and Junaid al-Baghdadi as scholars—may Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala disgrace them in the world and double their punishment in the Afterlife.[14]


  1. Shia ‘Allamah Muhammad Jamil Hamud insulted al-Razi and labelled him the leader of the Nawasib. He says:


اعترض على الفهم الإسلامي العام للآية جماعة من المتعصبين النواصب وعلى رأسهم الفخر الرازي في التفسير الكبير

A group of fanatic Nawasib, spearheaded by al-Fakhr al-Razi in al-Tafsir al-Kabir, objected to the general Islamic understanding of the verse.[15]


He also comments on him:


فظهر مما ذكرنا غفلة الناصب اللعين عن أخبار الشيعة أيدهم الله تعالى

The negligence of the accursed Nasibi of the narrations of the Shia—may Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala support them—is apparent from what we mentioned.[16]


He also labels al-Alusi with nasb saying:

قال الناصبي الآلوسي

The Nasibi al-Alusi states.[17]


  1. Shia Ayatollah al-’Uzma Abu al-Qasim al-Khu’i comments on al-Ghazali:


وبذلك يتجلى لك افتضاح الناصبي المتعصب إمام المشككين حيث لهج بما لم يلهج به البشر

From this, the disgrace of the Nasibi, fanatic, leader of the creators of doubt becomes apparent, when he devoted himself to something no human was devoted.


In this manner, we learn—through conviction with evidence and exploration—that the enmity and Takfir against the Ahlus Sunnah is not exclusive to certain individuals to the exception of others, or to a sect. There is no difference between Ibn Taymiyyah—author of Minhaj al-Sunnah which has demolished the edifice of the Imami sect to the ground—and al-Shafi’i—who composed the most beautiful couplet in loving the household of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—in the eyes of the Shia. Both of them are disbelievers, accursed, and doomed eternally to the Fire of the Blaze. The beliefs of the first did not make him the target of kufr and curse, nor did the composition and praise of the second protect him from the fire and blaze of the Hereafter. This is the condition across the board. The Salafiyyah—who are distinguished from other Sunni Islamic groups for their harsh stance of the Shia ideology and educating against it—and their rivals from some Sufi sects—who claim their individuality to certain turuq (chains of transmission) and special forms of worship which they inherited according to their claim from the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt, specifically ‘Ali and his sons radiya Llahu ‘anhum—both, in the balance of the Shia, are disbelievers, deserving eternity in Hell. All of them are the same according to the Shia, as long as they are unanimous on loving the Sahabah and righteous Khalifas, and as long as they do not submit to the correctness of the ailed fundamental belief of Imamah, infallibility, and the rest of the clearly corrupted deviated beliefs this leads to. The reason for some scholars of the Sunnah like Ibn Taymiyyah and some sects like the Salafiyyah being the greater target of the attacks of the adherents and scholars of Shi’ism is that these scholars and sects of the Sunnah have undertaken with determination and earnestness to expose the faults of the Shia, destroy the foundations of their creed, and raze their building to the ground. They have thus set themselves up as the target of the arrows and spears of the Shia. Yet, they are firmly-grounded. Imposing structures, the rocks of which break the blades of the Imami arrows and spears.



فلم يضرها و أوهى قرنه الوعل

كناطح صخرة يوما ليوهنها

Like a mountain goat thrusting (with his horn) at a solid boulder one day, to weaken it, leaving it without any damage and damaging his horn in the process.


NEXT⇒ 2. Explanation of Common Technical Terms used in Takfir

[1] Undoubtedly, attributing these deviant sects to the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah is a far cry from truth and accuracy. In fact, the Ahlus Sunnah have always been the opposition and rival of all these deviated groups. The books of the Ahlus Sunnah are replete with refutations and disapprovals of the principles of these sects. How often history mentions to us the many debates and confrontations, in fact bloody battles, between the adherents of these deviants sects and the supporters of the saved sect, the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah.

[2] Al Kafi, vol. 8 pg. 292.

[3] Al Kafi, vol. 1 pg. 56.

[4] Al Anwar al No’maniyyah, vol. 2 pg. 324.

[5] Al Kafi, vol. 2 pg. 387.

[6] The definition presented by the researcher for al Murji’ah—who have been cursed, excommunicated, and declared polytheists in the narration—as those who defer Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu from his position in caliphate, making him the fourth Khalifah and not the first as believed by the Imamiyyah, is emphasized by Shia researcher al Bahrani in his book al Shihab al Thaqib, pg. 134, in which he says:


والمرجئة يطلق على معنيين أحدهما من أخر عليا عليه السلام عن الخلافة والثاني من قال أنه لا يضر مع الإيمان معصية

Al Murji’ah is used for two groups. The first is he who defers the caliphate of ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam and the second is one who claims that sin does not harm with the presence of iman.


In this way, they excommunicate all the sects of the Ahlus Sunnah because all without exception believe that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is the fourth Khalifah of the Muslims, not the first. This follows, according to this definition and report, that all the sects of the Ahlus Sunnah are disbelievers, polytheists, and deserving of Allah’s curse. The sects of the Ahlus Sunnah should ponder over this and probably, they will wake up from their negligence.

[7] Muhammad ibn Tahir al Qummi: Kitab al Arba’in, pg. 641.

[8] Bihar al Anwar, vol. 78 pg. 340.

[9] Al Anwar al No’maniyyah, vol. 2 pg. 278.

[10] Al Shihab al Thaqib fi Bayan Ma’na al Nasib, pg. 88.

[11] Al Shihab al Thaqib fi Bayan Ma’na al Nasib, pg. 139.

[12] Al Shihab al Thaqib fi Bayan Ma’na al Nasib, pg. 139.

[13] Muhammad Baqir al Mazandarani: Anwar al Rashad fi Ma’rifat al A’immah, pg. 43.

[14] Habib Allah al Hashimi al Khu’i: Minhaj al Bara’ah fi Sharh Nahj al Balaghah, vol. 14 pg. 21.

[15] Abha al Midad fi Sharh Mu’tamar ‘Ulama’ Baghdad, pg. 541.

[16] Ibid., pg. 562.

[17] Ibid., pg. 560.