Section 2: Judgement against one who insults Umm al Mu’minin Aisha with something other than her innocence revealed in the Qur’an

Chapter 6: Verdict against one who insults Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha
August 13, 2021
Summary
August 13, 2021

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Section 2: Judgement against one who insults Umm al Mu’minin Aisha with something other than her innocence revealed in the Qur’an

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha is one of the Ummahat al Mu’minin radiya Llahu ‘anhunna who are included among the galaxy of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. All the Qur’anic verses and prophetic ahadith which prohibit reviling the Sahabah apply to them too.

The ‘Ulama’ rahimahu Llah are in total agreement on the prohibition of vilifying the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and are unanimous that whoever is guilty of this has perpetrated a major sin and a major crime. They only debate on applying the word kufr to one who vilifies them. Some ‘Ulama’ observe detail in this because sabb (vilification/ridicule/reviling/cursing) according to them comes in many forms and meanings. There are some forms of sabb which do not degrade religion and integrity while other forms do. Ibn Taymiyyah rahimahu Llah explains:

 

وأما من سبهم سبا لا يقدح في عدالتهم ولا في دينهم مثل وصف بعضهم بالبخل أو الجبن أو قلة العلم أو عدم الزهد ونحو ذلك فهذا هو الذي يستحق التأديب والتعزير ولا نحكم بكفره بمجرد ذلك وعلى هذا يحمل كلام من لم يكفرهم من أهل العلم وأما من لعن وقبح مطلقا فهذا محل الخلاف فيهم لتردد الأمر بين لعن الغيظ ولعن الاعتقاد وأما من جاوز ذلك إلى أن زعم أنهم ارتدوا بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلا نفرا قليلا لا يبلغون بضعة عشر نفسا أو أنهم فسقوا عامتهم فهذا لا ريب أيضا في كفره فإنه مكذب لما نصه القرآن في غير موضع من الرضى عنهم والثناء عليهم بل من يشك في كفر مثل هذا فإن كفره متعين فإن مضمون هذه المقالة أن نقلة الكتاب والسنة كفار أو فساق وأن هذه الأمة التي هي كُنتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ وخيرها هو القرن الأول كان عامتهم كفارا أو فساقا ومضمونها أن هذه الأمة شر الأمم وأن سابقي هذه الأمة هم شرارها وكفر هذا مما يعلم بالاضطرار من دين الإسلام

Concerning one who belittles them using such terms which do not impair their integrity nor their religion, example qualifying any of them with stinginess, cowardice, lack of knowledge, absence of asceticism, etc., this person deserves disciplining and chastisement. We will not pass the verdict of his disbelief purely on the basis of this. The statement of those scholars who do not excommunicate them should be applied to such instances.

With regards to those who curse and ridicule unrestrictedly, this is a matter of dispute among the scholars, because the matter oscillates between cursing out of anger and cursing out of belief.

Whoever goes beyond this and believes that they apostatised after the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam except a small group who do not reach ten odd individuals or majority of them were transgressors, there is no doubt of the kufr of such a person. He has rejected what the Qur’an has emphatically declared at many places, i.e. Allah being pleased with them and praising them. In fact, whoever doubts the kufr of such a person, his kufr is determined. This is because these statements mean that the transmitters of the Qur’an and Sunnah are disbelievers or transgressors and that this ummah which is the best nation produced [as an example] for mankind[1]—the cream of which is the first generation—were generally disbelievers or transgressors. It also means that this Ummah is the worst of nations and the forerunners of this Ummah are the worst of them. The kufr of this is known absolutely in the Din of Islam.[2]

 

Few evidences for this fundamental are listed hereunder[3]:

  1. Reviling the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum is denial of the Glorious Qur’an and rejection of aspects contained in the verses of the Qur’an viz. affirmation of their purity and praise for them. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala states:

 

وَالسَّابِقُوْنَ الْأَوَّلُوْنَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِيْنَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ وَالَّذِيْنَ اتَّبَعُوْهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ رَّضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوْا عَنْهُ

And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen1 and the Ansar2 and those who followed them with good conduct – Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him.[4]

 

Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah rahimahu Llah and other Salaf explain:

 

إن الله عاتب الخلق جميعهم في نبيه إلا أبا بكر وقال من أنكر صحبة أبي بكر فهو كافر لأنه كذب القرآن

Undoubtedly, Allah reproved the entire creation regarding His Nabi besides Abu Bakr. Whoever denies the companionship of Abu Bakr is a kafir because he has rejected the Qur’an.[5]

  1. Swearing at them necessitates attributing ignorance to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala or the futility of those many clear texts which establish praise for the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Was Allah—the Mighty and Majestic—not aware that they were soon to turn upon their heels after the demise of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? Exalted is He above what they say by great sublimity.
  2. Reviling the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum includes disparaging and harming the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which is strictly prohibited. They are his Companions whom he nurtured and purified. Furthermore, he forbade reviling them:

 

لا تسبوا أصحابي فلو أن أحدكم أنفق مثل أحد ذهبا ما بلغ مد أحدهم ولا نصيفه

Do not speak ill of my companions. If any of you were to spend gold equivalent [in weight] to mount Uhud, you will not reach [the reward] of their mudd, not even half of it.[6]

 

  1. Insulting them is criticising Din, falsifying the Shari’ah, and destroying its basis for they are the transmitters of Din. As soon as their integrity is distrusted, trustworthy transmitter of the Din are absent. Al Qurtubi[7] rahimahu Llah writes:

 

فمن نقص واحدا منهم أو طعن عليه في روايته فقد رد على الله رب العالمين وأبطل شرائع المسلمين قال الله تعالى مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِيْنَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ الآية وقال تعالى لَّقَدْ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُوْنَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ إلى غير ذلك من الآي التي تضمنت الثناء عليهم والشهادة لهم بالصدق والفلاح قال الله تعالى رِجَالٌ صَدَقُوْا مَا عَاهَدُوا اللهَ عَلَيْهِ

Whoever reviles any of them or criticises his report has refuted Allah, Lord of the worlds, and falsified the shara’i’ (creed) of the Muslims. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers.[8] Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala states: Certainly was Allah pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, [O Muhammad], under the tree.[9] Add to this the many verses which contain praise for them and testify to their honesty and success. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala states: Men true to what they promised Allah.[10] [11]

 

We conclude this section with several statements of the ‘Ulama’ who excommunicate one who swears the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum:

1. Al Imam Malik ibn Anas (d. 179 A.H)

Al Imam Malik ibn Anas rahimahu Llah announces:

الذي يشتم أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ليس له سهم أو قال نصيب في الإسلام

Whoever curses the Companions of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has no portion or share in Islam.[12]

 

This is the verdict against one who curses. What then about one who excommunicates them and expels them from Islam, as the Shia Rawafid, in relation to majority of the Sahabah, including Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with them all. One who has no share in Islam is out of its fold. Every believer in Islam has a portion or share in Islam. One who has no portion or share in Islam is not one of its adherents.

While commenting on the verse of Surah al Fath which was quoted previously, al Alusi rahimahu Llah mentions that Imam Malik had declared the Rawafid disbelievers—those Rawafid who harbour enmity for the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Scores of scholars have supported him. Malik was told about a person who reviles the Sahabah, hearing which Malik recited this verse and commented:

 

من أصبح من الناس في قلبه غيظ من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقد أصابته هذه الآية ويعلم تكفير الرافضة بخصوصهم

Whoever harbours in his heart hatred for the Companions of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is the target of this verse; the kufr of specifically the Rawafid is realised [from here].[13]

 

When this is the case of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in general, then what about the Mother of the Believers and the wife of the Messenger of the Lord of the worlds?

 

2. Imam Ahmed ibn Hambal (d. 241 A.H)

Imam Ahmed ibn Hambal was asked about one who verbally abuses the Sahabah to which he replied:

 

أخشى عليه الكفر

I fear kufr for him.

He added:

من شتم أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لا نأمن قد مرق من الدين

Whoever abuses the Companions of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, we do not feel safe that he has renounced the Din.[14]

 

‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed narrates:

 

سألت أبي عن رجل شتم رجلا من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال ما أراه على الإسلام

“I asked my father about a man who insults any of the Sahabah of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

He replied, “I do not feel he is in the fold of Islam.”[15]

 

3. Hisham ibn ‘Ammar (d. 245 A.H)

Hisham ibn ‘Ammar rahimahu Llah reports:

 

سمعت مالكا يقول من سب أبا بكر وعمر قتل ومن سب عائشة قتل لإن الله تعالى يقول يَعِظُكُمُ اللهُ أَنْ تَعُوْدُوْا لِمِثْلِهِ أَبَدًا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُّؤْمِنِيْنَ فمن سب عائشة فقد خالف القرآن ومن خالف القرآن قتل

Whoever reviles Abu Bakr and ‘Umar should be executed, and whoever insults Aisha should be executed because Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala announces: Allah warns you against returning to the likes of this [conduct], ever, if you should be believers.[16] Therefore, whoever slanders her has indeed opposed the Qur’an and whoever opposes the Qur’an should be killed.[17]

 

4. Abu Zur’ah al Razi (d. 264 A.H)

Abu Zur’ah al Razi rahimahu Llah alerts:

إذا رأيت الرجل ينتقص أحدا من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فاعلم أنه زنديق

When you see a man disparaging any of the Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, then realise he is a heretic.[18]

 

5. Ibn Tahir al Baghdadi[19] (d. 429 A.H)

Ibn Tahir al Baghdadi rahimahu Llah announces:

الإمامية الذين كفروا خيار الصحابة … فإنا نكفرهم ولا تجوز الصلاة عليهم عندنا ولا الصلاة خلفهم

The Imamiyyah (Shia) who excommunicate the cream of the Sahabah… we excommunicate them. Salah upon them and salah behind them is not permissible according to us.[20]

 

6. Qadi Abu Ya’la (d. 458 A.H)

Qadi Abu Ya’la rahimahu Llah states:

 

الذي عليه الفقهاء في سب الصحابة إن كان مستحلا لذلك كفر وإن لم يكن مستحلا فسق ولم يكفر وقد قطع طائفة من الفقهاء من أهل الكوفة وغيرهم وسئل عمن شتم أبا بكر قال كافر قيل يصلى عليه قال لا

The verdict adhered to by the Jurists with regards to reviling the Sahabah is: if the perpetrator regards it to be permissible, it is kufr. If not, it is transgression and he will not be excommunicated. A group of Jurists from Kufah and other areas have unequivocally declared this.

He was asked about the person who insults Abu Bakr.

“He is a kafir,” he replied.

“Should Salat al Janazah be performed over him.”

“No.”[21]

 

7. Ibn Abi Ya’la[22] (d. 526 A.H)

Ibn Abi Ya’la affirms:

والرافضة وهم الذين يتبرؤون من أصحاب محمد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ويسبونهم وينتقصونهم … وليست الرافضة من الإسلام في شيء

The Rawafid: Those who dissociate from the Companions of Muhammad the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, swear at them, and disparage them … the Rawafid are not part of Islam in any way.[23]

 

8. ‘Abdul Karim al Sam’ani[24] (d. 562 A.H)

‘Abdul Karim al Sam’ani rahimahu Llah asserts:

 

اجتمعت الأمة على تكفير الإمامية لأنهم يعتقدون تضليل الصحابة وينكرون إجماعهم وينسبونهم إلى ما يليق بهم

The Ummah are unanimous on excommunicating the Imamiyyah since they believe in the deviation of the Sahabah, deny their consensus, and attribute unbefitting things to them.[25]

 

9. Ibn Kathir (d. 774 A.H)

In the commentary of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala’s words:

 

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللهِ وَالَّذِيْنَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُوْنَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللهِ وَرِضْوَانًا سِيمَاهُمْ فِيْ وُجُوْهِهِمْ مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُوْدِ ذٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنْجِيْلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوىٰ عَلىٰ سُوْقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيْظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ وَعَدَ اللهُ الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُمْ مَّغْفِرَةً وَّأَجْرًا عَظِيْمًا

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Tawrah. And their description in the Injil is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers – so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward.[26]

 

Ibn Kathir expounds:

 

من هذه الآية انتزع الإمام مالك في رواية عنه تكفير الروافض الذين يبغضون الصحابة رضوان الله عليهم قال لأنهم يغيظونهم ومن غاظ الصحابة رضي الله عنهم فهو كافر لهذه الآية ووافقه طائفة من العلماء رضي الله عنهم على ذلك والأحاديث في فضل الصحابة رضي الله عنهم والنهي عن التعرض لهم بمساءة كثيرة ويكفيهم ثناء الله عليهم ورضاه عنهم

From this verse, Imam Malik deduces—in one of his reports—the kufr of the Rawafid who harbour hatred for the Sahabah—may Allah’s pleasure be upon them—because they are enraged by them. Whoever is enraged by the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum is a kafir due to this verse. A group of ‘Ulama’ radiya Llahu ‘anhum have supported him. The ahadith on the excellence of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and the prohibition of speaking negatively of them are plenty. Sufficient for them is Allah’s praise for them and pleasure with them.[27]

 

10. Ibn Hajar al Haytami (d. 973 A.H)

Ibn Hajar al Haytami observes:

وأما تكفير أبي بكر ونظرائه ممن شهد لهم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بالجنة فلم يتكلم فيها أصحاب الشافعي والذي أراه الكفر فيها قطعا

As regards attributing kufr to Abu Bakr and his like, those in favour of whom the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam promised Jannat – the companions of al Shafi’i did not speak of them. I feel they are kuffar, unquestionably.[28]

 

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[1] Surah Al ‘Imran: 110.

[2] Al Sarim al Maslul, pg. 586.

[3] Al Shifa bi Ta’rif Huquq al Mustafa, vol. 2 pg. 309; al Sarim al Maslul, pg. 566; al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah, vol. 1 pg. 144; Fatawa al Subki, vol. 2 pg. 569.

[4] Surah al Tawbah: 100.

[5] Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah, vol. 8 pg. 381.

[6] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3673; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 222. The hadith of Abu Sa’id al Khudri radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

[7] He is Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn Abi Bakr, Abu ‘Abdullah al Qurtubi. From the senior Mufassirin. He is famous for righteousness and worship as well as valuable books and reliable transmission. Al Jami’ li Ahkam al Qur’an and al Tadhkirah bi Umur al Akhirah are authored by him. He passed away in 671 A.H. Shadharat Dhahab, vol. 5 pg. 334; Muhammad ibn Sharifah: al Imam al Qurtubi al Mufassir.

[8] Surah al Fath: 29.

[9] Surah al Fath: 18.

[10] Surah al Ahzab: 23.

[11] Tafsir al Qurtubi, vol. 16 pg. 297.

[12] Al Sunnah, vol. 3 pg. 493.

[13] Ruh al Ma’ani, vol. 13 pg. 280.

[14] Al Sunnah, vol. 3 pg. 493.

[15] Ibid, Sharh Usul I’tiqad Ahlus Sunnah, vol. 7 pg. 1341; Tarikh al Islam, vol. 18 pg. 89; Muhammad ibn Yahya al Maliqi: al Tamhid wa al Bayan fi Maqtal al Shahid ‘Uthman, pg. 175.

[16] Surah al Nur: 17.

[17] Al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah ‘ala Ahl al Rafd wa al Dalal wa al Zandaqah, vol. 1 pg. 144.

[18] Ibid.

[19] He is ‘Abdul Qahir ibn Tahir ibn Muhammad, Abu Mansur al Baghdadi. From the scholars of the Usuliyyin and the distinguished Shafi’i Jurists. He would tutor in seventeen sciences and is proverbial. He wrote al Farq bayn al Farq—his chef-d’oeuvre—and Fada’ih al Mu’tazilah. He passed away in 429 A.H. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 17 pg. 572; Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 5 pg. 136.

[20] Al Farq bayn al Farq, pg. 351.

[21] Al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah, vol. 1 pg. 142.

[22] He is Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Ya’la, Abu al Hussain ibn al Farra’ al Baghdadi. The Qadi, the Hambali. He was born in 451 A.H. From the most exalted and chiefs of the Fuqaha’. He was extreme in the Sunnah. He authored many books, inter alia, al Majmu’ fi al Furu’ and al Mufradat fi al Fiqh. He passed away in 526 A.H. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 20 pg. 353; al A’lam, vol. 7 pg. 23.

[23] Tabaqat al Hanabilah, vol. 1 pg. 33.

[24] He is ‘Abdul Karim ibn Muhammad ibn Mansur, Abu Sa’d al Sam’ani al Shafi’i. The Imam, the Great Hafiz. He was born in 506 A.H and passed away in 562 A.H. He is the Muhaddith of Khurasan. He authored plenty books and travelled extensively. Some of his books are al Ansab and Adab al Imla’ wa al Istimla’. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 20 pg. 456; Shadharat Dhahab, vol. 4 pg. 204.

[25] Al Ansab, vol. 6 pg. 365.

[26] Surah al Fath: 29.

[27] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 7 pg. 362.

[28] Al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah, vol. 1 pg. 146.

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