Chapter 6: Verdict against one who insults Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha

Comparing her with the Nobles of the Household of Nubuwwah and her Father
August 10, 2021
Section 2: Judgement against one who insults Umm al Mu’minin Aisha with something other than her innocence revealed in the Qur’an
August 13, 2021

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Chapter 6: Verdict against one who insults Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha

 

Section 1: Verdict against one who slanders Umm al Mu’minin Aisha with that which Allah exonerated her

 

The Affirmations of the ‘Ulama’ who report Consensus on the Disbelief of one who slanders Aisha with that which Allah exonerated her

The ‘Ulama’ of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah are unanimous—all without exception—that whoever slanders Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha of that from which Allah has exonerated her is a kafir (disbeliever). Hereunder are the declarations of a few who relate consensus upon this:

 

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1. Al Qadi Abu Ya’la[1] (d. 458 A.H)

Al Qadi Abu Ya’la rahimahu Llah pronounces:

 

من قذف عائشة بما برأها الله منه كفر بلا خلاف وقد حكى الإجماع على هذا غير واحد وصرح غير واحد من الأئمة بهذا الحكم

One who slanders Aisha of that from which Allah exonerated her has committed disbelief, without any dispute. Many have reported consensus on this point. Many scholars have clearly passed this verdict.[2]

 

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2. Ibn al Qayyim (d. 751 A.H)

Ibn al Qayyim rahimahu Llah states:

واتفقت الأمة على كفر قاذفها

The Ummah is unanimous on the disbelief of one who slanders her.[3]

 

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3. Ibn Kathir (d. 774 A.H)

Ibn Kathir rahimahu Llah decides:

ومثل هذا يكفر إن كان قد قذف عائشة بالإجماع

People like these are labelled kafir for slandering Aisha by consensus.[4]

 

While commenting on Allah’s words:

إِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ يَرْمُوْنَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْغَافِلَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ لُعِنُوْا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيْمٌ

Indeed, those who [falsely] accuse chaste, unaware, and believing women are cursed in this world and the Hereafter; and they will have a great punishment [5]

 

He explains:

 

قد أجمع العلماء رحمهم الله قاطبة على أن من سبها بعد هذا ورماها بما رماها به بعد هذا الذي ذكر في هذه الآية فإنه كافر لأنه معاند للقرآن وفي بقية أمهات المؤمنين قولان أصحهما أنهن كهي والله أعلم

The ‘Ulama’—may Allah have mercy upon them—are unanimous, all without exception, that one who insults her after this and slanders her of that which has been mentioned in this verse is a kafir. Concerning the rest of the Ummahat al Mu’minin, there are two views; the most accurate of them is that they are like her. And Allah knows best.[6]

 

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4. Al Hajjawi[7] (d. 968 A.H)

Al Hajjawi rahimahu Llah writes:

من قذف عائشة فكافر بالإجماع لمخالفته نص الآيات المبرئة لها

Whoever slanders Aisha is a kafir by consensus, due to his opposition of the emphatic texts of the verses exonerating her.[8]

 

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5. Al Mulla al Qari (d. 1014 A.H)

Al Mulla al Qari rahimahu Llah voices the same opinion:

 

وأما من قذف عائشة فكافر بالإجماع لمخالفته نص الآيات المبرئة لها من غير النزاع

One who slanders Aisha is a kafir by consensus without any disagreement, due to his opposition of the emphatic texts of the verses exonerating her.[9]

 

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6. Al Buhuti[10] (d. 1051 A.H)

Al Buhuti rahimahu Llah emphasises:

ومن قذف عائشة رضي الله عنها بما برأها الله منه كفر بلا خلاف فأنه مكذب لنص الكتاب

Whoever slanders Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha of that from which Allah exonerated her has disbelieved without any dispute, as he has rejected the emphatic words of the Book.[11]

 

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7. Al Ruhaybani[12] (d. 1243 A.H)

Al Ruhaybani rahimahu Llah states:

أو قذف عائشة رضي الله عنها بما برأها الله منه كفر بلا خلاف مكذب لنص الكتاب

… or he slanders Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha of that from which Allah declared her innocence has committed kufr, without any disagreement, [because he is] a rejector of the clear text of the Book.[13]

 

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8. Ibn ‘Abidin[14] (d. 1252 A.H)

Ibn ‘Abidin rahimahu Llah affirms:

وأما قذف عائشة فكفر بالإجماع

With regards to slandering Aisha, it is kufr by consensus.[15]

 

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9. Ibn Duwayyan[16] (d. 1353 A.H)

Ibn Duwayyan rahimahu Llah confirms:

ومن قذف عائشة بما برأها الله منه كفر بلا خلاف

And whoever slanders Aisha of that from which Allah declared her innocence has committed kufr without any disagreement.[17]

 

The Verdicts of the ‘Ulama’ on the Disbelief of one who accuses Aisha of that which Allah exonerated her

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1. Imam Malik ibn Anas (d. 179 A.H)

Imam Malik ibn Anas rahimahu Llah passed judgement:

 

من سب أبا بكر وعمر جلد ومن سب عائشة قتل قيل له لم يقتل في عائشة قال مالك فمن رماها فقد خالف القرآن ومن خالف القرآن قتل يعني قتل ردة

“Whoever reviles Abu Bakr and ‘Umar will be lashed. Whoever slanders Aisha will be executed.”

He was asked, “Why, in the case of Aisha, will the perpetrator be executed?”

He explained, “Whoever slanders her has opposed the Qur’an and whoever opposes the Qur’an should be executed,”[18] i.e. due to apostasy.

 

Ibn Sha’ban adds in his report from Malik:

لأن الله تعالى يقول يَعِظُكُمُ اللهُ أَنْ تَعُوْدُوْا لِمِثْلِهِ أَبَدًا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُّؤْمِنِيْنَ فمن عاد لمثله فقد كفر

This is because Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala announces: Allah warns you against returning to the likes of this [conduct], ever, if you should be believers.[19] Therefore, whoever returns to the same has committed kufr.[20]

 

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2. Imam Ahmed ibn Hambal (d. 241 A.H)

Imam Ahmed ibn Hambal rahimahu Llah submits:

من شتم أبا بكر وعمر وعائشة ما أراه على الإسلام

One who reviles Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and Aisha, I do not believe he is a Muslim.[21]

 

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3. Al Khalifah al ‘Abbasi al Qadir bi Allah (d. 422 A.H)

Al Khalifah al ‘Abbasi al Qadir bi Allah pronounced:

من سب عائشة فلا حظ له في الإسلام

Whoever slanders Aisha has no portion in Islam.[22]

 

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4. Ibn Abi Musa[23] (d. 428 A.H)

Ibn Abi Musa rahimahu Llah says:

ومن رمى عائشة رضي الله عنها بما برأها الله منه فقد مرق من الدين ولم ينعقد له نكاح على مسلمة

Whoever slanders Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha of that from which Allah declared her innocence has renounced the true faith, and his marriage with a Muslim female will not be contracted.[24]

 

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5. Ibn Hazm (d. 456 A.H)

Ibn Hazm rahimahu Llah confirms:

قول مالك هاهنا يعني في كفر من سب عائشة صحيح وهي ردة تامة وتكذيب لله تعالى في قطعه ببراءتها

Malik’s standpoint here—i.e. the kufr of one who insults Aisha—is correct. It is a complete apostasy and rejection of Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala emphatic declaration of her innocence.[25]

 

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6. Ibn al ‘Arabi (d. 543 A.H)

Ibn al ‘Arabi rahimahu Llah expounds:

 

إن أهل الإفك رموا عائشة المطهرة بالفاحشة فبرأها الله فكل من سبها بما برأها الله منه فهو مكذب لله ومن كذب الله فهو كافر فهذا طريق قول مالك وهي سبيل لائحة لأهل البصائر ولو أن رجلا سب عائشة بغير ما برأها الله منه لكان جزاؤه التأديب

The slanderers accused Aisha, the purified, of the immoral act and consequently Allah declared her innocence. As a result, everyone who slanders her of that from which Allah exonerated her has belied Allah and whoever belies Allah is a kafir. This is the reasoning behind Malik’s viewpoint. And this is the method of supporting a decree for people of intelligence.

If someone insults Aisha with something other than what Allah exonerated her from, his sentence will be disciplining.[26]

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7. Al Khawarizmi[27] (d. 568 A.H)

Al Khawarizmi rahimahu Llah declares:

لو قذف عائشة بالزنا صار كافرا بخلاف غيرها من الزوجات لأن القرآن نزل ببراءتها

If he slanders Aisha of adultery, he becomes a kafir—this is not the case when slandering the other wives—since the Qur’an revealed her innocence.[28]

 

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8. Ibn Qudamah (d. 620 A.H)

Ibn Qudamah rahimahu Llah states:

فمن قذفها بما برأها الله منه فقد كفر بالله العظيم

Therefore, whoever slanders her with that from which Allah has exonerated her has indeed disbelieved in Allah, the Great.[29]

 

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9. Al Qurtubi (d. 671 A.H)

Al Qurtubi rahimahu Llah explains:

 

قوله تعالى يَعِظُكُمُ اللهُ أَنْ تَعُوْدُوْا لِمِثْلِهِ أَبَدًا يعني في عائشة لأن مثله لا يكون إلا نظير القول في المقول بعينه أو فيمن كان في مرتبته من أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لما في ذلك من إذاية رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في عرضه وأهله وذلك كفر من فاعله

His subhanahu wa ta ‘ala words: Allah warns you against returning to the likes of this [conduct], ever,[30] i.e. concerning Aisha because the likes of this can only refer to the exact one spoken about or one who is in her rank from the wives of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, since this includes harming the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his honour and family. And this is kufr on the side of the perpetrator.[31]

 

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10. Al Nawawi (d. 676 A.H)

Al Nawawi rahimahu Llah warns:

براءة عائشة رضي الله عنها من الإفك وهي براءة قطعية بنص القرآن العزيز فلو تشكك فيها إنسان والعياذ بالله صار كافرا مرتدا بإجماع المسلمين

Aisha’s radiya Llahu ‘anha innocence from the slander is a categorical exoneration with clear text of the Honourable Qur’an. If any human has misgivings about it—may Allah forbid—he becomes a kafir and murtad (apostate) by the consensus of the Muslims.[32]

 

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    Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 A.H)

Ibn Taymiyyah rahimahu Llah confirms:

من رمى عائشة رضي الله عنها بما برأها الله منه فقد مرق من الدين

Whoever slanders Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha of that from which Allah exonerated her has renounced the Din.[33]

 

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12. Badr al Din al Zarkashi (d. 794 A.H)

Badr al Din al Zarkashi states:

من قذفها فقد كفر لتصريح القرآن الكريم ببراءتها

Whoever slanders her has committed kufr due to the Glorious Qur’an’s categorical exoneration of her.[34]

 

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13. Zakariyya al Ansari[35] (d. 926 A.H)

Zakariyya al Ansari rahimahu Llah writes:

 

وقيل لا تقبل شهادة المبتدع إذا كان يقدح في إمامة أبي بكر أو يسب الصحابة أو يقذف عائشة قال الرافعي وهو حسن زاد في الروضة قاذف عائشة كافر فلا تقبل شهادته

It is said that the testimony of an innovator will not be accepted, one who criticises the caliphate of Abu Bakr or reviles the Sahabah or slanders Aisha.

Al Rafi’i remarks: “This is good.” He adds in al Rawdah, “The slanderer of Aisha is a kafir, hence his testimony will not be accepted.”[36]

 

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14. Ibn Hajar al Haytami[37] (d. 973 A.H)

After citing the Hadith on the Slander, Ibn Hajar al Haytami rahimahu Llah expounds:

 

علم من حديث الإفك المشار إليه أن من نسب عائشة إلى الزنا كان كافرا وقد صرح بذلك أئمتنا وغيرهم لأن في ذلك تكذيب النصوص القرآنية ومكذبها كافر بإجماع المسلمين وبه يعلم القطع بكفر كثيرين من غلاة الروافض لأنهم ينسبونها إلى ذلك قاتلهم الله أنى يؤفكون

It is learnt from the Hadith on the Slander, which was indicated to, that whoever attributes adultery to Aisha is a kafir. Our scholars and others have emphatically declared this for this amounts to rejection of the clear Qur’anic texts and one who rejects them is a kafir by the consensus of the Muslims. From here, the emphatic kufr of many of the fanatical Rawafid is realised because they accuse her of adultery—may Allah destroy them, how are they deluded?[38]

 

He also says:

وأما من نكفره ببدعته كمن يسب عائشة بالزنا وأباها رضي الله عنهما

As regards the one who we excommunicate due to his innovation, like one who slanders Aisha of adultery and her father radiya Llahu ‘anhuma[39]

 

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15. Al Khatib al Shirbini[40] (d. 977 A.H)

Al Khatib al Shirbini rahimahu Llah states:

من قذف عائشة رضي الله تعالى عنها فإنه كافر أي لأنه كذب على الله تعالى

Whoever slander Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha is a kafir i.e. because he lies against Allah.[41]

 

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16. Al Mullabari al Hindi[42] (d. 987 A.H)

Al Mullabari al Hindi affirms:

وكذا يكفر من أنكر إعجاز القرآن أو حرفا منه أو صحبة أبي بكر أو قذف عائشة رضي الله عنها

Similarly, he will be branded a kafir who denies the miraculous nature of the Qur’an, or any letter of it, or the companionship of Abu Bakr, or slanders Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha.[43]

 

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17. Al Bakri al Dimyati[44] (d. 1210 A.H)

Al Bakri al Dimyati explains:

قوله أو قذف عائشة رضي الله عنها أي وكذلك يكفر من قذف عائشة لأن القرآن نزل ببراءتها ففي قذفها حماها الله تكذيب القرآن

His statement, “Or he slanders Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha.” He means that the one who slanders Aisha will be excommunicated because the Qur’an revealed her innocence. Slandering her—may Allah protect her—necessitates rejection of the Qur’an.[45]

 

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18. Al Bujayrami[46] (d. 1221 A.H)

Al Bujayrami states:

وإلا كان كبيرة أو كفرا كقذف عائشة

Otherwise, it is a major sin or kufr, like slandering Aisha.[47]

 

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19. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdur Rahman Aba Batin[48] (d. 1282 A.H)

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdur Rahman Aba Batin rahimahu Llah says:

ومن قذف عائشة كفر

Whoever slanders Aisha has committed kufr.[49]

 

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20. Ibn ‘Uthaymin (d. 1421 A.H)

Ibn ‘Uthaymin rahimahu Llah declared:

قذف عائشة بما برأها الله منه كفر لأنه تكذيب للقرآن

Slandering Aisha of that from which Allah exonerated her is kufr for it is rejection of the Qur’an.[50]

 

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21. Al Fatawa al Hindiyyah

Al Fatawa al Hindiyyah contains the following verdict:

ولو قذف عائشة رضي الله تعالى عنها بالزنا كفر بالله

If he slanders Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha of adultery, he is guilty of disbelief in Allah.[51]

 

Other Verdicts of ‘Ulama’ against one who accuses Aisha

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1. Abu Muhammad al Juwayni[52] (d. 438 A.H)

Abu Muhammad al Juwayni affirms:

 

ترد شهادة من يطعن في الصحابة رضي الله تعالى عنهم ومن يقذف عائشة رضي الله تعالى عنها فإنها محصنة بنص الكتاب مبرأة عن الفواحش

His testimony will be rejected; one who criticises the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and slanders Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha—for she is chaste by the clear text of the Book, exonerated from immoralities.

 

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2. Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 A.H)

Ibn Taymiyyah rahimahu Llah relates:

 

الحكاية المعروفة عن القاضي أبي بكر بن الطيب لما أرسله المسلمون إلى ملك النصارى بالقسطنطينية فإنهم عظموه وعرف النصارى قدره … ولما جلس وكلموه أراد بعضهم القدح في المسلمين فقال له ما قيل في عائشة امرأة نبيكم يريد إظهار قول الإفك الذي يقوله من يقوله من الرافضة أيضا فقال القاضي ثنتان قدح فيهما ورميتا بالزنا إفكا وكذبا مريم وعائشة فأما مريم فجاءت بالولد تحمله من غير زوج وأما عائشة فلم تأت بالولد مع أنه كان لها زوج فأبهت النصارى وكان مضمون كلامه أن ظهور براءة عائشة أعظم من ظهور براءة مريم وأن الشبهة إلى مريم أقرب منها إلى عائشة فإذا كان مع هذا قد ثبت كذب القادحين في مريم فثبوت كذب القادحين في عائشة أولى

A famous incident about Qadi Abu Bakr ibn al Tayyib goes as follows: The Muslims sent him to the King of the Christians in Constantinople. The Christians honoured him and acknowledged his worth. After sitting down and conversing with them, one of them wanted to criticise the Muslims. He probed, “What was said about Aisha, your Nabi’s wife?” His intention was to expose the accusation which the Rawafid level as well.

Qadi responded, “Two [females] were disparaged and accused of immorality, which in reality was a slander and a blatant lie: Maryam and Aisha. With regards to Maryam, she came holding a child, without her having a husband. As for Aisha, she did not bring a child whereas she had a husband.”

Silenced were the Christians.

The gist of his statement is that the manifestation of Aisha’s innocence was greater than the manifestation of Maryam’s innocence and the doubt regarding Maryam was more likely than Aisha’s. Notwithstanding this, the falsehood of those who criticised Maryam was exposed. Therefore, the establishment of the falsehood of those who criticise Aisha is all the more.[53]

 

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3. Ibn Rajab (d. 795 A.H)

Ibn Rajab rahimahu Llah points out:

وقد سمى الله قذف عائشة بهتانا عظيما

Allah labels the slander against Aisha a great slander.[54]

 

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4. Al Qalqashandi[55] (d. 821 A.H)

Al Qalqashandi warns:

 

من قذف عائشة أم المؤمنين رضي الله عنها بعدما برأها الله تعالى فقد خالف كتابه العظيم واستحق من الله النكال البليغ والعذاب الأليم وعلى ذلك قامت واضحات الدلائل وبه أخذ الأواخر والأوائل وهو المنهج القويم والصراط المستقيم وما عدا ذلك فهو مردود ومن الملة غير معدود وحادث في الدين وباعث من الملحدين

Whoever slanders Aisha Umm al Mu’minin radiya Llahu ‘anha after Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala exonerated her has refuted His Grand Book and is deserving of a grave exemplary punishment and a painful chastisement. Clear evidences are established to prove this and the early and later [scholars] have observed this. This is the sound method and the straight path. Everything besides this is rejected, is not counted from the religion, is an innovation in the Din, and is the product of the heretics.[56]

 

Now that the viewpoints of the various ‘Ulama’ have been quoted above, it is possible to summarise their proofs for the excommunication of one who slanders Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha as follows:

  • Firstly, cursing her is practically the same as rejecting the Qur’an which testified to her innocence; rejection of what the Qur’an contains is kufr by consensus.[57]
  • Secondly, it is synonymous to harming the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This is due to the simple fact that slandering a woman is heart-breaking to her husband.[58] The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is Sayyidah Aisha’s radiya Llahu ‘anha husband and she was the most beloved wife to him. Proof for him feeling distressed by this is his address during this tragedy:

 

يا معشر المسلمين من يعذرني من رجل قد بلغني أذاه في أهل بيتي

O gathering of Muslims, who will relieve me of a man who has been the cause of pain afflicting me with regards my family.[59]

 

Harming the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is kufr by consensus.[60]

Al ‘Ayni expounds:

 

إن من آذى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في أهله أو عرضه فإنه يقتل لقول أسيد بن حضير إن كان من الأوس قتلناه ولم يرد عليه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم شيئا

Certainly, whoever harms the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam concerning his family or his honour will be executed [by the ruler] owing to Usayd ibn Hudayr’s declaration, “If he be from the Aws, we will kill him,” without the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam slightest objection to what he said.[61]

 

  • Thirdly, criticising Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha is finding fault with the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as he was pleased with her as his wife and kept her as his partner till he passed away. Their criticism of her necessitates criticism of the character of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and that he—Allah forbid—was pleased with shamelessness on the part of his family. At the same time, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declared: impure women are for impure men.[62] Ibn Kathir rahimahu Llah comments:

 

أي ما كان الله ليجعل عائشة زوجة لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلا وهي طيبة لأنه أطيب من كل طيب من البشر ولو كانت خبيثة لما صلحت له شرعا ولا قدرا ولهذا قال تعالى أُولٰئِكَ مُبَرَّءُوْنَ مِمَّا يَقُوْلُوْنَ أي عما يقوله أهل الإفك والعدوان

Meaning Allah would not have decreed Aisha as the wife of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam except if she was pure and chaste, because he is the most chaste and pure of all the chaste and pure humans. Had she been unchaste, she would not be worthy of him in the Shari’ah, nor according to divine decree. Therefore, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala states: The good are innocent of what has been said against them[63] i.e. what the slanderers and enemies claim.[64]

 

NEXT⇒ Section 2: Judgement against one who insults Umm al Mu’minin Aisha with something other than her innocence revealed in the Qur’an


[1] He is Muhammad ibn al Hussain ibn Muhammad, Abu Ya’la al Farra’. The Sheikh of the Hanabilah of his era. Born in 380 A.H., he rose to become the ‘Alim of his time in primary and secondary disciplines and a variety of sciences, coupled with ascetism and piety. He has authored many beneficial books including Ahkam al Qur’an and al Ahkam al Sultaniyyah. He passed away in 458 A.H. Tabaqat al Hanabilah, vol. 2 pg. 193; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 18 pg. 89.

[2] Al Sarim al Maslul, pg. 566.

[3] Zad al Ma’ad, vol. 1 pg. 103.

[4] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 14 pg. 376.

[5] Surah al Nur: 23.

[6] Ibn Kathir: Tafsir al Qur’an al ‘Azim, vol. 6 pg. 32.

[7] He is Musa ibn Ahmed ibn Musa, Abu al Naja al Hajjawi al Salihi. The Imam, the ‘Allamah, the Mufti of the Hanabilah, the Sheikh of Islam in Damascus. He was a leader, excellent, an Usuli, a Jurist, a Muhaddith, and devout. He taught at Madrasat Abi ‘Umar and al Jami’ al Umawi. Zad al Mustanqa’ is authored by him. He passed away in 968 A.H. Shadharat Dhahab, vol. 8 pg. 324; al A’lam, vol. 7 pg. 320.

[8] Al Iqna’, vol. 4 pg. 299.

[9] Shamm al ‘Awarid fi Dhamm al Rawafid, pg. 27.

[10] He is Mansur ibn Yunus ibn Salah al Din al Buhuti al Hambali. The Sheikh of the Hanabilah in Egypt during his era. He was an ‘Alim, a powerful observer, devout, and an ocean of knowledge. People flocked to him to learn the mazhab. He wrote al Rawd al Murabba’ bi Sharh al Mustanqa’ and Kashshaf al Qina’. He passed away in 1051 A.H. Muhammad Amin al Muhibbi: Khulasat al Athar, vol. 4 pg. 426; al A’lam, vol. 7 pg. 307.

[11] Kashshaf al Qina’, vol. 6 pg. 172.

[12] He is Mustafa ibn Sa’d ibn ‘Abdihi, al Ruhaybani al Dimashqi al Hambali. A Jurist. He was born in 1160 A.H. He assumed the post of administrator of al Jami’ al Umawi and passing verdicts on the Hambali mazhab. One of his books is Matalib Uli al Nuha fi Sharh Ghayat al Muntaha. He passed away in 1243 A.H. Al A’lam, vol. 7 pg. 234; Mujam al Mu’allifin, vol. 12 pg. 254.

[13] Matalib Uli al Nuha, vol. 6 pg. 285 – 286.

[14] He is Muhammad Amin ibn ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz al Dimashqi al Hanafi, famous as Ibn ‘Abidin. The Jurist of the Shami homes and the Imam of the Hanafiyyah in his era. He was born in 1198 A.H. He authored Radd al Muhtar ‘ala al Durr al Mukhtar and Nasamat al Ashar ‘ala Sharh al Manar. He passed away in 1252 A.H. Al A’lam, vol. 6 pg. 42; Hadyat al ‘Arifin, vol. 6 pg. 367.

[15] Hashiyat Ibn ‘Abidin, vol. 7 pg. 162.

[16] He is Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Salim. The Sheikh, Jurist, Historian, and Genealogist. He was born in 1275 A.H. and passed away in 1353 A.H. He was on a lofty rank of humility, ascetism, and piety. He served as judge in al Rass and taught knowledge in the Masjid there. He wrote Manar al Sabil Sharh al Dalil. Al A’lam, vol. 1 pg. 72; ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Abdul Latif: Mashahir ‘Ulama’ Najd, pg. 222.

[17] Manar al Sabil, vol. 2 pg. 409.

[18] Al Jawhari: Musnad al Muwatta’, pg. 112; Qadi ‘Iyad: al Shafa bi Ta’rif Huquq al Mustafa, vol. 2 pg. 309; al Sarim al Maslul, pg. 566.

[19] Surah al Nur: 17.

[20] Al Shafa bi Ta’rif Huquq al Mustafa, vol. 2 pg. 309.

[21] Al Sunnah, vol. 3 pg. 493.

[22] Al I’tiqad al Qadiri, pg. 248.

[23] He is Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn Musa, Abu ‘Ali al Hashimi. From the Hambali ‘Ulama’. He had a lofty position by the Imams al Qadir bi Allah al ‘Abbasi and al Qa’im bi Amr Allah al ‘Abbasi. He ran a study circle in Jami’ al Mansur. Al Irshad and Sharh Kitab al Kharqi were written by him. He was born in 345 A.H. and passed away in 428 A.H.

[24] Al Sarim al Maslul, pg. 568.

[25] Al Muhalla, vol. 12 pg. 440.

[26] Ibn al ‘Arabi: Ahkam al Qur’an, vol. 3 pg. 366.

[27] He is Mahmud ibn Muhammad ibn al ‘Abbas ibn Arsalan, Abu Muhammad, Muzhir al Din al ‘Abbasi (attributed to his grandfather) al Khawarizmi. The Shafi’i Jurist, Historian, Muhaddith, and Imam in Tasawwuf (Sufism). He was born and passed away in Khawarizm. He listened to hadith there and in many other cities. Al Kafi fi al Nazm al Shafi and Tarikh Khawarizm are his books. He passed away in 568 A.H. Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah al Kubra, vol. 7 pg. 289; al A’lam, vol. 7 pg. 181.

[28] Al Ijabah li Irad ma istadrakathu Aisha ‘ala al Sahabah, pg. 52.

[29] Lam’at al I’tiqad: pg. 40.

[30] Surah al Nur: 17.

[31] Tafsir al Qurtubi, vol. 12 pg. 205.

[32] Sharh Muslim, vol. 17 pg. 117.

[33] Al Sarim al Maslul, pg. 568.

[34] Al Ijabah li Irad ma istadrakathu Aisha ‘ala al Sahabah, pg. 52.

[35] He is Zakariyya ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmed, Abu Yahya al Ansari al Shafi’i. The Sheikh of Islam. He was born in 826 A.H and was one of the huffaz of hadith and excelled in the various disciplines of the Shari’ah. A man of humbleness, respect, and chastity. He assumed post of Chief Justice. Asna al Matalib is written by him. He passed away in 926 A.H. Shadharat Dhahab, vol. 8 pg. 133; al A’lam, vol. 3 pg. 46.

[36] Zakariyya ibn Muhammad al Ansari: al Ghurar al Bahiyyah, vol. 5 pg. 243, 244.

[37] He is Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad, Abu al ‘Abbas al Haytami al Shafi’i. The ‘Allamah, the Muhaqqiq. He was born in 909 A.H. and passed away in 973 A.H. He excelled in many sciences, inter alia, tafsir, hadith, ‘aqidah, and fiqh, on all levels. He authored plenty books, including Sharh al Mishkat and al Zawajir. Shadharat Dhahab, vol. 8 pg. 368; al A’lam, vol. 1 pg. 234.

[38] Ibn Hajar al Haytami: al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah, vol. 1 pg. 194.

[39] Tuhfat al Muhtaj, vol. 10 pg. 236.

[40] He is Muhammad ibn Ahmed al Shirbini al Qahiri al Shafi’i al Khatib. The Jurist, Mutakallim, Syntax Master, Mufassir. He taught and passed verdicts during the lifetime of his teachers. The people of Egypt unanimously agree to his righteousness and have qualified him with knowledge, practice, asceticism, and restraint. He authored al Iqna’ fi Hall Alfaz Abi Shuja’ and al Siraj al Munir. He passed away in 977 A.H. Al A’lam, vol. 6 pg. 6; Hadyat al ‘Arifin, vol. 6 pg. 250.

[41] Mughni al Muhtaj, vol. 6 pg. 359.

[42] He is Zayn al Din ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz ibn Zayn al Din, al Mullabari al Shafi’i. He wrote Qurrat al ‘Ayn bi Muhimmat al Din and Irshad al ‘Ibad ila Sabil al Rashad. He passed away in 987 A.H. Al A’lam, vol. 3 pg. 64; Mujam al Mu’allifin, vol. 4 pg. 193.

[43] Fath al Mu’in, Hadith: 572.

[44] He is ‘Uthman ibn Muhammad Shata, Abu Bakr al Bakri al Dimyati al Shafi’i. The Sufi. He has authored I’anat al Talibin ‘ala Hall Alfaz Fath al Mu’in and Kifayat al Atqiya’. He passed away in 1210 A.H. or thereafter. Al A’lam, vol. 4 pg. 214; Mujam al Mu’allifin, vol. 6 pg. 270.

[45] Hashiyat I’anat al Talibin, vol. 4 pg. 155.

[46] He is Sulaiman ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Umar, al Bujayrami al Shafi’i al Azhari. The Jurist and Muhaddith. He was born in 1131 A.H. Tuhfat al Habib ‘ala Sharh al Khatib and al Tajrid li Naf’ al ‘Abid are his works. He passed away in 1221 A.H. Al A’lam, vol. 3 pg. 133, Mujam al Mu’allifin, vol. 4 pg. 275.

[47] Tuhfat al Habib Hashiyat al Bujayrami ‘ala al Khatib, vol. 4 pg. 433.

[48] He is ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz, al Najdi al Hambali. The Imam, the ‘Allamah. He was born in 1194 A.H and rose to become the Jurist of Najd during his lifetime. He excelled in tafsir, hadith, and principles of Din. He served as Judge over Ta’if and other cities. He authored al Intisar li al Hanabilah and passed away in 1282 A.H. Mashahir ‘Ulama’ Najd, pg. 177; al A’lam, vol. 4 pg. 97.

[49] Al Durar al Saniyyah fi al Kutub al Najdiyyah, vol. 10 pg. 402.

[50] Majmu’ Fatawa wa Rasa’il al ‘Uthaymin, vol. 5 pg. 86.

[51] Al Fatawa al Hindiyyah, vol. 2 pg. 264.

[52] He is ‘Abdullah ibn Yusuf ibn ‘Abdullah, Abu Muhammad al Juwayni. The Sheikh of the Shawafi’. He was titled Rukn al Islam (The Pillar of Islam). He was a Jurist, detailer, researcher, Syntax Master, Mufassir, and Linguist, together with ijtihad and worship. He authored al Tabsirah and al Tafsir al Kabir. He passed away in 438 A.H. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 17 pg. 617; Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 5 pg. 73.

[53] Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 2 pg. 57.

[54] Rawa’i’ al Tafsir, vol. 2 pg. 409; Fath al Bari, vol. 1 pg. 75.

[55] He is Ahmed ibn ‘Ali ibn Ahmed al Qalqashandi al Shafi’i. Born in 756 A.H, he acquired knowledge, became an expert, wrote on adab (literature) and insha’ (dictation), and acted as a representative in judgement. He wrote Subh al A’sha fi Qawanin al Insha’. He passed away in 821 A.H. Shadharat Dhahab, vol. 7 pg. 147; Inba’ al Ghamar, vol. 3 pg. 178.

[56] Al Qalqashandi: Subh al A’sha, vol. 13 pg. 20.

[57] Al Muhalla, vol. 12 pg. 440; Tafsir ibn Kathir, vol. 6 pg. 32.

[58] Tafsir al Qurtubi, vol. 12 pg. 209; Al Sarim al Maslul, pg. 45.

[59] Sahih al Bukhari, book on the commentary of the Qur’an, chapter: why did they not produce for it four witnesses? And when they do not produce the witnesses, then it is they, in the sight of Allah, who are the liars, Surah al Nur: 12, vol. 6 pg. 101, Hadith: 4750; Sahih Muslim, book on repentance, chapter on the hadith of the slander and the acceptance of the slanderer’s repentance, vol. 4 pg. 2129, Hadith: 2770. The hadith of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha.

[60] Al Sarim al Maslul, pg. 30.

[61] ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 13 pg. 235.

[62] Surah al Nur: 26.

[63] Surah al Nur: 26.

[64] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 6 pg. 35.

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